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Agents Of Socialization

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of Instructor]



Agents of Socialization


When children are born, it is highly unlikely that they are going to be knowing anything about how the society is supposed to work and what are some of the that are needed to be kept in mind in this regard (Darling et al, 2007, p,311). This is where the socialization plays an important role as it allows an individual to make sure that they can acquire the cultural sensibilities and integrate well into the society. Not only that, in that manner, the people who are part of the society are able to make themselves familiar with the language, the culture, norms and values under which any society is operating (Darling et al, 2007, p,311). There are people though who tend to think that these agents are not that important and it is the internal learning from the person that plays its role regarding the way the whole process is going to be managed in terms of the broader interaction that is carried out among people at the particular point of time. In this paper, it is going to be seen that what is the importance of the each of the agent of the socialization and what role they play in the personality development of the person (Darling et al, 2007, p,311).

Thesis Statement

The importance of the agents of the socialization and whether they play an important role in the integration of the child in any culture.

Agents of the Socialization

There are four major agents of the socialization that are needed to be kept in mind when looking at the way this whole thing is supposed to be discussed. The important element of the way it works is that how different stakeholders are supposed to be involved in the whole process and what sort of value addition is being carried out by them at the given point of time. Most of the times, the way these agents work is that they tend to ensure that how the internalization of the societal values is being carried out. Other than that, they also look at how the people are going to ensure that they meet the societal standards that are placed on them at the particular point of time (Darling et al, 2007, p,311). In the next section, each of the social agent is going to be discussed and looked at and it would be seen what sort of role they play in terms of the way socialization is carried out.


One of the first emotional tie of the individual is their family. They play an important role in terms of how the process of socialization is carried out. For instance, infants as soon as they are born are supposed to rely on the other people to survive and the parents are the one that assume the role of guiding them into the position that they are eventually able to take care of themselves (Darling et al, 2007, p,311). At the same time, there are parents and guardians that are providing the children with the initial system of beliefs that and norms that is going to allow them to ensure that they can integrate well into the society at the point of time. The social status religion and all other constraints play an important role in terms of the development of the value system of the children during the early stages of their life. At the same time, the system also intends to ensure that how the definition of the social class and status is ingrained among the child during the given time period (Darling et al, 2007, p,311). The family represents a child's first emotional tie, and it is by far the most significant agent of the socialization process.

Schools and Educational Institutes

The schools and the educational institutes are setup in the manner that they ensure acquiring education is made to be the part of the value system of the children. One of the key aspects of this whole thing is that how the children are going to be instructed to formal skills that are going to play major role in their life (Darling et al, 2007, p,311). For instance, skills like reading, learning and writing as well as the other skills such as arithmetic’s are taught at the school. Not only that, they also understand how the treatment of the authority figures is supposed to be carried out. What they tend to do is that they make sure that the values are reinforced into the children all the time and they are able to establish themselves into the world based on these practices. Then there is a role of how the hidden curriculum is supposed to work. For instance, the way regulations, expectations and other aspects of the society are needed to be worked goes a long way towards making sure that the children can learn different set of skills at the given point of time. Not only that, they make their social circle in the schools and learn the value of interacting with the other people who belong to outside the family circle (Darling et al, 2007, p,311).


These are the groups that are made of the age mates as well as the children who tend to share the similar status. Most of the times these groups tend to make sure that they children develop this ability have bonding with the other people (Harm, 2000, p.21). The peer group also allows the children during their formative years to have an idea about how the learning aspects of the job are supposed to be carried out. At times, these groups are accidental in nature whereas at times they are deliberate choices made by the children (Harm, 2000, p.21).

Mass Media

The mass media includes the television programs, magazines, shows, music and games that the children tend to play (Harm, 2000, p.21). What happens is that these aspects tend to have an influence over the preference of the person and how the popular culture is supposed to work (Lewis, 1973, p.156). At times, it is quite hard to determine the exact effect the mass media is going to have over the mind of the children. Not only that, currently, internet has played an important role as far as the development of the perception and allowing children an exposure to the people of different mindset (Lewis, 1973, p.156).


In the hindsight, each of the agent of the socialization plays an important role in making sure that the people can have an insight about regarding how the learning process with regards to the society is supposed to be carried out. Most of the times, there is very strong correlation among the personality of the person and the type of the socialization agents that they are exposed to at the given point of time (Lewis, 1973, p.156). Through the socialization process, a person forms their personality and sense of self. Successful socialization manifests as a uniformity within a particular society. Governments, for example, tend to standardize education to nurture law-abiders and control potential radicals. In any society, there exist individuals who, because they did not internalize society's values, do not conform to the set standards. There are several sources of socialization called agents which are family, peers, schools, and mass media.

Works Cited

Darling, Nancy, Patricio Cumsille, and M. Loreto Martínez. "Adolescents’ as active agents in the socialization process: Legitimacy of parental authority and obligation to obey as predictors of obedience." Journal of adolescence 30.2 (2007): 297-311.

Harm, Bobble. "The cycle of socialization." Readings for diversity and social justice (2000): 15-21.

Lewis, Robert A. "Parents and peers: Socialization agents in the coital behavior of young adults." Journal of Sex Research9.2 (1973): 156-170.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

Aging And Elderly

Aging and Elderly

[Author’s Name]

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Aging and Elderly

Aging can be described as a process of getting older. Age stratification term is used to describe the hierarchical ranking of people based on their age. However, in sociology age stratification refers to the inequalities that are linked with the age. There is a stigma associated with age as people think that older people are less productive and are unable to take part in the progress of the country. Specifically, discussing about the US, due to an increase in rate of life expectancy, population aged 60 or over between the years 2006 to 2016 has increased by up to 36%. Additionally, one in every seven people of the population is an older American, which is nearly 15.2% of the total population (Wall & Duffy, 2010). However, with age, the immunity system of a person weakens, and thus, older people are more vulnerable and prone to develop various health issues.

In sociology, there are three main theories of aging that are disengagement theory, according to which an individual tends to isolate himself or herself from prior social interactions due to age. In contrast, the other type of aging theory is activity theory, in which successful aging occurs when older people stay more active and interact with others. While the third theory of aging is social clock according to which everything in our life occurs according to a certain timetable that is determined by social structure and culture. The video "Alive Inside Legendado" it was shown that many older people isolate themselves from others as they think that they are a burden on other people or are less productive and cannot play a vital role in the progress of society ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"ryDvQ2CV","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}Alive Inside Legendado}, n.d.)","plainCitation":"(Alive Inside Legendado, n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":190,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/sbFMNDWM/items/SRQ9RXL9"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/sbFMNDWM/items/SRQ9RXL9"],"itemData":{"id":190,"type":"motion_picture","title":"Alive Inside Legendado","source":"YouTube","dimensions":"1:17:50","URL":"https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I7GF7_xyeH8","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",11,14]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Alive Inside Legendado, n.d.). It has been observed that age also affects the cognitive abilities of an individual, and most of the older people have a chronic illness as well due to which they require intense care to cope up with the illness. In the video as well, it was highlighted that many older people are suffering from various mental illnesses, and in many cases, the reason for depression is loneliness.

The focus of the video was to spread awareness regarding music therapy. Owing to the advantages of music therapy, it is often informally used in residential care units for older people to enhance interaction while also improving behavioral, emotional, cognitive skills. Research has shown that music therapy facilitates a lot in improving the cognitive skills of elderly people. The research conducted by the author Wall and his fellow researchers also highlighted that music therapy greatly impacted the behavior of elderly people, especially the older people that have dementia in a positive way as music facilitates in reducing the level of agitation (Wall & Duffy, 2010). This is because music stimulates certain parts of the brain resulting in an increased blood flow that, in turn, will improve elderly people's cognitive skills. In the video as well, Henry a resident of a care unit, never used to interact with others. As explained in the disengagement theory elder people tend to isolate themselves from others due to age, Henry also isolated himself from other people. However, when he started listening to music, he started to interact with other people and told everyone about his childhood and his family. The music therapy helped him in reducing stress and also inspire movement such as clapping and tapping toes.

While discussing the baby boomers, music therapy can also help them as they are the ones that grew up at the time of the post-war government. Also, they were physically fit and were wealthier than the preceding generation. They also had conservative views about aging as they are in denial regarding their age. The music therapy will also help them in loving their life more actively by improving their social and cognitive skills as well. Thus, music therapy should be given to older people so that they can also cope up with the issue they face due to age.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Alive Inside Legendado. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I7GF7_xyeH8

Wall, M., & Duffy, A. (2010). The effects of music therapy for older people with dementia. British journal of nursing, 19(2), 108-113.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Aging Populations And Theories

Aging Populations and Theories

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Aging Populations and Theories


Ageism is defined as a stance of growing old. Ageism refers to people who are at the age of 60 to 100 years or more. Advancement in sociological grounds has highlighted different perspectives associated with aging such as, what methodologies can be opted to study the body processes of old people, what happens when somebody grows old and what is the association between aging and societal relationships. In accordance with social gerontology, it's been sixty years that a separate discipline has been formulated in order to understand aging in accordance with the perspective of social science. (Goldsmith, et, al. 2015). The globalization of International Migration has highlighted that there is a massive increase in the ethnic diversity of aging population. It is assumed that the adults hold negative views regarding old age expectancies, adhering to social perception and observation that asserts, the existence of aged people in society is a victim to role conflicts. Research has revealed that about 80% of people believe they are insulted and, mistreated because of their age and inability to represent themselves. In accordance with the gerontological research and its aspects of policy and practice, social gerontologist has formulated several theories that can elaborate on how people respond and react to the aging process. Aging is a paradigm that represents challenges to various programs and policymakers, taking into account the conceptions that infer "aged people" as discounted.


Unlike other prejudices of society, ageism is not usually studied, and it is rarely confronted. The consequences of ageism refer to the analysis of the fact that caters to the phenomenon of discounted with increasing age. It is significant to note that age structure of the United States has been changed over time because of certain factors such as race, sex, and age. According to a report formulated by the National Projections, it has been bought into insight that there are several theories that are formulated to explain perspective of people towards aging and methodologies that can explain the paradigm of social gerontology. (Carmen María Sarabia Cobo, 2019). The myths and prejudices associated with aging can be found by adhering to seven theories termed as, age stratification, social constructionists, life course, political economy of aging, social exchange and critical theory. Although there is no single proposition serving as the baseline of theory, still these theories are a tool to address the factors involved in aging.

Theories of Aging

Activity theory is one of the most accepted theoretical perspective that infers that social activity is the core essence for people of all ages. It has been asserted that active people are more adjusted and stratified as compared to the unengaged people. In a simplified form, this theory associates personal engagement with activity, inferring the more active people will be socially, mentally and physically strong. The theoretical framework has highlighted that old people are having a “roleless role" in the society taking into account that reduced approach towards life has made them sterile section of society. (Carmen María Sarabia Cobo, 2019). Activity theory has also incorporated gender differences that are associated with the types of activities such as working alone is a measure of self-esteem for men but not for women, inferring "might" is the precursor to enable people to confirm their existence by participating in the roles of high identity.

Disengagement theory is an explicit theory that elaborate gerontological context by contending it to be both inevitable and normal for people to engage themselves in passive roles with increasing age. The theory infers a continuous withdrawal of aging people from society, because aging is a tool of optimal functioning. It is significant to note that the theory emerged from the context of social thought, considering a number of variables such as cultural factors, gender, and socioeconomic paradigms. (Reed & R, 2015). Disengagement theory highlights several paradigms such as the role of society in mitigating the opportunities for employment. The role of an individual in loosening of social ties and secondary responses. Social constructionist is a theory that highlights social behavior within the structures of society. The theory asserts that aging is influenced by the interference of social structure and societal bonds. However, social exchange theory determines that there is a continuous shift of skills, resources, and roles with respect to age, demonstrating that aged people are more deprived. Life course perspective highlights that aging is a dynamic process that infers a shift in the cohorts, groups, and individuals. It would not be wrong to say that this theory proceeds on the basis of age-related transitions. (Carmen María Sarabia Cobo, 2019).

Feminist theory is another theory that has highlighted that gender is one of the major tools in understanding the stance of age-related roles. It would not be wrong to say that feminist theory infers gender as one of the prime factors in determining the phenomena of distribution of roles. Critical theory is another aging theory that infers that there is a humanistic dimension associated with aging, considering the understanding of interpretive and subjective dimensions associated with aging that can act as a basic tool to address the prejudice. (Goldsmith, et, al. 2015). Critical theory is a tool that addresses the structural components of aging by highlighting the distribution of activities and roles.

The political economy theory of aging is another paradigm of social gerontology, addressing how the interaction between political and economic factors have determined the distribution of social resources that are distributed within a society. It would not be wrong to say that the variation in the status of elderly people and the treatment of the elderly people reflect the economic trends of society. According to the continuity theory, elder people do not change their lifestyle and behavior in accordance with their age, in fact aging people make certain choices that can maintain the attribute of consistency in the personality structure and beliefs of people as well as the external structures. (Reed & R, 2015).

Gerotranscendence or symbolic interactionism theory has highlighted that with the passage of time, people become less self-centered and they feel more comfortable by connecting to the natural world. In accordance with modernization theory, it can be asserted that there is a direct relationship between the primary cause of the condensing role of elder people and the influence of society. With the passage of time, an individual feels more deprives and excluded from society. Societies become more towards the individualistic notions and normative view of life because major section of attention, time and energy is spent on looking after the near circle. (Carmen María Sarabia Cobo, 2019).

Age stratification theory

Age stratification highlights the sociological concept that is associated with the study of aging and population, it demonstrates and studies the relationship that exists between old people and different age groups, considering different state and age groups. The theory highlights that the members of society are stratified by gender, age, and class. The value of a person in terms of social status is demonstrated by the ascribed roles. It would not be wrong to say that age stratification can be defined as a system that highlights the inequalities linked to age. In a simplified form, strategic theory is the hierarchical ranking of people in different age groups within a society. (Goldsmith, et, al. 2015). Age serves as a basic tool to determine social control, with an increased age there is varied access to social resources such as economic and political resources. The roots of theory can be found on ascribed status, considering it as a major source of inequality leading to ageism. It affects different paradigms of life such as social norms, family structure, and the trends of a workplace. It infers that age is one of the components that can contribute to the shifting of social status, leading to ageism. There is a profound variation in the operational spectrum of society with age referring to the distribution of resources, an implication of policies and laws as well as the behavioral expectations. (Reed & R, 2015).

Myths associated with aging

There are several myths that are associated with aging. It is significant to note that these myths are perpetuated side by side because these myths are a common observations

Aging is depressing

Many of the studies have revealed that aging is depressing because aging cause social isolation by creating distances. There is an increased stance of deprivation because a loss of variables refers to the mitigation of resourcefulness, leading to emotional breakdown. Moreover, the discriminating notion of aging has made old people realize that old age is depressing and devastating effecting both psychological and physical health. Lack of care from caregivers have supported to perpetuate the prevalence of this myth. (Reed & R, 2015).

Age makes you unproductive

It is evident that there are a lot of people who are deprived of the social responsibility due to the inability to cater to social requirements. As soon as people retire and leave the workplace, they are brought into a lifestyle where countless hours are spent staying idle and watching others doing something. Nothing to do imparts feeling of disability that not only hampers the emotions of a person in fact it makes them physically weak. Gender inequalities and lack of involvement of care givers have perpetuated the validity of myth. (Reed & R, 2015).


Aging is a natural phenomenon that is associated to people who are 60 years old or are older. There are certain paradigms and theoretical framework associated with aging, taking into account the fact that aging people have associated certain prejudices and myths with their identities. There are several theories that highlight varied spectra of aging, such as activist theory, feminist theory, critical theory and disengagement theory. It is interesting to note that there are certain myths that are associated with negative connotations of aging in social paradigms, and these perceptions are continuously enforced by the discriminating attitude of care givers. Lack of attention from care givers and inability of policies to address the needs of old people has played major role in the perpetuation of these myths.


Carmen María Sarabia Cobo. (2019). Envejecimiento exitoso y calidad de vida: Su papel en las teorías del envejecimiento Successful aging and quality of life, its role in the theories of the aging. Gerokomos, 20(4), 172–174. https://doi.org/10.4321/S1134-928X2009000400005

Goldsmith, T., & Goldsmith, T. (2015). Arguments against non-programmed aging theories. Biochemistry. Biokhimiia, 78(9), 971–978. https://doi.org/10.1134/S0006297913090022

Reed, R. S. (2015). Aging, the Individual, and Society, (Susan M. Hillier and Georgia M. Barrow). Anthropology & Aging, 36(2), 212-213.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

Alcohol-Related Problems And Intimate Partner Violence Among White, Black, And Hispanic Couples In The US


Student’s name



Alcohol-Related Problems and Intimate Partner Violence

According to the research, the researchers expected to find more evidence in support of increased mobility and mortality that results from the use of alcohol. As much as the three nationalities are being compared, the effects which are associated with the use of alcohol are closely related. This means that there are much cases today, both minor and major which happens due to the influence of alcohol. Most couples are the ones who are faced with such challenges. For instance, the women usually end up suffering more especially if their spouses tend to be violent as a result of taking much alcohol.

The theory that the researcher uses is the addiction theory. In families faced with a lot of alcohol-related issues then it is means there are higher chances of one of the partner being an addict. This is one of the reasons which actually makes it’s harder to reduce alcohol-related issues among the couple today. Simply because most people are now addicts and they fail to realize how much the drugs cost their relationships, their health, and life in general. Alcohol abuse among the three nationalities tends to have the most effects among women.

In conclusion, the researcher insists that the effects of alcohol are similar to all people, regardless of the racial, ethnic or any other thing. Both men and women are now currently involved in the use of drugs, which in turn has increased the number of couple issues that are being handled in the society today. Most cases or crimes are normally related to alcohol, and they include violent acts which result to even killing. Basically, the fact that both men and women are involved in the taking of alcohol standardizes the effect on all those who participate in it, and ethnic and racial differences actually do not determine to what extent the impacts would go.

Work Cited


Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

American Drug War Analysis

American Drug War

Name of WriterAffiliations

1. As you watch the movie, complete the following chart for at least five people depicted in the film.


Est. Age



How are they depicted?

Ralph Nader




A political activist who speaks against the drug war

Cynthia McKinney




A political activist who speaks against wasting millions of innocent people that are jailed instead of big fishes

Celerino Castillo




Former DEA agent represented as someone who talks about a bigger problem because there are more drugs today than a decade ago.

Tommy Chong




Actor, writer, and cannabis rights activist who says that Nixon started this war to sway away people's attention from the war in Cambodia





Co-founder of blood street gang who talks about the effect of drug dealers on gang members and distinguishes between them

2. What trends did you discover? Is there any apparent stereotyping? Are minorities portrayed as having more of a drug problem than others have? Is this accurate or inaccurate?

Answer: The war against drugs is being used against poor people and not against people who benefit most from drugs which are the bankers that launder the money. The apparent stereotyping is that authorities don’t send nicotine addicts to jail nor they send alcoholics to jail so they shouldn’t send drug addicts to jail as well. There are some specific drugs that are associated with black people e.g. crack etc. This is however inaccurate as the narrator's own brother was addicted to it who is ethnically white. So specific drug use and addiction cannot be associated with a specific race and minority.

3. Which groups are generally targeted in “the war on drugs”? How and why?

Answer: Banning of cocaine was passed to protect white women from black men ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"dtJgkT8a","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}American Drug War}, n.d.)","plainCitation":"(American Drug War, n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":247,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jpfyfVgo/items/I5PMJCXM"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jpfyfVgo/items/I5PMJCXM"],"itemData":{"id":247,"type":"motion_picture","title":"American Drug War","source":"YouTube","dimensions":"1:58:31","abstract":"The War on Drugs has become the longest and most costly war in American history, the question has become, how much more can the country endure? Inspired by the death of four family members from \"legal drugs\" Texas filmmaker Kevin Booth sets out to discover why the Drug War has become such a big failure. Three and a half years in the making the film follows gang members, former DEA agents, CIA officers, narcotics officers, judges, politicians, prisoners and celebrities. Most notably the film befriends Freeway Ricky Ross; the man many accuse for starting the Crack epidemic, who after being arrested discovered that his cocaine source had been working for the CIA. AMERICAN DRUG WAR shows how money, power and greed have corrupted not just dope fiends but an entire government. More importantly, it shows what can be done about it. This is not some 'pro-drug' stoner film, but a collection of expert testimonials from the ground troops on the front lines of the drug war, the ones who are fighting it and the ones who are living it.","URL":"https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vD3snUVJiQE&list=PLQ_Bo3hOPv9iIczNY5-q3Khllg1HCGrsN","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",10,11]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (American Drug War, n.d.). The targeted groups are generally black and Hispanic men as almost two out of every three person that are in jail for drug abuse.

4. Are minority groups disproportionately affected by current drug policy? How and why? Why is this Problematic? What are the consequences of this for members of these minority groups?

Answer: The drug policy was made for everyone but the attitude and perception of the authorities towards black men make it disproportional. Since 9/11 the gangs are now considered as new terrorists. The numbers of black people in cases of drug abuse are much more than that of white men. This is problematic because it creates a sense of racial disharmony among people.

5. What impact does the war on drugs have on?

a. The Lower Class?

The drug on war has given people knowledge about crystal ice and other stuff that they can now cook in the house. People in the lower-class need money and there is a lot of money in drug dealing. They have found it an easy way of making money.

b. The Middle Class?

In the budget of the Year 2000, 20 B dollars were allotted to the war on drugs, these $20 B could have been used on better education, better health, and better infrastructure. People are kept deprived of their basic rights due to a meaningless drug on a war that has no end result.

c. The Upper Class?

The upper class doesn't have any major issues with drug abuse. There is no crime on Wall Street so much upper class doesn't care at all. Moreover, low scale markets are much easier for police to penetrate than large scale markets. So even if there are drug addicts in Upper class they barely get caught.

6. What does statistical data tell us about regular drug users? What is the demographic profile of the typical drug user? Does our current drug policy (aka “the war on drugs”) appropriately target these users? Support your position.

Answer: Millions of Americans who are older than 12 years old use illegal drugs. In fact, the exact number of people using a drug is around 8 percent. Among that Marijuana and cocaine are among the top of it. The number of heroin users has also increased since the US's occupation of Afghanistan. Most people start abusing drugs during their early teens to the age of 25 years. In the 70s and 80s, music and drug abuse were closely related to each other. At least in the eyes of authorities black and Latin people are most affected by drug abuse because of their demographic backgrounds.

7. If you were in charge of US drug policy, what would you change and why? What specific policies would you put in place? Why?

Answer: If I were in charge of US drug policy I would have spent the majority of budget assigned to me on the rehabilitation process within the jail surroundings, rather than on the information network to catch them. The reason behind this is because nowadays modern drugs can even be cooked in your own house backyard as well so it is very hard to stop its abuse. However, I would have cooperated with border security forces to decrease its smuggling from other countries.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY American Drug War. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vD3snUVJiQE&list=PLQ_Bo3hOPv9iIczNY5-q3Khllg1HCGrsN

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

American Family

American Family

Your Name (First M. Last)

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)

American Family

American society has witnessed different trends of the family and the household, since the past few decades. Since the year 1980, there is seen a demographic change in the institution of marriage and the trend of the household and family. The people have changed their lifestyles more rapidly than ever before. The customary American household has been going through deep changes for every age, and race, and all cultural groups. In short, the American household is changing the change in every possible aspect. This change ranges from the number of adults that marry, the households that are dwelling of the elderly couples that live alone, the young people living alone in the house, etc. The typical American household has been experiencing deep changes for every age, race, and ethnic group. The trend has changed for the elderly people in the aspect that they have started living alone more than ever before. They live all alone without any other generations present. The value of privacy among the elderly people has increased and this all owes to the change in the traditional morals during the next half of the 20th century.

It is a common fact that everyone is aware of, that more of the elderly Americans are living alone now, and that they have become socially more isolated and lonely. But given the fact we cannot simply jump to the conclusion that the one who lives alone is surely lonely too.

In the US, approximately 29 percent of the 46 million population abode old people live alone. About half of the oldest generation that ages around 85 or fewer years live alone. almost 70 percent of older people that tend to live alone are females, and 46 percent of the women age less than equal to 75 years, live alone. Men usually die earlier than their spouses. The widowed or separated men usually get remarried than the widowed or divorced women are more likely to marry again than are widowed or divorced women. Many of the elderly that live alone report the feelings of loneliness and the loneliness. Also many face health issues, the reason being they do not eat proper meals as eating is a social activity. Despite all these issues, more than 90 percent of the older people state that they prefer to live alone and the reason is that they do not want to bother others, so despite the fact that they feel lonely they continue living alone ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"ElyZIXWz","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}The Elderly Living Alone - Geriatrics,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“The Elderly Living Alone - Geriatrics,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":4,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/DyczZKSE/items/79QEL2EY"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/DyczZKSE/items/79QEL2EY"],"itemData":{"id":4,"type":"webpage","title":"The Elderly Living Alone - Geriatrics","container-title":"MSD Manual Professional Edition","abstract":"The Elderly Living Alone - Explore from the MSD Manuals - Medical Professional Version.","URL":"https://www.msdmanuals.com/professional/geriatrics/social-issues-in-the-elderly/the-elderly-living-alone","language":"en","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",5,2]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“The Elderly Living Alone - Geriatrics,” n.d.).

Societal loneliness might be less prevalent in the common populace than most of the people consider, but it is more prevalent between some societies and areas than others. Elderly persons have a greater possibility of isolation since the bodily feebleness over and above decreases in their household and companionship linkages. Men in America are more probable to be communally lonely than women ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"qgZrtQcO","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Klinenberg, 2016)","plainCitation":"(Klinenberg, 2016)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":6,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/DyczZKSE/items/ALCHDWBZ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/DyczZKSE/items/ALCHDWBZ"],"itemData":{"id":6,"type":"article-journal","title":"Social Isolation, Loneliness, and Living Alone: Identifying the Risks for Public Health","container-title":"American Journal of Public Health","page":"786-787","volume":"106","issue":"5","source":"PubMed Central","DOI":"10.2105/AJPH.2016.303166","ISSN":"0090-0036","note":"PMID: 27049414\nPMCID: PMC4985072","shortTitle":"Social Isolation, Loneliness, and Living Alone","journalAbbreviation":"Am J Public Health","author":[{"family":"Klinenberg","given":"Eric"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016",5]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Klinenberg, 2016). An elderly man in America made a heart-wrenching call to 911 in the year 2015. He asked 911 to send someone to get him food from the store as he was hungry. The representatives were so moved by the call that they themselves came to deliver the food to him. The report tells that a quarter of the Americans have the risk of becoming the older orphans over the age of 65. This is an eye-opening situation ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"WYnMnMrQ","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(CBS Evening News, n.d.)","plainCitation":"(CBS Evening News, n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":9,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/DyczZKSE/items/J6BYHNNV"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/DyczZKSE/items/J6BYHNNV"],"itemData":{"id":9,"type":"motion_picture","title":"Crisis facing American seniors: Life as \"elder orphans\"","source":"YouTube","dimensions":"119 seconds","URL":"https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hp4Wvv2he_o","shortTitle":"Crisis facing American seniors","author":[{"literal":"CBS Evening News"}],"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",5,2]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (CBS Evening News, n.d.).

The society in America is changing faster than ever, and so are the cultural norms. It is the outcome of the changes that the loneliness and the social segregation is increasing. Evidently, the American household is nowadays deeply unlike from what it used to be in the previous times. It characteristically is a family with few kids, with both mother and the father working. Simultaneously, more grownups than ever formerly live alone or with unmarried mates. These leanings have deeply transformed the American household and are improbable to be upturned in near future.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY CBS Evening News. (n.d.). The crisis facing American seniors: Life as "elder orphans." Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hp4Wvv2he_o

Klinenberg, E. (2016). Social Isolation, Loneliness, and Living Alone: Identifying the Risks for Public Health. American Journal of Public Health, 106(5), 786–787. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2016.303166

The Elderly Living Alone - Geriatrics. (n.d.). Retrieved May 2, 2019, from MSD Manual Professional Edition website: https://www.msdmanuals.com/professional/geriatrics/social-issues-in-the-elderly/the-elderly-living-alone

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

An Analysis Of Gender Socialization

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An Analysis of Gender Socialization

Socialization plays an instrumental role in establishing and assessing the manner in which communities develop. Essentially, the human interaction and the factors affecting those interactions are the building blocks of theories applied to humans. A critical aspect is to determine the gender-specific roles that are nurtured from early childhood in society. Certain things as toys and clothes are attributed to specific traits. For girls, submissiveness dominates the nature of these attributes. For boys, the courageous and authoritative message is reflected in the toys and clothes.

Personal Reflection

In my childhood, I cherished playing with female toys. My parents made me believe that I was a girl and thus inculcated in me the traits commonly found in girls. The pink color is my favorite color. There exists a potential reason behind cherishing the pink color. The toys I used to play with in the childhood were Barbie dolls and kitchen sets. These instances sound typical and commonly the society advances to engage each girl in these norms. Similar was the case with me. However, these gender-specific norms left a significant impression and later contributed to the establishment of character and personality.

In addition, the toys and girlish frocks taught me to remain submissive. I used to observe boys dressed in the attire of action heroes and playing with fancy cars and similar toys. It is a critical aspect fueling the gender-based stereotyping and gender socialization. Irrefutably, the socialization shapes the society and I can claim it because of very own experiences.

The toys and clothes sent a message of always being dressed up, taking care of babies and preventing from engaging in the materials designed for boys only. Such contentious were the manifestations and the message delivered by these toys ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"l2I77JZ0","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}The Effects of Gender Socialization on Men and Women | Penn State - Presidential Leadership Academy (PLA),\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“The Effects of Gender Socialization on Men and Women | Penn State - Presidential Leadership Academy (PLA),” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1911,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/H8YOvGFC/items/ACIFDZHJ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/H8YOvGFC/items/ACIFDZHJ"],"itemData":{"id":1911,"type":"webpage","title":"The Effects of Gender Socialization on Men and Women | Penn State - Presidential Leadership Academy (PLA)","URL":"https://sites.psu.edu/academy/2016/04/07/the-effects-of-gender-socialization-on-men-and-women/","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",1,29]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“The Effects of Gender Socialization on Men and Women | Penn State - Presidential Leadership Academy (PLA),” n.d.). Gender socialization nourishes on these beliefs to separate the male and female norms since the stages of early childhood ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"mTgzoTV0","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Klass & M.D, 2018)","plainCitation":"(Klass & M.D, 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1910,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/H8YOvGFC/items/FRHIB5KK"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/H8YOvGFC/items/FRHIB5KK"],"itemData":{"id":1910,"type":"article-newspaper","title":"Breaking Gender Stereotypes in the Toy Box","container-title":"The New York Times","section":"Well","source":"NYTimes.com","abstract":"What toys children play with can influence the skills they learn and the possibilities they see for themselves.","URL":"https://www.nytimes.com/2018/02/05/well/family/gender-stereotypes-children-toys.html","ISSN":"0362-4331","language":"en-US","author":[{"family":"Klass","given":"Perri"},{"family":"M.D","given":""}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018",2,19]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",1,29]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Klass & M.D, 2018). Furthermore, a critical assessment of the gender-specific toys and clothes reveals certain potential values are propagated by them. For instance, boys are taught to sit and posture in a rigid and solid manner. The mannish clothes they wear are a reflection of the deliberated value. For girls, they are taught by the parents and society to adopt feminine values and attitudes. Taking care of their dolls and keeping the kitchen-setup toy clean are the explicit illustrations of these values.

Critical Appraisal of Gender Socialization and Impact

Each culture offers distinct guidelines pertinent to the appropriate culture and values for male and female. In American society, parents who persistently strive to acquire a less gendered parenting style are also unconsciously urged to reinforce these gender roles in their life. The impacts of these gender-specific roles cultivate the larger picture of the gender culture observed in society. Since society expects the women to be nurturing in comparison to the men, giving a doll to a girl teaches the attitude of care and harnesses the values for caring other members of the society ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"mqV5aEWQ","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}(PDF) Gender Socialization and Identity Theory,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“(PDF) Gender Socialization and Identity Theory,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1914,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/H8YOvGFC/items/KLPKRH9J"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/H8YOvGFC/items/KLPKRH9J"],"itemData":{"id":1914,"type":"webpage","title":"(PDF) Gender Socialization and Identity Theory","URL":"https://www.researchgate.net/publication/295398445_Gender_Socialization_and_Identity_Theory","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",1,29]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“(PDF) Gender Socialization and Identity Theory,” n.d.). When boys are gifted with dolls, they will probably be the action figures designed to fuel the alleged aggressive inclinations in boys.

In addition, gender socialization techniques often manifest impediments for different genders. Men who work in the traditionally female workplaces as social work, nursing or elementary school are often viewed as qualified than women. However, an absolute opposite experience is witnessed by women. I myself believe that women who work in a traditionally male occupied place hit a glass ceiling in their path. It must be deemed an invisible barrier which keeps women from achieving top ranks in business and career settings. Such occurrence lies at the very heart of gender socialization.

Assessing the Sources

The outside source as an article published in The New York Times comprehensively underpins the adverse ramifications of the gender socialization ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"icjcg6QE","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Klass & M.D, 2018)","plainCitation":"(Klass & M.D, 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1910,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/H8YOvGFC/items/FRHIB5KK"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/H8YOvGFC/items/FRHIB5KK"],"itemData":{"id":1910,"type":"article-newspaper","title":"Breaking Gender Stereotypes in the Toy Box","container-title":"The New York Times","section":"Well","source":"NYTimes.com","abstract":"What toys children play with can influence the skills they learn and the possibilities they see for themselves.","URL":"https://www.nytimes.com/2018/02/05/well/family/gender-stereotypes-children-toys.html","ISSN":"0362-4331","language":"en-US","author":[{"family":"Klass","given":"Perri"},{"family":"M.D","given":""}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018",2,19]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",1,29]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Klass & M.D, 2018). It highlights the widespread menace of stereotyping existing in the society. A critical aspect is noteworthy to be mentioned here. It states that children struggle to nourish and potentially in the presence of gender socialization. A girl being made habitual to playing with Barbie by the parents may never experience the joy of playing with trains and superheroes. Similar is the case with boys. Thus, parents ought not to be restricting the students from experiencing diversity, especially related to toys and clothes. Between 2-3 years of age, children begin to learn psychological changes. If they are restricted by handing toys and clothes with specific attributes, it may impede their growth. The bottom line is that a boy will remain a boy and the girl will stay to be a girl, irrespective of the toys given to them.

The other source is the primary source of a report published by the United Nation’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) in 2017 to deliberate the causes, manifestations and implications of gender socialization ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"oBcpAINZ","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}What is gender socialization and why does it matter?,\\uc0\\u8221{} 2017)","plainCitation":"(“What is gender socialization and why does it matter?,” 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1908,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/H8YOvGFC/items/GDFZ2GIK"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/H8YOvGFC/items/GDFZ2GIK"],"itemData":{"id":1908,"type":"webpage","title":"What is gender socialization and why does it matter?","container-title":"Evidence for Action","abstract":"Gender socialization during adolescence is a critical period new gender roles emerge and negative outcomes of some gender norms begin to manifest","URL":"https://blogs.unicef.org/evidence-for-action/what-is-gender-socialization-and-why-does-it-matter/","language":"en-US","issued":{"date-parts":[["2017",8,18]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",1,29]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“What is gender socialization and why does it matter?,” 2017). The report stipulates the pervasive menace of gender socialization in backward and least educated areas. Girls in such areas are taught to remain obedient while the boys are taught to remain aggressive and far ahead than girls in social and economic status. The paper further makes pivotal recommendations to make policies at the structural level to encourage the communities to achieve gender equality and abrogate the radical and widespread culture of gender inequality.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Klass, P., & M.D. (2018, February 19). Breaking Gender Stereotypes in the Toy Box. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2018/02/05/well/family/gender-stereotypes-children-toys.html

(PDF) Gender Socialization and Identity Theory. (n.d.). Retrieved January 29, 2019, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/295398445_Gender_Socialization_and_Identity_Theory

The Effects of Gender Socialization on Men and Women | Penn State - Presidential Leadership Academy (PLA). (n.d.). Retrieved January 29, 2019, from https://sites.psu.edu/academy/2016/04/07/the-effects-of-gender-socialization-on-men-and-women/

What is gender socialization and why does it matter? (2017, August 18). Retrieved January 29, 2019, from https://blogs.unicef.org/evidence-for-action/what-is-gender-socialization-and-why-does-it-matter/

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Analyisis Of Case Study

Analysis of Case Study

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Analysis of Case study


This case study is about an older woman named Louise whose husband passed away and she has now no one to take care of her. She only has two children, a daughter who is married with a child and a son who is in a homosexual relationship, living in overseas. Both the grown-up children are busy in their lives, she does not have good terms with her son in law and son. She is forced to live in a single bedroom because of the financial crisis. Her daughter moved to another city and Louise cannot meet her grandson anymore. Considering this situation, below is the analysis made on her situation that will also help in solving the problems she is facing.

Part A

Kinds of Losses present in the Case study

Almost everyone experiences some kind of losses in their lives because of the ups and downs life is famous for. People have good times at one point and they have bad times at another point which often makes the survival a challenge for them. The case presented under study about Louise is very sad as Louise is in the old age of her life. She is already suffering physical and mental deterioration of capabilities she had in her youth and the situation got worse for her as she recently experienced the death of her spouse. Having an age where a person is not very active and becomes dependent on others for the additional care and needs, death of the partner is something unbearable (Kaur, Kaur & Thapar 2015). Tony’s departure left her shocked on her current situation. Before Tony’s death, she was responsible for the house maintenance and used to perform all day to day tasks with full motivation. She used to do that because she knew that Tony will take care of her emotional needs and will be there with her in the late years of life. But, his sudden death broke her down and she faced the interpersonal (from both sides) as well as tangible loss (visible loss) with the death of her husband. Additionally, she used to take care of her 4-year-old grandson named Max two afternoons per week. But now her grandson is also going with his mother to New York as his father got promoted. Grandmother and grandson share a very special bond in the world but the separation of her daughter and grandson added more pain to the interpersonal loss.

The second kind of loss is Louise’s poor financial situation, this second can also be named as the secondary loss as it linked with Tony's death. She is in the age where she cannot afford from a job and her spouse who used to earn also died. After Tony’s death, she moved to single bedroom unit because she couldn’t maintain the loan repayments of the house. Financial loss intensifies her miserable situation as she now feels like a burden in the society who cannot even help oneself to live peacefully. The financial stability is absent in her life where she needs the most. This loss limits her to overcome her other problems.

To make her feel more terrible, her grown-up children left her side in the old age. Her daughter Sally is going to New York and she offered Louise to visit her home in New York. But the problem here is, Louise does not view the visits to be suitable as she is in no good terms with her son in law. She does not have any contact with her son Barney for ten years. This is a symbolic loss as the relation of children with her is in declining terms and she cannot do anything to save the bond. She cannot stand the breaking of this parent-child bond and is left helpless by the children.

Socio-Cultural and Familial Factors influencing Louise's Experience

There are many socio-cultural and familial factors that are adversely influencing Louise's experience. The familial factors that she is experiencing are the burden of single-parent responsibilities, loneliness due to spouse's death and the complicated bond she has with her son due to his homosexuality. These factors are deepening her pain and are not helping her to focus on her life at this stage. Apart from these familial factors, she is also suffering from many socio-cultural factors which are, the custom that parents do not live with daughters after her marriage. Even if her daughter Sally insists, she is culturally bound not to take this decision of living with her. The other socio-cultural factor that comes as a restriction for her is that, no matter how much she wants to be with her son Barney now, she cannot do that so. The reason for not opting for this decision is that in her culture, the dead are respected and so are his wishes. Therefore, she is respecting the wishes of her dead husband and is not contacting her son. She is also facing social isolation from society as one of the factors that are leading to her depression in this unstable state. There is no person of contact around her in times of need. She also does not have any social group that may help her to feel better in grief and pain she is facing. The factor of social negligence and no social support are very strong towards her as she is widow and old too but is receiving no moral support from the society (Min et al.,2018).

Louise’s Support Network

Louise has a very weak social network as there is currently no one who could take care of her physical, emotional, informational and appraisal needs (Isherwood, King & Luszcz, 2017). Her husband suddenly died depriving her of the huge support he was for her. She cannot share any feelings and emotions with her daughter as Sally is moving to another city. She has no contact with Barney for ten years now. She is living alone and the lack of social support is affecting her health. It is shown in the studies that the absence of social support reduces the life expectancy as the person becomes depressed and his body forms many diseases. A social network is very important as the company of friends, family, reach out to the person in times of crisis and improves the quality of life for that person. They provide a shield against the adverse life events that the person is experiencing.

Impact of these Factors on Louise’s Grieving Process

As Louise has a very weak social support and no support from the family either so these factors will affect negatively on her. All of these factors which are mentioned in detail above have adverse effects on the grieving process of Louise. In fact, they accelerate her grief and stress which she is having, from all the kinds of losses she experienced recently. She does not have anyone who could listen to her concerns, there is nobody who could take care of her or assist her in the tasks which she is performing alone. This is why she will take more time to recover from the grief because there is nobody to counsel her and to become her support in this time of deprivation from her family members. The effect of all these factors might have reduced if she had a strong social network and social support provided by the community (Recksiedler et al.,2018).

Part B

Approach to Grief Counselling

Looking at the situation Louise is currently going through, it is very hard to recommend any one particular approach because she is the state of grief. She is undergoing a bereavement process and it will take a lot of time to make her recover from the losses she suffered (Rodgers & DuBois, 2018). This is because she also lacks a strong social network and there is no family and social support around her to make it at least bearable for her. Given this case, it can be said that coping therapy varies from one person to another person. Some people will prefer to share their feeling and emotions related to the pain they are experiencing from the loss they had while others will remain silent and will do some tasks to distract themselves. Every person has a different level of tolerance towards the certain level of grief they had been through. Some individuals might take the loss as a positive sign of motivation and inspiration while others might end up getting depressed and isolating themselves from the rest of the world.

There are mainly five stages of grief which Louise will experience before getting stable in her behavior. The first stage is denial. It will be very hard to accept anything this point when her husband is no more and her daughter moved to another city instead of staying by her side to assist her in emotional needs. The second stage which will hit her will be the anger. She will become irritated when everything being told to her and will resist the advice given to her like moving on. She is not ready yet to forget everything that happened suddenly in her life. After that, the phase of bargaining will come followed by the depression phase which is normal to expect from her after all that she went through. The last stage of grief will be the phase of acceptance where she will accept the reality and will try to adapt to the negative changes life offered to her.

In this situation, it is very critical to give grief counseling to Louise otherwise she might take more time than what is required to recover from her grief. Grief counseling will accelerate the natural healing process and will save her mental and physical health from deterioration. Grief counseling has its importance in helping the individuals who suffered severe grief in their lives from different kinds of losses. The needs of a beavered person are very vulnerable and should be paid detailed attention so that they do not face further depression and disturbance in their lives.

The most suitable approach here for grief counseling to Louise is the person-centered approach (Spence & Smale, 2015). In this approach, the client is dealt with the ways in which that individual perceive themselves by the realization made by their counselor. This approach centers around that particular individual who is need of insurance that he can do that particular decision n his own without taking anyone's help or support. Continuous efforts are made to help him regain the confidence he lost because of the trauma he experienced (Sippel et al.,2015). This approach involves detailed listening to the problems and concerns the client has and then thinking with the client about the possible solutions. Coaching is done and ideas are shared and after that, feedback is assessed.

The reason for opting for this approach is that, despite all the unfortunate happenings in her life, Louise is a very strong woman who knows how to take care of her grief and will try to fight back. Like in the case study, in the start was mentioned that Louise used to take care of her house tasks and she had maintained her house well and was responsible for day to days' tasks that used half of her energy. She did it many times and there is a great possibly hat she does it once again.

In the counseling sessions, the counselor will first listen carefully to the thoughts and feelings Louise has related to her relationship with her son Barney. It is more important to know what she thinks that it was to know what her deceased husband thought about their son. She will be asked to revisit the loss experiences she recently came through to analyze logically what those experiences gave her to learn about life. Louise will be guided neutrally without pressurizing her to take a certain decision. The decision will be completely left on her to contact Barney or not to contact him. Depending on the intensity of her state, the counselor will recommend her the possibilities that are available for her. If she is in very critical condition and could no longer take care of herself then she will be assisted to make a contact with her estranged son. There should be at least one attempt made to reach out to Barney so that it should be known what he is feeling about his mother, whether he misses her or not and is ready to change or not. Barney should be informed about the recent loss the whole family suffered. If approaching him to leave her more devastated, then it will be made sure not to contact him again in future for the same reasons. The decision that should be made here is that one chance should be given to Barney to take care of his mother otherwise he will lose his second mother. She is trapped in two contracting situations not knowing where to go and this stress is affecting her mind and overall health adversely. She is carrying the burden of the guilt that she still misses her son and wants him to come back and apologize to her but she cannot go against the promise she made with her deceased husband. Louise needs to be told that she is not doing anything wrong if she chooses to approach Barney as she is also a mother and the bonding of mother and son cannot be broken on mere promises. So, she should focus on her son and definitely she would not let go of his late husband's command but focusing on present rather than past. The motive of the person-centered approach should be to gain her confidence in the decisions she makes without regretting her choices (Spence & Smale, 2015).

Part C

Ethical Issues in this Case

The case is very challenging as it may raise many concerns for the counselor. The counselor, in this case, is not in a position to defend himself on either possibility taken by Louise related to her son Barney. If the counselor decides to make Louise's mind to contact Barney, then people including Louise will perceive that the counselor has no regards to the ethics and shows no respect to the promises made by the deceased people. On the contrary, if Louise is supported on the decision to not approach Barney due to his sexuality then again ethical problems will arise in this case too. People including Louise will interpret that the counselor dislikes same-sex relationships and thinks that homosexual people are a threat to this society. The counselor will be made to question his beliefs because of the alternatives he will suggest for Louise to follow. It is a very ethically vulnerable and contextual case which cannot be fitted in all the aspects of society. Not everyone thinks the same in society and this is why there are many types of people including both conservative and liberal.

If I were to support Louise, then I would have said to her that there is nothing she can do about her son's sexuality and that his sexuality should be perceived as a danger to her family's norms and values. Homosexual people are humans too and they have the same rights as others in society. As a widow, she should know how much social acceptance means to the person who is involved in a divergent relationship which is viewed oddly by the whole society. As a widow, she should know how much respect is important for every person and sentiments of the homosexual couples should also be not hurt by society.

Louise is torn between two undesirable possibilities which are risky as well but she needs to take a rational decision that will benefit her in the long run. Facing a contracting situation, it will be hard for her to understand anything that is being told to her this is why efforts should be made by the counselor to minimize any adverse effects that these ethical issues on both ends might have on the counselor’s relationship with Louise. I will use cognitive therapy to help Louise understand the ethical issues associated with both the types of decisions without taking me wrong. I will make her see all the aspects her decision might bring for her and her son and will tell her that this is what a rational person should suggest her without the fear of being judged. The bigger picture of every picture is important and sometimes selfish attitude is required to survive in the society. Accepting the sexuality of her son will not do her any harm, in fact, her son will be grateful to her throughout his life for understanding him.


Louise is a brave woman who knows how to tackle the grief and depressing situations in her life without the help from family and society. But bonds are important and mother-son bond shares a special connection with each other. Person-centered therapy is needed to help Louise to let of the past and choose to live in the present. She should also make an attempt to resolve her constrained relationship with her son and that will not hurt her husband’s sentiments.


Isherwood, L. M., King, D. S., & Luszcz, M. A. (2017). Widowhood in the fourth age: support exchange, relationships and social participation. Ageing & Society, 37(1), 188-212.

Kaur, N., Kaur, J., & Thapar, K. (2015). Perceived self care deficit and social support system among elderly. Nurs Midwifery Res J, 11(3), 112-19.

Min, J., Li, Y., Xu, L., & Chi, I. (2018). Psychological vulnerability of widowhood: financial strain, social engagement and worry about having no care-giver as mediators and moderators. Ageing & Society, 38(11), 2356-2375.

Recksiedler, C., Loter, K., Klaas, H. S., Hollstein, B., & Perrig-Chiello, P. (2018). Social dimensions of personal growth following widowhood: a three-wave study. Gerontology, 64(4), 344-360.

Rodgers, R. F., & DuBois, R. H. (2018). Grief Reactions: A Sociocultural Approach. In Clinical Handbook of Bereavement and Grief Reactions (pp. 1-18). Humana Press, Cham.

Sippel, L. M., Pietrzak, R. H., Charney, D. S., Mayes, L. C., & Southwick, S. M. (2015). How does social support enhance resilience in the trauma-exposed individual?. Ecology and Society, 20(4).

Spence, S., & Smale, U. (2015). Group work with bereaved people: developing person-centered practice. Person-Centered & Experiential Psychotherapies, 14(1), 3-17.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 8 Words: 2400


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Article critique

Obesity is the biggest health problem in the United States. Childhood overweight is a particularly worrying cause. Greg Crister’s article “Let Them Eat Fat” with the sub heading, “The Heavy Truths about American Obesity” talks about the realities of American obesity. the article opens up with some case of young men who brought in to hospital and the reason was their obesity. Then this article talks about the facts and tell the readers about the epidemics of obesity and reason behind obesity

What are the strengths of the article?

There are many strengths of this article including its simple language, incorporation of facts with realities, true cases, examples and above all factual detail. For example, author talks about the obesity in children that “Children are most at risk. At least 25 percent of all Americans now under age nineteen are overweight or obese” (Greg1). For this she provides few researches including the research of Dr. David Satcher.

At another place author states that, Then the author uploaded his work with lots of examples and facts or figures. The fact that this is a Pan-American epidemic, these terrible figures eloquently speak: 33% of obese men in the USA, 35% of women. In short, every third person (over the whole age scale) is overweight. Yes, in the USA, obesity has become a national problem. However, scientists have noticed her and were horrified more recently, although the fat men, fat women and fat chaps have long been calming eyes in the street and in public places.

Furthermore, she stated that, fat, sugar and salt became the main ingredients in these creative searches of culinary specialists: various “fascinating” food elements were mixed with these ingredients in different, but always high-calorie combinations. “Obviously, fast-food and nationwide restaurant chains like Krispy Kreme that serve it have long been the object of criticism by nutritionists and dietitians” (Greg 2).

What are the weaknesses of the article?

This article provides a good piece of information but the weakness that I have found in this article including lack of references, reliability of sources and author, no date of publication, and chronological order.

I am only able to find out only one reference that is of Harper magazine in foot note other than this there is no intext references. For any academic piece of writing sources and citation is most important. for example; author claimed that, “today, one fifth of all Americans are obese, meaning that they have a body mass index, or BMI, of more than 30” (Greg1). But how author can claim this without support and he failed to prove it without source.

Then again author incorporated his claims with a research, “As William Dietz, the director of nutrition at the Centers for Disease Control, said last year, “This is an epidemic in the U.S. the likes of which we have not had before in chronic disease” (Greg1) but no source or intext provided for this research. this makes the reliability and validity of this article doubtful.

There are no details about the author and no one knows who is Greg Crister? Because there are no details of author mentions nor the publication date and who published it. Other than that, the information are not updated and old researches used like one study of 1998.

At another point Greg provide statistics “The obesity rate for Mexican-American children is shocking. Between the ages of five and eleven, the rate for girls is 27 percent; for boys, 23 percent. By fourth grade the rate for girls’ peaks at 32 percent, while boys top out at 43 percent” (Greg3) now from where these statistics are coming from? This makes this article very weak.

What makes this article sociological?

Obesity is a social problem as the number of cases related to obesity are increasing. As this article discusses the various issues related to sociology like culture, cultural relativism and class.

Culture plays an important role in sociology and culture impacts a lot on behavior of individuals. This article talks about the culture and its impact on rising obesity. “Definitely, culture plays a role in the actions of any subpopulation” (Greg6).

Cultural relativism is important factor in sociology. It is nothing but a judgemental system. Cultural relativism suggests that the rules of morality vary from place to place. It argues that the variability of moral perceptions depends on cultural factors. “The ascendancy of cultural relativism led to a growing disinclination ………….. “stylishly stout.” (Grey6)

How does the issue/topic impact society? Are there specific groups impacted by this topic more than others?

Obesity is not an issue of any specific group or class it is issue of all people without gender or age specification. Obesity is a complex and often unsolvable problem, and the obesity epidemic in America continues to have a major impact on the health and spending of people, their families and all people in the United States. Obesity is directly related to many diseases, from hypertension to diabetes and cancer etc.

Which sociological perspective(s) would you use to analyze this article?

I believe all the three perspective can be used to analyze this article. From structural point of view macro analysis possible that how every part of society helps to make an epidemic of obesity. And from symbolic interactionist will be explain the obesity as a problem produced by human behavior and according to conflict what are the reasons of obesity in people of different classes.

Work cited

Greg Crister. Let Them Eat Fat; The Heavy Truths about American Obesity

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Analysis Essay

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Analysis Essay

Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim, and Max Weber are popularly known as the founding fathers of sociology. In the pursuit of understanding human society, three of them had different perspectives and contrasting styles. Utilizing a historical materialist and a dialectic approach, Karl Marx examined the shaping and re-shaping of human history and the basic nature of man through the dynamics of the political economy. Max Weber focused on the role of religion as a pre-cursor of capitalism, and finally, Emile Durkheim reflected upon the consequential effects of various institutions, primarily the religion, on social cohesion. Marx and Durkheim largely scrutinized the role of institutions and structural capacities in the formation of individual action whereas, on the other hand, Weber emphasized the power dynamics between human agencies and the resulting actions of individuals.

The existence of fundamentals of sociological knowledge would not be possible without the invaluable contributions of Marx, Weber, and Durkheim. These contributions together constitute the classical sociological theory which is the first step of comprehending the 'modern' world. This paradigm comprised of the core issues and philosophical problems related to the existence of mankind and its development. Modern sociological theory is chiefly influenced by these three intellectual thinkers and early sociologists. Marx, Weber, and Durkheim chose a common basis from which their theories arose and this is the primary reason for their collective involvement in many research discussions and debates. Important paradigms and disciplines such as philosophy, economics, politics, human history, and nature were examined and discussed by the trio in an interlinked manner. The contours of practical sociology are driven by the association between individual and society and this was repeatedly established in the works of these three sociologists. Finding solutions to social problems and acquiring contemporary knowledge about man and his relation with society is not possible without a deep examination of the theories propounded by Marx, Weber, and Durkheim CITATION Dil19 \l 1033 (Dillon).

The basic nature of humans as postulated by the three thinkers differed as Marx's theory focused on social critique and conflict, Durkheim mainly emphasized the social factors and Weber reflected upon the shaping of the relation among the humans and society as carved by socio-cultural, political, religious, and economic factors. All three of them have taken a definite, strong position regarding the basic nature of humans and the bilateral relationship between individuals and society.

Karl Marx opines that the first historical and unprecedented action is the generation of material life. This results in the shaping of human nature as man is in a constant state of dissatisfaction which paves the way for new needs. Furthering from this stance, Durkheim also stipulates the unlimited wants and desires of humans and stresses on the deceiving nature of satisfaction. According to Durkheim, satisfaction is a temporary state of mind for any individual and serves only as a stimulus for new needs. Durkheim prescribes the role of social control in this regard where it can impose a limitation on human desires. In the course of defining sociology, Weber promulgated his views on human behavior. Weber theorized that penetrating the subjective meaning of human behaviors, human actions can be perceived and predicted rationally.

The forward movement of society was described by Marx as the struggle for social and civic changes and for further elaboration his writings on social stratification, class struggle, and division of labor can be analyzed. Marx projected a holistic approach that viewed society and all its constituents as one big picture whereby the instances of the human life, for example, religion, family institutions, education, art and architecture, legal code of conduct acted as pieces of a puzzle and cannot thrive without inter-dependence on the other. As maintained by Marx, the primary independent variable is the modus operandi of the economic production and the resulting human behavior responding to its never-ending requirements. The basic nature of human beings is shaped by the economic situation and all the other aspects of the literary, artistic, legal, philosophical, and political nature ultimately get affected by the modes of economic production. Opposing Marx's idea of historical materialism, Weber defined the social system and its relation with the individual by paying particular attention to factors of religion and economy. Rationalization, disenchantment, and secularization were identified as the antecedents of modern-day capitalism by Weber. Finally, Durkheim advocated that in the wake of industrialization and new social division, societies succeed to maintain their integrity and cohesion by opposing structural constructs but human nature responds to the invigoration transmitted by the social institutions CITATION Sco17 \l 1033 (Scott).

Marx, Weber, and Durkheim are regarded as organic sources for developing grand theories for understanding sociology and the inter-related disciplines of social sciences CITATION Gid76 \l 1033 (Giddens). The three sociologists explicate the basic nature of humans with different perspectives.

The theoretical underpinnings on which Marx’s view of human nature is based, construe that there is a fundamental urge in the human nature for the materialistic production which is directly associated with the attainment of satisfaction on an individual and social level. The concept of ‘human nature’ from a Marxist viewpoint comprises the attainment of common material needs of individuals and maintains that individual and collective actions must strive for the existence of a society that usurps capitalism. Under the labor processes of capitalism, Marx perceived humans to be crushed and degraded CITATION Say05 \l 1033 (Sayers). Marx reflected that an individual cannot thrive in society without interaction with his fellow beings and the general community.

Pursuant to his contributions in the classical sociological theory, Weber postulates that the societal structures play a dynamic role in augmenting the nature of ‘isolated’ or ‘lone’ individual and inculcate peculiar ideas and values in him which help to transition the individual’s behavior based on self-interest towards one pursuing collective benefit CITATION Wal90 \l 1033 (Wallace). Human nature demonstrates that without substantial help from fellow humans, an individual cannot bring about large alterations in the physical world. The construction of a society and its responses towards individuals is founded on the collective abilities and inabilities of human nature as advocated by Weber.

Dwelling on the role of social institutions, Durkheim portrays an individual as a biological organism who is driven by his psychological and instinctive drives but is constrained by the socially constructed norms and values CITATION Dur05 \l 1033 (Durkheim). Finally, Durkheim believes that human beings cannot survive without belonging in a group, which in its true essence is the society that helps in shaping human nature. Contrary to the opinions of Marx, Durkheim argued that society has taken up the form of a moral entity, and it is no longer considered as a group of humans acting in the sole interest of their betterment. The individual's reception of intellectual and moral faculties from the society assists him in a self-creation of goals and activities in the course of his life which marks him distinct from other living beings.

Works Cited

BIBLIOGRAPHY Dillon, M. Introduction to sociological theory: theorists, concepts, and their applicability to the twenty-first century. John Wiley & Sons, 2019.

Durkheim, Emile. "The dualism of human nature and its social conditions."." Durkheimian Studies (2005): 35-45.

Giddens, Anthony. " "Classical social theory and the origins of modern sociology."." American Journal of Sociology (1976): 703-729.

Sayers, Sean. "Why work? Marx and human nature"." Science & Society (2005): 606-616.

Scott, John. "Social structure." Concepts in Action (2017): 151-171.

Wallace, Walter L. "Rationality, human nature, and society in Weber's theory." Theory and Society (1990): 199-223.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

Analysys Of Victor Rios Book Punished: Policing Lives Of Blacks And Latino

Analysis of Victor Rios Book: Punished: Policing Lives of Black and Latino Boys

[Student’s Name]

[Institution affiliated]

Analysis of Victor Rios Book: Punished: Policing Lives of Black and Latino Boys

The book, Punished: Policing Lives of Black and Latino Boys, was written by Victor Rios, a sociologist and Ph.D. holder at Berkeley University, mirrors social problems of black and Latino boys living in ghettos of Oakland in California in the years around the 1980s and 90s. As a former gang member in Oakland, Rios experienced all the nature of issues that African American and Latino boys faced in the inner city amid an increase in crimes and intensive policing by the government agents. The book examines the bleak lives of young men forced to live with punitive policies in their residential areas and schools where they are watched continuously and stigmatized. Rios wanted to show the lives of gangs in Oakland and how the system criminalizes them and limits their opportunities. He also intended to develop empathic solutions to help criminalized men find bearing in their lives and engage in useful and legitimate activities. The book is designed for black and Latino boys living in ghettos across American cities that they can find a way out of the gang and criminal lives. It is also for government agencies and institutions to review their policies on social control measures.

According to Rios, youth in the inner city of Oakland live in fear and suspicion because their lives have been hyper criminalized by the system, a process that has made them become targets of systemic social control. Their individual lives, behaviors, and styles have been treated continuously as deviant, threatening, and risky in all social contexts, including in schools. The lives of youth living in the inner city are always watched with many incarcerated for crimes not committed because the system has tuned the mindset about the criminal nature of black and Latino boys. Based on my reading of this book, I think that the Labelling Theory best explains the lives of the boys in Oakland. The concept of Labelling Theory explains that people act or behave in a way that other people see or describe them. The act of criminalizing young boys in Oakland stems from the act of stereotyping them as dangerous and risky criminals capable of destabilizing social order. As a result, black and Latino boys in Oakland always live in fear, suspicion, and anxiety as they wrestle with difficulties brought by stringent policing of their lives.

Rios explains that black and Latino boys in Oakland contend with constant punishment resulting from hyper criminalization of their lives. Punishments have made them feel defeated, ashamed, stigmatized, and hopeless because of sanctions and negative interactions imposed on the youth by representatives of institutions of social control. The punishments meted on them include incarceration in which the statistics indicate that most of those imprisoned are young black and Latino men. The young men studied admit that they have learned to live with perpetual imprisonment, and the chances of any one of the incarcerated are exceptionally high. Imprisonment as form as punishment in Oakland is so familiar to youths that most of them are aware of prison culture and live even before they go there. They have lived with former convicts and heard stories about prison lives, and some in schools have been treated like prisoners.

Rios uses both micro and macro-sociological approach in his book. There is evidence from the book that Rios engage in face to face conversations with young Black and Latino boys in Oakland. For instance, Rios interviewed, observe, and studied the lives of 40 black and Latino boys. Similarly, Rios brings out broader perspectives about trends and patterns of Black and Latino men living in ghettos across big cities in the United States. By engaging in close communication with groups and individuals in the ghetto, the writer managed to understand the realities and problems of colored men in Oakland and understand their daily struggles. Macrosociology discusses these realities in a broader perspective and highlighting the current racial issues that black and Latino face in communities, schools, and workplaces. Using these sociological approaches help the writer to meet its objective of showing social problems facing colored youth in America

Rios’ description of Oakland’s inner-city resembles ghettos such as Troy in New York, Boyle Heights and El Sereno in Los Angeles, etc. These ghettos share close similarities with Oakland's inner city. They have a high poverty level as the communities living in the area lack basic social necessities. The ghettos also have high youth unemployment leading to an increase in criminal activities such as gang life. Black and Latino youth are also highly discriminated against and accused of criminal activities.

In conclusion, Rios’ book provides a concise analysis of the lives of Oakland’s Black and Latino boys living in the inner city. I am satisfied with the writer’s description of Oakland’s inner city and the highlight of grave problems that they struggle with. Interviewing, studying, and observing the lives of black and Latino boys reveal aspects of their lives that have not been considered before. The writer prudently calls for reviewing of zero tolerant policies used by law enforcement because it marginalizes youth and brings negative effect. He calls for non-punitive support measures to help young men. Generally, I think the book is good as it provides a concise reflection of the lives of young black and Latino in the inner cities.


Rios, V. M. (2011). Punished: Policing the lives of Black and Latino boys. New York: New York University Press

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Annotated Bibliography





Annotated Bibliography on the Effects of Global Warming

Djalante, R. "Research trends on hazards, disasters, risk reduction, and climate change in Indonesia: a systematic literature review." Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (2016).

The systemic review by Djalante is an important source that addresses the hazards related to global and other forms of climatic changes. The study warns that the number of these disasters are on the rise. The author also gives the areas mostly affected by these natural hazards. Knowing some of the most predisposed areas to natural calamities e.g. Countries around the Pacific region is an alarm that these parts need an urgent solution to global warming. The article is a key contribution to the topic as it points out the effects of global warming in causing the natural disasters. The assessment of risks of hazards resulting from climatic change is brought forward so as to mitigate on the reduction of these risks for the well-being of the predisposed population.

Luber, George, and Natasha Prudent. "Climate Change and Human Health." Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association 120 (2009): 113–117. Print.

The journal by Luber et al. focuses on the effects of global warming on human's health. The authors classify the health effects as direct or indirect. According to this journal, the evidence that global warming is taking place is unequivocal. The consequences of this climatic variability are likely to vary across regions depending on the vulnerability of the demographic areas affected. According to this source, serious heat waves have caused many deaths in the past. Since it is a peer-reviewed journal, the level of evidence in this publication is adamant. For this reason, the publication is a rich source of information on the effects of global warming, particularly to the human health. The source concludes that global warming is an issue of a public health concern.

McMichael, Anthony J. "Globalization, climate change, and human health." New England Journal of Medicine 368.14 (2013): 1335-1343.

For a better understanding of the effects of global warming, it is key to have a background on how this phenomenon occurs. The study by McMichael published on New England Journal of Medicine found that human activities play a significant role in causing climatic change. Human activities have led to an increased production of carbon dioxide a key factor causing global warming. The study further gives some of the effects of the global warming on the human health. The results provided are from epidemiologic studies that have been done. The authors postulate that the effects of global warming on people's health are likely to be more adverse as the climatic change worsens. The source broadens our understanding of the global warming and its link to human health. Lastly, the authors assert that mitigation policies to prevent the adverse effects of global warming are need despite the complexity of the problem.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The consequences of climate change. 20 May 2016. <http://climate.nasa.gov/effects/>.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) website is an enlightening source of information on consequences of global warming. Of note, the website addresses the issue of how the global warming results in the formation of adverse heat waves. The websites also assert that global warming will affect the length of seasons. The website is a useful source as it projects future effects of the global warming on the human population. For instance, the website predicts that the future hurricanes may be more severe due to serious climatic changes suspected. In a nutshell, the website gives diverse information on how the effects of global warming are occurring today and the future possibilities of this menace.

Rosenthal, Joshua P., and Christine M. Jessup. "Global Climate Change and Health: Developing a Research Agenda for the NIH." Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association 120 (2009): 129–141. Print.

The journal by Rosenthal et al. is a rich source of extensive information on the effects of climatic change, particularly on human health. The authors clearly demonstrate how global warming is frequently associated with significant effects on the respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, distribution of zoonotic diseases, contamination of water and emergence of other diseases associated with extremes of heat e.g. heat stroke. Also, the journal makes it clear that most of these effects will affect the vulnerable population in our society e.g. people of extreme ages (very old and young). Also, people living in regions that are more predisposed will suffer more health effects that those in less risky areas. Thus, the source is paramount due to its comprehensive information on this topic and high level of evidence of the content presented.

The United States Environmental Protection Agency. Agriculture and Food Supply. 2 February 2016. https://www.epa.gov/agriculture/agriculture-news-2016

The web page is a key source of information that focuses on the climatic effects of farming and supply of food. Since agriculture is an important sector of the economy, negative implication on this field as a result of global warming is a serious issue due to its profound consequences. The key message from the web page is that global warming causes increased temperature that results to drought. Thus, the livestock, plants, and fish rearing are all affected by global warming. As a result, food supply is affected, and the most vulnerable areas may require humanitarian assistance. Lastly, the web page highlights the international impact of global warming. The website is a credible source hence a useful contribution on this topic.

William, Ellsworth, Robertson Jessica, and Hook Christopher. Man-Made Earthquakes Update. 17 January 2014. https://archive.usgs.gov/archive/sites/www.usgs.gov/blogs/features/usgs_top_story/man-made-earthquakes/index.html

The web page by William et al. provides insight on the occurrence of manmade earthquakes. The mechanism of development of these forms of earthquakes is given especially the effects of seismic activity. Based on the information provided by this website, it is apparent that global warming plays a significant role in the development of the manmade earthquakes. Global warming causes melting of the glacier, and this relieves the pressure exerted on the earth's crust. The article emphasizes the importance of understanding the associated risk as a result of the manmade earthquakes. The source is, therefore, an important source as it provides information on how global warming may contribute to natural calamities e.g. occurrence of deadly earthquakes.

WorldWatch Institute. Global Warming May Trigger Greater Seismic Activity. 27 May 2016.

The web page by WorldWatch provides information that is essential to understanding the mechanism of the formation of seismic activity due to global warming. Global warming has led to melting of ice as well as rising of the sea level. Consequently, the predisposed areas may experience earthquakes or volcanic eruptions. The author asserts that not all volcanic eruptions and volcanic activities result from the climatic change. However, because of the global warming can be prevented, it is important to understand a few cases of volcanic eruption and earthquakes that may be avoided if the problem is controlled. The web page is also credible and thus an important source for the research paper.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Any Page Title Is Fine

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of Instructor]



Capitalism and Socialism: Crisis and Potential


A financial system in which three conditions-private ownership of the means of production, personal profit, and competition- are found is called a capitalist system of economy. The sole object of the capitalist system is profit. Capitalism has been under fire by the critics due to the economic and social crisis it entails. This essay will explain the nature of the economic and social crisis that has been witnessed over time. Additionally, the core features of socialism and its potential as an alternative solution in a capitalist world will be highlighted.


Over time, critics have attributed capitalism for social inequality, lopsided wealth distribution, poor conditions of the workers, economic uncertainty, and unemployment. They consider the system to be unthoughtful, containing many contradictions, and generating inconsistencies. The world has seen seven official recessions till now, but the one that was witnessed in 2007-2008 remains unprecedented. This was like no other recession as it had detrimental economic repercussions. Employee wages came to a standstill, an increase in unemployment was witnessed, and a surge in the cost of living was documented. The social consequences were not hidden from anyone. As the recession gripped more strongly, economies grappling with the crisis slashed funds that were previously earmarked for public services.

On the contrary, socialism is defined as the system in which the modes of productions, dispensation, and their interchange is in the possession of the community or the government. Karl Marx and Fredric Engles in their book, The Communist Manifesto, first coined the term of socialism. The core tenets of a socialist financial system include the welfare of the general public and economic equality among the citizens.


To look at socialism as the alternative to the capitalist, one has to look at the countries that have established socialist welfare economies. Countries like China, Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and Canada have a socio-welfare model of governments. The social indicators of these countries project a happy picture as far as the welfare of the citizens is concerned. Hence, it would not be brainless to say that socialism possesses huge potential as the economic organization in the 21st century.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Article Critique

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Article Critique

Your Name (First M. Last)

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)

The Impact of Sports Participation on Female Gang Involvement and Delinquency


This article discusses the relationship that is present between the participation of sports, various gang connections, and criminal behavior within a varied sample of girls from a rural high school. A theory was given that girls who took part in sports had a low rate of gang associations and criminal record. This theory was supported in light of the findings that were made. Various outcomes were affected by race and ethnicity. The findings proved that sports participation had a negative relation with gang associations for all the participants in general. However, inconsistency was seen in the results when it came to the white youth.

Article Critique

In my opinion, the article is pretty straight forward. It is trying to state a simple fact that gang associations and having a criminal record will have a negative impact on sports membership. Having said that, what intrigued me was the presence of white privilege. The findings indicate that the data collected determined that white youths results were pretty inconsistent. Living in the 21st century, we walked pass everything but racism. While the result was similar for all participants in general but the presence of inconsistency in the whites says a lot. It should also be put into consideration that the students who are being examined are from a rural high school. That can also shed some light on the lack of consistency. However, this issue is not restricted to rural areas alone.


To conclude, I will like to talk about the recent issue that was faced in the international sports, when Serena Williams was handed an unfair code violation in the grand slam she played against Naomi Osaka. It was blown out of proportion because of the ethnicity that she belonged to. A lot of racist comments were made by newscasters to make the matter worse. This shows that at times things can be looked at from a different perspective in regards to the players ethnicity ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationIDa2atra32ie1,propertiesformattedCitation(Taylor, Nanney, Welch, Wamser-Nanney, 2016),plainCitation(Taylor, Nanney, Welch, Wamser-Nanney, 2016),citationItemsid178,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/zTPHp9Do/items/XWHWJPPP,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/zTPHp9Do/items/XWHWJPPP,itemDataid178,typearticle-journal,titleThe Impact of Sports Participation on Female Gang Involvement and Delinquency.,container-titleJournal of Sport Behavior,volume39,issue3,authorfamilyTaylor,givenMatthew J.,familyNanney,givenJohn T.,familyWelch,givenDesiree Z.,familyWamser-Nanney,givenRachel A.,issueddate-parts2016,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (Taylor, Nanney, Welch, Wamser-Nanney, 2016). This is indeed a sad reality and needs to be tackled. International sports or sports in a rural high school, the blindfold of specific ethnicity preference should be removed.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL custom CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Taylor, M. J., Nanney, J. T., Welch, D. Z., Wamser-Nanney, R. A. (2016). The Impact of Sports Participation on Female Gang Involvement and Delinquency. Journal of Sport Behavior, 39(3).






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Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

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Rethinking Heteronormativity


[Name of the Institution]

Rethinking Heteronormativity


Heterosexual roles are culturally determined. Enforcing the compliance of these heterosexual roles with the assumption that only heterosexuality is the normal attitude called heteronormativity CITATION Jan15 \l 1033 (Habarth, 2015). Heteronormativity encompasses all those institutions and practical orientations that see or make heterosexuality seem the only normal, acceptable and privileged orientation of sex. Consequently, the negative attitudes towards non-heterosexuals (bisexuals, homosexuals, queer) indirectly require that only heterosexuality be regarded as normal. This phenomenon is called heteronormativity. This social construct is one of the biggest factors responsible for hatred and prejudice against non-heterosexuals.

Heteronormativity regards heterosexuality as the default sexual orientation and considers it a norm. Moreover, it sees sexual and marital relations only between opposite sexes as normal. This view is also called a heteronormative view, which aims at aligning biological sex and sexuality. However, in the process, it also perpetuates gender roles and constructs expectations about identities. The term heteronormativity was popularized by Michael Warner in 1991. The concept evolved from the notion of sex or gender system presented by Gayle Rubin and the notion of compulsory heterosexuality presented by Adrienne Rich.

Measuring Heteronormativity

Although the impact of heteronormativity is immense, the tools to quantitatively measure heteronormative attitudes are limited. One technique is to correlate heteronormative beliefs with overall inflexibility of a person's or a community's beliefs. Investigating the psychological make-up of people with this perspective has produced consistent results about explaining how heteronormativity categorizes people into normal vs. ‘other' CITATION Heg \l 1033 (Hegarty & Prato, 2001). Another contribution in this regard was made by Massey in 2009 when he introduced a multidimensional measure called heteronormative resistance factor.

Compulsory heterosexuality

This term was popularized by poet Adrienne Rich. This cultural phenomenon, related to heteronormativity, explains how heterosexuals dominate culture by creating beliefs that only heterosexuality is the normal and acceptable orientation of sexuality and the rest are all deviant. One example of compulsory sexuality pertains to sex education that discusses only sex between opposite sex and thereby helps create a social construct and a perceived norm that sees only heterosexuality as acceptable. This also explains how almost everyone contributes towards compulsory heterosexuality in one way or the other, usually without even knowing it. Some thinkers of gender studies argue that even the terms such as “LGBTQ acceptance” in a way imply that that the “inferior” category needs to be accepted CITATION Bar \l 1033 (Barker, 2011).

In 1980 Adrienne Rich wrote an essay "Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence". In the essay, she argues against the belief that heterosexuality is natural or intrinsic. She sees it as an institution imposed upon people that particularly relegates women to a position of subordination. She also highlighted the removal of lesbian related literature from the feminist scholarship. One of the primary objectives of this essay was to present heterosexuality as a political institution that harms women by providing men with default access to women. Rich sees it as a tool of making women psychically, psychologically and economically dependent on men, and therefore advances the idea of lesbianism as an extension of feminism.

The Search for Roots of Heteronormativity

Michael Foucault, the author of the book “History of Sexuality”, argues that sexuality is not something natural. Desires and drives, usually considered natural, are shaped by social institutions CITATION Mic76 \l 1033 (Foucalt, 1976). He puts forth his theory on the discourse of sexuality and explains the "hypothesis of repression". He observes that the history of sexuality is generally read in terms of the repressive hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, modern society is still struggling with the sexual repression of the 19th century and that it is striving to liberate itself from this repression imposed in the name of morals. Foucault argues that rather the opposite of the hypothesis of repression is true. He explains how there has been an explosion of novel ways of thinking and expressing feelings related to sex. He traces these expressions back to the 17th century. Foucault also highlights that these expressions and the new forms of discourse about sex are the consequence of the changing capitalist landscape of power relations. In order to deal with the repression, he pointed to other outlets such as prostitution and psychiatry.

The social construction of Gender and sexuality

Simone de Beauvoir, The author of “The Second Sex”, said in her book that a person is not born feminine. A person becomes feminine and the whole civilization plays its part in creating this creature which is called feminine CITATION Sim49 \l 1033 (Beauvoir, 1949). Everything seen or known as reality is regarded as partially, if not entirely, socially situated. The example of money may be used here to explain how realities are construction. Although paper is worth nothing, when it is printed like money, value is ascribed to it, depending on the colour and digits written on it. The value is thus not inherent in money. It is rather socially constructed.

This perspective of social constructionism can be applied elsewhere as well including gender. It can, therefore, be said that it is society and culture that create gender roles. The stronger versions of this view argue that all the major differences in the behaviour of men and women are socially constructed. But the weaker versions of this theory that behaviour is shaped by biology and social convention together.

"Gender is a masquerade," said Judith Butler in her magnum opus Gender Trouble (1990). It is the repetition of performing the roles of male and female according to the social conventions that embolden the idea of gender CITATION Jud91 \l 1033 (Butler, 1991). Therefore, all the participants of human society are "doing" gender. This concept was termed as gender performativity by Judith Butler. This repetition of gender roles reinforces gender roles by internalizing the belief in both men and women that they are essentially different. This process of gendering is omnipresent. Everybody has been doing gendering ever since birth.

Gendering is done from birth. The construction of gender starts as soon as a child is born. The child is subjected to male-female binary categorization. Then they are named accordingly. Dressing them differently also becomes a mark of identifying gender. As soon as a child begins to talks, they begin to repeat what they have been taught as their names. Although sexual orientation does not come into play until puberty, yet, by the time they reach puberty, their orientation has already been shaped by constant exposure to gendered expectations and norms. Parenting is also gendered in that there are different expectations for fathers and mothers. The duties they perform and mothers and fathers manifest socially constructed roles.

Here it pertinent to address the question of whether gender comes from physiology. Gender and sex are two different concepts. The former is a social construct whereas the latter is a biological reality. Sex corresponds to the physiological differences between males and females. Gender is not defined by sex because there are no two sexes only. Transsexuals and transvestites/cross-dressers also exist.

Another important phenomenon to observe nowadays is the changing roles of men and women. Father have increasingly begun to take care of little children, which was once the only feminine job. Boys and girls now wear unisex clothes and get educated in similar ways. Men and women are increasingly competing for similar jobs in the market. These changing roles substantiate the argument that gender roles are indeed socially constructed realities which have historically placed women at a position of disadvantage.

Rejecting the categories of gender and sexuality: Queer Theory

Sexuality can be defined as sexual orientation and identity of a person. Just like sex and gender do not always align, gender and sexuality may not always align either. Moreover, sexuality may not necessarily correspond to a person’s biological sex. This idea has been elucidated in Queer theory in Gender Studies. The categories of normative and deviant sexualities are socially constructed ideas CITATION Jud91 \l 1033 (Butler, 1991).

Queer means peculiar, strange, odd or abnormal. Until the 1980s, this word had negative connotations for homosexuals or bisexuals. Queer theory primarily capitalizes on the mismatches between/among sex, gender and sexuality CITATION Ter91 \l 1033 (Lauretis, 1991). Queer theory is a poststructuralist critical theory. It emerged out of the fields of queer studies in the early 1980s. A movement called the Gay Liberation Front (GLF) was established in Britain in 1970. By 1972 it had become one of the largest British gay organizations. It campaigned ferociously for homosexual equality.

To understand Queer theory, some terms need to be defined first. Bisexual is a person having a sexual orientation towards both biological sexes. Gay is a person who is biologically male but is sexually attracted to other men. Lesbian is a biological female having a sexual orientation towards women. Transgender, on the other hand, is a person who does not identify with the gender that is expected for him on the basis of their biological sex. Such a person may have a sexual orientation towards either sex or both sexes or none. An intersex is a person whose biological sex cannot be determined on the basis of traditional standards of the external genitalia or reproductive organs. Such a person is regarded as abnormal according to societal standards and norms. Such a person may have a sexual orientation towards either sex or both or none.

The above categories clearly show that gender identity may not necessarily align with a person's biological sex. Nor is it essential that a person's sexual orientation is aligned with a person's biological sex or gender. Knowing this helps us understand that heteronormativity is also a social construct.

Masculinities, Femininities and Sexual Orientation

Biological sex is determined by physiological differences between men and women. These differences result in the categories of "male" and "female". Likewise, the characteristics that describe gender identities are called femininities and masculinities. Since gender is a social construct, these femininities and masculinities correspond to socially constructed roles of men and women. These behaviours are learned. However, they do not describe sexual orientation. Femininities and masculinities vary across cultures, religions, classes and regions. How they are valued also differ from place to place.'

Heterosexual imaginary

Institutionalized heterosexuality structures gender in many ways. A theory which emerged in the 1990s that highlighted the ways of thinking that hide how dating, weddings and marriages structures gender. This theory studies a variety of social hierarchies including gender and race.

Homosexuality and heteronormativity

In the nature vs. nurture debate, homosexuality and gender play a central role. The debate on whether homosexuality is biological or socially constructed is inconclusive. Some advanced neuro-scans, comparing the brains of homosexuals and heterosexuals, have shown that there are some differences. For instance, the interstitial nuclei of the anterior hypothalamus are parts associated with behaviour and reproductive physiology, and the scans show that they are larger in heterosexual males and homosexual males. This make sits plausible that sexual orientation may be decided by biology, albeit not in the conventional fashion. Some researchers argue that homosexuality is a learned behaviour. However, there is significant evidence that children raised by homosexual parents are not necessarily homosexuals.

The complexity of heteronormativity

For the last couple of decades, feminists have been assessing how heterosexuality along with the belief and attitude of heteronormativity affects the lives of heterosexuals. They have been studying earlier feminists such as Monique Witting and Adrienne Rich, who endeavoured to relate, and quite successfully did relate, the institution of heteronormativity with the perpetuation of gendered roles such division of labour according to norms. They have also explained how it allows males to control women's productive and reproductive capacities. The concept of compulsory heterosexuality can be regarded as the predecessor of heteronormativity. By regulating the behaviour of heterosexuals and by stigmatizing non-heterosexuals, Heteronormativity, therefore, has far-reaching consequences. It is a double-sided social regulation institution CITATION Ste06 \l 1033 (Jackson, 2006).

Social consequences of heteronormativity

The invisible force of heteronormativity dictates how relations should be carried out, how public spaces should be used. It shapes how women and men should behave. It forces women to serve men after marriage and promotes motherhood. It also creates an expectation for men's behaviour as hegemonic masculinity. Above all, it shapes a negative perception of sexual minorities (non-heterosexuals).

It is not uncommon that negative opinions are held about those who do not identify themselves as heterosexual. The sexual orientation of such people is often equated with harassment. This institutionalized bias is often termed as heterosexism CITATION Pee01 \l 1033 (Peel, 2001). Heterosexism is pathologizing or stigmatizing non-heterosexuality whereas heteronormativity is normalizing heterosexuality.

Both in gender and queer theories, heteronormativity has been identified as one of the primary factors that promote prejudice against transgender and non-heterosexual identities CITATION Kit05 \l 1033 (Kitzinger, 2005). Even welfare laws deny some normally available welfare services to sexual minorities CITATION Lin04 \l 1033 (Lind, 2004)

Cathy J. Cohen and Michael Warner, the foremost critics of heteronormative behaviour, argue that heteronormativity stigmatizes and marginalizes deviant forms of sexuality and gender. In a heteronormative culture, heterosexuality is privileged whereas LGBTs are oppressed. Even in marriage, tax codes and workplaces, they are discriminated against.

Heteronormativity creates a “sex hierarchy” wherein sexual practices are graded as acceptable or not acceptable. It is a hierarchy in which only monogamous intercourse between two heterosexuals is labelled as good. Sexual acts outside the heterosexuality regime fall in the category of bad sex CITATION Rub93 \l 1033 (Rubin, 1993). This hierarchy is partially responsible for stigmatizing gay or lesbians as deviant for even those practices which are considered acceptable when performed by straight people such as sex in public areas or even watching pornography.


Having substantiated that gender is a social construct, that sexuality may or may not align with a person’s gender or biological sex, and that sex is not binary, it can be concluded that heteronormativity is a socially constructed attitude. The various concepts of Gender Studies such as Queer Theory, Masculinities and Femininities, and the difference between sex and gender- the former being biological while the latter being socially constructed- help us understand how heteronormativity itself is a social construction. Its consequences are far-reaching. It perpetuates the socially constructed roles which result in an inequitable distribution of labour, thereby placing women in a disadvantaged position. Moreover, non-heterosexuals are stigmatized and considered outcast by people with a heteronormative attitude and belief. It has promoted prejudice against the LGBTs. With changing gender roles worldwide and increasing acceptance for non-heterosexuals, it can be hoped that the norms which evolved over centuries can be reversed, albeit gradually.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Barker, M., 2011. What’s wrong with heteronormativity.

Beauvoir, S. d., 1949. The Second Sex. s.l.:s.n.

Butler, J., 1991. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. s.l.:s.n.

Foucault, M., 1976. History of Sexuality. New York: Pantheon Books.

Habarth, J. M., 2015. Development of the heteronormative attitudes and beliefs scale.

Hegarty, P. & Prato, F., 2001. Sexual orientation beliefs.

Jackson, S., 2006. Gender, Sexuality and Heterosexuality: The complexity (and limits) of heteronormativity. The University of York.

Kitzinger, C., 2005. Heteronormativity in action. Social problems.

Lauretis, T. d., 1991. Queer Theory: Lesbian and Gay Sexualities. s.l.:s.n.

Lind, A., 2004. Legislating the family: Heterosexist bias in social welfare policy frameworks.

Peel, E., 2001. Mundane heterosexism: Understanding incidents of the everyday. Women’s Studies International Forum.

Rubin, 1993. Thinking Sex: Notes for a Radical Theory of the Politics of Sexuality.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 7 Words: 2100


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The differences between responsible assertive, non-assertive, and passive aggressive behaviors in human communication and the approaches to life are multi-faceted and distinct. While talking, an assertive person speaks openly, a non-assertive person is afraid to speak up, an aggressive person interrupts and talks over others, while a passive aggressive person may not actively participate in the communication but has a tendency to express their anger in subtle and indirect ways. Facial expressions and body language are also the chief elements of communication and behavior. A person displaying assertive behavior will show expressions that will match their message. A person displaying non-assertive behavior will show little or no expressions and the aggressive behavior is likely to intimidate others with their expressions. A person having a passive aggressive approach to life is likely to manifest dismissive and angry expressions. Being responsibly assertive is held in high esteem by experts in social science and communication fields because it enables people to maintain their self-respect while they defend their rights and pursue their desires CITATION Vag19 \l 1033 (Vagos). Responsible assertion is the confirmation of one’s right to be taken seriously in any given scenario.

Allowing for the restoration of an individual’s perception about himself as positive amounts to rational thinking, whereas irrational thinking and thought processes lead an individual to focus chiefly on their flaws.

Realizing and accepting our human rights can help us to remove blocks to assertion as exercising personal rights fully relates to one’s competency and renders people to timely respond if their own rights or those of others, have been violated. The Bill of assertive rights entails all those necessary postulations which allow us to act responsibly assertive.

The main point in ‘How to make hard choices’ by Ruth Chang was that there is a misunderstanding about hard choices and the role they play in our lives CITATION Cha14 \l 1033 (Chang). Choosing the option that leads a person to become their envisioned self and not submitting to the societal pressure can increase the levels of responsible assertion. Better decision-making abilities also helps in self-actualization through a fuller knowledge and acceptance of one’s intrinsic nature. Self-actualization is also easier to attain because better decision-making abilities increase synergy and integration of different ideas within a person.

I would not sit quiet if I see someone’s rights being violated. I would immediately speak up and express my concerns over the matter. Redoubling my efforts to challenge racism or the violation of a minority’s rights might involve keeping evidence of the situation and reporting it later and adopting an inter-sectional approach to all the aspects of my life. If I was at the harem and I saw a white woman’s basic rights getting violated, I would have immediately spoke up and addressed the issue.

Recently, I had a small dispute with a friend of mine and the problem was that she had been talking adversities about me and my family. There was a problem that had been resolved quite a while ago but instead of letting it go she still discussed it in a negative manner and failed to let it go that resulted in a physical dispute between us. I showed aggression and encountered her angrily. In this process, my right of being treated with dignity and respect was violated. When she did not stop talking about my family in front of others, my right of having and expressing my own feelings and opinions was violated that I could not defend myself and the portrayal of my family. Through her behavior, she also violated my right of judging my own behavior thoughts and emotions. She did not let me undertake responsibility for the initiation and consequences of my own actions. There were also some irrational beliefs that interfered with the smooth dynamics of appropriate behavior. For instance, one of the irrational thought was that the way she portraying my family would somehow get ingrained in the minds of the listeners and I would always suffer for that. Another irrational thought was that she did not have the right to keep talking about us. A relatively more successful outcome would have resulted that if we would have reported the situation to grown adults and had a mature conversation about it. If I was responsibly assertive and spoke about my concerns in a confident manner, the physical altercation could have been avoided. Some assertive techniques that I could use to prevent the whole situation are listening actively, and aim for an open and honest communication. An intercultural situation where assertion may not prove to be effective is one where the rights of a cultural minority are openly being violated and no one is defending them.

Works Cited

BIBLIOGRAPHY Chang, Ruth. How to make hard choices . 18 June 2014. Youtube. 1 December 2019.

Vagos, Paula, and Anabela Pereira. " "Towards a Cognitive-Behavioral Understanding of Assertiveness: Effects of Cognition and Distress on Different Expressions of Assertive Behavior."." Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy (2019): 133-148.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Asses The State Difference In Residents' Completion Of Bachelors Degree In 2017

Assessing the State Differences in Resident’s Completion of Bachelor’s Degree in 2017

[Student’s Name]

[Institution affiliation]

Assessing the state differences in resident’s completion of bachelor’s degree in 2017


Significant differences exist between states in terms of attainment and completion of a bachelor’s degree in the US. Some states register higher bachelor’s completion rates while many others register a lower completion rate than the country average, which stood at 30.9% as of 2017. This paper shows Statewise distribution completion percentages indicating the five highest and lowest states. It also features a comprehensive analysis of factors that contribute to the existing differences.

A table showing the highest and lowest percentages of bachelor’s degree completion per state


Percentages (%)

Deviation from country’s average (30.9 %)

Highest percentage










New Jersey






Lowest percentages













West Virginia



(Data obtained from the United States Census Bureau (2017)

The table above shows the percentage completion of Bachelor’s degree distributed per state. It shows five states with the highest percentage and the five lowest completion rate. Each percentage rate is compared with the country’s average rate, which stands at 30.9%.

Comparisons and explanation of differences in completion rates

As indicated in the table above, there is a notable deviation between degree completion rates between Massachusetts having 42.1% and West Virginia 19.9%. The differences in graduation rates between the highest and lowest stands at 22.2%. Notably, there is a considerable deviation existing between the states that have the lowest completion rate compared with the country’s average. Nevada has a variation of -11%. Interestingly, the states that post the lowest completion rates, which include Mississippi, West Virginia, Arkansas, and Kentucky, come from southern states and most of the states that have high completion rates, including Missouri, Massachusetts, and New Jersey, come from the Northern States. Whereas there are vast differences in completion rates across states, a junk of information is available explaining a myriad of factors that contribute to this inequality. The following paragraphs provide an in-depth analysis of factors that bring these differences which include a combination of socio-economic and political factors

Disparities in socioeconomic attainment exist in the United States, and more so between northern and southern states. Racial factors primarily cause these differences. Inequality is equally noticeable in the education sector. Tate (2017), writing on Graduation Rates and Race, explains that degree completion rates differ along the ethnic and racial lines with the white and Asian students having 20% more completion rates than other races. According to the data released by the National Student Clearinghouse Research Center (NSCRC), the racial differences in completion fluctuate as high as 25%. Their data showed that the Asian and white students graduating from different degree programs stand at 62% and 63.3% respectively while the blacks and the Hispanics graduating from the degree programs stand at 38 percent and 45.6 percent, respectively. Going by NSRC data, racial background determines the achievement of higher education and completion of a Bachelor’s degree. Students coming from black and Hispanic background are less likely to complete their studies in colleges and universities. A similar observation is also notable when you look at High School Dropout Rates available in Child Trends, a government data showing education attainment. This data, like those of college completion rates, show that a high number of Hispanics and blacks drop out of high school, and the majority do not proceed to higher education. Given these data, it is easier to make the supported inference that racial and ethnic backgrounds are a crucial factor shaping degree completion rates in the United States.

Looking at the table above, indicating percentage completion rates per state, there is a notable observation that the Southern States predominantly occupied by blacks and Hispanics record the least rates. Interestingly, states such as Mississippi, West Virginia, and Arkansas, which has the lowest completion, are called black states. Nichol & Schak (2018), in their study Degree Attainment for Black Adults: National and State Trends observes that despite the annual increase in number of blacks and Latino attaining higher education from 2000 to 2016; their numbers and completion rates still lower especially in black southern states compared with Northern states predominantly occupied by whites. Their observations concur with details as indicated in the table above, which shows that of five states showing highest degree completion rates in 2017, only Maryland comes from the south, and the other top five states are predominantly white-dominated.

Poverty is another crucial concept that determines degree completion rates in America. Courtney (2017) writing in Strong Correlation Continues between Poverty, and Graduation Rates shows the relationship between poverty and graduation rates. Using data provided by the National Student Clearinghouse Research Center (NSCRC), Courtney indicates that students hailing from lower-income households have a lower rate of college graduation. The research findings show that the economic status and income of households determine education attainment and especially degree completion rates. Poor households do not have enough finances and resources to maintain students in colleges and universities. The economic conditions of households, coupled with the ever-rising cost of attaining higher education, meaning that many households are unable to provide education above high school.

Research by Child Fund (2013) in The Effects of Poverty on Education in the United States supports the phenomenon that poverty influences higher educational attainment. Their findings indicate that 1 in every 6 Americans live below the poverty line, while 1 in 5 children live in poverty. More than 30% of children raised in poor households do not finish high schools, while people age 20 years above who do not earn a degree are 7 times more likely to come from poor households. To add salt in an already worse situation, the cost of education in the US continues to increase hence influencing the rate of affordability, especially among low-income families. According to the US. Department of Education (2019) although education remains the leading driver of social and economic mobility in America, the cost of attaining it has entrusted many into poverty since they cannot afford higher education. As argued above, poverty remains a critical element impacting negatively on college graduation in states that register low percentages. States such as West Virginia, Arkansas, Kentucky and Nevada are among the poorest states in the US because their residents have relatively lower household incomes compared to states that have the highest household income, such as California and Massachusetts.

As partial discussed above, the affordability of higher education in the US influences its attainment and is one of the leading causes of a college dropout. Bridgestock (2019) writing on How Much Does it Cost to Study in the US? Notes that top tier universities in the US charge $26,290 tuition fee per year and if you add other chargeable fees and the living costs, the average cost of education in the US can hit $60,000 per year. For the private non-profit colleges, the chargeable fees are even higher than public colleges. They charge tuition fees amounting to $35,830 and an accommodation fee of $12,680, totalling to $48 510. Interestingly, government funding available for students to subsidize the fee remains insignificant to many students, given the amount they are required to add on to meet the costs. The ever-rising costs of education higher education have barred many bright students, especially from low-income households. Even those who manage to join through government funding and efforts of relatives may not complete a four-year course making them part of the dropouts. Sustenance brings significant difficulties to poor students because though they can pay tuition fees, they are unable to sustain themselves in colleges. The rising cost of education has continued to affect people in different states, as indicated earlier in the table. Those states registering lower graduation rates means that many families in those states cannot afford to meet the cost of a college education.


The table and the analysis above shows the rate of bachelor’s degree completion among different states and intensive analysis of factors that bring these differences. Findings indicate that Massachusetts, Maryland, Missouri, New Jersey, and Virginia register high completion rates and Nevada, Kentucky, Arkansas, Mississippi, and West Virginia show low completion rates. Massachusetts has the highest completion rate of 42.1%, while West Virginia registered 19.9%. The range between these states stands at 22.2%. A number of factors contribute to this difference. As indicated, racial issues, poverty (economic status of households) and the high cost of university education contribute towards the existing differences. The states having low completion rates come from predominantly black and Hispanic communities and they have low household income hence unable to afford the cost of higher education. The converse of this is applicable in the states that have a higher completion rate.


Bridgestock, L (2019) How Much Does it Cost to Study in the US?. Retrieved from https://www.topuniversities.com/student-info/student-finance/how-much-does-it-cost-study-us

Child Fund (2018) The Effects of Poverty on Education in the United States. Retrieved from https://www.childfund.org/Content/NewsDetail/2147489206/

Child Trends (2017) High School Dropout Rates. Retrieved from https://www.childtrends.org/indicators/high-school-dropout-rates

Courney, P (2017) Strong Correlation Continues Between Poverty, Graduation Rates. Retrieved from https://www.goodcall.com/news/strong-correlation-continues-poverty-graduation-rates-09275/

Nichols, A. H., & Schak, J. O. (2018). Degree Attainment for Black Adults: National and State Trends. Education Trust.

Tate, E (2017) Graduation Rates and Race. Retrieved from https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2017/04/26/college-completion-rates-vary-race-and-ethnicity-report-finds

United States Census Bureau (2017) Educational Attainment information 2013-2017 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimate. Retrieved from https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_17_5YR_S1501

US. Department of Education (2019) College Affordability and Completion: Ensuring a Pathway to Opportunity. Retrieved from https://www.ed.gov/college

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

Assignment #1


Migration of history of Pakistan started in 1947 when it gained independence. The migrations occurred between 1947 to 1965. In the eighteenth century, Pakistanis moved to America and acquired jobs in the agriculture, mining, and logging. The estimated Pakistanis that moved to America during this period include 2,500 people. The major reason was for getting better opportunities for work and wages. This was known as the beginning of a distinct Pakistani community in America. The statistics provided by the Census Bureau of America reveals that the total number of Pakistani Americans was 100,000 in 1990 while in 2000 the number grew to 210,000. The USA census stated that by 215 the legally migrated Pakistanis was 500,000. In 2010 an increase of 204,309 Pakistanis was reported. The largest number of Pakistani population moved to America in 1965 due to the lifting of the immigration restrictions by the US government. Most of the people migrated from the cities of Lahore and Karachi for familiarizing themselves with the western culture. The number of Pakistani migrants declined since 2000 after the incidence of 9/11. The comparison of the two periods indicates that the central reason for Pakistanis to move to America in the 1990s was for searching for jobs and education. Many people came to settle in the west for availing better opportunities. There have been significant changes in the number of Pakistanis migration to America since 2000. The central reason for increased migration in 1965 was the result of lifting quotas. While in 2001 the state banned Pakistani migration due to the twin towers attack. Pakistanis suffered the consequences of the terror attack as many Pakistani Americans were deported and visas of many were also canceled.



0-10 years

Over 10 years










The survey results of the PEW depicts that the number of foreign-born Pakistanis increased inconsistently. For the period of 10 years, the foreign-born Pakistanis were 59% in 2000, 41% in 2010 and 36% in 2015. This indicates a declined in the Pakistani foreign-born population. The reasons for decline involve a financial crisis of 2007 and the terror incident of 9/11. Both had affected the opportunities of survival for the Pakistanis. The findings also state that half a million Pakistanis were sent to their homelands in 2012 CITATION PEW16 \l 1033 (PEW). Facts indicates that, “of the 544,105 Pakistanis deported, 71,723 were expelled in 2012; 79,539 in 2013; 78,409 in 2014; 116,185 in 2015; 111,084 in 2016; and 87,165 in just the first six months of 2017” CITATION Irf12 \l 1033 (Ghauri). The number of deportations increased due to the security concerns of the state and strict visa policy.

3. The predominant means of immigration today include legal migrants, refugees, temporary workers, and employment immigrants. Illegal immigration is controlled by the state due to the strict policy measures. Today gaining visa for employment is more tedious because of the increased formalities. Pakistanis face more difficulties today in migrating compared to the past. Much unskilled labor initially entered through illegal means and gained low-wage jobs. After the deportation of thousands of illegal Pakistani immigrants, the state has managed to control the issue. Employment immigration involves strict scrutiny of the applicants and take almost months for the approval. By 1990s America offered more opportunities for employment with the belief that foreign labor force boosts the economy.

Majority of the Pakistanis that moved to America had specific educational backgrounds. However, with time they acquired western knowledge and assimilated in different sectors for the employment. In 1965 the Pakistanis managed to find jobs in academia, medical and law. However the second-generation found jobs in other sectors also. Many Pakistanis that entered the country accepted the low-paying jobs for settling. Today they enjoy a comfortable lifestyle and part of the upper, middle and lower-class. “Pakistani Americans tend to follow the residence pattern set by other Americans, in that they move to more affluent suburbs as their prosperity increases” CITATION Tin17 \l 1033 (Pavri). This indicates that Pakistanis are today more influenced by western culture. The foreign-born and US-born have a strong relationship with America that is apparent in their ways of dressing, language and lifestyle patterns.

4. The age composition of the Pakistanis living in America depicts that among children of ages less than five years the highest percentage is of US-born. It also indicates that among Pakistanis of ages (5-17 years) the highest percentage (47) is of foreign-born and Asians are 18. The statistics further reveals that among Pakistanis of ages 18-29 years the majority are US-born (22) and foreign-born (20). Among Pakistanis of ages, 40-49 years majority is of foreign-borne (20). The median age of Asian Pakistanis in America is 34, while of US-born is 12. The median age of foreign-born is 40 and of all is 30. Similarly among Pakistanis of ages 60-64 the highest population is of foreign-born (23).






Less than 5





5- 17





18- 29





30- 39





40- 49





50- 64







Less than 1



Median age





The family structure depicts that Pakistanis are following a patriarchal system as most of the males hold former education and also play the role of sole breadwinners. Females are taking the role of housewives and are mostly confined to homes. Minimal women are participating in financial support by taking jobs of work outside homes. It is this important to understand the difference between the first-generation and second-generation Pakistanis. The first-generation Pakistanis have managed to play the same patriarchal roles by accepting the role of housewives. Facts reveal that “second-generation Pakistani American women tend to be more resistant to traditional roles, but the pressures for conformity within the Pakistani community are still quite strong” CITATION Tin17 \l 1033 (Pavri). The western culture has not undermined connectivity of Pakistanis with native land. This exhibits significant changes in the role of women as many managed to take work by challenging the patriarchal mindsets. This also depicts the influence of the west on the Pakistanis.

Both male and female parents are contributing to the education of their children by sending them to good schools. Pakistanis living in America express conflicting emotions regarding individualism, freedom, economic efficiency, job opportunities, and science. Majority Pakistanis are still tracing roots of their rural culture thus having a significant impact on their children and the next generations. Pakistanis are free to practice their religion and faith. Traditional and religious values also hold great significance in the lives of Pakistani Americans. This can be seen in celebration of events such as holidays. Pakistanis living in America practice their religion that is apparent in their five-time prayers in a day and fasting. There are mosques visited by Pakistanis daily. Family characteristics also reflect that "Pakistani Americans mingle with their American counterparts or with members of other immigrant ethnic groups in work situations, but often choose to spend their leisure time with members of their own community” CITATION Tin17 \l 1033 (Pavri). Pakistanis have managed to maintain their cultural identity in America. They are still clinging to their old traditions and customs.

Work Cited

BIBLIOGRAPHY Ghauri, Irfan. Half a million Pakistanis deported since 2012. 2012. 08 03 2019 <https://tribune.com.pk/story/1498049/half-million-pakistanis-deported-since-2012/>.

Pavri, Tinaz. Pakistani americans. 2017. 08 03 2019 <https://www.everyculture.com/multi/Le-Pa/Pakistani-Americans.html>.

PEW. Pakistanis in the U.S. Fact Sheet. 2016. 08 03 2019 <http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/fact-sheet/asian-americans-pakistanis-in-the-u-s/>.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

Assignment 1: Position Paper One – Media And Society

Media and Society

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Media and Society

Have More Women Become Involved as Decision Makers in Media Industries

Women occupy around one-third of all positions that are counted in public service broadcasting organizations. It is important to note that around one-quarter of positions in the private sector are more likely to appoint women into senior roles (59%) than private organizations (41%). The distribution of roles highlights the fact that there is a seemingly satisfactory ratio of women enrollments in the context of roles and duties. Switching on a film, watching a TV program or watching TED, everywhere women are seen inferring their life and decision, but the reality is much diverting. Have ever observed a female news channel owner, advanced publication authoritative? It is self-analytical that if 59% enrollment is made in senior roles than there should be a parallel vision of the genders on media platforms. Taking into account 41% of enrollment in a private organization, it is assumed that there should be a frequent depiction of the enrolled baseline in terms of actions such as, “publications”, and “decision making”. (O’Brien, et, al. 2018). Women are continuously under-presented in the framework of decision making structures of major media organizations at both strategic and operational levels. The analysis of strategic and operational levels infers that it is a landscape where two genders are colliding in search of subject rights and values. Despite several recruitment and appointments, there is a significant under-identification of females section in media organizations and women are not involved in decision making in media industries, they are confined to “stance of attracting more” (Ibrahim, et, al. 2018). There are certain factors that contribute to this aspect, such as, working environment, execution of policies and decision-making boards.

Despite major revolutions in the fields of information and approach towards the analysis of the equal distribution of job opportunities for culturally diverse people, it is important to note that there is a great ratio of suppression in females within their media boards because of "uncomfortable working environment." (O’Brien, et, al. 2018). A comparative analysis reveals that there is a greater ratio of women who are conscious of the working environment, and women are found to be a victim of environmental targets. According to the information gathered in an article, women are suffering from the cultural complex, and it has a great impact on the working of women in an organization. (Ibrahim, et, al. 2018). Working on a media platform, it has been highlighted that there is a greater approach towards the analysis of fears that anchors and other recruits face. According to the report published by UNESCO it is brought into insight that media is a platform of innovation and awareness, but the dilemma exists where there is a lack of accountability in the baseline of information. Several media booths are a victim to the deviations that can hamper the actual crux of women participation. An analysis depicts that men observe a ratio of 70% decision dominancy in media organizations.

There is an under-representation of women within media, and it is often quoted with an apparent reality of "policies." Although several policies are meant for facilitating the women representation, there is no hard and fast implication of such policies. The professional bodies such as International Federation of Women Journalist as well as NGO's such as European Women Lobby and the Council of Europe have taken steps to improve carrier opportunities for women, but there is a continued lag in the active participation because of dominant head authorities and lack of analysis of accurate figures. (Ibrahim, et, al. 2018). By 2018, the publicly funded organizations are also brought into the limelight, adhering to the fact that there is a lack of implication in a broader framework. The execution of policies is not monitored. Moreover, there is a lack of workforce analysis that can incorporate the lacking points of an organization. (Powell, et, al. 2018). Although the policy of equity is published everywhere, still there is a great gap in adherence and performance. There is a comparative lack of resources and information websites that can fulfill the goals. As per the report published by UNESCO, there is an account of information that can act as a guide to infer that even the individuals involved in public service platforms have failed to address the issues because there is a strong dominance in the information provided and the overall doings. Several cases of anchors and publishers have been dealt with great attention, but still, there is a dire need to opt for options that can inculcate accountability and reflection. The proper execution of policies is only possible where adequate platforms of reflections and check and balance will be granted. (Ibrahim, et, al. 2018).

Taking into account the impact of “decision-making bodies in media organization," it has been affirmed that the proportion of men and women in the context of decision making varies. The positions like Chief Executive Officer, Chief Operating Officer, and Senior level Operation Management are accompanied by an uneven distribution of male and female section. (Powell, et, al. 2018). The Board of Governors and the Board of Trustees in media and publications have a far greater ratio of the "male section" as compared to the position of the female population, and it is evident that the tug of decision making is always overcome and won by the dominant section. The operation ethos is lacking the potential that can address the requirements of a just board of organizers and decision makers. Moreover, the issues of "sexual harassment," “lack of equal opportunities" and "management training” are continuously falling in the spectrum of management. (O’Brien, et, al. 2018). If an analysis of publications and overall analysis of the media works is analyzed, it can be found that there is a great conflict of will and then the execution of will. Major publications regarding decision making and analysis of the facts and figures regarding decision-making boards have highlighted that there is a significant gap in decision making. Media organizations are said to be a significant pace for the analysis of decision making, inferring that there many of the judgments are made under pressure and for the mere chase of "personal interest."

In a nutshell, there are several aspects that reflect the issues of underrepresentation of women in a media organization; women are not involved greatly as decision makers in media industries. However, the above mentioned are some major aspects that should be dealt with first-hand priority because they are having a direct impact on the working and performance of women. Despite certain initiatives, the applicability of policies has not fulfilled the gap that exists for centuries. Another dilemma to add fuel to the fire is lack of identification of the baseline issues that are spreading the stance of issue, adhering to so-called compliments of “lack of competence and inability” to address the issues by women. (Powell, et, al. 2018). Decision making in Media refers to the population and the entities involved in imparting their roles; it is important to note that there is a reduced and lack of decision making of women. One can hardly see the involvement of women in the context of decision making. An exegetical analysis of “public and private” structures highlight that there is a reduced involvement of females in media industries because of either lack of resources or due to insufficient rights. Side by side, a major section is seen moving away because of the lack of comfort that can allow women to give their 100%. All the facts reveal that women have much less decision making authority in media industries. (Ibrahim, et, al. 2018).


Ibrahim, F. (2018). Women, development and the mass media. Jurnal Komunikasi, Malaysian Journal of Communication, 5.

O'Brien, A. (2018). (Not) Getting the credit: women, liminal subjectivity and resisting neoliberalism in documentary production. Media, Culture & Society, 40(5), 673-688.

Powell, G. N. (2018). Women and men in management. Sage Publications.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

Assignment 2


[Name of Student]

[Name of College/University]


In the US the juvenile justice system was established about a hundred years ago with the aim of distracting youthful offenders from the damaging punishments of criminal courts and boosting rehabilitation founded on needs of an individual juvenile. In a number of ways, the system was to contrast from the criminal court or adult. The focus was that an adolescent or child in need of assistance, not the act that brought an adolescent or child before the court. There were informal proceeding and much discretion left to the judge of the juvenile court. Because the juvenile court judge was to behave in the best interests of an adolescent or child while procedural safeguards were present to adults that including the right to confront one’s accuser, the right to trial by jury, and the right to know the charge brought against one, the right to an attorney, were believed unnecessary. The juvenile records were kept confidential and the proceedings were closed to the public so that one may not interfere with the ability of adolescent or child and to be reintegrated and rehabilitated into society. The exact language used in the juvenile court highlighted these variances. Juveniles are charged with delinquencies but not with crimes; they are adjudicated delinquent but not found guilty; they are sent to reformatory or training schools but not to prison.


The Juvenile Arrest Procedures

Based on the notion that adults and juveniles need to be treated differently in the US. Because the majority of juvenile arrests are nonviolent crimes except a tiny portion that may be for status offenses like running away, truancy and curfew violations,. There are three categories of youths according to the jurisdiction of the juvenile court and that include dependent and neglected children, delinquents, status offenders. However, age is the most significant criterions that distinguish juvenile and adult courts in the US and are subject to different arrest procedures. Criminal defense attorney comprehends the will that protects the right to a fair trial and the delicate tones of the law.

If a police officer has observed an adolescent or child in committing a crime he may arrest him or her when the warrant has been issued by a judge or there is a reasonable belief. Against self-incrimination, the 5th amendment of the US Constitution gives protection ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"rcd6eIN2","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Cole, Smith, and DeJong 2018)","plainCitation":"(Cole, Smith, and DeJong 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":77,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4cj2SgiL/items/AXPBKTGI"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4cj2SgiL/items/AXPBKTGI"],"itemData":{"id":77,"type":"book","title":"The American System of Criminal Justice","publisher":"Cengage Learning","number-of-pages":"869","source":"Google Books","abstract":"This classic best seller, commonly referred to as The Eagle, helps students discover the challenges of pursuing justice in our society and identify the roles individuals play in the criminal justice system. Using an interdisciplinary lens, THE AMERICAN SYSTEM OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE, 16th Edition, presents elements from criminology, sociology, law, history, psychology, and political science. This approach challenges students to ask important questions and recognize contemporary problems as the means to build their understanding of the system's components and stages as well as its human consequences and policy challenges. Cole, Smith, and DeJong offer solid scholarship, approachable writing, and current, compelling events and cases that hold students' attention, thereby preparing them to participate in the system as citizens and future criminal justice practitioners.Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.","ISBN":"978-1-337-55890-7","note":"Google-Books-ID: Ra9EDwAAQBAJ","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Cole","given":"George F."},{"family":"Smith","given":"Christopher E."},{"family":"DeJong","given":"Christina"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018",1,1]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Cole, Smith, and DeJong 2018). The police officer needs to inform their Miranda Rights when placing a juvenile or an adult under arrest. A juvenile or adult has the right to be advised of the charges that are made against them. However, generally, there are the same arrest procedures for juveniles and adults. A juvenile may be questioned without the presence of his or her parents. When a juvenile confesses the questions asked by the police officer, the juvenile court judge possibly will determine whether the juvenile completely comprehends its constitutional rights. Both juveniles and adults have the right to an attorney when the charges have involved a severe crime ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"3kYNd56q","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Siegel and Worrall 2018)","plainCitation":"(Siegel and Worrall 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":75,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4cj2SgiL/items/FJIX67GI"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4cj2SgiL/items/FJIX67GI"],"itemData":{"id":75,"type":"book","title":"Essentials of Criminal Justice","publisher":"Cengage Learning","number-of-pages":"470","source":"Google Books","abstract":"ESSENTIALS OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE, 11th Edition, provides students with thorough, objective coverage of all the latest research in the field, cutting-edge topical and case discussions, and the richest examination of career options to be found in a criminal justice text -- all in fewer than 500 pages. The text is ideal for those who want the proven reliability of Siegel and Worrall's authorship in a shorter, paperback presentation. The authors make their impeccable scholarship accessible by using integrated learning objectives, visuals, and a unique theme designed to correct students’ misperceptions and biases. Students grapple with ethical concerns faced by agents of the criminal justice system in their professional lives, and are challenged to make informed decisions about what does and doesn't work in criminal justice.Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.","ISBN":"978-1-337-55777-1","note":"Google-Books-ID: Ka9EDwAAQBAJ","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Siegel","given":"Larry J."},{"family":"Worrall","given":"John L."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018",1,1]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Siegel and Worrall 2018).

The aim that juvenile courts were established because society recognized that juveniles lack cognitive developments. Political and sociological changes of attitudes instigated legislators to consider they required to be “thought on crime” and shift of juvenile court to adult court ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"qlV7rZ3M","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Scialabba n.d.)","plainCitation":"(Scialabba n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":62,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4cj2SgiL/items/4YUFA2DY"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4cj2SgiL/items/4YUFA2DY"],"itemData":{"id":62,"type":"webpage","title":"Should Juveniles Be Charged as Adults in the Criminal Justice System?","abstract":"Results of “tough on crime” policies demonstrate that they have failed.","URL":"https://www.americanbar.org/groups/litigation/committees/childrens-rights/articles/2016/should-juveniles-be-charged-as-adults/","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Scialabba","given":"Nicole"}],"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",5,8]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Scialabba n.d.). These policies resulted in failure because recidivism for juveniles increased when prosecuted in adult against the juvenile court. Reforms are desirable as quickly as possible to prosecute further juveniles in adult court started and emphasis needs to be on the best interest of a juvenile when charged with the crime ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"obCIcCsL","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Scialabba n.d.)","plainCitation":"(Scialabba n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":62,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4cj2SgiL/items/4YUFA2DY"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4cj2SgiL/items/4YUFA2DY"],"itemData":{"id":62,"type":"webpage","title":"Should Juveniles Be Charged as Adults in the Criminal Justice System?","abstract":"Results of “tough on crime” policies demonstrate that they have failed.","URL":"https://www.americanbar.org/groups/litigation/committees/childrens-rights/articles/2016/should-juveniles-be-charged-as-adults/","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Scialabba","given":"Nicole"}],"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",5,8]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Scialabba n.d.). When juveniles released from facilities they require resources to prepare them to succeed, rather than bear the devastating impacts being kept in adult prisons systems. In the court system juveniles needs to be treated as juveniles with greater emphasis on rehabilitation rather than punishment ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"gRMLgLAz","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Scialabba n.d.)","plainCitation":"(Scialabba n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":62,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4cj2SgiL/items/4YUFA2DY"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4cj2SgiL/items/4YUFA2DY"],"itemData":{"id":62,"type":"webpage","title":"Should Juveniles Be Charged as Adults in the Criminal Justice System?","abstract":"Results of “tough on crime” policies demonstrate that they have failed.","URL":"https://www.americanbar.org/groups/litigation/committees/childrens-rights/articles/2016/should-juveniles-be-charged-as-adults/","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Scialabba","given":"Nicole"}],"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",5,8]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Scialabba n.d.).

Stages of Juvenile Justice Trial

In most of the juvenile justice trial the procedures are held before the juvenile court judge. Though, in some cases, a jury trial can be requested by a juvenile because he or she has some legal protections. The jury or judge will make a determination of whether a petition has been proven or not. However, both the juvenile and adult processes are similar but a slightly different terminology has been used. In a formal process, the juvenile court can send the juvenile to a Diversion Program rather than conduct the petition formally. While an informal trial involves a pre-trial conference, adjudication, and dispositional hearing. The Juvenile Division of the Family Court is treatment and rehabilitation for the aberrant youth, not punishment ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"7ri1k7Wb","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Siegel and Welsh 2014)","plainCitation":"(Siegel and Welsh 2014)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":71,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4cj2SgiL/items/3XPUEU9G"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4cj2SgiL/items/3XPUEU9G"],"itemData":{"id":71,"type":"book","title":"Juvenile Delinquency: Theory, Practice, and Law","publisher":"Cengage Learning","number-of-pages":"722","source":"Google Books","abstract":"Unrivaled in its current coverage of topics, the twelfth edition of best-selling JUVENILE DELINQUENCY: THEORY, PRACTICE, AND LAW provides you with timely coverage of theory, policy, and the latest research. Praised for its balanced approach and for the authors' engaging writing style, this book will help you understand the nature of delinquency and its causes, as well as current strategies being used to control or eliminate its occurrence.Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.","ISBN":"978-1-285-45840-3","note":"Google-Books-ID: SuEbCgAAQBAJ","title-short":"Juvenile Delinquency","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Siegel","given":"Larry J."},{"family":"Welsh","given":"Brandon C."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2014",1,1]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Siegel and Welsh 2014).


As prosecuting attorney reviews the facts and reports after a police investigation to decide whether court actions are necessary or not. If it is necessary that the prosecutor issues a petition, and the offense or offenses are listed with which the juvenile is charges.

Preliminary Inquiry

The constitutional rights and the charged offenses are informed to the juvenile. The juvenile division formally starts the processes and can dismiss the petition by warning the juvenile or refers to the juvenile for voluntary consoling. In addition, the division can place the juvenile on informal probation if he or she qualifies and it is in the best interest of the public and juvenile. Moreover, on the "formal docket" of court, the division can schedule a further hearing. While if the juvenile takes accountability for the offense for offenses, the division can plan a "plea and disposition" hearing. With terms and condition, the juvenile can be to his or her parents.

Pre-Trial Conference

A pre-trial conference may be planned when the juvenile refuses to admit responsibility initially. The attorney of juvenile and prosecuting attorney have meeting whether the juvenile may be plead to different offense or charged offense. To attend pre-trial conferences, crime victims are fortified to attend so that the prosecutor may deliberate various options for deciding the case.


A case may be decided by trial verdict or guilty pleas when the juvenile has committed an offense. In a judge or jury trial, the prosecution needs to prove the responsibilities of juvenile beyond a rational doubt. The juvenile is not bound to his or her innocence.


The disposition is the same as that of an adult court "sentencing". While a report of probation agent summarizes the need for services and background of the juvenile by recommending the terms of disposition. By considering the information the juvenile court judge decides the final terms and condition of the disposition. In addition the judge needs to order programs and services suitable welfare of society and juvenile with its wide latitude. Typical disposition includes restitution, community services, and letter of apology to victim, counseling, and probation.

The juvenile court focuses more on the potential of the juvenile offender for rehabilitation than its punishment and the court operates according to the doctrine of parens patriae. However, the increase in juvenile crimes led various jurisdictions to device more disciplinary options in the 1980s and 1990s. For the youthful offenders, the options include a waiver to adult court. In return, such changes have led various scholarships to question about the future of the juvenile courts ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"bUWjtULy","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Siegel and Welsh 2014)","plainCitation":"(Siegel and Welsh 2014)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":71,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4cj2SgiL/items/3XPUEU9G"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4cj2SgiL/items/3XPUEU9G"],"itemData":{"id":71,"type":"book","title":"Juvenile Delinquency: Theory, Practice, and Law","publisher":"Cengage Learning","number-of-pages":"722","source":"Google Books","abstract":"Unrivaled in its current coverage of topics, the twelfth edition of best-selling JUVENILE DELINQUENCY: THEORY, PRACTICE, AND LAW provides you with timely coverage of theory, policy, and the latest research. Praised for its balanced approach and for the authors' engaging writing style, this book will help you understand the nature of delinquency and its causes, as well as current strategies being used to control or eliminate its occurrence.Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.","ISBN":"978-1-285-45840-3","note":"Google-Books-ID: SuEbCgAAQBAJ","title-short":"Juvenile Delinquency","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Siegel","given":"Larry J."},{"family":"Welsh","given":"Brandon C."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2014",1,1]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Siegel and Welsh 2014). Such policies reflect broader jurisprudential changes of the juvenile court from rehabilitation to retribution ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"hVKaMCUc","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Knight n.d.)","plainCitation":"(Knight n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":73,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4cj2SgiL/items/5IHHIXGP"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4cj2SgiL/items/5IHHIXGP"],"itemData":{"id":73,"type":"webpage","title":"Juvenile Justice—Translational Research on Interventions for Adolescents in the Legal System (JJ-TRIALS): a cluster randomized trial targeting system-wide improvement in substance use services | Implementation Science | Full Text","URL":"https://implementationscience.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13012-016-0423-5","author":[{"family":"Knight","given":"Danica K."}],"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",5,9]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Knight n.d.). However, there is an increasing gap between punitive reality and rehabilitation and there is little evidence that training schools effectively treat juveniles or decrease their recidivism rates.

Treatment Options Available for Juvenile Offenders

In dealing effectively with the juvenile offenders, we need to apply psychological, social, ethical and legal principles on a ground of dual concern for the individual child and juvenile. In this regard, the treatment option available for a juvenile offender includes Guided Group Interaction (GGI), individual counseling, behavior modification, psychotherapy reality therapy, group therapy, Positive Peer Culture, and vocational and educational treatment programs.

Individual counseling does not try to shift the personality of juveniles, rather it tries to help them understand and solve their present adjustment. While psychotherapy needs a wide analysis of the juvenile’s childhood involvements. The therapist tries to help the juvenile to resolve conflicts and have more positive adjustments by shifting negative behavior. On the other hand, reality therapy forces the contemporary behavior of the juvenile offender by making juveniles totally responsible for their actions. On the other hand, behavior modification is based on the notion that all behavior is learned and contemporary behavior is constructed, however, a system of rewards and punishments. While Guided Group Interaction (GGI) is grounded on the notion that by group interactions, a juvenile may begin to realize and solve contemporary problems. While Positive Peer Culture is founded on a program peer leaders make others indorse to conventional behaviors.

Family treatment, however, is the most effective way for juvenile corrections, but this intervention can be positive or negative. The effective family treatment for the juvenile offender is significant and that include functional family therapy, multidimensional family therapy, and. multisystem therapy ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"XemQmDck","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Henggeler and Schaeffer 2010)","plainCitation":"(Henggeler and Schaeffer 2010)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":67,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4cj2SgiL/items/CF8TZXL8"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4cj2SgiL/items/CF8TZXL8"],"itemData":{"id":67,"type":"article-journal","title":"Treating Serious Emotional and Behavioural Problems Using Multisystemic Therapy","container-title":"Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy","page":"149-164","volume":"31","issue":"2","source":"Cambridge Core","abstract":"Multisystemic therapy (MST) is a family- and community-based treatment of serious emotional and behavioural problems presented by adolescents. The development of this model began in the late 1970s, and today MST is a leading evidence-based treatment of serious antisocial behaviour in youths, with programs transported to more than 30 states in the United States and 12 nations, including Australia and New Zealand. This article rerviews the theoretical rationale that underlies MST and presents the central clinical features of the intervention model. In addition, the training and quality assurance protocols used to promote MST program fidelity and treatment adherence are described. Finally, findings from approximately 15 published randomised and two quasi-experimental clinical trials with youths presenting serious clinical problems (e.g., violence, substance abuse, serious emotional disturbance, sexual offending, and chronic illness) are summarised.","URL":"https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/australian-and-new-zealand-journal-of-family-therapy/article/treating-serious-emotional-and-behavioural-problems-using-multisystemic-therapy/FEE54A46D4BA9FE3F386F935C37028F3","DOI":"10.1375/anft.31.2.149","ISSN":"1467-8438, 0814-723X","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Henggeler","given":"Scott W."},{"family":"Schaeffer","given":"Cindy M."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2010",6]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",5,9]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Henggeler and Schaeffer 2010). These treatments show promise in strengthening families and decreasing juvenile delinquent behavior and substance abuse.


Information about the developmental stage of juvenile has significant inferences for juvenile justice policy, providing the agenda for a system for the child offenders and decreasing them from crimes. The overarching aim of the juvenile justice system should be to support the prosaically development of a juvenile ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"I6SdbsGo","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Rizer and Nation 400AD)","plainCitation":"(Rizer and Nation 400AD)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":69,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4cj2SgiL/items/3CZYFWXM"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4cj2SgiL/items/3CZYFWXM"],"itemData":{"id":69,"type":"webpage","title":"Why Juvenile Justice Reform Is Necessary to Restore Opportunity to Youth","container-title":"HuffPost","abstract":"Recidivism rates for youth involved in the system have remained persistently high. However, reforming the system would prevent youthful mistakes from bec...","URL":"https://www.huffpost.com/entry/why-juvenile-justice-refo_b_9774644","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Rizer","given":"Monique"},{"family":"Nation","given":"ContributorExecutive Director at Opportunity"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["0400"]],"season":"56:16"},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",5,9]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Rizer and Nation 400AD). The courts need to treat youth fairly by preventing further offending and actions should be carried out in a developmentally informed manner. In this regard, the report that was supported by the US Department of justice concludes that changes should be needed if the juvenile justice system has to meet its goals of treating them fairly, preventing reoffending, and holding adolescents accountable.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Cole, George F., Christopher E. Smith, and Christina DeJong. 2018. The American System of Criminal Justice. Cengage Learning.

Henggeler, Scott W., and Cindy M. Schaeffer. 2010. “Treating Serious Emotional and Behavioural Problems Using Multisystemic Therapy.” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy 31(2): 149–64. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/australian-and-new-zealand-journal-of-family-therapy/article/treating-serious-emotional-and-behavioural-problems-using-multisystemic-therapy/FEE54A46D4BA9FE3F386F935C37028F3 (May 9, 2019).

Knight, Danica K. “Juvenile Justice—Translational Research on Interventions for Adolescents in the Legal System (JJ-TRIALS): A Cluster Randomized Trial Targeting System-Wide Improvement in Substance Use Services | Implementation Science | Full Text.” https://implementationscience.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13012-016-0423-5 (May 9, 2019).

Rizer, Monique, and ContributorExecutive Director at Opportunity Nation. 400AD. “Why Juvenile Justice Reform Is Necessary to Restore Opportunity to Youth.” HuffPost. https://www.huffpost.com/entry/why-juvenile-justice-refo_b_9774644 (May 9, 2019).

Scialabba, Nicole. “Should Juveniles Be Charged as Adults in the Criminal Justice System?” https://www.americanbar.org/groups/litigation/committees/childrens-rights/articles/2016/should-juveniles-be-charged-as-adults/ (May 8, 2019).

Siegel, Larry J., and Brandon C. Welsh. 2014. Juvenile Delinquency: Theory, Practice, and Law. Cengage Learning.

Siegel, Larry J., and John L. Worrall. 2018. Essentials of Criminal Justice. Cengage Learning.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

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