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The Social Self

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The Social Self

What is socialization? When does it matter most in the life-course? Why is it important for a) the individual b) the society?

A process whereby various mouthpieces and agents of the society indoctrinate people about the basic ways of living and surviving in the society and the process, aid in the formation of peoples' qualities, is known as socialization. These representatives may include societal institutions, for instance, family, educational facilities, religion, mass media and the spokespersons of these institutions, e.g. parents, teachers, religious scholars, acclaimed celebrities and influencers.

Although socialization is necessary for the mere survival of human beings because instinctively, human beings know very little. Apart from some basic reflexes and needs of the human body which arise from the primal brain, there is a large store of information that humans have to learn and adapt to survive and to live with decent standards in this world.

Early socialization matters most in the life-course. Early or primary socialization is occurring in the life of an individual in his or her early years. During that time, the individual as a child is expected to develop some socially acceptable behavior patterns and a moral code which makes his attitude appropriate to a certain culture. The main players in this socialization are the parents, friends, and siblings of the child. The actions of these people make a lasting impression on the unfinished brain matter of the child and everything that he does or believes in his adult life depends on those early interactions.

Socialization is important for an individual because of some definite reasons. A man comes into this world alone but is dependent on others for learning the ways of this life, individual qualities and personality traits are also developed through the process of socialization. Whatever the actions of an individual adult might be, they are a result of an amalgam of hereditary characteristics and the different processes of socialization.

Collectively, socialization is important for society because it teaches a diverse group of people with basic impulse control and guides their conscience to develop in a certain manner, drawing the line between right and wrong which is considered the essence of being human by many philosophers.

What is an agent of socialization?

The process of socialization remains active throughout an individual’s life and the assimilation of the cultural values and norms is also dynamic and ever-evolving in nature. Socialization can be regarded as successful if all the members of a society depict uniform culture. The sources of extending information and practices about the acceptable standards of living and interacting with others are known as “agents of socialization.”

Family, friends, peers, teachers, religious leaders, government, workplace colleagues, and mass media can all act as agents of socialization for an individual.


The following interview was conducted from one of the faculty members of the Sociology department, Mr. Carrey who holds a dual degree in the doctoral program of Sociology and Demography. His research achievements have helped a lot of internally displaced people in society to find a niche that helps them in their life goals and objectives. Questions were asked regarding his placement in the society in a very limited context. Open-ended responses were recorded and analyzed as presented in the subsequent sections.

Importance of agents of socialization and their influence on the subject’s social placement

In a question asked about the primary socialization, Mr. Carrey responded that both his parents were high-school teachers with a set schedule and stressed on the importance of education and social sciences rather than natural sciences to understand the dynamics of society. Family as an agent of socialization impacted a lot of the childhood tendencies and activities of Mr. Carrey and developed in him, a love for reading and assimilating information about societal functioning. Besides the influence of his parents, Mr. Carrey's siblings were also captains and utilitarian members of different societies in their respective schools and colleges which aspired him to be a part of all the extracurricular activities in school. His parents made him watch scientific documentaries based on research from a very young age and instead of fantasy stories, Mr. Carrey and his siblings used to improvise on a random topic assigned to them from their parents every night after dinner. Thus all the agents of socialization influenced the current sociological placement of Mr. Carrey and made him what he is today.

Assessment of the relative importance of these social influences

Relatively, family as a social influence has proved to be more important in the life of Mr. Carrey and multiple studies which were conducted in the recent years have also established that even though a school’s environment helps a child in learning and adapting a socially acceptable behavior, the domestic environment of his household also plays a pivotal role in the formation of his personality CITATION Hof19 \l 1033 (Hofslundsengen).

Similarly, school has a more important status of a social influence in Mr. Carrey’s life as compared to church which is a religious institution because on questions regarding church attendance and resulting motives, Mr. Carrey responded that a global politics course taught in high-school was the major factor of his motivation to work for the internally displaced people of the society. Even though Mr. Carrey was regular in his church attendance he didn’t quite believe in the significance of charity and opined that the unfortunate must strive for their betterment instead of depending on financial aid.

Primary and secondary influences

Family, childhood friends, educational system, mass media are the primary influences and university friends, extra-curricular activities in the university, jobs, internships, research workshops and seminars, his YouTube channel and associated memberships are the secondary influences.

How are they complementary and how do they distinguish?

The primary and secondary influences of socialization are similar in the way they impart knowledge to an individual through interactions with family and friends. Behavior in public is also shaped and reshaped through primary and secondary influences.

The two sources of socialization conflict when in the later stages of life, a young adult has to navigate independently without the support of his parents or close friends. A teen or adolescent begins to make changes when his peer group acts against what he has been taught at home from his parents. Messages from religious or cultural organizations can also alter the responses of an individual as a consequence of secondary socialization.

Occasions about the subject's rebellion

The account of the final section of Mr. Carrey’s interview reveals that apart from minor disagreements and differences in opinion with his parents regarding the choice of Halloween costume, tobacco use in the teen years, and lending active support to the causes of LGTBQ+ community, there were no major occasions pertaining to his rebellion with the societal norms and values and did not attain the status of a socialization conflict.

Works Cited

BIBLIOGRAPHY Hofslundsengen, Hilde, Jan-Eric Gustafsson, and Bente Eriksen Hagtvet. "Contributions of the Home Literacy Environment and Underlying Language Skills to Preschool Invented Writing."." Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research (2019): 653-669.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 3 Words: 900

The Sociology Of Me

The Sociology of Me

Your Name (First M. Last)

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)

The Sociology of Me

I am an African American who has two toddlers and works in Human Resource. I grew up in the middle-class area, and I was exposed to the multiple cultures. My paper will discuss social imagination to explain and understand my everyday experiences. I will look for the influences of the social forces on my life. My paper will discuss it by applying concepts, theories, and applicable sociological understandings.

I grew up in an area that was rich in the diversity of cultures, my neighbors, friends and all the people that I interacted with belonged to various religions, races and geographical regions. Growing up, I started observing and learning how a group of people feel proud and superior of themselves than the others. I observed that strong people always believe that it is their right to rule on the lives of the weak and it is because of this concept, I witnessed brutal bullying of several individuals around me in my life. Moreover, I kept seeing that people who belong to different religions were not accepted by a significant majority in our community; there was a strong cloud that was covering the heads of the people (Clark, Neitz, 2001). I saw how social evils like racism, sexism, and cultural discrimination keep spreading their venom in our society (May, 2011).

As a child, I was taught by my parents, media and school about morality, ethics, and paying respect to every individual, culture, race, beliefs, and viewpoints of others. At that time, I found myself in great confusion; I kept questioning myself that if we are told about such good things, why do we not practically implement in our society, what the barriers are and what is the purpose of if people do not actually practice such things in real life.

My darker skin color was and even it is today uncomfortable for many people who have fairer skin and because of that; listening to racist comments, dealing with bias in different matters and feeling hatred from some people is a part of my everyday routine. These were the negative aspects of the society that influenced me while growing up, but it was not all negative (May, 2011). I learned about the beautiful differences and similarities, connections and barriers, and communication bridges among different cultures, beliefs, races, group of people and individuals.

I belong to a broad-minded family, I have always been taught not to limit my perceptions, ideas and goals because of the limited imagination of people. My parents specifically taught me how life is going to be for me; there will be many hurdles in my way to success, I will come across many people who will try to let me down and break me their words and actions but I must never forget that morality, kindness and goodness are the best ways to fight them back, my focus should be to conquer my dreams and set no limit to my success. I am grateful that they taught me that because throughout my schooling, career, and in social life I was on a roller coaster of learning, stressing, and dealing with extreme situations but I never gave up because they gave me the strength that I needed and warn me about everything.

I made so many friends in my school life. I preferred to establish friendship with those who were physically w eak and an essay target for bullies. I liked communicating, sharing and emotionally interacting with them. Their stories disturbed me emotionally but made me realize how delicate the heart of a human is, and how negative words and actions shatter the personality of an individual. I had a friend named Alec; he was brutally bullied in our high school just because he was an Asian. It ruined his medical health, and he even tried to commit suicide. This incident strongly hit me, and I decided I will do something about rather staying silent and doing nothing.

When I started my career, I thought that organisations abide by ethics and morality and do not allow any kind of biases and discrimination but it was surprising for me to find out that even today, there are still many organisations that still practice racism, worship discrimination, and do not even take rights of individuals under considerations. I did not get into many companies because narrow mindedness exists in several companies as well. That does not mean that all the organizations are the same, today, most of the organizations in this world strictly follow principles of ethics and morality because those which tend to work out things without such principles lose their business and good reputation in market very soon.

Education is the cornerstone to imparting essential values to the members of society, to highlight the personal experience, I have always advanced to broaden my horizon of knowledge (Rothman, 2007). However, I also suffered from the menace of widespread racial discrimination in the paradigm of education. Racism remained a stigma that haunted my whole career in true letter and spirits. Besides, I nurtured the values of ethics, compassion and sharing the knowledge with other members of society. Earlier in my career, I never aspired to opt for the field of human resources. I wanted to be an astronaut because I was taught by my parents that dreams are limitless. I soon realized that people need me more in the society as there is a constant need for eradicating the venom of hate and several social evils that are shaking the roots of humanity. I thought I could play a great role in doing that because the life I lived made me good at developing communications with people who belong to multiple cultures, unique mindsets and who have the distinctive outlook of life (Walford, 2011). I knew my experiences, skills and ideas could help in the elimination of the negativity from the society that is when I decided to choose Human Resource as a profession.

Technology and media have improved the standard of our lives. Both have a key role in eliminating negativity and bad aspects which may destroy our lives. Since childhood, I have faced discrimination on the basis of my color and race. I acknowledged it completely that it is not just a term; it’s like cancer which can kill the society. Technology had played an important role in the eradication of racism from society to some extent. For instance, hate crime has been decreased after the advancement of technology. People are now more aware of their rights. In the past, my elders (my grandparents) had a point of view that we black people have no rights, it is okay to be bullied or face racism because we are weak and minority. Technology and media taught us that we all are equal and we can fight for our rights.

At the contemporary time, media is well responded towards racism. If something happens in any part of the country, the media covers the incident, and it becomes difficult for the culprit to commit hate crime again (Vaughan, 2005). Media is also playing a role in awareness about equality and human rights. Videos related to hate crime and racism get viral in no time and leave no choice for higher authorities to take notice of it (Vaughan, 2005). This is how technology and social media are changing the world. In my life globalization has played an important role. I have known so many cultures; it helped me to find out my own identity. I feel confident about my color and race. Globalization is helping in providing equal opportunities to all.

Society and the environment in which a person lives and grows up have significant impacts on one’s mentality, behavior, and attitude in life. It is unreal for a person to live in an environment that is free of troubles, social evils, and negativity but the real world can be made a better place if the majority of individuals hold on to the values of the ethics and morality. Primary factors like family have a significant role and a huge responsibility in molding the personality of a person. If a person is taught well to fight back with the realities of life, he/she can become a valuable and strong member of society. I am glad that I had my lessons before the realities of life are revealed to me. Today, I am a strong and independent person and want to teach my children about the truth of this society. I want them to be strong and positivity radiators in society. I want them to acknowledge the principles of ethics and morality and follow them all their lives to become a better person and influencer to others. I have understood that things around us do not change automatically, even if the majority is blindly following what is wrong and unethical, one should remember that a change starts from oneself. If we change ourselves, live confidently, be ourselves, so not feel ashamed of our gender, beliefs, and race, the world around us will start changing miraculously.


May, V. (Ed.). (2011). Sociology of personal life. Macmillan International Higher Education.

Rothman, B. K. (2007). Writing ourselves in sociology. Methodological Innovations Online, 2(1), 11-16.

Walford, G. (Ed.). (2011). Doing sociology of education (Vol. 203). Routledge.

Nason-Clark, N., & Neitz, M. J. (Eds.). (2001). Feminist narratives and the sociology of religion. Rowman Altamira.

Vaughan, D. (2005). On the relevance of ethnography for the production of public sociology and policy. The British journal of sociology, 56(3), 411-416.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

The True Cost


Client Name

University Name

The True Cost

Owing to their immense popularity and well-established brand name, many clothing companies have now expanded globally to different nations all over the world. The offered products by the companies are sold at lower rates than their competitors, making them market leaders in the fashion industry. However, owing to its increased sales, the companies are known to mass produce their products through outsourcing to garment factories in 3rd world and poor countries. The documentary highlights that the labor is outsourced to certain countries like Bangladesh, Taiwan and others so the labor is also cheap. The clothes are made in Asian countries where the workers are paid very small wages and work under poor conditions (by Western standards) and expect relatively small profits in order to gain bigger sales. The element of outsourcing is detrimental to the host country which suffers at the cost of the rich nations.

Outsourcing is especially effective for the textile industries and garment factories in 3rd world nations like Bangladesh, India and Pakistan etc. where production costs are often limited to cheap machinery and uneducated workforce. Bangladesh is a developing nation with huge garments manufacturing capacities. The industries and sweatshops working in Bangladesh can fill makeshift workplaces with hundreds of underpaid workers, working around the clock with no regard to things such as basic human rights, and are able to reduce costs to a pittance. The companies like Primark operating in these nations are known to combine these low production costs with optimized distribution webs and high sales volume and get a healthy revenue, coupled with a nice profitability.

The corporate social responsibility of the textile industries

Universally, the organizations have set a few rules for corporate social duty to take into account with inside just as outside powers at work. This set of accepted rules depends on the all-inclusive belief systems that demonstrate the center morals of the business. Expanding globalization implies advancement in every aspect of trade, consequently the methods for directing organizations have improved also. Thus, the material business is making enhancements in its CSR procedure according to the improving measures.

To gain a professional standing in the eyes of their clients, the apparel businesses are engaging in various social responsibilities activities. Almost all the industries in first world countries have laws and acts protecting the rights of their employees. However, the hideous story of incidents like the Dhaka accident in 2013 remain masked under the veil of the immense poverty. The fact that 1000 of deaths were caused by the sheer ignorance on the part of the industry owners remains ignored by Joe Fresh (an apparel administrative) who justifies the situation of the workers by saying "there are a lot worse things they could be doing."

The issues of using minorities as laborers, little pay rates, processing plant security, representatives' wellness, and ecological debasement in third world economies stays unaddressed. The ventures in these poor nations should search for the prosperity of their representatives like they are family as opposed to underestimating them. Morgan highlights the same issue by analyzing the following statistics in his documentary

“Fashion is the second most polluting industry in the world, second only to oil; we now consume 500% more clothing than we did two decades ago; in 1960 America produced over 95% of its own clothing, while today the figure stands at 3%, with the rest outsourced to developing countries.”

The idea of social responsibility is unfamiliar to the third world nations. The sheer absence of awareness for representative's rights and no suits need to change at the earliest. Indeed, even in this dynamic age where the world discusses human rights and related well-being, one of the essential experiences that the fabric production companies are still facing are child labor and forced labor.

The leading garment and clothing import businesses of Europe and United States which proudly make public announcements of their CSR activities for the welfare of their people and the environment tend to forget their oaths when it comes to developing countries. The laws and guidelines in every one of such nations fluctuate radically. Likewise, it is the situation particularly for the creating nations whose economies rely upon the outside earnings originating from the import of piece of clothing. The administration keeps on discrediting any work laws and disregard the circumstance of their kin to hold the specific outside speculations and to moderate the danger of losing these vast players to another country offering the services at much lower prices. It prompts further decrease of the assembling costs, and even the enormous garments trademarks will in general disregard the grave wrongdoing for the egregious working conditions when it comes to outsourcing their production. The 3rd world countries, for instance, India don't pay emphasis to strict implementations of the labor laws like USA or Germany which has led to more and more outsourcing to these countries by the big players to avoid all costs of litigations.

The summary remains that all the facts stated in the documentary are all appallingly frightening. However, the video attempts not only to highlight the problems but presents a few solutions in the urgency of the affair. While the attitude of big brands regarding the issue can't be forgotten, it is essential to remember the struggles of a few "fair trade" attire industrialists, for instance, Stella McCartney, who continues to spread awareness about environmental apprehensions and create better job opportunities for many into her company.


Jenkins, R., 2005. Globalization, corporate social responsibility and poverty. International affairs, 81(3), pp.525-540.

Barua, U. and Ansary, M.A., 2017. Workplace safety in Bangladesh ready-made garment sector: 3 years after the Rana Plaza collapse. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 23(4), pp.578-583.

Siddiqui, J. and Uddin, S., 2016. Human rights disasters, corporate accountability and the state: Lessons learned from Rana Plaza. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 29(4), pp.679-704.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 3 Words: 900

The Uniform Crime Report (UCR)

Your Name

Instructor Name

Course Number


Social Setup: Deviance, Crime, and Law

Bias is the way to prioritize a few ideas and some people over the second, which results in unfair and unequal treatment of people. Lack of internal assessments in decision making by an individual, and the meanings being conveyed to the other party is taken as a generalization. Bias is that mechanism which gives you an incorrect and weak internal assessment (Rothman et al.). Biases change the human behaviors towards the understanding of the societies maybe they are positive (Conformity) or maybe they are negative (deviant) behaviors.

Deviance in sociological terms means, the violation of pre-existing cultural, social norms, whether lifestyles, customs or laws. Deviance can be related to killing someone. ‘‘In modern language and deviance is take in a negative implication but for sociologists, this is not considered as bad or negative’’ (Schoepflin). For the Functionalist school of thought, deviance plays two main roles. First, patterns of recognitions and punishments for deviance create new norms and sets an example to the whole society that what type of behavioral patterns should be there. Individuals need to be aware of these settings to avoid conflicts and problems in society. Second, boundaries are to be defined by different societal parameters for the people living within the groups.

Deviancy is not always negative, but sometimes deviancy is a reason for unity because people living in communities get together to support each other. Homosexuality can be an example of deviance which made LGBT come forward and support each other. Sometimes deviancy in societies can cause disharmony and disturbances because of the rigid behaviors of people. Stigmatizing a few behaviors may be the reason for the disruption in society.

Robert Merton agrees that deviance is the intrinsic part of the present societies; he later on extended the idea of Durkheim's ideas by presenting Strain Theory. In the United States, the black students also participated in the civil rights movement; this shows that they challenged the notions of isolation in society. Durkheim further added that punishing a deviant, it claims and reassures the existing social setup and norms and deviance can be repeated. According to Strain Theory, the goal which is acceptable in society determines the behavior of individuals whether they deviate from conforming. Conformity is the decision for not choosing deviation; they follow the social patterns to achieve their goals and targets.

Strain theorists believe that the existing social structure can be the reason for committing crimes in society because of the pressure they get from their societies. Deviance is the reason for breaking one reason to achieve another cause or a goal. In the United States of America, individuals sell illegal drugs, for them making money is accepted, not the cultural values. The Social Disorganization proponents believe that people who are grown up in those are which lack basic life necessities tend to commit more crimes, and they participate in more deviant behaviors. According to Social Disorganization theory, where there is a lack of social ties between people, and there is no social control, then there are maximum possibilities of crimes.

The data of National Crime Victimization Surveys conduct researches, including 240,000 respondents by interviewing them. They involve 160,000 specific persons as respondents. They are interviewed about nonfatal personal crimes, crimes related to house properties and other crimes. Survey respondents are asked questions related to their origin (whether they are Hispanic or not), age, sex, and race. National Crime Victimization lets people volunteer for the survey, and it has higher rates of crimes as compared to the Uniform Crime Report. The crimes were only reported to NCVS, not to the police. There is only one disadvantage that this report does not approach those people who do not have access to telephones and other facilities. Access to Criminal Justice System would encourage the drop in crime rates and the fair justice system without effected by any biases.

According to Labelling Theory, the behaviors and reactions towards deviance are the factors to change deviant over time to time and culture to culture. Targeting and labeling of specific people can result in the behavior of people towards organizations. Merton believed that respondents or people who are under specific conditions would feel deprived because of the comparison in which they are conditioned. Pressurizing individuals for alternative modes and behaviors can cause and introduce complexity and unmanageable conflicts.

Stereotyping and biases cannot be resisted, and they exist in the social setups. Conflict theory suggests that the causes of deviance and crime are because of social and economic factors. Inequality in the society and prevailing systems cause crimes and deviance. Furthermore, Conflict Theory, being impressed by Karl Marx, believed that the population was divided into groups. The first one, Bourgeois, who were controlling all means of business and production. By their influence of law, government and other authoritative institutions, they successfully managed to centralize the powers. The second class was Proletariats, the working class who were dependent on Bourgeois for their employment opportunities, and their survival.

People can be connected by creating social bonds in society to avoid and minimize deviant behaviors. There are four types of social bonding, i.e. attachments, commitments, social involvement and belief systems (Hirschi). Where there is social bonding among people with diversities, there will be less deviant behaviors, and there will be lower rates of crimes. Absence of these will create disharmony in the society which will promote crimes and deviance in the social setups.

Works Cited

Hirschi, Travis, and Rodney Stark. "Hellfire and delinquency." Social Problems 17.2 (1969): 202-213.

Merton, Robert King, and Robert C. Merton. Social theory and social structure. Simon and Schuster, 1968.

Rothman, Kenneth J., Sander Greenland, and Timothy L. Lash. Modern epidemiology. Vol. 3. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2008.

Schoepflin, Todd. "Deviant While Driving?." Everyday Sociology Blog, January 28 (2011).

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 3 Words: 900

The Value Of Social Change

The Value of Social change

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

The Value of Social change

To ascertain whether all social changes are positive or not, one needs to have profound knowledge over the outcomes that entailed the social changes. For instance, consider advancements in the domain of technology. The change brought socially has been marked with both positive and negative connotation. With the introduction of the internet into the social realm, friends sitting across the globe can connect with each other. Strangers can meet as well in order to get acquainted with the culture and norms of the other. However, there is a flip side to it. Everyone is familiar with the name of dark web. Criminals operate freely there. Horrible crimes like kidnapping, drug deals, and extortion take place away from the eye of the law. So, to say that all social is positive might not be correct.

Taking into account the argument mentioned above. It seems that progress is regressive. Humanity must have thought, with the advancement made at multiple fronts, the overall look the society would present will be positive. But where does society stands today? Crime today is at all times high. More violent and even deadlier than in the past. No one is unaware of the detrimental effects industrialization has had on the population of earth. The average temperature of the earth stands at an all-time high. Untreated waste and sewage flowing into the rivers and oceans have polluted them to a dangerous level. Also giving rise to dangers to marine life. Social change becomes a challenge after a certain line is crossed. Humans are often seen struggling to contain that challenge. The advancement in weaponry envisaged a certain level of deterrence. But today’s society is awash with guns. That has jeopardized the right to life of masses. Additionally, the post-industrialization era has seen the emergence of several deadly diseases.

Hence, the social change is certainly, at times, oversimplified. More often, Achievements of humanity over time are hailed as crucial to it. But the consequences and the by-products of those achievements are often overlooked.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Theory And Culture

Theory and Culture Worksheet


Respond to the following in 50 to 75 words each, unless otherwise specified.

What is sociology? What are some examples of what sociologists study?

The study of human relationships is called sociology. The subject is very interesting and it explains the matters of lives of humans at the personal and social level. Sociologists study the daily lives of people, conduct extensive studies, understand historic papers, investigate survey records, examine video-taped communications, interview members of sets of people, and perform workroom tests.

When examining the theoretical perspectives in sociology, each perspective has a specific focus and level of analysis. What does the level of analysis mean?

Sociologists examine human society by making use of differing levels of study. This study can be conducted at both the micro and macro level. Macro-level sociology deals with extensive societal methods, for example, social strength and transformation. While micro-level sociology analyzes minimal connections among persons, for example, dialogue or face to face interactions.

In 25 to 50 words each, describe the focus and level of analysis for the following theoretical perspectives:

Symbolic Interactionalism:

The theory of symbolic interactionism is a micro-level theoretical framework of sociology that talks about in what way society is formed and preserved by recurrent communications between folks. The focus of the theory is on face-to-face interactions.

Functional Analysis:

Functional analysis is a perspective based on the macro-level and sees society as a whole unit, or as a living being whose different parts come together to make it function. The focus is on the relationship between parts of society.

Conflict Theory:

Conflict theory is the macro-level analysis, for the reason that the theory talks about the conflicts and power disparities. It focuses on how powerful ones control the poor.

Culture shapes many things in our lives, including what we wear, what we eat, and how we interact with each other. What are the influences of culture in society?

Culture is responsible for forming a lot of things in our lives, most of the times it includes the way we dress up, our cuisine and the way of interaction of people with each other. The things that are commonly influenced in society by some culture are the language, principles, morals, standards, manners, and also physical entities that are inherited from generation to generation.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Thinking About Diversity And Inclusion

Diversity and Inclusion




Diversity and Inclusion

There are two different dimensions of cultural diversity, which include internal dimensions and external dimensions. Internal dimensions of cultural diversity include age, gender, race, and ethnicity. On the other hand, external dimensions of cultural diversity include the social, economic and marital status, as well as religion and workplace experience, etc. Internal dimensions of cultural diversity include the points which an individual gets at the time of birth and which cannot be changed till death. Although the age of a person keeps changing with the passage of time, however, a person cannot lessen the time period of his/her age. On the other hand, the external dimensions of cultural diversity denote the change in status or positions, which an individual achieves with the passage of time, as well as according to his/ her abilities. A distinctive feature in this regard is the religion which can be considered an internal, well as an external dimension at the same time. It is due to the fact that most of the times, the parents of a child, associates him/her with the same religion which they follow. So the children of Catholics follow the same religion and the children of Jewish parents become Jews. However, in a few cases, people change their religion in some part of their life and start following some other religion or even become atheists, which is the main reason religion is considered an external dimension. Moreover, the internal and external dimensions of cultural diversity mutually contribute to the formation of a richly diversified culture, society, and workplace (Rice, & White, 2015).

I belong to the Hispanic, Mexican ethnicity and I am a Catholic. There are a number of things, qualities which I share with my social circle. I have many people in my social circle which belong to the same ethnicity as mine. Some members of my social circle share the same religion as me. Apart from the cultural, ethnic and religious similarities, my social circle shares the quality of being punctual n our dealings and commitments. We also share the quality of hospitality, as we like to serve and help people in different circumstances. Another important thing which I share with my social circle is the ability to understand the circumstances and conditions of other people which shed light on their actions, decisions, and thinking. We try to not stereotype and develop a prejudice against other people on the basis of their race, ethnicity or religion. My workplace is a prison, and a few members of my social circle share the same workplace with me, as well. Therefore, we share some common thinking and attitude towards life as well. We get to know different prisoners, their stories and circumstances, which provide insight to us, about our understanding. This also helps us to view the scenarios from a different perspective and try to understand other people, while giving them a chance to show their abilities, potential, as well as improvement in their personality.

Diversity and inclusion are two different but related terms. Diversity means the cultural, social and economic differences of the people, in some specific setting or workplace. People belonging to different age group, gender, religion, ethnicity, race, sexual orientation, etc. working at the same place, denote the diversity of that workplace. Each and every individual is different from the other workers or people in one or even multiple aspects. On the other hand, inclusion is the practice of accepting the diversity and differences of the people, accepting them and acknowledging their potential of contributing towards development and progress of the workplace. Inclusion is based on the belief that the diversity of the people or employees helps them to contribute to the workplace in their own distinctive ways. Diversity is just acknowledging the differences of people or employees. On the other hand, inclusion is the practice of embracing and welcoming these differences and believing in the abilities and potential of people, instead of stereotyping them on the basis of differences. Diversity is the part of each and every workplace, which includes the offices, educational institutes, corporate business, health care systems, and prisons, as well. Inclusion is the practice which helps the people to accept the differences of others and provides them a chance to contribute to the peaceful and progressive work environment (Farndale, Biron, Briscoe, & Raghuram, 2015).

Diversity is an important and essential part of each and every organization or workplace. People from different racial, ethnic and cultural backgrounds interact with each other, in their shared workplaces and sometimes, their differences become the source of misunderstandings, stereotypes, and biases. In order to keep the environment of the workplace peaceful and progressive, workplace diversity training are very important. Workplace diversity training actually denotes the inclusion efforts of the employers. The training provides opportunities for the employees to interact with each other, share their opinions, concerns, and insecurities as well. They are then provided the chance of bonding and realizing the potential of each other through communication and team building activities. Workplace diversity training is also important because of the fact that it enables people to interact with each other, apart from the official work and get to know each other on a personal and individual level. This helps the workers in developing mutual respect, accepting the differences of each other and exploring the abilities, achievements, and potential of each other. Moreover, the training also provides them to resolve their conflicts and explore mutual interest and ideas to ensure the progress of the business. There is another aspect of workplace diversity training, which contributes to the progress of business at a greater level. The aspect is that due to the training, employees get closer to each other while clearing their misunderstandings and getting rid of biasness, which helps them to connect with each other. They become more creative and cooperating while contributing to a better and positive workplace environment. Such an environment also provides job security and satisfaction to the employees, enabling them to perform even better and earn profits for the organization.

My workplace provides me with the opportunity of dealing with people belonging to diverse cultures and ethnicities. My workplace is a prison, and I have to interact with prisoners as part of my work. There are prisoners belonging to the Hispanic, Mexican, Indian, Chinese, English cultures and many others, as well. There are prisoners belonging to different racial groups, including the whites and blacks. Apart from these differences, the prisoners also practice different religions, which is another component, adding to their diversity. The environment of the prisons needs to be managed in a very careful and strict manner because the prisoners who are actually criminals can add discomfort to the peace of the environment. It is a common practice in the prisons that the prisoners belonging to different racial and ethnic backgrounds develop a conflict with each other and give rise to riots and unrest in prison. So, inclusion is a very important part of the prisons and such places require it more than other workplaces because it is a correctional facility which should help the people to understand and accept the differences of others. There could be more inclusion in the prison settings, which can help the prisoners to get rid of their biasness, prejudices and other misunderstandings and accept the identity and differences of other groups. It would also help them when they would become a part of the society, after getting released from the prisons.


Farndale, E., Biron, M., Briscoe, D. R., & Raghuram, S. (2015). A global perspective on diversity and inclusion in work organizations.

Rice, M. F., & White, H. L. (2015). The multiple dimensions of diversity and culture. In Diversity and Public Administration (pp. 11-31). Routledge.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

Thinking About Diversity And Inclusion

Diversity and Inclusion

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Diversity and Inclusion


Culture means the basic feature that defines what people are, where they belong, what is their identity and what influences these people. Culture can be defined as the way of being of a person. In a given culture, there are many people who have some similar features or background, which makes them form this culture (Banks, 2015). For instance, these people might share the same language, they might have the same beliefs, they might have some mutually agreeable norms and this culture might also be formed on the bases of religion. What can be interpreted from this above said the definition is that culture is shared between people. And there are some specific features that make these people different from the rest. These people who share a culture can be called a group, every group has a separate culture, and this culture varies from one place to another.

Cultural diversity is defined as the set of beliefs which are accepted and recognized in any society or an organization which includes people from different cultures. These cultures are respected throughout this society and the cultural differences are understood. The example of cultural diversity in America. America is the most diverse country in the world, cultural wise. It includes people from many cultures and many cities. In the United States of America, there exist people from different ethnic groups, different religions, people who have different languages and people from different races. All these people live together in America as Americans, and every group respects the other group.

Cultural diversity means the recognition that other groups exist in society; these people might have beliefs and values different than one’s own. These differences can also prove to be a good thing because cultures can be a base of learning for others. Like in a culture if there is a ritual in which people help the poor and celebrate with them, then other cultures can also adopt this ritual as there is no harm being done to any value or norm.

Dimensions of Cultural Diversity

The diversity based upon culture in a society can be based upon many things, these things prove the differences that these group of people has, which separates them from one another. Following are the dimensions of cultural diversity;


Age is one of the main dimensions that constitute cultural diversity. The stereotyping done on the basis of age is discrimination in another form. It is true that people from all ages have faced discrimination in some form, but the people who are of the age 65 or higher are the ones targeted mainly. Because young people are preferred over them in places, just because they are fresher and can work better.

Gender-based Cultural Diversity

It still exists today in many places over the world. And it is not necessary that only women are discriminated, but in many cases, women are preferred over men unfairly. In many places in the world, men receive more wages than women. If we talk globally, women as a whole lack even the most basic human rights (Banks, 2015).


Today is the biggest reason for cultural diversity. People have made religion a problem. This is because religion is that main thing that tells people what kind of lifestyle they should lead, what they should eat and who should they marry. And these values vary from one religion to another. Hence conflict is created just on the basis of religion.

Sexual orientation

It is the basic identity possessed by a person based on what kind of gender a person is attracted to. This means that diversity exists because of the change in sexual preferences of people. People have different choices like some are bisexual, some are homosexual and others can be heterosexual.


Race causes cultural diversity because in this world there are people who belong to many different races. Some are black, some are white, some can be brown, etc. So in a society, the existence of people based upon race exists.


In the society that we all live, there are many people who are different from one another. These differences can be based on the change in culture, ethnicity and many other things.

Ethnicity means the similarity that exists between groups of people based upon some similar language or history etc. the identification can be done by watching how these people are living their life. What are their cultural values? What are their festivals? How do they live, and what are their beliefs?

All these things make it easy to identify what group or culture a person belongs. For example, let us take an example of Muslims; they have a separate set of belief. They lead a lifestyle which is different from the others. Their religious beliefs tell them what to do and what not. They have preferences in what to eat, whom to marry and other things.

So identifying a group or culture involves looking at what the people have in common. Because the things they have in common is what makes them different from the others.

Diversity and Inclusion

There exists a common relation between diversity and inclusion. If here we talk in the cultural context, diversity is the differences present between people based upon race, ethnicity, religion and many other factors. But what inclusion means is the welcoming of these differences present between people. Inclusion emphasizes on rather than fighting on the bases of change in culture, people of all cultures should work together, regardless of the cultures (Matlin et al., 2019).

Workplace Culture and Diversity

With the passage of time workplace environments have evolved. In the early times, when racism and other factors were at their utmost peak, only the people with the same culture, religion, gender, values, and beliefs were included in a single workplace. But now as the times have changed, workplace diversity has been formed. Workplace diversity is defined as in an organization the people working are from different cultures. People are from all cultural dimensions. For instance, people of all ages, values, cultures, genders, and races work together. This cultural diversity has profited the organization because of inclusion, which states that people from different cultures should work together to thrive and achieve success for each other. Cultural inclusion includes the fact that success is better than the silly differences which are based upon beliefs and cultures (Matlin et al., 2019).

Workplace Diversity Training

Workplace diversity training is considered very important in organizations. Because the employees can be from different backgrounds, work should be done so that these differences are ignored so that the focus is completely on achieving success.It is not important if people are from different backgrounds, religions and ethnic groups. If they are working together, then these differences should never create any problem, because these problems are baseless. So the companies have to focus on the fact that no cultural differences are created, and every employee should work together.

Workplace culture these days is focused on inclusion. Because in a society the people are from different groups and backgrounds. Hence the fact is obvious that the workplaces will also include people of all cultures. This is why the workplaces are focusing on training their employees on the fact that the cultural differences should be ignored and all the people should work in harmony irrespective of their differences so that success is achieved for both the employees and the organization.


Banks, J. A. (2015). Cultural diversity and education. Routledge.

Matlin, S. A., Yam, V. W., Mehta, G., Krief, A., & Hopf, H. (2019). The Need for Cultural Competence in Science: A Practical Approach to Enhancing Equality, Diversity, and Inclusion. Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English).

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

Threats Defense Argument

Threats Defense Argument




Globalization and lack of educational opportunities are two other factors that pose a threat to the global environment. They have some serious consequences on the globe that will be presented in this discussion and it will also point out why these two threats are less dangerous than the already mentioned four threats.

While talking about Globalization, advances in communication technology and transportation during the 20th century to overcome geographical boundaries have revolutionized the way of living. The world is becoming interdependent and a local incident will have consequences at the international level and vice versa. Globalization is not limited to increasing the circulation of information and knowledge on a global scale. On the economic front, this growth concerns the flow of capital, investment and international trade integrating all countries into the single world market. At the political level, international and regional structures determine the direction of states at the social, economic and environmental levels (Miller, 2007).

As far as culture is concerned, globalization is a global threat. Globalization in itself is neither positive nor negative: it can be both. Culture and cultural diversity, in particular, face three challenges by Globalization: 1) Globalization, by spreading the principles of the market, has created new forms of inequality, taking advantage of the culture of economically powerful countries and creating tension rather than cultural pluralism; 2) States find it increasingly difficult to control the transnational flow of ideas, images and resources that affects cultural development; 3) the growing literacy gap (digital and conventional) makes debates and cultural resources the prerogative of the elite, far from the capabilities and interests of more than half of the population today (GPF, 2019).

Some figures show the state of health of cultural diversity. About six thousand languages are present in the globe, however, merely four percent of languages are used by ninety-six percent population of the world. In addition, 50% of these 6,000 languages ​​are in danger of extinction. On the Internet, 90% of the languages ​​in the world are not represented. The cultural industries trade is controlled by 5 countries in the world. In the field of cinematography, for example, 88 out of 185 countries have never produced a single film. Therefore, globalization is a global threat, specifically to culture.

Lack of educational opportunities is another threat to the global environment. The threats that threaten productivity as a result of illiteracy transcend the issues of environmental destruction and destruction of natural wealth, including pollution of water, land, and air, which does not stop, even if the greatest efforts are made to minimize them. Having a specific entity for the fight against illiteracy is a strength that should be exploited to the fullest, by promoting aggressive programs to eradicate this evil, but has been in debt to the fulfillment of its mission, reporting each year that this evil decreases, without showing that it reaches zero to consider that this social suffering that commits the human race to the destruction of the planet is annihilated (Bakhtiari, 2011).

It is undeniable that there are dark forces that make it impossible to eradicate illiteracy and have managed to reduce this evil. The universal access to education will minimize extreme poverty and hunger, improve coverage of universal quality primary education, conserving the environment and fostering a global partnership for development. Therefore, the creation of opportunities for universal education is a must and the duty of everyone (Poston & Bouvier, 2010).

While talking about the growing population, the greater demand for water, medicines, food, housing, enhanced misuse of natural resources and other essentials required for human survival have caused real environmental and ecological tragedies on the earth. Current arable land makes a plethora of food but the people of the globe are suffering from starvation because the growth of population is greater than before and distributing food for all is a logistical but above all a political nightmare. This is how it can negatively affect global society (Poston & Bouvier, 2010). Numerous people in much-occupied nations have continued to reproduce despite the shortage of resources thinking that they will support them in the old age. So, the growing population, lack of educational opportunities, and globalization are the global threats that must be tackled in addition to other global threats.


Bakhtiari, S. (2011). Globalization And Education: Challenges And Opportunities. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/242621870_Globalization_And_Education_Challenges_And_Opportunities

GPF. (2019). The Threat of Globalization. Retrieved from https://www.globalpolicy.org/globalization/defining-globalization/47948-the-threat-of-globalization.html

Miller, D. (2007). Globalization. Detroit: Greenhaven Press.

Poston, D., & Bouvier, L. (2010). Population and society. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

To Be Chosen


Professor name


July 16, 2019

Wealth and poverty

International division of labor and global markets involve positive and negative aspects. The opponents claims that it caused inequality of wealth in the world as the society has become segregated and the consumption level of the people varies significantly. The financial crisis also revealed that the salaries of the bankers and financial agents are different from most of the Americans. the common view on global markets is that it increased the gap between rich and the poor that cannot be removed due to the unfair forces. The wealthy have always received favors due to their money that allowed them to maximize their wealth. This creates negative pressure on the poor who are unable to compete with the rich and powerful.

The argument claims that division of labor widened the gap between rich and poor. Facts reveals that “from the total pie of wealth (100%) what percent do you think the bottom 40% (that is, the first two buckets together) of Americans possess? And what about the top 20%?” CITATION Dan18 \l 1033 (Arielly, 2018). This reflects that majority of the country’s wealth is possessed by the few rich. On contrary the percentage of poor is much high. The bottom 40 percent of the population is acquiring 0.3% of the country’s wealth. While the top 20% is possessing 84% of the wealth. This gap confirms the prevalence of inequality in wealth. This gap has provided better opportunities to the rich for expanding their wealth. They invest their resources in businesses that guarantee maximization of profits. While this wealth don’t do any good to the poor because they continue to suffer and live in the same deprived state. This is also confirmed by the facts that poor have not benefited form global markets. they are still managing toi find low-level jobs of laboring which is not adequate for changing their status. Where one group of the world is enjoying most of the world’s resources the other group is undergoing misery and hardships.

Economists presents a different view on international division of label and global markets. They support these aspects by stating that certain level of division is desirable because it leads to economic efficiency. It impacts mobility and mutual dependence of people on each other. The desires of rich and poor varies because the former wants to enjoy significant degree of privilege while the later stresses on distribution of wealth. Rawl in his book ‘Theory of Justice’ states that, “a society is just if a person understands all the conditions within that society and is willing to enter it in a random place (in terms of socio-economic status, gender, race, and so on)” CITATION Dan18 \l 1033 (Arielly, 2018). However the current situation created by global markets depicts that the society is unjust and lacks equality. The rich manages to get most of the world’s wealth that creates disadvantage for the poor. This puts poor a condition of never ending poverty because resources are controlled by the few rich. The opponents of global markets have claimed that people belonging to low socio-economic status are entrapped in vicious circle of poverty that they are unable to escape. The decision of individuals to enter a society is not linked to their knowledge of wealth or desire of possessing certain amount of money.

The conservative commentators offer an indifferent view by emphasizing on the benefits of global markets. They argue that unequal distribution of wealth is not a problem for America. They state that the reason for poverty is not inequality but inability of the people to take advantage of the opportunity. The poor are lazy and fail to make best choice that results in their downfall. It is argued poverty “also robs low-income children of the chance to realize their intellectual and economic potential” (Bernsteinben & Spielberg, 2015). This is due to their act that poor are so over concerned about their financial and economic deprivation that they fail to make best of the available opportunities. Their emphasis on poverty or deprivation minimize their potential for acting intelligently. Such behaviors kill all possible opportunities that could help them in overcoming their deprivations. The reality is that the rich are investing more and making intelligent decisions that leads to growth of their wealth. The rich are controlling wealth creation because they are making best decisions at best times.

The opponents of global markets has claimed the redistribution of wealth will eliminate the unnecessary gap between the rich and the poor. They argue, “the inequality focus tends to draw us to redistribution, whereas a mobility focus is more conducive to ideas for wealth creation” (Bernsteinben & Spielberg, 2015). It is important to manage imbalances of wealth and power because it will provide better survival opportunities to the rich also. Without removing this gap the conditions of the poor will never improve and wealth will be concentrated with the few powerful of the society.

The comparison of thee advantages and disadvantages depicts that division of labor and global markets are viewed differently by philosophers. The most visible disadvantage is expansion of gap between the rich and the poor. Rich are possessing more wealth and resources that ends opportunities for the poor. The supporters of the global markets stress on benefits and claims that it resulted in development of economy. Unintelligent decisions of poor is the central cause of their poverty.

Work Cited

BIBLIOGRAPHY Arielly, D. (2018). Americans Wantto Live in a Much More Equal Country (They Just Don't Realize It). Retrieved 07 17, 2019, from https://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2012/08/americans-want-to-live-in-a-much-more-equal-country-they-just-dont-realize-it/260639/

BERNSTEINBEN, J., & SPIELBERG. (2015). Inequality Matters . Retrieved 07 17, 2019, from https://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2015/06/what-matters-inequality-or-opportuniy/393272/

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Trask Handout Discussion

[Name of Student]

[Name of Subject]

[Name of Instructor]

Trask Handout Discussion

Culture plays a significant role in the life of everyone in all societies across the globe. The day we are born, the culture is engraved in our roots within no time. The culture has a significant role in determining the value of our society without its presence, it becomes complicated for society to get established into the culture. The purpose of culture is not only limited till the folk lore’s, traditional songs and the typical folk stories with which the art and craft are also being determined but the worth of the culture and the counterculture because this is the only identity through which a person is known.

In our daily life, we always believe that somehow or the other we are moving away from our culture which is not a pleasant sight as we have forgotten everything which we have learned from our ancestors. Moreover, we have got nothing to teach to our children but in the other hand if we look at our daily routine lifestyle, somehow or the other we are the part of cultural consumerism as we are utilizing the products in our daily life that are linked with our culture.

From the cultural clothes to the cultural dishes to the inspirational songs and products all these aspects are being covered in our daily life as we all are utilizing it. Consciously or unconsciously we are daily using our cultural food and being the part of the society we are equally contributing to that factor. This is known as cultural consumerism. It is not defined only for our own country, but we also use this feature while visiting some other countries and still finding our very own local restaurant to feel like home, this even a type of cultural consumerism which is being utilized in all the parts of the world.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Underage Alcoholism

Name of Student

Name of Professor

Name of Class

Day Month Year

Underage Alcoholism

For my research, I intend to focus on the social menace of underage alcoholism. People who engage in drinking before reaching the maximum legal age necessary for consuming the alcoholic beverage constitute the practice of underage drinking. It is imperative to deliberate the manifestations and implications of the issue in society because it affects not only the individual but also the pertinent members of the community. Underage drinking can cast adverse impacts on health and can potentially impair neurological activities and the brain. Besides, the age limit in the past was 18 which has been increased and made 21. Several experts assert their views that it was a flawed policy and the youth has advanced to drink alone and regularly. Comprehending the menace of alcohol abuse is necessary to be assessed with a sociological perspective. It will require empirical research and analysis of manifestations of the framework associated with alcoholism in the underage. The facts and figures offer an intriguing reality. One in six teenager drinks and there are 10.9 million underage drinkers, approximately in the United States of America (USA) ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"RUqPPpnT","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Bonnie et al.)","plainCitation":"(Bonnie et al.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":145,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/yvjivw9i/items/E9P3959K"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/yvjivw9i/items/E9P3959K"],"itemData":{"id":145,"type":"book","title":"Social, Health, and Economic Consequences of Underage Drinking","publisher":"National Academies Press (US)","source":"www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov","abstract":"Since 1988, it has been illegal for someone under the age of 21 to drink alcohol in all 50 states. This was a reversal of an earlier policy trend: In the wake of the 1972 constitutional amendment that extended the right to vote to 18-year-olds, 29 states had also lowered their legal drinking ages. Higher traffic fatalities and other problems experienced in those states were part of the impetus for the national drinking age of 21. This national drinking age has been a clear policy success (U.S. General Accounting Office, 1987; Jones, Pieper, and Robertson, 1992; Shultz et al., 2001; Wagenaar and Toomey, 2002). However, as we will discuss, many underage youth continue to consume alcohol and to experience alcohol related problems.","URL":"https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK37611/","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Bonnie","given":"Richard J."},{"family":"O'Connell","given":"Mary Ellen"},{"family":"Underage\nDrinking","given":"National Research Council (US) and Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Developing a Strategy to Reduce and Prevent"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2004"]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",5,1]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Bonnie et al.). The society plays an instrumental role to shape the attitude of the teenager toward alcohol. The prominent reasons I researched and found are the role models of teenagers, the pressure of friend and social circle, stress or anxiety and the influence of pop culture. Irrefutably, the peril of underage alcoholism lies at the very heart making the youth addicted, desecrating their nourishment and destroying the society. These were the results extracted from the research I conducted and I shall critically elaborate them in the research.


When teenagers are permitted to drink, it causes a flood of pertinent activities which harm society. For instance, suicides, homicides, vehicle crashes, and unintentional injuries are the eminent implications of underage drinking. In comparison to the licensed drivers, the adolescents under 21 who have been drinking persistently are involved in severe crashes twice the rate of mature drivers ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"kokcfjVd","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Stephenson and Health)","plainCitation":"(Stephenson and Health)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":154,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/yvjivw9i/items/TBN92RFT"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/yvjivw9i/items/TBN92RFT"],"itemData":{"id":154,"type":"webpage","title":"Consequences of Underage Drinking","container-title":"Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health","URL":"http://www.camy.org/resources/fact-sheets/consequences-of-underage-drinking-surgeon-general/index.html","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Stephenson","given":"Steve"},{"family":"Health","given":"JH Bloomberg School of Public"}],"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",5,1]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Stephenson and Health). However, these car crashes represent a modicum of social issues associated with underage consumption. The rest of the impediments comprise detrimental sexual practices which lead to both unwanted pregnancies and serious diseases. The most threatening aspect is the likelihood of teenagers to become dependent on alcohol in their life. It is essential to highlight the statistics to supplement the argument.

As per the reports published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDS), people below 21 years drink 11% of alcohol wherein 90% of alcohol is consumed as binge drinks. In 2013, instances revealed that approximately more than 118,000 emergency cases were reported for other conditions and injuries associated with alcohol. Moreover, the number of drinkers is staggering among high school students ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"mI3UNtt4","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}Underage Drinking Research Initiative | National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)})","plainCitation":"(Underage Drinking Research Initiative | National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA))","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":150,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/yvjivw9i/items/FLXEMV5X"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/yvjivw9i/items/FLXEMV5X"],"itemData":{"id":150,"type":"webpage","title":"Underage Drinking Research Initiative | National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)","URL":"https://www.niaaa.nih.gov/underage-drinking-research-initiative","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",5,1]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Underage Drinking Research Initiative | National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)). As per Youth Risk Behavior Survey conducted in 2017, 30% of high school children drank alcohol, 6% drove after drinking, 17% rode with drivers who had been drunk and 14% advanced to binge drink.

In addition, it is imperative to assess the social factors which influence the inclination of children or adolescent to drink alcohol. Educational failure is one of the common factors found among high school children to urge them to drink. The impact of the company and friends plays an instrumental role. They begin drinking for fun or coping with poor academic performance but they get addicted. Meanwhile, they suffer from cognitive complications, the threat of adopting a ruthless behavior, not acting upon the advice of their parents and get involved in heinous crimes. Such radical are the implications of underage drinking in society. If a parent is involved in substance abuse, it is likely that children will establish a similar behavior because of the stress, fear and harsh treatment ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"zfVWN8lc","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}CDC - Fact Sheets-Underage Drinking - Alcohol})","plainCitation":"(CDC - Fact Sheets-Underage Drinking - Alcohol)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":156,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/yvjivw9i/items/6NBCDEFL"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/yvjivw9i/items/6NBCDEFL"],"itemData":{"id":156,"type":"webpage","title":"CDC - Fact Sheets-Underage Drinking - Alcohol","abstract":"Excessive alcohol use can lead to increased risk of health problems such as injuries, violence, liver diseases, and cancer.The CDC Alcohol Program works to strengthen the scientific foundation for preventing excessive alcohol use.","URL":"https://www.cdc.gov/alcohol/fact-sheets/underage-drinking.htm","language":"en-us","issued":{"date-parts":[["2018",11,19]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",5,1]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (CDC - Fact Sheets-Underage Drinking - Alcohol). Similar is the case with the influence of community, neighbors and peers on the adolescent. It is worthwhile to mention the youth requires persistent and thorough inspection in the contemporary era. The influence of pop culture is another dominant factor which pushes the youth to emulate their favorite movie stars and act them the way they do.

A Critical Appraisal

A critical appraisal of the matter reveals the social structure and social norms impact the habit of underage drinking underage which has become pervasive. It will require a keen approach and systematic delivery in order to curb the menace of underage drinking in society. There exist a wide range of ways to prevent the radical culture of alcoholism in the youth. One of the primary ways is “Promote an understanding of underage alcohol consumption in the context of human development and maturation that takes into account individual adolescent characteristics as well as environmental, ethic, cultural and gender differences ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"so71a2WZ","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Reboussin et al.)","plainCitation":"(Reboussin et al.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":147,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/yvjivw9i/items/TKSR7KT8"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/yvjivw9i/items/TKSR7KT8"],"itemData":{"id":147,"type":"article-journal","title":"Social Influences on the Clustering of Underage Risky Drinking and Its Consequences in Communities","container-title":"Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs","page":"890-898","volume":"73","issue":"6","source":"PubMed Central","abstract":"Objective:\nThe purpose of this research was to examine whether the clustering of underage risky drinking and its consequences within communities might arise from shared perceptions regarding underage drinking as well as the social context of drinking.\n\nMethod:\nThe Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws Randomized Community Trial provided data from repeated cross-sectional samples of 5,017 current drinkers (2,619 male) ages 14–20 years from 68 communities surveyed in 2004, 2006, and 2007. Alternating logistic regressions were used to estimate the influence of social factors on the clustering of getting drunk, heavy episodic drinking, nonviolent consequences, and driving after drinking or riding with a drinking driver.\n\nResults:\nThe clustering of getting drunk, heavy episodic drinking, and nonviolent consequences was no longer statistically significant after adjustment for drinking with friends and drinking with parents. Parents providing alcohol explained the clustering of heavy episodic drinking and nonviolent consequences, whereas drinking with other underage drinkers and friends providing alcohol explained the clustering of nonviolent consequences. Drinking with friends or other underage drinkers and friends providing alcohol increased the risk of these behaviors, whereas drinking with parents and parents providing alcohol were protective. Perceptions regarding peer drinking, community norms, consequences for drinking, and drinking at a party did not influence clustering.\n\nConclusions:\nThese findings suggest that interventions to reduce underage risky drinking in communities should focus on the differential effects of the social context in which drinking occurs.","ISSN":"1937-1888","note":"PMID: 23036206\nPMCID: PMC3469043","journalAbbreviation":"J Stud Alcohol Drugs","author":[{"family":"Reboussin","given":"Beth A."},{"family":"Song","given":"Eun-Young"},{"family":"Wolfson","given":"Mark"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2012",11]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Reboussin et al.).” In addition, the cultural forces that are supporting and encouraging underage drinking may also contribute to preventing the youth from drinking. It may seem a petty matter but, in essence, is of foremost significance. Social culture defines the manner wherein cultural norms are advanced in society. If these values are apparent and the society accepts them, the youth will also follow the path. Moreover, another crucial component to prevent alcoholism in youth is the responsibility of society, parents and political stakeholders. The youth ought to be encouraged to stay away from drinking alcohol through the prudent campaign, making them aware of the adverse long-term and short-term impacts in schools through empirical evidence and demonstrations.

A Social Perspective

The conflict approach will assess the issue of underage drinking in a critical and intriguing manner. The perspective views society from a communist lens where several factions engage in potential competition for the acquisition of power and money. For instance, the religious factors who refrain from drinking and condemn it will strive to use the power and money to impede the spread of alcohol in society and prevent others from consuming it. Consequently, a cultural and class struggle will take place between these cultures comprising alcohol consumption that often belong to the lower class against the white Protestants who do not drink alcohol. Primarily, the underage youth should be kept in mind while assessing the spread and prevention of alcohol as per the perspective of conflicts. Furthermore, it is assumed the police and other law enforcement agencies belonged to the similar lower class and thus turned a blind eye toward the menace of underage drinking or took bribe as a means of their share.

However, the conflict view ought to be enhanced critically to structure it specifically for the underage alcoholism. In essence, the complex social structure as the parents themselves indulging in alcoholism cannot prevent their children or in the other case, the children will never pay heed to them. If campaigns are launched to abrogate the peril of underage drinking from society, it needs to be done in true letter and spirits. However, it becomes very challenging in the presence of the pop culture, television and popular trends on social media where underage children are often glorified to be drinking alcohol and engaging in crimes. Such critical is the association of the conflict perspective with the problem of underage drinking. It is the conflict of interest that surfaces and impedes the eradication of alcohol and consequently the underage alcoholism. Despite causing 100,000 deaths in the United States of America (USA), the relationship between the alcohol treatment industry and the alcohol beverage industry has served the interest of the larger population ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"YxgfPZJG","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}Explaining Drug Use})","plainCitation":"(Explaining Drug Use)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":152,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/yvjivw9i/items/2UM842UX"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/yvjivw9i/items/2UM842UX"],"itemData":{"id":152,"type":"webpage","title":"Explaining Drug Use","URL":"https://saylordotorg.github.io/text_social-problems-continuity-and-change/s10-04-explaining-drug-use.html","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",5,1]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Explaining Drug Use).

The association of conflict theory with the matter never implies it reflects the actual picture. The peril of underage alcoholism pertains to various cultural, social and economic paradigms. The youth below 21 seeks guidance and assistance. If the parents offer them physical, emotional and financial assistance, the children may not become depressed or stressed. However, the negligence of parents or guardians essentially fuels the aspect of alcoholism in the youth.

Healthy Relationships and Self-Esteem

As discussed in the research above, the United States of America (USA) is replete with the youth which is on the wrong track and indulged in drinking. They begin as binge drinkers but later establish it as a habit. The onus lies on the elder members of the community to assist the teen to establish their self-esteem against the peer pressure. Since society establishes the trends observed and followed by others, a potential condemnation of alcohol distribution to the youth is essential. The sellers or manufacturers ought to be dealt with strictly regardless of their intentions if youth can have access to alcohol from them. It is a universal reality that the company and friends cause the other person to absorb their traits or habits inadvertently. Rules and regulations can keep the youth away from finding themselves amid the radical elements of society. However, none can deny the significance of school and teachers in preventing underage youth from drinking. Schools should set a firm base of children. Unless they are comprehensively guided about the potentially detrimental consequences of drinking, they may not find any motivation to leave or prevent from drinking alcohol. Conducting activities in schools and keeping a close eye on the activities and habits of the youth in high school and colleges can alleviate the pervasive existence of underage alcoholism.

The critics have raised the emblem of liberalism and independence by stipulating that the minimum age should be reduced and hence the youth should not be prevented from drinking. It is an irrational argument devoid of empirical or any kind of evidence. Both the body and the mind of the underage drinkers experience the development phase which is desecrated once they advance to feed alcohol to their bodies. Social factors are the key to propagate and establish the widespread practice of underage drinking. With the passage of time, the practice has accelerated in the absence of potential prevention and awareness.


To sum up, underage drinking has reached an alarming rate in the United States of America motivated by several social and cultural influences. The youth has not been made aware of the detrimental consequences of binge drinking at such an early age which has caused them to suffer grave implications as deaths, accidents, crimes, sex and other drugs. Researches and statistics have proved the peril is likely to expand in the absence of prudent implementation of policies by the government and critical assistance from the parents, guardians and teachers. In addition, the association of the conflict perspective highlights the conflicts of interest causing the destruction in the youth and society. Until parents, guardians and stakeholders advance to make a collective effort to prevent the youth from drinking, the youth will continue to get influenced by the pop culture. Essentially, a strong force of resistance is necessary to combat the protracted social evils to protect the youth and save the future of the state and generations.

Works Cited

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Bonnie, Richard J., et al. Social, Health, and Economic Consequences of Underage Drinking. National Academies Press (US), 2004. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK37611/.

CDC - Fact Sheets-Underage Drinking - Alcohol. 19 Nov. 2018, https://www.cdc.gov/alcohol/fact-sheets/underage-drinking.htm.

Explaining Drug Use. https://saylordotorg.github.io/text_social-problems-continuity-and-change/s10-04-explaining-drug-use.html. Accessed 1 May 2019.

Reboussin, Beth A., et al. “Social Influences on the Clustering of Underage Risky Drinking and Its Consequences in Communities.” Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, vol. 73, no. 6, Nov. 2012, pp. 890–98.

Stephenson, Steve, and JH Bloomberg School of Public Health. “Consequences of Underage Drinking.” Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, http://www.camy.org/resources/fact-sheets/consequences-of-underage-drinking-surgeon-general/index.html. Accessed 1 May 2019.

Underage Drinking Research Initiative | National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). https://www.niaaa.nih.gov/underage-drinking-research-initiative. Accessed 1 May 2019.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 6 Words: 1800

Unequal Before The Law: Immigrant And Racial Minority Perceptions Of The Canadian Criminal Justice System

Facilitator’s name

Student’s name



Immigrant and Racial Minority Perceptions of the Canadian Criminal Justice System

According to the research done, the researcher expected to find that immigrants and racial minorities tend to be less favored by the Canadian criminal system. Judging from the beginning if the article, there is much emphasis on non-Canadians having a negative attitude towards the criminal system of the Canadian criminal justice system. This is not faced in Canada alone but also in other white-dominated nations like the United States. There are various factors which makes this possible, which first includes the beliefs people have, that makes it even harder to admit that what is being done to them is in accordance with the law.

The theory of race has been used to explain this whole issue. For instance, you will find most of the immigrants have racial differences as compared to the Canadians. But this doesn’t mean that is what gives the police an easy time to accuse other people falsely just because of race. You find that the racial issues, where the blacks believe that the whites are superior and oppressive make them have a negative attitude towards them. These attitudes, on the other hand, increases the chances of committing crimes, thereby resulting in more immigrants and non-Canadians being found always on the wrong side of the law.

The research concludes that there is no form of inequality being practiced in countries such as America, Canada among others. What happens is simply the kind of relationship created between the criminal system and the citizens. Negative attitude increases the chances of breaking laws, one of the things that usually happens among the blacks. In support of this conclusion the researcher comes up with the graph on attitudes of different races towards the criminal system, and the blacks actually were the leading in having a bad perception towards it.

Work Cited


Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Unions Versus Human Resources


[Name of Student]

[Name of College/University]


Currently, the question of doing with HR – with trouble reputation – has been widely discussed among businessman and the academics ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"PJVnQmiw","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Ulrich 1998)","plainCitation":"(Ulrich 1998)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":32,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/sj6ANS8g/items/BCPXNKTR"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/sj6ANS8g/items/BCPXNKTR"],"itemData":{"id":32,"type":"article-magazine","title":"A New Mandate for Human Resources","container-title":"Harvard Business Review","issue":"January–February 1998","source":"hbr.org","abstract":"HR should be defined not by what it does but by what it delivers.","URL":"https://hbr.org/1998/01/a-new-mandate-for-human-resources","ISSN":"0017-8012","author":[{"family":"Ulrich","given":"Dave"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1998",1,1]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",4,26]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Ulrich 1998). The debate started after the support of HRM with organizational performance. Often, it is costly, ineffective and incompetent due to the other competitive forces that the managers have been confronting, and will continue to confront. However, it is not important to explain what HR does, but in fact, what it delivers to enrich the values of an organization to its employees, investors, and customers. For that, the HR needs to help in shifting the plan from the conference room to the marketplaces. In addition, it needs to work in a way that the work is executed and organized effectively and maintenance of quality and reduction of costs.


All aspects of the working environment need to be subject to agreement and discussion between the employer and management. Union, however, provide workers with a collective and powerful voice to communicate to management their hindrance and dissatisfaction. The union’s representatives lead these voices to management on behalf of employees. Unions help in more annual and paid leaves apart from paternal and maternity leave. Above all, a unionized organization fights equal opportunities with equal pay and treatment in the workplace. While the young workers strengthen this voice by turning the balance on the union's side and improve the working conditions. Therefore, it is important for companies to have a unionized environment.

There were unhealthy and dangerous working conditions in the 1920s and between the Civil War and the WW-I with frequent workplace accidents. But awareness grew in the post-WW-I era and the government encouraged contractors to have a safe work environment. This result in social and economic loses and eventually the US government called for to take actions. In this regard, initially, the pressure came from different labor groups. In the industrial north, State Factory Acts were driven successfully while the circumstances were investigated by the State Labor Bureaus. In this regard, the 1877 Massachusetts Factory Act was the beginning of the movement that brought significant improvement in the workplace. Later in the early 1900s, support came from the Middle and Upper Progressive Class to overcome the shortcoming and brought administrative and compensations rules and developed industrial commissions.

In 1936, the National Silicosis Conference was held by the US Secretary of Labor in which major changes were discussed on the workplace environment. While the loss of skilled labor created potential hardship for the country. In the 1950s, the higher management started thinking about safety movement. The realization came when the management wanted to know the present situation at the workplace and the importance of Health and Safety Measures. While the 1960s was the passage of a flurry, in which many legislations and acts were promoted such as the 1965 Service Contract Act, the Federal Coal Mine, and Safety Act and the Federal Metal and Nonmetallic Mine Safety Act.

In all types of unionized environment, HRM plays an important role and it needs to grasp its own role and that of the Union in everyday operations. It is, in fact, one of the keys to a successful business and the HRM department is often manages the relationship between management and the union. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the Union Membership has been declined 11.3% in the US and yet it is vibrant of all sizes of the businesses ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"1OyIq0ha","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Raper n.d.)","plainCitation":"(Raper n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":30,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/sj6ANS8g/items/TV2ZEMAS"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/sj6ANS8g/items/TV2ZEMAS"],"itemData":{"id":30,"type":"webpage","title":"Labor Union Vs. Human Resource Management Functions","abstract":"Union membership, while declining to 11.3 percent of the American workforce according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, is still a vibrant part of the everyday work life of many businesses of all sizes. Human resources professionals in all types of unionized environments must understand their own HR role and the role ...","URL":"https://smallbusiness.chron.com/labor-union-vs-human-resource-management-functions-69826.html","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Raper","given":"Leigh C."}],"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",4,26]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Raper n.d.).

I for one agree with the statements because the rules and regulations established the Department of Labor implemented and enforced at the workplace by both the Unions and the Human Resource Manager. Moreover, the coordination of both play a vital role and protect the rights of employees. In the US, the majority of the workforce follow the rule and regulations set by the Unions and HRM jointly. The child labor laws are a vital example through which the progress at the international level can be seen.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Raper, Leigh C. “Labor Union vs. Human Resource Management Functions.” https://smallbusiness.chron.com/labor-union-vs-human-resource-management-functions-69826.html (April 26, 2019).

Ulrich, Dave. 1998. “A New Mandate for Human Resources.” Harvard Business Review (January–February 1998). https://hbr.org/1998/01/a-new-mandate-for-human-resources (April 26, 2019).

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 2 Words: 600


[Name of the Writer]

[Name of Instructor]




Question Number 1

The study of Whitehall reveals the connection between health and wealth in different ways. The ability to eat healthily is reliant on the ability of the financial status; this means more the wealth more would be the health inclinations. Therefore, the status of wealth directly impacts the mortality rate. According to the video it relates to the higher rate of disease with a lower level of employment. The health-wealth gradient focuses that people with higher income and education have a higher rate of life-expectancies than those people who have the opposite rate. There is a constant slope shown in the bar graph which starts from the wealthiest to the least wealthy, such that people who are able to afford good healthcare and food, tend to live a longer and healthier life.

Question Number 2

When the stress occurs in triggers the part of the brain responsible for adrenaline hormone and cortisol are released through the immuno-response system. As the stress level is continued for a longer period of time it produces cortisol in excessive amount, this impairs the immunity functioning. Cortisol impacts the wellbeing of an individual by inhibiting the memory. It also shrinks the certain areas in the brain which are involved in memory activities. It decreases the ability of the body to handle the levels of insulin and glucose. The incapability of cortisol which includes the mishandling of insulin and glucose is among the main causes of heart diseases. Generally, the causes of chronic stress are the accelerating agent for aging and other highly impacting diseases. It also increases the risk of diabetes due to insulin mismanagement.

Question Number 3

As a CEO, Jim Taylor is obliged to provide responsibilities and decrease strain at the workplace, he is not worried about his financial condition, and is able to take vacations, and eat healthy and nutritious foods. He has accessibility to the medicine and healthcare that he may avail when he gets of age. The chronic stress is less in his life; therefore he along with his friends is able to afford an extended projected span of life. Whereas Tondra Young who is the lab supervisor is indebted to student loan and a mortgage but is able to afford a life of an average-class, maybe she is dealing with a little more stressful life than the CEO, this marks her projected lifespan smaller marginally. The next person is a Janitor, named Corey Taylor. He lives in a criminal neighborhood, where he cannot afford the homeownership; therefore he lives through one paycheck to the other. He is often concerned about any uncertainty happening to him and his wife. He is dealing with hypertension and is going through chronic stress, hence it makes his projected life prospect understandably undersized than Jim’s and Tondra’s. Mary goes through the high level of chronic stress in her group, and she lives in a very poor locality. She is not able to make changes in life, as she is malnourished, thus living with severe health issues. She has a nine years shorter life expectancy than those who are the top of the ladder.

Question Number 4

The health outcomes are affected by the race due to the reason that people who are considered from the lower race are situated in the poorer parts of the society and they are not given access to the wealthy and healthy side of the town. Therefore, it hugely and adversely affects the health outcomes of the people from the lower and poorer sides of society.

Question Number 5

The comparison between data shows that the higher death rates are located towards the west side of the town. The lowest life expectancy is in the west which is known as the poorest town, and the wealthy neighborhoods are towards the east. This depicts that the health of the population is related to premature death or excessive deaths. Further north and east parts of the town are the wealthiest localities and these districts have lower disease rates.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Urban Problems




Urban problems in the United States

Most of the cities in the United States have issues that are brought by peoples negligence. The issues experienced in those cities include; racism, crime, inadequate public school systems, crime, poverty, alcoholism and drug abuse. Inaddition, there are also social problems and fiscal crises problems in ancient cities.

A financial crisis occurs in many large cities. It takes years for a city’s economy to recover than national recoveries. Most of the people in many cities are living under poverty, they are unemployed, and they have housing problems. In cities like Chicago, people keep n migrating in search of employment or better opportunities. (Pew Charitable Trusts, 2015)

Secondly, housing problems are experienced in many cities. People who have low income cannot lack affordable housing in the United States. Therefore cities have a great need for affordable housing. There is a shortage of affordable housing in the towns in the United States. Though there are many apartments and accommodation, their prices and rents are not accessible to low-income earners. Since 1980’s the number of affordable houses in the United States, have decreased. The support of the Federal also fell by an average percentage between 1989 to 2003 lots of low -income apartments and houses were demolished. (National Low Income Housing Coalition,2015). There is the racial discrimination issue in the housing problem though it is against the law. There is segregation in the cities by race across the country whereby there are many neighbourhoods with African Americans. (Douglas S. Massey &Nancy A. Denton, 1993)

Thirdly there is overcrowding problem. There are two different ways of crowding in the cities. There is a household crowd in which houses and apartments are small due to lack of space. People with low incomes are forced to live in close quarters. They are smaller than rural dwellings. The second type is residential crowding in which there is a vast population of people who live in the cities in a small area. Researchers say that this crowding leads to crime, stress and depression.


Kendall, D.E.(2019)

McNichol, D. A. (2009, May 1). Revenue loss putting cities in the fiscal vice. New York Times

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Using Sociological Theory To Understand Your Field Soc U1a1

Using Sociological Theory to Understand Your Field Soc u1a1

Dani Brownwalker (First M. Last)

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)

Sociology and its theories helps in the understanding of different social issues in human society. Sociological analysis of different issues helps in the understanding of why these issues occur and how they affect individuals and society as a group ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a10g6ef35iu","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Giddens, 2001)","plainCitation":"(Giddens, 2001)"},"citationItems":[{"id":1058,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/FGhKhGPG/items/WCTDTCF5"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/FGhKhGPG/items/WCTDTCF5"],"itemData":{"id":1058,"type":"book","title":"Sociology","publisher":"Macmillan","ISBN":"0-333-30929-4","author":[{"family":"Giddens","given":"Anthony"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2001"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Giddens, 2001). Sociological imaginations my putting an issue in large social context. One of the most common issues that occur in any business organization is the interpersonal conflicts which decrease the productivity among the employees. The reasons for these interpersonal conflicts can be due to many reasons such as diversity, conflicts of personality and sometimes poor communications. A number of reasons contribute to the issue of interpersonal conflicts in an organization, and it decreases the overall efficiency of an organization.

An organization is a planned, coordinated and purposeful actions of human beings to compile a tangible product. To understand the issue of interpersonal conflicts in an organization the issue is examined with the help of a sociological lens. The application of sociological theories will elaborate the reason of occurrence of these conflicts at workplace and guides a way of looking at these conflicts. The functionalist theory supports that society us a system of interconnected parts which work together to promote harmony and social equilibrium in the society ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a1q4d13g03m","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Crossman, n.d.)","plainCitation":"(Crossman, n.d.)"},"citationItems":[{"id":1054,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/FGhKhGPG/items/29A4WPAH"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/FGhKhGPG/items/29A4WPAH"],"itemData":{"id":1054,"type":"webpage","title":"Everything You Need to Know About Functionalist Theory","container-title":"ThoughtCo","abstract":"The functionalist perspective (functionalism) is a major theoretical perspective in sociology, focusing on the macro-level of social structure.","URL":"https://www.thoughtco.com/functionalist-perspective-3026625","author":[{"family":"Crossman","given":"Ashley"}]}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Crossman, n.d.). It emphasizes that every aspect of the society is interdependent on each other and serves a purpose. Looking at interpersonal conflicts in the organization from the functionalist perspectives shows that the conflicts arise for the natural reasons and serves a purpose. For instance, for the sake of resources, benefits, and recognition. According to this perspective, there is no need for sudden social reform. The arousal of conflicts will lead to better leadership and training regarding team management and diversity acceptance. Conflicts are dysfunctional because they are associated with negative outcomes in terms of lack of productivity, but they are functional as they lead to effective leadership or conflict management programs.

The conflict theory works in contrast with the functionalist perspective which views society as different groups struggling for power and resources ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"0o4cQRkq","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf (\\uc0\\u8220{}The Three Main Sociological Perspectives.pdf,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)}","plainCitation":"(“The Three Main Sociological Perspectives.pdf,” n.d.)"},"citationItems":[{"id":1056,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/FGhKhGPG/items/WAMJS3B6"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/FGhKhGPG/items/WAMJS3B6"],"itemData":{"id":1056,"type":"article","title":"The Three Main Sociological Perspectives.pdf","URL":"https://laulima.hawaii.edu/access/content/user/kfrench/sociology/The%20Three%20Main%20Sociological%20Perspectives.pdf","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",1,28]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“The Three Main Sociological Perspectives.pdf,” n.d.). The conflict theory describes interpersonal conflicts in an organization as a result of a fight for resources and power. The struggle to get more resources and recognition in the workplace results in conflicts. The conflict between the opposite genders at the workplace is also the outcome of women fighting for the equal rights and competing with the opposite gender and man at the same time do not want to let power in her hands. This creates tension in the organization, and the outcome is conflicts among the organization personnel. From this perspective, conflict is a positive thing as it contributes to the struggle of subordinates to reach a dominating managerial position. This constant competition results in the functioning or organization as promotions and demotions.

The interactionist perspectives or symbolic interactionism views that the society is the outcome of everyday interactions. According to this perspective, people assign meaning to different symbols ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a25mrsok2f2","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Denzin, 2016)","plainCitation":"(Denzin, 2016)"},"citationItems":[{"id":1057,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/FGhKhGPG/items/6P8MEUGM"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/FGhKhGPG/items/6P8MEUGM"],"itemData":{"id":1057,"type":"article-journal","title":"Symbolic interactionism","container-title":"The international encyclopedia of communication theory and philosophy","page":"1-12","author":[{"family":"Denzin","given":"Norman K."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Denzin, 2016). People act as per the subjective understanding of these symbols. In these conflicts among the members of the organization, there is no right or wrong it is just the difference of perspectives. The conflicts arise due to the interactions between the people. The issue of conflicts in an organization has the subjective nature. Employees learn to behave in a certain way as influenced by their interactions with other people and whose perceptions influence their own beliefs. To resolve the interpersonal conflicts this perspective is helpful in understanding why people decide to behave in a certain way which leads to conflict and advocate ways which reduce the interaction with other employees which may cause the trouble and conflicts at the workplace.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Crossman, A. (n.d.). Everything You Need to Know About Functionalist Theory. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/functionalist-perspective-3026625

Denzin, N. K. (2016). Symbolic interactionism. The International Encyclopedia of Communication Theory and Philosophy, 1–12.

Giddens, A. (2001). Sociology. Macmillan.

The Three Main Sociological Perspectives.pdf. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://laulima.hawaii.edu/access/content/user/kfrench/sociology/The%20Three%20Main%20Sociological%20Perspectives.pdf

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Values And Beliefs

Briana Vargas

Instructor Name

Art 101

28 November 2019

Values and Beliefs

Values and beliefs help a community to propose what is sought and avoided, good and bad and pleasant and unpleasant for a society. Society defines culture, beliefs, and ethics. Innocence and purity are represented by children and sexuality is significantly highlighted by youthful adults ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"R8ckSRVA","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Hirschberg and Hirschberg)","plainCitation":"(Hirschberg and Hirschberg)"},"citationItems":[{"id":672,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/G2ISB2R5"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/G2ISB2R5"],"itemData":{"id":672,"type":"book","title":"One World, Many Cultures","publisher":"Pearson Longman","number-of-pages":"442","source":"Google Books","abstract":"The best of all possible worlds! This truly global multicultural reader features contemporary selections by sixty-one internationally acclaimed authors from twenty-six countries.","ISBN":"978-0-205-80110-7","note":"Google-Books-ID: QNj3kQAACAAJ","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Hirschberg","given":"Stuart"},{"family":"Hirschberg","given":"Terry"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2010",12,27]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Hirschberg and Hirschberg). Females spend millions of dollars to look more beautiful and young. In the United States, many cultures are present that represent their own beliefs and values (Smith). Various individual discrete cultures are also present for example, collectivists represent the welfare group. The mental health of people, cultures in a society, and how time and space define people are all included in the values and beliefs of a society. How individuals behave in society, and their preferences will be defined by their values. The society having no murders, no suicides, no poverty and no racial discrimination would be considered as ideal society. The societies having injustices, crime, sexual harassment, and drug abuse would be a bad society ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"PaMMsdEC","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Hirschberg and Hirschberg)","plainCitation":"(Hirschberg and Hirschberg)"},"citationItems":[{"id":672,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/G2ISB2R5"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/G2ISB2R5"],"itemData":{"id":672,"type":"book","title":"One World, Many Cultures","publisher":"Pearson Longman","number-of-pages":"442","source":"Google Books","abstract":"The best of all possible worlds! This truly global multicultural reader features contemporary selections by sixty-one internationally acclaimed authors from twenty-six countries.","ISBN":"978-0-205-80110-7","note":"Google-Books-ID: QNj3kQAACAAJ","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Hirschberg","given":"Stuart"},{"family":"Hirschberg","given":"Terry"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2010",12,27]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Hirschberg and Hirschberg). Currently, societies are where injustices occur, traffic accidents happen, racial discrimination and crime persist.

Fragmentation in the society, cultural beliefs and values define how civilized a society is. Societies are losing their cultures, beliefs, and values nowadays therefore, societies are turning into fragments and resulting in hyper-individualistic societies ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"kun8cwE8","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Smith)","plainCitation":"(Smith)"},"citationItems":[{"id":671,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/538BVXJM"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/538BVXJM"],"itemData":{"id":671,"type":"book","title":"Values, self and society: Toward a humanist social psychology","publisher":"Routledge","ISBN":"1-351-31667-2","author":[{"family":"Smith","given":"Mahlon Brewster"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Smith). Most of the settled families in the United States belong to other countries and have no concept regarding the beliefs and values of American society. Families belonging to different areas and settled in America are stuck between two cultures. They have to follow the beliefs and values of their society and the values of the United States. However, they learn, adapt and educate themselves according to the culture. People should only know what is best for them and how best things can create a better future for their children. Humans cannot live alone in a wilderness. They have to sit, walk and work together for survival. Societies should be developed in a way that can define their values, for example, people will get what they want to attain in life ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"XwMypQ1f","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Smith)","plainCitation":"(Smith)"},"citationItems":[{"id":671,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/538BVXJM"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/538BVXJM"],"itemData":{"id":671,"type":"book","title":"Values, self and society: Toward a humanist social psychology","publisher":"Routledge","ISBN":"1-351-31667-2","author":[{"family":"Smith","given":"Mahlon Brewster"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Smith). Development of society depends on how people practice their beliefs and values such as society living in a way that encourages positivity, and collaboration would face less discrimination and will ultimately promote respect and care. Children learn from their parents and surroundings. Societies should design specific norms and beliefs to represent them in a country. Ethnic values and cultural differences should be respected in society to mould it in a flexible way that can respect all cultures and religions.

American culture promotes freedom and opportunities. Current American culture is a mix of various cultures such as natives, Asian Americans, African Americans, and Latin Americans. Values and beliefs are also shared and promoted in a sense that accepts and welcomes freedom. Children are what their parents have taught them. Societies in America encourages individualism, liberty, and self-government ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"tl1WaXAz","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Hirschberg and Hirschberg)","plainCitation":"(Hirschberg and Hirschberg)"},"citationItems":[{"id":672,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/G2ISB2R5"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/G2ISB2R5"],"itemData":{"id":672,"type":"book","title":"One World, Many Cultures","publisher":"Pearson Longman","number-of-pages":"442","source":"Google Books","abstract":"The best of all possible worlds! This truly global multicultural reader features contemporary selections by sixty-one internationally acclaimed authors from twenty-six countries.","ISBN":"978-0-205-80110-7","note":"Google-Books-ID: QNj3kQAACAAJ","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Hirschberg","given":"Stuart"},{"family":"Hirschberg","given":"Terry"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2010",12,27]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Hirschberg and Hirschberg). They accept opportunities to move forward and are challenging in nature. For the development of society it is important to consider how children will learn, what their preferences will be and how their needs will be fulfilled in a sophisticated way. To design a society, it is important to promote education for all so that people learn and educate themselves and their children to attain success progressively. A society should be developed in a way that discourages racism, sexism, violence and discrimination, crime and intolerance. America has been known to have diverse multicultural societies ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"nlE3FTY2","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Hirschberg and Hirschberg)","plainCitation":"(Hirschberg and Hirschberg)"},"citationItems":[{"id":672,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/G2ISB2R5"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/G2ISB2R5"],"itemData":{"id":672,"type":"book","title":"One World, Many Cultures","publisher":"Pearson Longman","number-of-pages":"442","source":"Google Books","abstract":"The best of all possible worlds! This truly global multicultural reader features contemporary selections by sixty-one internationally acclaimed authors from twenty-six countries.","ISBN":"978-0-205-80110-7","note":"Google-Books-ID: QNj3kQAACAAJ","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Hirschberg","given":"Stuart"},{"family":"Hirschberg","given":"Terry"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2010",12,27]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Hirschberg and Hirschberg).

In the United States, it has been observed that the country is promoting respect for all, respecting other cultures and beliefs and differences to improve communication and collaboration among societies. A society should be developed that accepts ideas and values to help all ethnic groups to sustain and grow in America. The multicultural environment usually has many problems related to religion, ethnicity, culture, and values. A society should support and promote all ethnic groups and cultures ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"f064oqyi","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Hirschberg and Hirschberg)","plainCitation":"(Hirschberg and Hirschberg)"},"citationItems":[{"id":672,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/G2ISB2R5"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/G2ISB2R5"],"itemData":{"id":672,"type":"book","title":"One World, Many Cultures","publisher":"Pearson Longman","number-of-pages":"442","source":"Google Books","abstract":"The best of all possible worlds! This truly global multicultural reader features contemporary selections by sixty-one internationally acclaimed authors from twenty-six countries.","ISBN":"978-0-205-80110-7","note":"Google-Books-ID: QNj3kQAACAAJ","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Hirschberg","given":"Stuart"},{"family":"Hirschberg","given":"Terry"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2010",12,27]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Hirschberg and Hirschberg). The faith and values of American society should appreciate freedom and equality. According to an estimate, around all kinds of cultures are present and residing in America. This shows that American societies are open, welcoming and respect their beliefs and values in a definite way that encourages self-determination ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"K7P6BwjE","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf (\\uc0\\u8220{}Growing up American\\uc0\\u8221{})}","plainCitation":"(“Growing up American”)"},"citationItems":[{"id":674,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/TVEH8AVC"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/TVEH8AVC"],"itemData":{"id":674,"type":"webpage","title":"Growing up American: Doing the Right Thing","container-title":"prezi.com","abstract":"In other cultures they are taught not to interrupt adults while they are having a conversation. In most cultures at a young age are not allowed to do their own thing without the consents of their parents. In the other hand where the American culture is encourage to be","URL":"https://prezi.com/vsx5zu53ilpo/growing-up-american-doing-the-right-thing/","shortTitle":"Growing up American","language":"en"}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Growing up American”). To accomplish and choose a better future for children, societies should be designed that promote equality, unity, and freedom among communities. When tracing the root cause of impaired behaviors such as sexual assaults, crime, and violence, everything is learned and promoted in society.

The low socioeconomic status of societies is associated with greater probabilities to encourage offense. Violence and intolerance originate when individuals feel that they are not considered as significant citizens and therefore utilize force and power to attain success. Every person of a society is important and it is also imperative to encourage people through help, care and support ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"FufaemPK","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf (\\uc0\\u8220{}Growing up American\\uc0\\u8221{})}","plainCitation":"(“Growing up American”)"},"citationItems":[{"id":674,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/TVEH8AVC"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/TVEH8AVC"],"itemData":{"id":674,"type":"webpage","title":"Growing up American: Doing the Right Thing","container-title":"prezi.com","abstract":"In other cultures they are taught not to interrupt adults while they are having a conversation. In most cultures at a young age are not allowed to do their own thing without the consents of their parents. In the other hand where the American culture is encourage to be","URL":"https://prezi.com/vsx5zu53ilpo/growing-up-american-doing-the-right-thing/","shortTitle":"Growing up American","language":"en"}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Growing up American”). Children develop what they learn in schools, colleges, homes, and communities. A healthy and enabling environment of society is achievable if the beliefs and values are respected in a way it deserves. An ideal society would be developed if every religion, culture and ethnic group of society is encouraged and promoted. American society permissibly promotes children, adults, and communities. In one world, many cultures represent and promote a healthy community that accepts and respects all cultures with their beliefs and values ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"HDzuPCyn","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Hirschberg and Hirschberg)","plainCitation":"(Hirschberg and Hirschberg)"},"citationItems":[{"id":672,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/G2ISB2R5"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/G2ISB2R5"],"itemData":{"id":672,"type":"book","title":"One World, Many Cultures","publisher":"Pearson Longman","number-of-pages":"442","source":"Google Books","abstract":"The best of all possible worlds! This truly global multicultural reader features contemporary selections by sixty-one internationally acclaimed authors from twenty-six countries.","ISBN":"978-0-205-80110-7","note":"Google-Books-ID: QNj3kQAACAAJ","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Hirschberg","given":"Stuart"},{"family":"Hirschberg","given":"Terry"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2010",12,27]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Hirschberg and Hirschberg).

Works Cited:

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY “Growing up American: Doing the Right Thing.” Prezi.Com, https://prezi.com/vsx5zu53ilpo/growing-up-american-doing-the-right-thing/.

Hirschberg, Stuart, and Terry Hirschberg. One World, Many Cultures. Pearson Longman, 2010.

Smith, Mahlon Brewster. Values, Self and Society: Toward a Humanist Social Psychology. Routledge, 2017.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 3 Words: 900



Instructor Name


29 December 2019

Video Description

Race, Class, and Gender in the United States: An Integrated Study is a collection of articles that collectively raise the issue of racism in the United States. The chapter of this book that will be discussed in this video description will be “White Privilege”. As per the requirement of the assignment, the video chosen for this task is a 2016 BBC News Documentary called Inside the mind of White America.

The documentary talks about the concept of white privileges and its linkages to the famous doctrine of two Americas. True, there was always a division of have and have-nots in the society, yet this division has always been more complex than anticipated by scholars and intellectuals.

At the start of the video, Franz Strasser, the presenter is seen roaming around the city of Milwaukee, Wisconsin and asking key personalities whether they think that there is racism in the US. There are many sentences in the video that will end up engraved in anybody’s mind. Some of which are said at the beginning of the video.

The whole concept of the video talks about how whites are ignorant of the problem of racism in the US. Except for a few, many believe that the blacks are ignorant and aggressive and they have "never seen a white killing another white with a gun".

In the end, the documentary raised a question that is the tenure of President Barack H. Obama the end of racism in the US or its start. In my opinion, it is the start of another brutal area of renewed racism that the Blacks faced in the days before his terms in office. That much is clear after the election of President Trump in 2016, and the measure that he has taken against the ethnic minorities of this nation.

Works Cited

BIBLIOGRAPHY Inside the mind of white America. Dir. BBC News. Perf. Franz Strasser. 2016. YouTube. <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dykgtGv8ozs>.

Paula S. Rothenberg, Soniya Munshi. Race Class and Gender in the United States: An Integrated Study. Ed. 10th. New York: MacMillan Learning, 2016. Ebook. <https://4.files.edl.io/1c97/05/06/19/170057-b1a94e75-3a11-42ee-aecd-0fe284f6d19e.pdf>.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

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