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Discussion Board 3 Nervous System

Name of student

Name of institution

Name of instructor

Facebook profile basic information

Name: Harley Emanuel

Relationship status: single

Birthday: 15th April 1991

Hometown: California

I choose medulla oblongata as my preferred part of the brain to discuss.

One school that my brain part would have attended is a school that mainly deals with basic body functions like digestion, respiration, and other cardiovascular activities (Ambalavanar, 2004). I would do this because I wish to understand the manner in the medula oblangata contributes to the wellness of the physiological processes. A place of work that my medalla oblongata would wish to work in is a hospital. It is the point where most of the knowledge about medulla oblongata is applied. To put the knowledge I have into practice, I have to join a facility where most of the activities revolve around such knowledge.

My medulla oblongata would be friends with four other parts. The first one is the pons. Like the part that mainly controls a lot of respiratory activities, I would be friends with it so that we can easily coordinate the process. Secondly, I would be friends with is the cerebellum. The part mainly controls the movement of muscles so as to maintain posture and balance (Ke, 2002). I would also be friends with thalamus. It is the sensory center and it would be wise to be friends so as to get correct information at any time. The last part is the cerebral cortex that mainly processes information (Robin, 2016). I would need a part that processes any information received from the other parts.

Two Facebook groups that my part of the brain would want to join

A Facebook group about the wellness of the digestive system

A Facebook group about the importance of a good respiratory system

Two posts that my part of the brain would make

Is it possible to improve your digestive system by ensuring your medulla oblongata is super active?

How can one ensure that they avoid cardiovascular diseases?

References

Robin L. (2016). Serotonin Receptors in the Medulla Oblongata of the Human Fetus and Infant: The Analytic Approach of the International Safe Passage Study. Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology

Ke Ren. (2002). The medulla oblongata: The vital center for descending modulation. Journal of pain.

Ambalavanar R. (2004). Neural activation in the medulla oblongata during Selective Elicitation of the Laryngeal Adductor Response. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2376830/

https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-psychology/chapter/structure-and-function-of-the-brain/

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Escherichia Coli

Escherichia coli

[Name of the Author]

Escherichia coli

Escherichia coli (E.Coli) belongs to a bacterial family of Enterobacteriaceae. It lives in a gastrointestinal tract of humans and other eukaryotes. Most of the strains of E.Coli are harmless, but some cause serious diseases such as food poisoning and diarrhea. Study of E.Coli comes under the bacteriology (a subfield of microbiology) ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Lim</Author><Year>2010</Year><RecNum>61</RecNum><DisplayText>(Lim, Yoon, &amp; Hovde, 2010)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>61</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2s2s0zrapsf0pbe5efuvv20f9rszvx0sd2fe" timestamp="1567580823">61</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Lim, Ji Youn</author><author>Yoon, Jang W</author><author>Hovde, Carolyn J</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>A brief overview of Escherichia coli O157: H7 and its plasmid O157</title><secondary-title>Journal of microbiology and biotechnology</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of microbiology and biotechnology</full-title></periodical><pages>5</pages><volume>20</volume><number>1</number><dates><year>2010</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Lim, Yoon, & Hovde, 2010).

Escherichia coli is an extremely valuable and widely studied model organism. E. coli is usually known to most of the people as an infectious agent, however very few are aware of its versatility. It is widely used as a host for recombinant DNA in research due to its small genome size as compare to human (4,400 genes vs. 30,000 genes). Secondly, under normal growth conditions, E.coli grow much faster with its population doubles after every 20 minutes. This results in a better production rate in fermentation processes. Despite its bad reputation due to one particular strain (O157: H7), Escherichia coli are mostly harmless if handled carefully and with proper hygiene. It is one of the widely studied microorganisms with great knowledge of its mechanism of protein expression and this makes it easy and simple to use in those experiments where foreign protein expression and recombinant selection is required. E Coli can easily grow in a laboratory as 98.6 degree is favorable for its growth which can be easily maintained in a laboratory. An understanding of E. coli natural history can make it possible to study in detail its wild relatives. This can further help to yield new insights into the other microbe biology that experience the same conditions as E.Coli. Secondly this is also helpful in uncovering of new microbiological phenomena.

Most of the population knows about the commensal relationship of Escherichia coli with its host, where it secures a favorable environment and food but it also contributes little in return. E Coli is beneficial to host in many ways such as it produces vitamins (B12 and K) which are needed by mammalian hosts. Secondly, by consuming oxygen it creates a friendly environment for its anaerobic neighbors and it also competitively removes pathogens in the gut ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Tsilibaris</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>60</RecNum><DisplayText>(Tsilibaris, Maenhaut-Michel, Mine, &amp; Van Melderen, 2007)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>60</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2s2s0zrapsf0pbe5efuvv20f9rszvx0sd2fe" timestamp="1567580551">60</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Tsilibaris, Virginie</author><author>Maenhaut-Michel, Geneviève</author><author>Mine, Natacha</author><author>Van Melderen, Laurence</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>What is the benefit to Escherichia coli of having multiple toxin-antitoxin systems in its genome?</title><secondary-title>Journal of bacteriology</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of bacteriology</full-title></periodical><pages>6101-6108</pages><volume>189</volume><number>17</number><dates><year>2007</year></dates><isbn>0021-9193</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Tsilibaris, Maenhaut-Michel, Mine, & Van Melderen, 2007).

References

ADDIN EN.REFLIST Lim, J. Y., Yoon, J. W., & Hovde, C. J. (2010). A brief overview of Escherichia coli O157: H7 and its plasmid O157. Journal of microbiology and biotechnology, 20(1), 5.

Tsilibaris, V., Maenhaut-Michel, G., Mine, N., & Van Melderen, L. (2007). What is the benefit to Escherichia coli of having multiple toxin-antitoxin systems in its genome? Journal of bacteriology, 189(17), 6101-6108.

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Muscles Of The Back: Superficial To Deep- How Is It Organized?

Muscles of the Back: Superficial to Deep- How it is Organized?

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Muscles of the Back: Superficial to Deep- How it is Organized?

The human body is a complex structure that is composed of a number of components. These components include a skeleton, bones, muscles, and organs. The basic building block of any living organism is a cell. Multiple cells that perform the same function come together to form a tissue, and a number of tissues that perform similar functions are accumulated together to form an organ. One of the prominent examples of organs is muscles. Muscles are the collection of soft tissues that are found in almost every animal. This collection of tissues are made up of protein and protein filaments of actin and myosin. These filaments slide past each other, which results in a contraction and changes the length and shape of the cell (Wagner, 2014). Muscles are the main parts or the components of the body that help in the production of force and motion.

If looked at a human body, it is completely made up of muscles. Mainly there are three types of muscles in a human body: cardiac, smooth, and skeletal. One of the major portions of a human body is the back. Just like the rest of the body, the back is also covered with muscles. These muscles are developed in the very early stages of human development when they are still in their mother's womb. This stage is known as an embryo or fetus. The muscles at the backside of the human body can be divided into three categories; superficial, intermediate, and deep ground (Bogduk, Macintosh, & Pearcy, 2016). The muscles that help in the support and movement of the upper limb are a superficial group. The intermediate group of muscles might perform respiratory action and are usually attached to the ribs. The third group of the back muscles, deep group, assist in the movements of the vertebral column and head. These are also called intrinsic muscles as they develop deep in the back.

Refrences

Bogduk, N., Macintosh, J. E., & Pearcy, M. J. (2016). A universal model of the lumbar back muscles in the upright position. Spine, 17(8), 897-913.

Wagner, I. J. (2014). Classification of the vascular anatomy of muscles: experimental and clinical correlation. 50 Studies Every Plastic Surgeon Should Know, 27.

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 1 Words: 300

1982–1986: THE BABY DOE RULES

1982–1986: THE BABY DOE RULES

Submitted by

Affiliation

Date

Annotated Bibliography

Cummings, B. M., Paris, J. J., Batten, J. N., & Moreland, M. P. (2018). Dispute between

physicians and family on surgical treatment for an infant with ultra-short gut syndrome: the perspective of an Ethics Committee. Journal of Perinatology, 38(7), 781.

In this article, Cumming Paris and Moreland reveals the disputes between family and physicians regarding infants having gut syndrome. The ethical perspective is used to evaluate the results of this report. In about 8–10 out of 1,000 babies born, congenital heart defects or an abnormal development of large blood vessels are diagnosed. 20-25% of children die in early infancy and 50-60% np during the first year of life. Only 10-15% of children without medical intervention are meant by modern therapy reaching adolescence. Down syndrome implies the presence of an additional 21 chromosomes, or a whole chromosome, or translocation to another chromosome. The diagnosis should be made prenatally using free fetal DNA analysis (from maternal blood) and confirmed by determining the karyotype based on a sample of chorionic villus or amniocentesis. Life expectancy is reduced primarily due to heart disease and to a lesser extent due to increased susceptibility to infection and acute myeloid leukemia.

If a fetus has been diagnosed with a severe disability that significantly reduces the quality of life and the survival of the fetus is unclear, parents have the right to opt for a passive fetal care option during pregnancy and childbirth. However, if the child's vital signs begin after birth, he or she is usually treated.

Kopelman, L. M. (2005). Rejecting the Baby Doe rules and defending a “negative” analysis of

the best interest’s standard. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 30(4), 331-352.

In this article, Kopelman discussed the ethical standard in Baby doe’s case. There are two unsuited rules are available to decide about the terminally ill or premature sick infants including “Best Interest Standards” and “Baby Doe rules”. Kopelman compare both the practices under some criteria. Some defenses were accepted and some of them rejected regarding both the standards. Bioethics has also taken up old moral questions discussed in the philosophical tradition, related to the beginning and the end of life (procreation, abortion and euthanasia). In general, the many issues she deals with revolve around the value of health, life and limits they encounter: disease and death. She is also interested in how the human being relates to his own nature and to the external nature. With regard to the first, genetics, biotechnologies and neuroscience raise particular ethical questions; as for the second, the relationship of the human being to animals, the living world and the environment have further broadened the horizons of bioethics.

 The debates on the end of life are also very old. With the progress of medicine, however, new difficulties have emerged: can we stop treatment at the risk that the death of the patient ensues, or even not to undertake one? We want to avoid the "therapeutic relentlessness", now renamed "unreasonable obstinacy" . Conversely, is a doctor obliged to provide all the care that a patient or his family ask for, even if it seems to him useless ("futile" as they say, using an Anglicism)? Suicide has long been condemned, although it was sometimes difficult to distinguish it from martyrdom and sacrifice. This is no longer the case; but if we give everyone the right to end their lives, we still debate whether doctors can be associated with it: does assisting a person in such a situation form part of the doctor's vocation? It is feared that some patients or old people will die because of the burden they place on their family or society.

Kopelman, L. M. (2005). Are the 21-year-old Baby Doe rules misunderstood or mistaken?

Pediatrics, 115(3), 797-802.

In another article written by Kopelman analyzes Baby Doe’s case under the categories like mistaken or misunderstood. Kopelman shared the background information with his audience regarding Baby Doe rule. The Baby Doe Rules are the regulation implemented by federal and these rules applied in decision making regarding terminally ill or premature infant until the age of 20 years. Baby Doe rules are the amendments of child abuse and protection and treatment act for receiving federal grant. Now it is important to justify either Baby Doe rules are misunderstood, or they are totally wrong. Thanks to improved fetal diagnostics, many newborn malformations and diseases are known before birth. Ethical reflection then concerns a fetus who does not have the same legal rights as a newborn. A particularly difficult situation arises when a severe fetus significantly impairing the quality of life is diagnosed during long gestation of the fetus, but the viability of the newborn child cannot be predicted.

He asks question that many pediatrics ask in this way; the prognosis of a very premature or very underweight child is rarely known with certainty. In these situations, refraining from resuscitation may result in an extremely ethical situation in the maternity ward if the child breathes and moves for an extended period of time. Therefore, active resuscitation and initial care are immediately recommended in order not to increase the risk of a potentially viable child being injured. Most often, within 1-2 days, it turns out that the child does not have the conditions for independent living or has already suffered serious damage. Then there are no longer grounds for continuing intensive care.

References

Cummings, B. M., Paris, J. J., Batten, J. N., & Moreland, M. P. (2018). Dispute between

physicians and family on surgical treatment for an infant with ultra-short gut syndrome: the

perspective of an Ethics Committee. Journal of Perinatology, 38(7), 781.

Kopelman, L. M. (2005). Rejecting the Baby Doe rules and defending a “negative” analysis of

the Best Interest Standards. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 30(4), 331-352.

Kopelman, L. M. (2005). Are the 21-year-old Baby Doe rules misunderstood or mistaken?

Pediatrics, 115(3), 797-802.

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 3 Words: 900

1982–1986: THE BABY DOE RULES

1982–1986: THE BABY DOE RULES (Case Study)

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Affiliation

Date

Case study

In the 1980s, medical schools with bioethics courses emerged and the regulations Baby Doe (1982) and Baby Jane Doe (1983), Deciding to Forego Life-Sustaining Treatment (1984) were decreed in response to widespread problems in society North American. In modern democratic societies, morally secular and pluralistic, interest in practical philosophy in public affairs arises. These aspects are combined in medical practice where traditional, deontological, more or less codified and confessional ethics is reduced to “etiquette” in the face of the serious moral problems that arise from scientific progress and the institutional complexity of current medicine, where Moral dilemmas are frequent (for example, termination of treatments) and health policies (allocating resource nations, etc.).

Bioethics appears at the time of relativization of deontological principles, from criticism to rationalization. Thus, in 1966 Joseph F. Fletcher, in his book Situation Ethics, postulates the situationism and tries to apply a certain situation to the general norm. This situational moral theory arises from existentialist ethics. While Brody postulates the theory of rational decision, observes the consequences and values ​​(individual, community and legal), the bad consequences are those that do not respect the values. Look at what, who, under what circumstances and consequences, being a teleologic ethic. (Andre, 2002). The child's parents are the legal representatives of their child. The prerequisite for good and successful care is that the child can be cared for in agreement with his or her parents. However, parental rights have limits. If there is a clear conflict between the best interests of the child and the will of the parents - that is, parents wanting to prohibit medically justified treatment to counter the risk to the life

In order to address the ethical concerns of seriously ill newborns, the physician should consider the benefits and the avoidance of interventions and the rights and autonomy of the various parties involved like the case of Baby doe. Patient-focused research and treatment should be based on efficacy, available research data, and validated methods. The newborn must be treated with respect for his or her dignity. Unnecessary measures must be avoided. Respect for human dignity is also an end to ineffective recovery. (Cummings, Paris, Batten & Moreland, 2018).

In assessing the benefits and risks, it should be borne in mind that parents 'and health professionals' perceptions of good or acceptable quality of life and the best interests of the child may differ significantly. Religious and cultural differences should be taken into account to the extent that they are consistent with legislation and generally accepted ethical principles. Attitudes towards the importance of different levels of disability vary. Advances in medicine influence the setting of treatment boundaries as treatment opportunities increase.

If a fetus has been diagnosed with a severe disability that significantly reduces the quality of life and the survival of the fetus is unclear, parents have the right to opt for a passive fetal care option during pregnancy and childbirth. However, if the child's vital signs begin after birth, he or she is usually treated. The ethical reason tries to establish universal criteria, that is to say that they apply to all in the same circumstances, although they must be in continuous revision. However, we know that ethical views depend on each individual and opinions will therefore be different and diverse.

An important problem in the field of bioethics is precisely the moment of decision-making, whether in the field of relations between the health team and patients, as in the field of biomedical research or in the assignment of Resources in health policies.

Refraining from neonatal resuscitation or intensive care is considered in situations where premature death or prolonged suffering due to ineffective treatment is likely. A decision can be made if the diagnosis of a serious illness or structural abnormality in the newborn child is confirmed, for example, by imaging or fetal chromosome examination. If the prognosis is uncertain, the best option to avoid permanent harm is to treat the child as effectively as possible until the necessary examinations have been made to confirm the diagnosis. The parents' wishes regarding the child's care are taken into consideration as much as possible. For example, an 18-trisomy child may be admitted to the mother's care in a hospital wards or at home with the help of home health care. (Kopelman, 2005).

The prognosis of a very premature or very underweight child is rarely known with certainty. In these situations, refraining from resuscitation may result in an extremely ethical situation in the maternity ward if the child breathes and moves for an extended period of time. Therefore, active resuscitation and initial care are immediately recommended in order not to increase the risk of a potentially viable child being injured. Most often, within 1-2 days, it turns out that the child does not have the conditions for independent living or has already suffered serious damage. Then there are no longer grounds for continuing intensive care. (Kopelman, 2005).

If possible, the parents' views on the care activity should be clarified in advance if the child is born prematurely. Parents should be adequately informed about the prognosis of the survival and injury of an infant and what intensive care for an infant means in practice. If, after this discussion, parents do not want active intensive care for their very premature (less than 23 weeks) child, abstinence should be seriously considered.

References

Andre, J. (2002). Bioethics as practice. Univ of North Carolina Press.

Cummings, B. M., Paris, J. J., Batten, J. N., & Moreland, M. P. (2018). Dispute between

physicians and family on surgical treatment for an infant with ultra-short gut syndrome: the

perspective of an Ethics Committee. Journal of Perinatology, 38(7), 781.

Kopelman, L. M. (2005). Rejecting the Baby Doe rules and defending a “negative” analysis of

the Best Interest Standards. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 30(4), 331-352.

Kopelman, L. M. (2005). Are the 21-year-old Baby Doe rules misunderstood or mistaken?

Pediatrics, 115(3), 797-802.

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 3 Words: 900

26. The Benefits Of Breast-feeding: Including Lactation Reflex; Describe The Mechanism Of Milk Ejection, Shifting Hormonal Balance

Breastfeeding

Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees

Breastfeeding

Breastfeeding is the process of feeding babies with milk from a woman’s breast. Breastfeeding is highly recommended by healthcare professionals because of its immense benefits. It protects a child against allergies and reduces the occurrence of stomach upsets. It also reduces the risks of a child getting viruses, gastroenteritis, respiratory, and urinary tract infections.

Lactation is a process that can be termed as the milk secretion from the mammary glands and also the period that a mother feeds her child. The process of lactation occurs in all post-pregnancy female mammals. In humans, the milk comes from the mother’s nipples. Galactopoiesis can be defined as the process of maintenance of production of milk. In pregnancy, a woman's body goes through multiple changes. In the eighteenth week of pregnancy, the body of a woman starts producing hormones responsible for stimulating the growth of milk duct system present in the breast. The hormone progesterone impacts growth in the size of alveoli and lobes while estrogen stimulates the growth of milk duct. Prolactin contributes not only to increasing growth and alveoli differentiation but also impacts the ductal structures differentiation (Pang & Hartmann, 2007).

During the latter part of pregnancy, the breast of a pregnant woman enters into a stage called the secretory differentiation stage. At this stage, the breast makes colostrum that is a thick yellowish fluid. The high level of progesterone inhibits milk production at this stage. The level of prolactin remains high at birth while placenta delivery decreases the HPL levels along with estrogen and progesterone. This sudden reduction of progesterone results in stimulating the copious milk production of secretory activation. After breast stimulation, the level of prolactin in the blood rises and then returns to the pro-breastfeeding stage. The release of prolactin is responsible for triggering the cells in alveoli to produce milk. The first milk that the baby receives after birth is colostrum that contains a higher amount of white blood cells and antibiotics as compared to mature milk (Kulski & Hartmann, 1981).

While discussing the let-down reflex process, the baby triggers the nerves in the nipple after sucking the breast. The nerve causes the release of hormones in the blood. Cells present around the alveoli squeeze out the milk and push it down the ducts towards the nipple. The let-down reflex is responsible for making the milk available to the baby.

References

Kulski, J. K., & Hartmann, P. E. (1981). Changes in human milk composition during the initiation of lactation. Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science, 59(1), 101-114.

Pang, W. W., & Hartmann, P. E. (2007). Initiation of human lactation: secretory differentiation and secretory activation. Journal of mammary gland biology and neoplasia, 12(4), 211-221.

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 1 Words: 300

36. OUCH! The Mechanisms Of Pain And The Spinal Blocking Of Pain Signals.

OUCH! The Mechanisms of Pain and The Spinal Blocking of Pain Signals.

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Author Note

[Include any grant/funding information and a complete correspondence address.]

OUCH! The Mechanisms of Pain and The Spinal Blocking of Pain Signals

One of most important purposes of a human body is to give the sensation of pain which involves the central nervous system and the nociceptors that transmit signals to the brain from noxious receptors ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"bprwA6Ve","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Woolf et al., 1998)","plainCitation":"(Woolf et al., 1998)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":138,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/LGdpQbDd/items/DKW4TE74"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/LGdpQbDd/items/DKW4TE74"],"itemData":{"id":138,"type":"article-journal","title":"Towards a mechanism-based classification of pain?","container-title":"PAIN","page":"227","volume":"77","issue":"3","source":"journals.lww.com","abstract":"An abstract is unavailable.","DOI":"10.1016/S0304-3959(98)00099-2","ISSN":"0304-3959","language":"en-US","author":[{"family":"Woolf","given":"Clifford J."},{"family":"Bennett","given":"Gary J."},{"family":"Doherty","given":"Michael"},{"family":"Dubner","given":"Ronald"},{"family":"Kidd","given":"Bruce"},{"family":"Koltzenburg","given":"Martin"},{"family":"Lipton","given":"Richard"},{"family":"Loeser","given":"John D."},{"family":"Payne","given":"Richard"},{"family":"Torebjork","given":"Eric"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1998",9]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Woolf et al., 1998). The mechanism for neuropathic pain is distinct as it is caused by injury to the nervous system itself and can occur without the presence of noxious stimuli. The paper will focus on the role of spinal cord in mechanism of pain.

According to the research, it is reported that the initial relay site through which the nociceptor information is transmitted, from part of the body to the brain, is the spinal cord ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"qPCeTXxp","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(D\\uc0\\u8217{}Mello & Dickenson, 2008)","plainCitation":"(D’Mello & Dickenson, 2008)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":140,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/LGdpQbDd/items/33D7KE6C"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/LGdpQbDd/items/33D7KE6C"],"itemData":{"id":140,"type":"article-journal","title":"Spinal cord mechanisms of pain","container-title":"British Journal of Anaesthesia","page":"8-16","volume":"101","issue":"1","source":"ScienceDirect","abstract":"The spinal cord is the first relay site in the transmission of nociceptive information from the periphery to the brain. Sensory signals are transmitted from the periphery by primary afferent fibres into the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, where these afferents synapse with intrinsic spinal dorsal horn neurones. Spinal projection neurones then convey this information to higher centres in the brain, where non-noxious and noxious signals can be perceived. During nociceptive transmission, the output of the spinal cord is dependent on various spinal mechanisms which can either increase or decrease the activity of dorsal horn neurones. Such mechanisms include local excitatory and inhibitory interneurones, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor activation, and descending influences from the brainstem, which can be both inhibitory and excitatory in nature. After nerve injury or conditions of inflammation, shifts can occur in these excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms which modulate spinal excitability, often resulting in the heightened response of dorsal neurones to incoming afferent signals, and increased output to the brain, a phenomenon known as central sensitization. In this review, we consider the ways in which spinal cord activity may be altered in chronic pain states. In addition, we discuss the spinal mechanisms which are targeted by current analgesics used in the management of chronic pain.","DOI":"10.1093/bja/aen088","ISSN":"0007-0912","journalAbbreviation":"British Journal of Anaesthesia","language":"en","author":[{"family":"D’Mello","given":"R."},{"family":"Dickenson","given":"A. H."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2008",7,1]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (D’Mello & Dickenson, 2008). From the periphery, primary afferent fibers deliver sensory signals to the spinal cord's dorsal horns. Later, these fibers synapse with inherent dorsal horn neurons. The information is then transmitted to the higher centers in the brain by Spinal projection neurons. The brain then perceives the noxious and the non-noxious signals. The throughput of the spinal cord depends on different spinal frameworks throughout nociceptive transmission. This, in turn, enhances or reduces the activity of dorsal horn neurons. These frameworks involve localized excitatory and inhibitory interneurons, stimulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors and declining brainstem effects, both of which are considered inhibitory and exciting in nature. Within a week of nerve injury and otherwise inflammatory diseases, transitions can arise in such exciting and inhibitory frameworks that alters spinal excitability, sometimes leading to increased dorsal neuron response to inbound afferent signals and higher brain output, a concept known as central sensitization.

Several processes may occur when a pain message arrives at the site of brain. Some segments of the brain stem may suppress received pain signals via producing endorphins, that are naturally occurring morphine-like compounds in the body. Some of the stimuli that can induce the release of endorphins are pressure, anticipation and strenuous exercise. An influence of endorphins is the reason why athletes may not feel the discomfort of a relatively serious wound after the "big" game is finished. That is why standard, low-impact aerobic exercise, for instance riding a stationary bike, can become a great way to help regulate chronic pain.

References

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY D’Mello, R., & Dickenson, A. H. (2008). Spinal cord mechanisms of pain. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 101(1), 8–16. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aen088

Woolf, C. J., Bennett, G. J., Doherty, M., Dubner, R., Kidd, B., Koltzenburg, M., … Torebjork, E. (1998). Towards a mechanism-based classification of pain? PAIN, 77(3), 227. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3959(98)00099-2

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 1 Words: 300

4

SCI 100 Question Development Worksheet

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

This news story has been selected due to the sharp decline in Wild bee's population. The cause of the sharp decline of bees; urbanization has personally attracted me to select this story ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"LGVACpi0","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Paul Glaum, 2019)","plainCitation":"(Paul Glaum, 2019)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":16,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/wY2D8D5E/items/GJP572N2"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/wY2D8D5E/items/GJP572N2"],"itemData":{"id":16,"type":"article-newspaper","title":"Impact of urbanization on wild bees underestimated","author":[{"family":"Paul Glaum","given":""}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019",3,6]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Paul Glaum, 2019). The story is interesting scientifically as these bees are indispensable pollinator and if their population is declining sharply then this is indeed an alarming situation.

I already have an idea about wild bees and their role in pollination. These have always attracted me in the natural world. I was assuming that they would have a larger population all over the world due to their assumed benefits for mankind. Moreover, I was also thinking about the effect of climate change over the population due to the drastic weather conditions prevailing in today’s world.

The concept of the sex ratio of wild bees and its effect over their population. Female and male bees of the same species have the potential to pollinate different plant species. This causes a decline in female bee's number and this, in turn, results in limiting pollination services by these bees in that area. Female bees require more food and in case of scarcity of pollen and nectar, there will be more male bees.

I would like to focus on the question” What are the long term effects of reproductive ability of bees on their population?”

This question is important to a natural scientist as he would be interested in increasing bee's population and working to remove the effect of different factors in declining their population such as climate change, urbanization, habitat loss, parasites and disease as well as the use of different pesticides (Potts et al., 2010). He would suggest different ways to increase female bee’s number in the community and getting the desired sex ratio within their population.

References

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Paul Glaum. (2019, March 6). Impact of urbanization on wild bees underestimated.

Potts, S. G., Biesmeijer, J. C., Kremen, C., Neumann, P., Schweiger, O., & Kunin, W. E. (2010). Global pollinator declines trends, impacts and drivers. Trends in ecology & evolution, 25(6), 345-353.

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 1 Words: 300

About Constipation

CONSTIPATION HISTORY , CAUSES ,REMEDIES

Submitted by

Affiliation

Date

Overview of disease

Constipation is a condition of the organs of the gastrointestinal tract, accompanied by the main symptom: a violation of the regime and / or insufficient bowel movement. Stool frequency too low (≤2 / wk; severe constipation is ≤2 empties per month) or hard bowel movements that are difficult to discharge, often with a feeling of incomplete emptying (Cirillo & Capasso, 2015). Constipation is not an independent disease, but a symptom of disorders of the body, diseases, pathologies and dysfunctions of various systems. Constipation is diagnosed in 50% of the adult population and 25% of children. Causes of constipation can be as a single violation of the diet, some drugs, infectious diseases, and serious pathologies leading to chronic constipation. (Gulp ,Smith & Scott, 2009).

Symptoms of constipation

In various classifications, constipation can be recorded in different cases: from the absence of feces within 48 hours in an adult to the permissible period of several days without defecation in an infant. In most cases, the following symptoms should be present to diagnose constipation

Functional constipation is usually due to the slow movement of feces in the colon. The most common cause of nutritional constipation is malnutrition: low fiber, an excess of easily digestible carbohydrates, and inadequate water intake. Another factor is insufficient physical activity, leading to general muscle atony.

Depending on the cause of occurrence, several types of constipation are distinguished:

atonic constipation occurs due to malnutrition;

spastic constipation is associated with a violation of the autonomic system;

neurogenic constipation - due to the habit of enduring;

hypodynamic constipation is associated with low physical activity;

proteogenic constipation is associated with other diseases of the rectum (hemorrhoids, fissures, etc.);

mechanical constipation occurs in patients with a tumor of the intestine, with the appearance of scars on the rectum or its compression from the outside;

toxic constipation caused by poisoning;

constipation due to heart or kidney failure;

endocrine constipation occurs due to disruption of the thyroid gland and other parts of the endocrine system;

drugs containing iron, anesthetics, antidepressants, etc. can cause drug constipation.

Bowel motility depends on many factors, and constipation can lead not only to reduced, but also increased activity. For example, with inflammatory bowel diseases (ulcerative colitis), irritable bowel syndrome due to spastic events, constipation may develop. Since the movement of feces in the intestine depends on its muscle activity, impaired function of the muscles of the pelvic floor and the sphincter of the rectum leads to stagnation of the contents of the intestine or is accompanied by a feeling of incomplete emptying. Violation of the bowel movement can lead to a decrease in the tone of the anal sphincter. This phenomenon occurs when the habit of emptying the intestines at a certain time of the day (often in the morning) is not developed, therefore, when an urge arises at an inconvenient time, it is suppressed. This leads to the fact that receptors of the rectum cease to respond to fecal pressure. (Johnson, 2013)

Gastrointestinal motility disorder is characteristic of patients with endocrine pathologies (diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, hypo- and hyperkalemia, pheochromocytoma). A change in the hormonal background (increased progesterone synthesis) in pregnant women leads to constipation in the first trimester, while in the last stages of pregnancy, constipation is caused by inactivity and uterine pressure on the sigmoid colon. With endometriosis, constipation correlates with the menstrual cycle. An important component of the functioning of the intestine is its nervous regulation. Dinning, Smith, & Scott, 2009).

Any diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system inevitably affect the motor activity of the gastrointestinal tract. The psychogenic causes of constipation (depressive states, schizophrenia, anorexia nervosa) cause either a spastic or atonic state of the intestine. The nature of constipation is different in people with hypochondriacal syndrome, since the root cause in this case is the patient's incorrect perception of the functioning of his intestines. Concerns about the regularity and completeness of bowel movements often lead to the abuse of laxatives, enemas, because of which the intestines stop working independently (lazy bowel syndrome). Organic causes of constipation include tumors, intussusception and inversion of the intestines, hernias, chronic amoebiasis, strictures after irradiation and surgical interventions.

Non-pharmacological treatment (first stage of treatment):

1) diet - it is necessary to increase the amount of dietary fiber in the diet up to 20–30 g / day in several daily servings in the form, for example, of wheat bran, granola or fruit like apples, kiwi, bananas or orange nuts or seeds are the main method of treatment of functional constipation, an auxiliary value for constipation with a slow intestinal passage(Cunha, 2019). It is necessary to increase the amount of fluid intake more than 3 L / day. In case of intolerance to fiber (flatulence, rumbling and transfusion in the abdomen, gas, discomfort, spastic abdominal pain) → you should reduce its daily amount or use other hydrophilic agents that increase the amount of feces (eg, preparation of plantain sand) or osmotic laxatives . below. It should not be used for pelvic floor muscle dysentery (exacerbate symptoms) and megacolon. Tian, H., (Ge, Nie, Yang, Ding, Mcfarland, 2017).

lifestyle changes - systematic physical activity and regular attempts to calmly defecate for 15–20 minutes, without increased effort, should always be recommended , always in the morning after breakfast. The patient should not hold up the stool. In hospitalized patients and with palliative care, the vessel must be replaced with a toilet seat. It is necessary to cancel all drugs that can cause constipation (if possible).

Pharmacological treatment: it is used additionally in case of non-pharmacological methods inefficiency. Begin with osmotic and stimulating drugs. Type of drug and the dose must be selected individually, by trial and error; if the effect is unsatisfactory when using monotherapy, a combination of 2 drugs from different groups is required.

References

Cunha, J.P. (2019, July 11). 12 Foods to Eat for Constipation Remedies for Pain & Hard Stool.

Retrieved from https://www.medicinenet.com/top foods for constipation relief/article.htm.

Cirillo, C., & Capasso, R. (2015). Constipation and botanical medicines: an overview.

Phytotherapy Research, 29(10), 1488-1493.

Dinning, RG., Smith, T.K., & Scoot, S.M. (2009). Pathophysiology of colonic causes of chronic

Constipation, Neurogastroenterology & Motility, 21, 20-30. Doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2982.2009.01401.x

Henze, M.M..M.R. (2019). Constipation Magill's Medical Guide (Online Edition). Retrieved

from.http://search.ebscohost.com.cccidm.ocic.org/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ers&AN=89093375&site=eds-live .

Johnson, R. L. (2013). Your digestive system. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications Co. Roach, M.

(2016).

Gulp Dinning, R G., Smith, T. K., & Scott, S. M. (2009). Pathophysiology of colonic causes of

chronic constipation. Neurogastroenterology & Motility, 21, 20-30. doi: 10.1111/j.1365- 2982.2009.01401.x: adventures on the alimentary canal. London: One word

Tian, H., Ge, X., Nie, Y., Yang, L., Ding, C., Mcfarland, L. V., ... Li, N. (2017). Fecal

microbiota transplantation in patients with slow-transit constipation: A randomized, clinical trial. Plos One, 12(2). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0171308.

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Abstract: Cellular Fermentation

Title page

Cellular fermentation

Cellular fermentation is a process in which glucose releases energy even in absence of oxygen. Yeast cells facilitate fermentation and normal takes place in bacteria and muscle cells. The process of fermentation is required in creation of bread and alcohol. In this process cellular respiration is used for metabolizing glucose. Pyruvic acid is also used for metabolism of glucose even when oxygen is deficient or missing. The process suggests conversion of pyruvic acid to acetaldehyde which is then transformed to to ethyl alcohol. The process of glycolysis produce two molecules of glucose. Yeasts can also be used in the process of fermentation because they contain enzymes which are capable of converting pyruvic acid to ethyl alcohol. This process involve removal of electrons and hydrogen ions from NADH. This results in keeping two ATP molecules alive. Alcohol kills the yeast when ethyl alcohol reaches at least 15 percent. Yeast is commonly used in the production of bread and alcohol. Carbon dioxide is removed during the Krebs cycle which causes the bread to rise CITATION Cla185 \l 1033 (Brice, Cubillos and Dequin).

Two common types are lactic acid and alcoholic fermentation. In lactic acid frère mentation aerobic respiration leads to glycolysis. Lactate is an enzyme which dehydrogenase reaction for starting glycolysis and leads to the formation of lactate. In alcoholic fermentation yeast and sugar combines to generate energy that becomes visible as bubbles in aerobic and anaerobic exercises. Removal of carbon dioxide is leads to formation of acetaldehyde that further leads to formation of ethanol. Lactic acid generated through lactate which is then accumulated in the muscle. Ethyl alcohol fermentation is different from lactic acid fermentation. Lungs keep oxygen according to the demand of the body during exercise when most of the energy is required.

Work Cited

BIBLIOGRAPHY Brice, Claire, et al. "Adaptability of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts to wine fermentation conditions relies on their strong ability to consume nitrogen ." PlosOne (2018).

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Acid Base Balance

Acid-Base Balance

Name

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Author Note

Acid-Base Balance

The human body has to balance acid-base inside the body to maintain pH. Physiological adaptations are been employed by the human body to maintain homeostasis. The average pH for optimal functions of the body is 7.35 to 7.45. According to various research studies, it has been observed that the human body works best in this pH. The biological processes such as oxygenation of the blood and biochemical reactions require an average pH of 7.40 for the functioning (Nagami & Hamm, 2017). It has been suggested that biochemical metabolites often get interrupted at neutral pH. The human body has experienced various kinds of acid-base anomalies due to incorrect balance. It includes metabolic alkalosis, respiratory acidosis, metabolic acidosis and alkalosis of the respiratory tract. To balance the state, the human body counterbalances the acid-base in the opposite condition. For instance, if metabolic acidemia occurs, then the body induces a process of alkalosis of the respiratory tract to neutralize the condition. To compensate for the acid-base balance, the pH of the body is neutralized as a result of a counterbalance reaction to 7.4.

Urine is a by-product of the body released by kidneys via a process of urination. Urine is produced to balance the nutrients and pH of the body. It is composed of organic and inorganic constituents mainly toxic (Chen et al., 2019). Abnormal constituents in the urine indicate conditions of disorders. For example, the presence of proteins in the urine refers to proteinuria (Nagami & Hamm, 2017). Normal constituents of the urine are sodium 1.17 g/L, creatinine 0.670 g/L, chloride 1.87 g/L, urea 9.3 g/L and potassium 0.750 g/L. other constituents are organic and inorganic hormones, metabolites and proteins (Nagami & Hamm, 2017). Certain infections and conditions of the kidneys alter the quantity of constituents of urine and as a result, malfunctioning occurs that caused diseases.

The human body is adapted to balance the concentration of urine volume through processes and hormones of the body. The major hormone to balance the composition of the urine is an antidiuretic hormone. It is a hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland and it increases the absorption of water in the kidneys. When plasma osmolality increases, the antidiuretic hormone is produced by the posterior pituitary gland and the signals are sent via osmoreceptors (Nagami & Hamm, 2017). In turn, osmolality is decreased and urine volume is also decreased. Some commonly consumed diuretic ingredients are caffeine, water, alcohol, and certain medications.

Certain abnormal conditions of the body that occurred as a result of an imbalance of metabolites such as oliguria is an abnormal condition in which the amount of urine is decreased due to kidney damage. Hematuria is a condition in which kidney excrete red blood cells in the urine. A higher level of glucose is excreted in the urine due to a higher level of glucose and is usually occurs in diabetic patients. For example, any shock or damage to the kidney may alter the functioning of the antidiuretic hormone and the absorption of water is disturbed by the urine. In many circumstances the amount of sodium and potassium is also disturbed in water is absorbed significantly by the kidneys (Chen et al., 2019). Metabolic disorders such as diabetes, polyuria, and dehydration are some conditions that are the result of metabolites imbalance by the kidneys. Certain genetic disorders or biological malfunctioning can also result in metabolic disorders. For example, Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus affects levels of antidiuretic hormone in the body. Therefore, the human body and its metabolites work optimally if the constituents and metabolites are in balance (Chen et al., 2019). The functions and physiological processes disturbed even as a result of minor changes in the metabolites in the blood because blood functions as a buffer to balance the constituents of metabolites in the body.

References

Nagami, G. T., & Hamm, L. L. (2017). Regulation of acid-base balance in chronic kidney disease. Advances in chronic kidney disease, 24(5), 274-279.

Chen, W., Levy, D. S., & Abramowitz, M. K. (2019, July). Acid-base balance and progression of kidney disease. In Seminars in nephrology (Vol. 39, No. 4, pp. 406-417). WB Saunders.

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Acid Rain

Title

Name

Institution

Acid Rain

Step 1 (Topic): Acid Rain

Citation News Article

Acid showers and damage to plants. (1987). Science News, 132(10), 158. Retrieved from http://eznvcc.vccs.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=8823242&site=ehost-live

Citation Research Paper

The effect of simulated acid rain on the growth of root systems of Scindapsus aureus Thomas V. El-Mallakh, Yonglin Gao, Rif S. El-Mallakh

Step 3 Audience: The audience of the article is the general public and most specifically farmers and agriculturists. Acid rain is one of the growing concern for the farmers because it is a general perception that it is harmful to any kind of crops.

Purpose: The purpose of the research article is to find out the effect of acid rain on the crops and in this article the plant selected is a vine plant. One of the main chemical that is present in acid rain is sulphuric acid so in this article different concentration of sulphuric acid was tested on the plant and then its effect on root hair was observed.

References: The language of the paper in English, and in total there are 15 references, and the referencing style is APA.

B) Popular article characteristics: The author of this news article is Denis T. Dubay who is also a botanist in North Carolina State University.

The intended audience of this news article is farmers because acid rain is causing major problems for farmers and their crops. So this is a major problem for the agriculturists ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"OZl06goX","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Environment | Science News,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“Environment | Science News,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":669,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/3LW4YTWF"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/3LW4YTWF"],"itemData":{"id":669,"type":"webpage","title":"Environment | Science News","URL":"https://www.sciencenews.org/archive/environment-97","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",2,11]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Environment | Science News,” n.d.).

Article main point 1: Acid rain happens due to human activity; pollution is one of the reasons that it happens. Acid rain is a major concern for farmers because it is believed that this is harmful for the plants. So in this case it was found that acid rain is harmful for plants when they are in their early developmental stages. When corn plant was exposed to acid rain during kernel development than fewer kernels were developed. The effect was less severe in adult corn plants.

Main point 2: The effect of acid rain on the plants in their early developmental stages are much severe than on the adult plants that means that the effect of acid rain is not severe on plants than expected.

Notes on Journal article (Audience): The audience, in this case, is the agriculturists because here the concerns of agriculturists regarding acid rain are addressed.

Total of 15 articles is cited in this research paper.

Main Point 1: The effect of acid rain especially sulphuric acid was determined in this article, and it was found that acid rain is not dangerous to the plants when they are healthy.

Main point 2: When plants that were injured were affected with sulphuric acid then fewer root hairs were developed in them as compared to the plants that were healthy.

Compare and Contrast the Two articles:

Both of these articles are written to determine the effect of acid rain on plants. It is a general perception that acid rain is harmful to the plants and also it damages plant’s productivity. But in these articles, it was observed that when plants are in their early developmental stages and when they are injured, only then acid rain will affect them severely otherwise the impact is less serious.

In the research paper, the study is done on the vine plants ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"fjhsIl7n","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(V et al., 2014)","plainCitation":"(V et al., 2014)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":665,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/CAYSG7M8"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/CAYSG7M8"],"itemData":{"id":665,"type":"article-journal","title":"Effect of Simulated Acid Rain on Growth of Root Systems of Scindapsus Aureus","container-title":"International Journal of Plant Biology","source":"agris.fao.org","URL":"http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=US201700174926","ISSN":"2037-0164","language":"English","author":[{"family":"V","given":"Thomas"},{"family":"El-Mallakh","given":""},{"family":"Yonglin","given":""},{"family":"Gao","given":""},{"family":"S","given":"Rif"},{"family":"El-Mallakh","given":""}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2014"]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",2,11]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (V et al., 2014). Effect of sulphuric acid was checked on the roots of vine plant, and it was observed that when the plant is damaged only then it will be affected. While in the news article effect of acid rain on corn kernels was reported. Here the effect of acid rain in the early developmental stage was checked while in research paper the effect of sulphuric acid on the injured vine plant at different concentration was studied.

References

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Environment | Science News. (n.d.). Retrieved February 11, 2019, from https://www.sciencenews.org/archive/environment-97

V, T., El-Mallakh, Yonglin, Gao, S, R., & El-Mallakh. (2014). Effect of Simulated Acid Rain on Growth of Root Systems of Scindapsus Aureus. International Journal of Plant Biology. Retrieved from http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=US201700174926

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Add On Work

Add on work

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Add on work

There are four chambers in the heart. Two are named atria and the other two are named ventricles1. One atrium and one ventricle are situated on the right side of the heart. The other atrium and ventricle are located on the left side of the heart. The blood enters the heart from the atria1. And the blood exits the heart through the ventricle. Deoxygenated blood that is received from the superior vena cava, the vein responsible for the supply of blood to organs located in the upper portion of the body, enters from the right atria1. Additionally, it also receives blood from inferior vena cava, the vein responsible for the supply of blood to the organs located in the lower part of the body1. The deoxygenated blood from the coronary sinus enters the heart from the right atrium. The deoxygenated blood then moves to the right ventricle through the atrioventricular valve1. This valve prevents blood from flowing backward into the right atrium. Once filled, blood is pushed towards the lungs through the pulmonary arteries for re-oxygenation1. Right semilunar valve stops the blood from flowing back into the right ventricle. Once the oxygen level in the blood replenishes, it enters the heart from the left atrium through pulmonary veins1. Chambers of heart on the left side are segregated by the mitral valve. The blood enters into the left ventricle through the mitral valve from where it is pumped out via the aorta, an artery of the body which is responsible for supplying oxygenated blood to the organs and muscles of the body1. After pumping out the blood in the aorta, the aortic semilunar valve closes1. The aortic semilunar prevents blood from flowing back into the left ventricle. This sequence of blood flow is called double circulation1. The flow of blood in all mammals takes place in this sequence.

End Notes

Midgett, M., Thornburg, K., & Rugonyi, S. (2017). Blood flow patterns underlie developmental heart defects. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 312(3), H632-H642.

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Annotated Bibliography And Research Outline

Adaptations in Diving Marine Animals: Cetaceans, Pinnipeds, and Penguins

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Adaptations in Diving Marine Animals: Cetaceans, Pinnipeds, and Penguins

Developing hypothesis

Both deficiency of oxygen and increase in levels of carbon dioxide in the blood stream and tissues might be involved in regulating breath-holding phenomenon and resistance to asphyxia as aadaptation measures in diving marine animals

Observations

Diving marine animals share cardiopulmonary physiology with that of terestial mammals

Capability to hold breath, reduced metabolism, production of energy through anaerobic means and resistance to asphyxiation

Sharp contrast with the land dwelling mammals along with humans

Identifying the model organism

Model taxon; monophyletic group of species

Phylogenetic associations identified by differences among homology and analogy

Literature review

Developments that contribute to breath holding and resistance against asphyxia

Physiological developments and survival mechanisms

Generalizations about diving manners

Comparative analysis

Human response and survival cababilities under extreme environmental circumstances

Physiological ecology along with human physiology

Comparison among diving and non-diving animals

Experimental studies

Insertion of respirometer tube in the mouth of the organisms

Implanting canula for collecting blood samples

Remote sensing devices

Data callibration and result compilation

Blood pressure calculation

Hemoglobin level analysis

Heart rate determination

Breathing rate calculation

Anerobic muscle activity

Oxygen debt calculation

Drawing conclusions

Based on the results of different experimental studies

Agreement or disagreement with the proposed hypothesis.

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Anthropology

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of Instructor]

[Subject]

[Date]

Response 1

This student has discussed that there are chances distinct species produce fertile offspring but mostly different species result in the production of infertile offspring. Moreover, this student discusses paleospecies and argues that if we have fossil remain of wolf and dog, and if there is a fossil dog that resembles the wolf, its physical structure will lead us to identify both wolf and dog as the same species. But if the fossil dog is a tiny kind of dog, it may be categorized into two different species because the physical structure of the dog will be observed a lot different than wolves. Furthermore, this student has discussed that there are different species that have a common ancestor and are closely related. Their genetic codes resemble a lot, and this resemblance can often lead to the production of fertile offspring — for instance, species of wolf and dog.

Response 2

This student has argued that dog and wolves resemble a lot and they have very fewer variations. This individual discussed that a dog can interbreed in its species and produce fertile offspring, but it is unable to produce fertile offspring if it crossbreeds with the wolf. It is because the lineage the two of these species may lead to the genetic variations. He further discussed paleospecies that some species like wolf and dog might have similar fossil evidence because of their similarities. He also addressed that concept of biological species cannot be tested in fossil species, for that it is required to bring up levels of variations that are present in species that are living at the moment. Moreover, this student has also discussed that the reason why different organisms share a similarity in genetic material is that they were the one specie in the past, but the evolutionary process brought changes in them. That is why some species show resemblance in physical as well as internal structure.

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Anthropology

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of Instructor]

[Subject]

[Date]

Yes, it is not surprising because some distinct species face barriers in the process of reproduction, those distinct species which do not face such barriers can interbreed with one another. Depending upon their nature they are of two types: prezygotic barriers and postzygotic barriers. Prezygotic barrier thwarts members of spiecies from breeding to reproduce a sing-celled embryo called zygote. For instance, if there are two species, they may produce sperm and egg cells but they are unable to fuse in the process of fertilization, and even if these cells meet by means of mating, this phenomena is called gametic isolation. Where as in postzygotic barriers, hybrid zygote (one-celled embryos) of the parents of different species are prevented to form healthy and fertile adults. This kind of barriers is mostly related to the mixed chromosomes set of hybrid embryos, there is a possibility that they might not fuse toghether precisely or house complete information.

Those species which are given descendant and ancestor status in a phyletic lineage which is dependent on the geological divisions or locations in which they can be found. They can be known as those species which are explained by the fossil evidence mostly covering a long period of time. For instance, specie of dog and wolf.

If we had wolf and dog as fossils we would have considred them as one specie rather than two different species. There are many differences between dogs and wolves but more recently, most of the scientists have been agreed that both of these species are a sub-species of canis lupus.It has been clearly observed that the product of wolf and dog, for instance, husky, is a fertile offspring. It is because when different aminals are able to create a fertile and healthy offspring, they can be considred as one specie.

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Antibiotics Effects Within The Pulmonary Cavity

Antibiotics Effects within the Pulmonary Cavity

[Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees]

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Author Note

[Include any grant/funding information and a complete correspondence address.]

Antibiotics Effects within the Pulmonary Cavity

Antibiotics

Antibiotics include almost more than one or a single drug that is taken by an individual for the purpose to treat the bacterial infections. In general, antibiotics have no effect on viral infection almost all the time. Originally, the antibiotic is a substance that is produced by a single microorganism which selectively inhibits the growth and progress of the other one. On the other side, synthetic antibiotics usually chemically associated with the natural antibiotics that have been produced that achieve different and comparable chore.

Pulmonary Cavity

A Pulmonary Cavity is a gas covered area of the lung of the human body in the center of the area of consolidation or nodule and might be observed clinically through the usage of plain chest radiography or tomography (computed/computerized tomography). In the Pulmonary Cavity, the Cavities are shown in a wider range of infections and non-infectious processes. In general, this is mainly caused by the fungus and aspergillums fumigate that are developed in a patient with different diseases such as sarcoidosis and tuberculosis with the preexisting cavities in one’s lung.

A number of medical studies and research findings find and state that Antibiotics Effects within the Pulmonary Cavity up to a high extent. Antibiotics could leave the lung vulnerable to the viruses of flu or flu viruses that lead to ominously and highly worse infections and symptoms. The research findings of (The Francis Crick Institute, 2019) state that the signal from the gut bacteria assists in keeping or maintaining a first-line defense where the lung may be lining. At the time when the healthy gut bacteria get infected with high-level flu, then almost 80 percent of them get survived. While just a 3rd survived in the case when they were given antibiotics before the process or before it/they get infected.

It has been found by research studies that antibiotics can be found wiping out resistance of or in the early flu which adds further and more shred of evidence that they should be taken and reflected as light or lightly. It means that it is fact that the antibiotics wipe out flu of early-stage resistance and that is why it has been even advised that it should not be considered lightly (The Francis Crick Institute, 2019). In addition to it, this may not found appropriate only the human beings while it can be relevant and associated with the animals as it leaves us as well as animals much valuable to viruses as it kills the helpful gut bacteria in our bodies.

Furthermore, the research also finds that the second key for the early defense is the type I Interferon Signaling which is also known to control responses of immune. Beyond this, the research also gets that the signals of or driven by the micro biota also preserve antiviral genes in the lung lining active, which further prevents the viruses to get or gain the position (The Francis Crick Institute, 2019).

The research analysis and findings (paper) approved for this critique that is titled “Antibiotics weaken flu defenses in the lung” states that it came almost highly surprising when it has been discovered that the cells lining the lung instead of the immune cells had been found responsible for the resistance of early flu that is induced by the micro biota, says Andreas. Furthermore, the study recommended and approved for this critique states that the past studies and analysis can be found focused in the immune cells but our research finds that the importance of the lining cells is much high for the important and critical early stages of infection. Proceeding further, it has been found that they are the only place where the viruses can lead to spreading and get multiplied. So as a result, they are a crucially significant and key battleground for the fights with the flu. In addition to it, a signal is sent by the gut bacteria which keeps the cell lining and the lung well prepared and approached for the purpose to prevent or save the virus to get spread so quickly or multiply with such a strong and high pace (ET HealthWorld, 2019).

This takes almost 48 hours for immune cells for mounting a feedback in which duration the viruses are getting multiplied in the lung lining. For facing such a bigger threat, the response immune cells are almost always very strong and more solid and damaging that usually leads to more and a highly severe symptoms and very bad and even worse results. It means that the response that is given by the immune cells is enough strong and well towards the threats that are faced by it and that is found usually leading to the plain and even simple signs and bring in the worst results at the end of the process.

As an addition to the above facts, almost every doctor already and clearly know that the misuse of antibiotics can lead to cause antibiotic resistance that can further lead to making it harder to fight with the bacterial infections. Hence and based on the above finding, it has been suggested by the study of mice that the use/usage of antibiotics can also make the lungs more vulnerable to virus-related infections where the most and common and a major one is Flu (SBS, 2019). Further, this issue of the antibiotic resistance has come to see becoming or almost become a very pressing problem for healthcare providers and professionals as well as for all medical research. This has become such a pressing issue because of the reason explained above.

For many purposes such as for testing that whether the protective impacts were associated with the gut bacteria instead of the local progressions in the lung, the mica has been treated by the researchers with the use of antibiotics and then repopulated their gut bacteria by the faecal transplant. Hence the restoration of it’s proposes is that the role of gut bacteria is highly crucial and key in the process to maintain and uphold defenses (The Francis Crick Institute, 2019).

As a result and findings, it has been found to state that the role of gut bacteria is crucial because it maintains non-immune cells elsewhere in the bodies ready and prepared for the attacks. Hence, they are protected from flu in a better way because of the switching on of the antiviral genes at the time when viruses reach. So, the prepared organism is infected by viruses, it has lost before the fights between them. In contrast, the antiviral genes would not come until the response of the immune without gut bacteria (The Francis Crick Institute, 2019). While, it can be found a bit too late sometimes as the viruses have already got multiplied several times, hence a huge, harming reaction of immune is unavoidable.

References

ET HealthWorld. (2019). Antibiotics can Weaken Flu Defences, Says Study. Retrieved 9 January 2020, from https://health.economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/diagnostics/antibiotics-can-weaken-flu-defences-says-study/70123482

SBS. (2019). Antibiotics can Weaken Flu Defences: Study. A study has found that antibiotics can increase vulnerability to flu and worsen symptoms. Retrieved 9 January 2020, from https://www.sbs.com.au/news/antibiotics-can-weaken-flu-defences-study

The Francis Crick Institute. (2019). Antibiotics Weaken Flu Defenses in the Lung. ScienceDaily. Retrieved January 8, 2020, from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/07/190702112834.htm

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

Antropology

Name

Instructor’s name

Course

Date

Aspects of Hominin Evolution

There are different understandings on the definition of hominin that have been put forth. As for the 21st century, hominin is comprehended to point to all the great apes. The tribe is composed of humans (genus homo), the gorillas, the chimpanzees (pan), the orangutans and their ancestors (Lowenstine et al. 250-276). During the Miocene, climate changes brought about the continental drift between Africa and the Middle East and this led to the migration of hominoids from Africa to Europe and Asia ca. post-17 mya. When it became colder in Europe apes became extinct as some migrated to Africa ca. 9-10 mya and became ancestors to chimpanzees and gorillas and after that the hominids (Gow, 573-574).

Hominids from early times developed tendencies of having an upright posture by sitting upright and standing on their legs under particular circumstances. Primates would stand to able to spot any food sources, carry with them or throw some things, to see any predators or to show their dominance. This desires led to the emergence of the bipedal ape that took advantage of a niche that was not occupied before. Bipedalism had countable advantages such as thermoregulation. Upright posture had a smaller surface area of the body exposed to the sun and sufficient flow of air across the body. Bipedalism led to the creation of tools as the hands were free. It was also energy efficient (Filler, 1-6).

Several observable traits such as interactions among animals, protection against predators and any harm of the species itself and its offspring, survival against competition, are some of the characteristics that have seen a species through natural selection over the many mutation traits. Australopithecus afarensis was the first and the earliest biped fossil to be discovered. It had evolved from Australopithecus anamensis around 3.9 million years ago and was found in the Kanapoi region of East Lake Turkana in 1965. D. Jonhanson and T. White named Australopithecus afarensis as a species in 1978. Australopithecus afarensis lived in northeastern Africa from around 4.1 to 2.7 million years ago (Johanson and White, 1104-1105).

Works cited

Filler, Aaron G. "Emergence And Optimization Of Upright Posture Among Hominiform Hominoids And The Evolutionary Pathophysiology Of Back Pain." Neurosurgical Focus, vol 23, no. 1, 2007, pp. 1-6. Journal Of Neurosurgery Publishing Group (JNSPG), doi:10.3171/foc-07/07/e4.

Gow, C. "Contemporary World Cinema: Europe, Middle East, East Asia, South Asia." Comparative Studies Of South Asia, Africa And The Middle East, vol 28, no. 3, 2008, pp. 573-574. Duke University Press, doi:10.1215/1089201x-2008-038.

JOHANSON, D. C., and T. D. WHITE. "On The Status Of Australopithecus Afarensis." Science, vol 207, no. 4435, 1980, pp. 1104-1105. American Association For The Advancement Of Science (AAAS), doi:10.1126/science.207.4435.1104.

Lowenstine, L. J. et al. "Comparative Pathology Of Aging Great Apes." Veterinary Pathology, vol 53, no. 2, 2015, pp. 250-276. SAGE Publications, doi:10.1177/0300985815612154.

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Application Of CRISPR/Cas Systems In Medicine

Application of CRISPR/Cas Systems in Medicine

Khaled

[Name of the Institution]

Application of CRISPR/Cas Systems in Medicine

Abstract

Genome editing is one of the most challenging area in order to provide more efficient ways to create a meaningful change in the genome. Drug development and design is one of the most important scientific procedures but nowadays most of the medicines cause side effects due to their non-specifity to the target cells. So the CRISPAR-Cas system will not only identify the target cells but it will also make sure the effective delivery of drugs to those cells. Therefore in this paper the application of CRISPR-Cas system in medicine will be discussed in detail.

Introduction

During the past few years, new technologies have changed the field of medicinal sciences. Medicinal sciences are quite important for healthcare and it also helps in improving the lives of individuals. Gene targeting is a technique that was used by scientists from so many years in order to introduce new changes into the particular site in the genome by adding or completely removing whole genes or single bases.

Additionally, researchers are also using various technologies which are mainly derived from Prokaryotic Immune system 1. Systems like clustered interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) and all its linked proteins(Cas) are some of the most reliable tools for gene editing recently. CRISPR is clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and CRISPR-associated protein 9.

Development of CRISPR was a major improvement in genome editing. It is a genetic manipulation tool that is extracted from the defense system of specific bacteria. This method has been successfully used in cell lines, laboratory animals as well as in plants. The system works by directing the Cas9 nuclease to make a sitedirected doublestrand DNA. This is made under the guidance of a small RNA molecule. This technique has been taken from the bacterial immune system, it has been adopted by researchers all over the world and is applied to target important genes in various organisms and cell lines which include bacteria, rabbit and mice 1.

Discussion

Although most of the researchers are interested in CRISPR-Cas system for its potential of treating various diseases including cancer with a genetic basis but recently it has also been proved that CRISPR-Cas system has a big part in drug discovery. This type of gene editing has a direct effect on drug discovery and also development. The CRISPR-Cas system helps in identifying target molecules which is an important step in the development of medicines 2. This system is used to activate and inhibit certain genes which helps the researchers to determine the proteins or genes which cause or prevent disease, as a result targets are identified for the potential drugs. This is also helpful in creating a whole animal model system which helps to mimic disease, it enables the researchers to determine the efficacy and also the accuracy of the medicines which helps to predict the impact of the medicines 3.

The system is also successful in discovering the novel targets for cancer therapy. It dissect chemical-genetic interactions and allow the study of different medicines. The study of this system show the response of tumours to drug treatment.

Literature :

For plant genome modifications different techniques have been used. These allow the gene expression regulation at specific sites and allow the discovery of plant functional genomics. It is different from genetic engineering as it is the expression regulation at specific sites and does not use random mutagenesis or low-efficiency gene targeting. With this, these alterted palants cannot be distiinguised from the parents as there is no use of any foreign DNA. Previsouly, there was the use of random mutagenesis or low-efficiency gene targeting. Among the different techniques of genome editing, the versatile genome-editing tool CRISPR (Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) is a relatively specific method for DNA modification.

After its into mammalian cells , this technique has successfully been used in different fields of medical research. Scientists are using this for disease modelin, therapeutic explorations as well as genetic screening. They are using this for the best results that it delivers.

Terms used:

CRISPR :Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and CRISPR-associated protein 9.

DNA: Deoxy Ribonucleic acid 

RNA: Ribonucleic acid 

Genetic engineering: it is the use of biotechnology for the direct manipulation of an organism's genes.

Databases searched:

Different databases have been searched to understand the appalicaiton of CRISPR. Different terms were used for this purpose such as gentric engineering, CRISPR and CRISPR/Cas9.

Applications:

CRISPR/Cas9 is used in detecting the specific sequences of DNA and RNA. These are then used for research and diagnosis purpses. There is a use of heat and formamide to denature double‐stranded DNA (dsDNA) for this puspose. These allow the use of probe hybridization. But these can also affect the biological structure of the organisms. ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"L1wLbOTh","properties":{"formattedCitation":"\\super 1\\nosupersub{}","plainCitation":"1","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":86,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/wY2D8D5E/items/8QLLK4KX"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/wY2D8D5E/items/8QLLK4KX"],"itemData":{"id":86,"type":"article-journal","title":"The applications of CRISPR/Cas system in molecular detection","container-title":"Journal of cellular and molecular medicine","page":"5807-5815","volume":"22","issue":"12","author":[{"family":"Zhou","given":"Li"},{"family":"Peng","given":"Rongxue"},{"family":"Zhang","given":"Rui"},{"family":"Li","given":"Jinming"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} 1

Moreover, these can also be used to check the mutations and signle nucleotide variants (snvs). It has shown the great performance in site‐specific gene targeting. There is a use of this technique in HIV treatment, which is a main risk to global human health. There can be the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) but these can only hold back virus replication and cannot eliminate latent viral reservoirs in HIV-1/AIDS patients. Tovercome this difficulty, there si a use of CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated nuclease 9 (Cas9). The use of (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated nuclease 9 (Cas9) system has served as an effective gene-editing technology. The prociudre includes the targeting of cellular co-factors or HIV-1 genome. This result in the reduction of HIV-1 infection. This in return clears the provirus and cause transcriptional activation of latent virus.

Lentivirus are used for the activation of host restriction by CRISPR/Cas9. These have greater transduction competency and are able to easily prordcue virus. Moreover, specific sgRNAs can also be used for the activation of target gene.

Results: Genome engineering has been used as one major field in the study of biomedical. Genome engineering is the part of genetic engineering that allow the addition, removal and modification of genes in living cells. Now it has been used as the economical and practical technogly. Many unattained aims have been now achieved with this.

Conclusion

Scientists with genome editing can change an organism's DNA. They can not only add but also remove and change the genome at specific locations in the genome. They use different approaches for this purpose. One is the use of CRISPR-Cas9 whisch is not only faster but also more accurate as compared to existing genome editing methods. On the basis of the discussion above it is safe to say that the application of CRISPR/Cas Systems in Medicine is quite vast and it will help in designing drugs that will be target specific and also efficient. CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated nuclease 9 (Cas9) system has sucessfuly been used in HIV-1/AIDS prevention and drop in human cells and animal replica. This is also helpful in case of plants. Ecological and evolutionary genetics are using this for different purposes. The reason behind the use of this is its abilty to instantaneously generate modification to genes. In this process it does not create any t-DNA insertion. The promising nature of this technoglky is enforing scititiits to study it in details and allow the use of this technogly for its all potential results and outcomes.

References

1. Li Z et al., The applications of CRISPR/Cas system in molecular detection. J Cell Mol Med. 2018 Dec; 22(12): 5807–5815.

2. Mollanoori H, Teimourian S. Therapeutic applications of CRISPR/Cas9 system in gene therapy. Biotechnol Lett. 2018 Jun;40(6):907-914

3. Ratan ZA et al., CRISPR-Cas9: a promising genetic engineering approach in cancer research Ther Adv Med Oncol. 2018 Feb; 10(12): 118-177

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

ARTERIES VS. CAPILLARIES VS. VEINS; STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

Arteries Vs Capillaries Vs Veins, Structure and Function

Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees

Arteries Vs Capillaries Vs Veins: Structure and Function

The discussion post helped a lot in not only understanding the blood vessels structure but also the its functions. Blood vessels can be described as a channel that facilitates in distributing blood among all the tissues of the body. Blood vessels help in making up two closed systems of tubes starting and end at the heart. One system is known as pulmonary vessels that are responsible for transferring blood through the right ventricle all the way to the lungs and then returns back to the left atrium. The other system is known as systemic vessels that are responsible for carrying blood from the left ventricle to the tissues and also in all the body parts. Systematic vessels then return back to the right atrium. Based on both their function and structure the blood vessels can be categorized as arteries, veins, and capillaries.

The main responsibility of the arteries is to carry the blood away from the heart. However, pulmonary arteries are responsible for transporting blood that contains low oxygen while systematic arteries are responsible for transferring oxygenated blood. In contrast, veins are responsible for carrying blood to the heart. When the blood passes through capillaries it enters the veins called venules. From the veins, the blood is then passed through larger veins until it reaches the heart. While discussing capillaries, they are the smallest blood vessels that are responsible for creating a connection between arteries and veins.

It is undeniably true that adequate blood supply is necessary for the proper functioning of the body and especially neurons. In research published by the author D. H. Woolam, he studied the vascular arrangement of the central nervous system (Woollam & Millen, 1955). For this purpose, they examined spinal cords of 16 rats. The results revealed that anterior radicular arteries are responsible for supplying anterior and lateral horns and also the basal parts of the posterior horns of grey matter (Woollam & Millen, 1955). This supply is typically rich in the thoracic region as compared to the lumbar and cervical regions of the cord. This finding helps in understanding the difference in the metabolic requirement of the various regions.

Although, I really liked your discussion and I must say that you did a commendable job. However, the thing I liked the most is the way you remember the difference between veins, arteries, and capillaries along with their function.

References

Woollam, D. H. M., & Millen, J. W. (1955). The arterial supply of the spinal cord and its significance. Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry, 18(2), 97.

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 1 Words: 300

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