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Literature Of The Late 19th Century – Perspectives On America

The literature of the Late 19th Century- Perspectives on America

The literature of the 19th Century- Perspectives on America

In American literary realism, there are two prominent names, with little elements common between them. Mark Twain, starts his analysis about realism by criticizing social values about racism and slavery in the late nineteenth century. His inclusion about regional dialogue helps the readers to visualize the dialect of Huck’s language. Twain’s ‘Adventures of Huckleberry Finn’ predicts realism as a swamp on which critics of his writings can easily be bogged down. This is the reason it becomes hard to find a common ground for placing Twain and Ward’s writings together. ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"NM3dokfq","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Jewett, 1891)","plainCitation":"(Jewett, 1891)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":5,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/RN9DGZQZ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/RN9DGZQZ"],"itemData":{"id":5,"type":"book","title":"A white heron","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Jewett","given":"Sarah Orne"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1891"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Jewett, 1891) As a reason of many dissimilarities between Mark Twain and Henry Ward, it is right to comment that only thing they both have in common is the ‘profession’.

Another aspect of his writings which helps to reflect an image of realism is frequent use of keen satire and the use of colloquial dialogue. His premeditated yet untroubled writing style, the reflection of imagery and depiction of child heroes in some of his famous writings reflect the depiction of realism. Contrary to Twain, Charles Browne (Artemus Ward) recognized for his famous literary piece nom de plume, reflected the constructs of realism through standup comedy. At the time, these both writers lived, the realist aspect was more reflected either through the material affairs or through the writings ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"ixwCyiHX","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Ochs & Capps, 1996)","plainCitation":"(Ochs & Capps, 1996)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/TV2IHVVP"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/TV2IHVVP"],"itemData":{"id":2,"type":"article-journal","title":"Narrating the self","container-title":"Annual review of anthropology","page":"19–43","volume":"25","issue":"1","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Ochs","given":"Elinor"},{"family":"Capps","given":"Lisa"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1996"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Ochs & Capps, 1996). They both have employed the realist perspective in either way. Their writings contrast in the manner in which they have used discourses to display the imagery of realism. Ward’s ‘On Forts’ and ‘Fourth of July Oration’, however totally contrast from Twain’s writings. The critical analysis suggests that both writers have narrowly differed on some aspect of realism, which they have presented in many contrasting forms.

For many readers, the writings of Mark Twain present some inclusive themes of realism. He has not employed a limited perspective to convey his ideas. For example, in the ‘Adventures of Huckleberry Finn’, Twin has explored many new aspects of literary realism. The themes which Twin has more focused over in this collection are freedom, individual conscience and nature. Freedom is preliminary to this story, since the main character of Twin, Douglas is trying to escape from some of is close relatives ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"VZ98PXd4","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Clemens, 1962)","plainCitation":"(Clemens, 1962)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":7,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/QRCQI6LM"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/QRCQI6LM"],"itemData":{"id":7,"type":"article-journal","title":"The Notorious Jumping Frog of Calaveras County","container-title":"Selected Shorter Writings of Mark Twain. Ed. Walter Blair. New York: Houghton Mifflin","volume":"18","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Clemens","given":"Samuel"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1962"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Clemens, 1962). Twin has elaborated realism by signifying the use of individual conscience, which is a kind of a new aspect in the late eighteenth-century literature.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Clemens, S. (1962). The Notorious Jumping Frog of Calaveras County. Selected Shorter Writings of Mark Twain. Ed. Walter Blair. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 18.

Jewett, S. O. (1891). A white heron.

Ochs, E., & Capps, L. (1996). Narrating the self. Annual Review of Anthropology, 25(1), 19–43.

Subject: History and Anthropology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

In Examining The Efforts Of Suffragists And Suffragettes To Secure Women’s Rights To Vote, What Objectives As Well As Methods Or Strategies Do You Consider Effective In Their Fight For Political Rights? What Method Or Strategy Would You Propose To S

Student’s Name

Professor’s Name



Suffragists and Suffragettes

Fighting against inclusion in political movements and gaining political rights left some women dead. Creating an environment for women to join political pyramids in the country saw the coming together of women to speak from the same voice. Women employed various tactics to conquer their objectives but some were brutal (Holton, 2003). Holding demonstrations and campaigning against the idea of exclusion, women developed different strategies to employ in their fight to winning political rights.

Most effective methods employed by women in the fight to win political rights included coming together and speak as a single voice. Suffragettes and the suffragists organized groups and movements aiming at communicating their objective towards politics. The clause “Vote for Women” slots a competitive environment within the political environment. Women became united with a common goal. However, it was not easy for women to corporate due to claims of insufficient resources. Despite the claim the middle class and other categories of women joined hand to ensure the progress of the agenda.

Secondly, the groups included women from other classes to support them in the campaigns and vote for them. Rich women among others funded the movement just to see that women gained political rights (Clemens, 1993). Moreover, the idea was supported with the move by the suffragists failing to gather votes via campaigns that they conducted. Therefore, the option left was to mobilize people to come and form groups with a common agenda. From this movement, most of the women became suffragettes. They developed a motto that focused on deeds and not words as thought of during the campaigns. For example Emmeline Pankhurst mobilized and formed a group in Britain. Women’s social and political union was the group formed and the spear header included the daughters. The group had branches spread over Britain and ensured they had to achieve a specific goal.


Clemens, Elisabeth S. "Organizational repertoires and institutional change: Women's groups and the transformation of US politics, 1890-1920." American journal of Sociology 98.4 (1993): 755-798.

Holton, Sandra Stanley. Feminism and Democracy: Women's Suffrage and Reform Politics in Britain, 1900-1918. Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Subject: History and Anthropology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Unit 2: Political Participation Behavior Project

Your Name

Instructor Name

Course Number


Assignment: History and Anthropology

When it comes to politics, Americans are exceptionally divided. Their beliefs about how the government should deal with the issues of caste, national-level security, environmental safety, and migration, highly differ. There are two groups of people, Liberals, and Conservatives who exist mainly in the form of political parties. They have lead their country in different ways and have entirely different beliefs and opinions.

Most of the liberals are democrats who favor people with different thinking. They are on the view that the government should make the lives of the employees better by investing in them and that Democracy should be available for every citizen of America. For example, they believe that everyone has an equal right to services like healthcare, education, habitation, and other basic human needs. Particularly, they prefer people over profit.

The conservatives, however, are the Republicans mostly who don’t believe in government involvement that much. They tend to believe in self liberty, traditional, and historical values. They are on the view that minimal government involvement will result in producing more jobs and improving the industrial economy in the private sector. The main focus of their policies is to empower individuals so that they can solve their problems on their own. Hence, their efforts are projected to increase American jobs and enhance the trade of American goods and services.

The motives of both parties are the same eventually. No party would like to make the lives of people uncomfortable, but the conflicts in most of their beliefs create situations which affect the common people in many awful ways. However, the fact is that most of the people are neither completely conservative nor completely liberal and lies in between the two states.

As expected, conservatives have different views regarding most of the national topics including media, elections, and social issues. Conservatives deny the expected neutral nature of media and consider it to be highly biased towards liberals. Consider the following example: One of the conservative websites known as ‘Town hall’ explains the condition of media right after Donald Trump became president of America in a way that depicts the false biasing of media towards liberalism. The media started spreading fake news and hatred for Trump, among people which according to Town hall, backfired media and resulted in a significant decrease in the number of their followers. CITATION Rac18 \l 2057 (Alexander, 2018) Conservatives only offer their support to the conservative leaders; the leaders who they think, have a conservative approach in decision making. Moreover, conservatives are against any kind of advancements or modifications in their community norms and culture. They have been found opposing the government initiatives for equality in social and economic perspectives. They believe that nature will do justice with everyone. However, conservatives are found favoring the government involvements which uphold morality, such as outlawing the use of marijuana.

On the other hand, liberals have quite the opposite beliefs. They deny the biasness of media towards them and believe that the media is on neutral ground. They consider Donald Trump, a conservative leader, more affiliated and connected with the white people and insensitive regarding the African Americans’ painful history. In their recent articles, a liberal website, ‘Daily Kos’ criticized Trump on his recent racist statement. CITATION nom19 \l 2057 (nomandates, 2019) Liberals, however, favor government mediation to improve the social and economic equality in America. For example, liberals approve the laws related to wages, as they believe that without government involvement, the businesses will suppress the workers and employees which will increase the economic inequality. On the contrary, liberals oppose the government's involvement in the private areas of life, such as laws forbidding same-sex marriage.

Works Cited

BIBLIOGRAPHY Alexander, R. (2018, December 31). A Look Back at the Demise of the Mainstream News Media in 2018. Retrieved from Townhall: https://townhall.com/columnists/rachelalexander/2018/12/31/a-look-back-at-the-demise-of-the-mainstream-news-media-in-2018-n2538275

nomandates. (2019, October 25). Beto O'Rourke has a message waiting for Trump at an HBCU in South Carolina today. Retrieved from Daily Kos: https://www.dailykos.com/stories/2019/10/25/1895064/-Beto-O-Rourke-has-a-message-waiting-for-Trump-at-an-HBCU-in-South-Carolina-today

Subject: History and Anthropology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Unit 6: The United States And The World Project

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of Instructor]



Unit 6: The United State and the World Project

President James Monroe made policies and raised his voice against the European colonization. He introduced the Monroe Doctrine in 1823 whose impact remained till decades. American mindset of power and becoming dominant on African Americans start changing after the Monroe Doctrine which shaped contemporary American society. This can be observed in the statement of President Barack Obama that, “America will remain the anchor of strong alliances in every corner of the globe from Asia to the Middle East." The main purpose of the paper is to understand the changes occurred in foreign policy and how the influence of the Monroe doctrine evolved over time. This is crucial to learn for the understanding of changes that occurred for economic growth and better foreign policy in America.

Monroe Doctrine and its foreign policy were made to highlight the injustice, discrimination, and inequality that occurred by European colonization. America asked Europe to free the newly colonized region. President that time wanted to make free and independent regions. In the era of the Obama presidency, the concept of dominance and power changed. Foreign policies are made based on achieving the highest position through economic and social growth. The main aim of the Obama administration is to enhance positive relationships with different nations and increase free trade. The foreign policy made with the impact of the Monroe Doctrine focused on the concept of not making the world a battleground. It worked for the new world to be entirely separate and independent. However, this aspect evolved over time as Obama's foreign policy is more concerned with the connection with different nations and make the world united and connected ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"6I3yRtlG","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}Viewcontent.Pdf})","plainCitation":"(Viewcontent.Pdf)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":885,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/rVaVAHaF/items/U4BGEU3B"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/rVaVAHaF/items/U4BGEU3B"],"itemData":{"id":885,"type":"article","title":"viewcontent.pdf","URL":"https://digitalcommons.wou.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1032&context=his","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",10,31]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Viewcontent.Pdf).

The thing that did not change over time is the struggle for minorities. Monroe Doctrine asserted that European colonization is against human rights and everyone should allow living freely. The main purpose of the interference in the colonization of Europe was to help minorities to be free from slavery and injustice. Obama in his statement also highlights his aim to be a strong alliance that can support from the Americas to the Middle East and from Asia to Africa to increase capacity for fighting with the natural and manmade crisis. Obama did not mention the name of any nation neither he discussed the instability in different regions like in war in Afghanistan; all he discussed was to resolve differences with other nations to ensure peace in the world ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"4kjUI4Jy","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Belko)","plainCitation":"(Belko)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":883,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/rVaVAHaF/items/3FI42LTY"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/rVaVAHaF/items/3FI42LTY"],"itemData":{"id":883,"type":"article-journal","title":"The Origins of the Monroe Doctrine Revisited: The Madison Administration, the West Florida Revolt, and the No Transfer Policy","container-title":"The Florida Historical Quarterly","page":"157-192","volume":"90","issue":"2","source":"JSTOR","archive":"JSTOR","ISSN":"0015-4113","shortTitle":"The Origins of the Monroe Doctrine Revisited","author":[{"family":"Belko","given":"William S."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2011"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Belko).

The concept of the Monroe doctrine and Obama's foreign policy is different based on the mindset that Obama wants peace but also providing policy to make America most powerful nation. The concept of equality that was the aim in the Monroe doctrine cannot be seen in Obama's foreign policy. Obama's foreign policy considers justice, tolerance, human dignity, and opportunity. On the other hand, the Monroe doctrine worked for discrimination, oppression, slavery, and equality. The main purpose of both foreign policies can be the same that is increasing freedom and positivity in the world but side agendas changed with time ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Y2PLqFua","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Empire and Latin America in the Obama Era - FPIF\\uc0\\u8221{})","plainCitation":"(“Empire and Latin America in the Obama Era - FPIF”)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":882,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/rVaVAHaF/items/6LRPV7HR"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/rVaVAHaF/items/6LRPV7HR"],"itemData":{"id":882,"type":"webpage","title":"Empire and Latin America in the Obama Era - FPIF","container-title":"Foreign Policy In Focus","abstract":"The new administration needs to move beyond the nation's imperial tradition in this hemisphere.","URL":"https://fpif.org/empire_and_latin_america_in_the_obama_era/","language":"en-US","issued":{"date-parts":[["2009",4,2]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",10,31]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Empire and Latin America in the Obama Era - FPIF”).

Through the analysis between the Monroe doctrine and the Obama statement, it can be concluded that foreign policy shows tremendous change over time. The main vision of the Monroe doctrine was to ensure the freedom and independent world for the minorities by making them free from European colonization. On the other hand, the foreign policy during the Obama presidency is to increase peace and justice but also making America the most powerful nation in the world.

Work Cited

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Belko, William S. “The Origins of the Monroe Doctrine Revisited: The Madison Administration, the West Florida Revolt, and the No Transfer Policy.” The Florida Historical Quarterly, vol. 90, no. 2, 2011, pp. 157–92. JSTOR.

“Empire and Latin America in the Obama Era - FPIF.” Foreign Policy In Focus, 2 Apr. 2009, https://fpif.org/empire_and_latin_america_in_the_obama_era/.

Viewcontent.Pdf. https://digitalcommons.wou.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1032&context=his. Accessed 31 Oct. 2019.

Subject: History and Anthropology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Book Evaluation : Triangle


Professor name



Book evaluation

The author argues that Triangle Shirtwaist tragedy resulted in the development of policy regarding immigrant rights and workplace safety. David Von Drehle’s purpose of writing the book “Triangle: The Fire Changed America” is to highlight the positive implications of Triangle Shirtwaist tragedy. Before this incidents little or no attention was given to the immigrant rights or labor at American organizations. Employees had to work in challenging situations due to lack of workplace safety and adequate protection. It was only after the death of 146 immigrants at Triangle Shirtwaist factory in 1911. The loss of lives convinced the activists Tammy Hall politicians to raise voice for the protection of the lives of workers. Drehle argues that without this incident the labor class would never have gained rights of safe work conditions and environment. The role of politics also changed after this tragic incident. Triangle disaster was the cause of social and political reforms. The author has written the book for analyzing this historical event and related factors that proves the absence of safety standards had threatened the lives of workers.

In the book Drehle has identified many activities that proves the changing dynamics. Society had been involved in the agenda of demanding human rights for the workers with emphasis on safe work conditions. The author mentions, “in August, nearly seven thousand neckwear workers mostly teenaged girls walked out of some two hundred shops. Their month long strike was a desperate, heroic effort” (Drehle 16). This indicates that the media has played significnat role in spreadking the news across country that encourgaed laborer and people to strike for the rights of workers. The event got limelight that it convinced many leaders and factory owners to consider the demands of workers. Many employees left the company in protest for the Triangle incident. It was realized that thee factories lack adequate safety procedures that could protect the lives of the workers. The society had accepted that workers and immigrants are humans and they must be given fundamental rights. The incident also raised awareness among labor community that they must consider the consequences of working in unsafe factories because it could cost them their life. Media reporting played prominent role in revealing the implications of the flawed factory work system. At the author states, “officers examined, described, and tagged each corpse, then placed the bodies in coffins and stacked the boxes on horse-drawn wagons” CITATION Dav031 \l 1033 (Drehle). All these activities were the result of society’s acceptance of labor rights. a larger population including activists had realized the importance of safety measures for protecting the lives of workers CITATION Bet17 \l 1033 (Kepes). The facts proves that the deaths had spread fear and chaos among people that provoked them to stand against the injustices and demand rights for the workers. The leaders claimed policies that defined rule of working and safe work standards for labor.

The author argues that the incident had be devastating because it caused deaths and injuries but it laid foundations for formulating labor protection rights that could ensure safe work conditions. The events and reactions from the public confirm that everyone had become part of this change process. The argument is convincing because the author has used secondary sources including articles, books, news and figures for providing support. The assessment of the news and facts are adequate for proving the validity of the argument. Drehle thus succeeds in his argument that Trinagle fire had been the cause of improving work conditions for the immigrants and labor.

Work Cited

BIBLIOGRAPHY Drehle, David Von. Triangle. Grove Press, 2003.

Kepes, Betsy. Book review: "Triangle, The Fire That Changed America" by David Von Drehle . 2017. 17 11 2019 <https://www.northcountrypublicradio.org/news/story/17365/20110324/book-review-triangle-the-fire-that-changed-america-by-david-von-drehle>.

Subject: History and Anthropology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Compare And Contrast The Strategy Followed By Hitler And Bismarck At Creating A Large Powerful German State. Would Bismarck Have Approved Of Hitler’s Strategy?

Jonathan Alvarado

Instructor Name

History and Anthropology

13 December 2019

Bismarck and Hitler: Different Yet Alike

The ways of Otto Von Bismarck were in many ways similar to that of Adolf Hitler when it came to run the state of Germany. Bismarck was indeed the initial mastermind of the grand unification of Germany, but when it came to running it, both have a lot of overlapping characteristics. Both were highly skilled in the art of statesmanship. Also, both had a charismatic personality that they extensively used in manipulating others to achieve their ends. Both were firm believers in the doctrines of "realpolitik" CITATION Joh17 \l 1033 (John Bew). This meant that they were willing to backstab, conspire and use all sorts of illegal and extrajudicial measures to increase their power and status, both for their selves and for their nation. Both had unwavering loyalty for their fatherland and goals for the maximization of power for their beloved Germany.

The differences between both the leaders are though few and far between, are present and significant at the same time. These differences are the reasons that both are remembered differently in the pages of history books. One is remembered as a charismatic leader, and nothing short of one of the best statesmen in the history of the world, while other is remembered as a demon, a stone-cold killer and one of the evilest statesmen ever. These differences are largely due to the characteristics mentioned above. There is due to the presence of a greater sense of statesmanship in Bismarck, as he knew when to give up the violence and stop at the appropriate limit that would not provoke other European powers to take action against him for the sake of his nation. Hitler had to be the “Fuhrer”, or leader, and personally rule all the sections of the territories under his control with an iron fist. Bismarck stopped his drive to acquire new lands when he knew that he had gain power over a reasonable area and worked on making the Germans strong internally through his public policies CITATION Qui91 \l 1033 (Quint). Hitler, on the other hand, wanted to take over the whole of Europe as his lust for more land would not be satisfied with his overwhelming successes. Bismarck adopted a series of oppressive laws so that he would be able to strengthen the nation internally, and he would never have committed ruthless killings for the achievement of internal peace in his state. Hitler, on the other hand, committed genocide in his era of ruling Germany, killing millions of Jews in concertation camps located throughout his territories.

Bismarck and Hitler were both overlapping political schools of thought when it came to running their state. Both were utterly ruthless in putting down their political opposition to strengthen their grip on political power as much as possible. Bismarck often did extensive legislation that was aimed at the containment of ambition of his political parties as well as the workings of state pressure groups that he saw as dangerous to the rule of Kaiser in the country. This can be explained by an example. In the 1870s, after the release of a catholic document called the “Syllabus of Errors” CITATION IXP64 \l 1033 (IX), which attacked several state institutions of the time, he expelled the Jesuits, closed down all the Church schools, and removed all the subsidies to the church that were given by the state. In another incident that occurred in 1878, he forcefully asked the German Diet housed in the Reichstag to pass a series of laws that prohibited the practice of socialist parties that were involved in the act of opposing him CITATION Hag19 \l 1033 (Hage). Summing up this argument, Bismarck knew the limits well. He knew very well when to push the limits and when to contain himself for doing so, but most importantly he did every single one of his political maneuvers discreetly. Hitler also used such methods to systemically eliminate the opposition in his way, but his methods can be categorized as brutal and blunt at best. This can also be explained with a historic example. On the "Night of the Long Knives" in 1934, the Schutzstaffel, or SS for short, killed thousands of members of the Sturmabteilung, or SA, as well as people from the Catholic action CITATION Edi15 \l 1033 (Editors). Also, the state's prominent general, Kurt von Schleicher, and his wife were assassinated in his rule due to a slight disagreement with the Fuhrer. Here, the similarity of tactics by both leaders can be noted, but there are varying limits when it comes to the limit of exercising. It can be easily noted that Hitler had engaged in ceaseless, and often unnecessary practice of violence, while Bismarck was moderate and careful in his use of violence and systematic killing as a tool of power.

Where the arena of foreign affairs is concerned, both men act as they had done in their domestic ventures, meaning that they acted in a sneaky, brutal and an underhanded manner. At the same time, it can be observed that Hitler went overboard when it came to the political use of these violent tactics. Both were very aggressive in their political outlook, shattering all the accepted practices of former political and diplomatic standards and adopting the cruel Machiavellian doctrine of Realpolitik instead. Eventually, each of the two leaders would offer some leniency and offer some concessions in the form of treaties and ceasefires, that would seem as done in good faith. But in reality, they would act as far-sighted leaders as they would think about the seeming act of peace might give them the benefit of a military or political kind soon. To explain this, let us focus on a few examples. After the rise of Napoleon III, he initiated a series of military campaigns in Europe. During his numerous skirmishes in Belgium and Austria, Bismarck "conveniently" ignored his advances in Europe due to his diplomatic reasons CITATION Kob04 \l 1033 (Kober). Another example is that of the political concessions to the territories of Holstein and Kiel, which he subsequently attacked later. This is another thing that Hitler has in common with the Iron Chancellor as he did employ similar tactics later on. On numerous occasions, Hitler did violate his prior peace agreements with all the states of Europe, a move that the major powers of the region ignored for some time due to their policy of appeasement.

Each person has a set of goals that are the compass of his existence. Here, each of the two leaders that two different sets of goals, but their end goal was the same, which was the greatness of the state of Germany. Bismarck was a progressive statesman in Prussia at the time when the united state of Germany did not exist. The principle policy of this focus was only to unite all the German states, except those led by Austria, and form the united state of Germany. Keeping the extreme focus on this goal, he was willing to implement any required domestic policy. He was also willing to go on the battlefield with powerful opponent nations, often multiple times, sacrificing almost anything in the process. Hitler, like Bismarck, was also extremely patriotic when it came to the affairs of his nation. He was wounded on the battlefield while performing his duties during the First World War, and he considered the defeat of Germany at the hands of the allied forces as the lowest point in his life. He never wanted to see Germany reduced to such a position again. According to his intellect, this was only possible by dominating all the areas of the former Holy Roman Empire, known in the history books as the First Reich. For this aim, he violated every treaty done at the of the First World War, sacrificed millions of his fellow countrymen in the course of the Second World War. He also killed millions of Jews and other undesirables in designated concentration camps in the name of purification of the Aryan German Race CITATION Arn15 \l 1033 (Arnett). Again, there is an observable difference between the policies of Bismarck and Hitler on these points. It can be observed that Bismarck's goal was a reasonable one, and as soon as he had achieved it, he started to work for the internal stability of the Germans through other means. On the contrary, the behavior of Hitler shows that his goals were unreasonable. He wanted to take control of entire continental Europe, for which used several shocking and outrageous means in the course of achieving this goal, which includes blood purges, his war against the Allied nations, and his murders of millions of undesirables he deemed useless in the German society.

A question might arise from these points is that how Bismarck might have reacted if he was in the Fuhrer instead of Hitler. First, he would have only concentrated on uniting Germany and fighting Communism. The genocide of Jews and Undesirables might not have been on his list unless they were a challenge to his rule. Second, he would have not engaged in entire Europe at once, especially the states of France and the Soviet Union. He would have tried to ally with at least one of them. Bismarck knew that Germany could not stand against a combination of the three other European powers of his time - France, Austria-Hungary, and Russia. In his time, he created a system of alliances that kept the other powers from uniting against Germany. Third, if at some point, the Iron Chancellor had felt that there was an opening to destroy communism in Europe, he would have maneuvered Stalin into declaring war, causing a carefully constructed anti-communist alliance with France as there was no third power in Europe as Austria-Hungary was at his time.

In short, we can conclude that Bismarck and Hitler were similar in many ways. These political and sociological aims, and the reasons for such aims, and the methods used to achieve them were similar. They had a varying degree of morals when it came to the achievement of their goals for the sake of strengthening their nation. Their difference seems relatively minor but they were the deciding factor of their places in the pages of history. But these differences are to be noted sternly, as these were the reason the course of history of Germany was shaped in their subsequent years. Even, if their places were exchanges in their moments in time, there is no doubt that the entire course of world history might have been different.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Arnett, George. "Auschwitz: a short history of the largest mass murder site in human history." The Guardian 27 January 2015. <https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/jan/27/auschwitz-short-history-liberation-concentration-camp-holocaust>.

Editors, Charles River. The Night of the Long Knives: The History and Legacy of Adolf Hitler's Notorious Purge of the SA. Charles River Editors, 2015. Kindle.

Hage, Frank M. "Political conflict in Bismarck's Germany: An analysis of parliamentary voting, 1867–1890." Party Politics 25.2 (2019): 179-191. Research Article.

IX, Pope BI. Pius. "The Syllabus Of Errors." 1864. Papal Encyclicals Online. Document. 13 December 2019. <https://www.papalencyclicals.net/pius09/p9syll.htm>.

John Bew, G. John Ikenberry. "Realpolitik: A History." Council on Foreign Relations in June 2017. Document. <https://www.foreignaffairs.com/reviews/capsule-review/2017-04-14/realpolitik-history>.

Kober, Stanley. "What Napoleon and Bismarck Teach Us About Preventive War." CATO institute (2004). <https://www.cato.org/publications/commentary/what-napoleon-bismarck-teach-us-about-preventive-war>.

Quint, Peter E. "The Constitutional Law of German Unification." Maryland Law Review 50.3 (1991). Electronic. <https://digitalcommons.law.umaryland.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2819&context=mlr&mod=article_inline>.

Subject: History and Anthropology

Pages: 6 Words: 1800

Darwinism And American Society

Darwinism and American Society



Darwinism and American Society

Darwin’s magnum opus, The Origin of Species, had an immediate and lasting impact on the entire thinking world. To use contemporary terminology, it was a huge game-changer, and it was not long before people were applying its insights in all kinds of ways, and using it to rationalize or justify all sorts of things, including some that would likely have horrified Darwin himself. ‘Darwinism’ came to be conflated with ‘survival of the fittest’, even though Darwin himself did not coin the phrase. The Eugenics movement is another example of playing fast and loose with Darwin to buttress the acceptability of a philosophy that might, otherwise, have been met with some moral revulsion ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"wg7S0ldH","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Keas, 2010)","plainCitation":"(Keas, 2010)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1184,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/HXLE7QZZ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/HXLE7QZZ"],"itemData":{"id":1184,"type":"article-journal","title":"Darwinism, Fundamentalism, and RA Torrey.","container-title":"Perspectives on Science & Christian Faith","volume":"62","issue":"1","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Keas","given":"Michael N."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2010"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Keas, 2010). This essay seeks to explore the relationship between Christianity and social Darwinism, how Darwinism influenced the immigration policies of America, and how social stratification was justified by social Darwinists and Eugenics.

The entire concept of Eugenics was derived from Darwinism. However, it does not mean that Eugenics was right, because what Darwin described was overwhelmingly right. But the order was definitely that Darwin first and Eugenics later. The horrific “Eugenics” movement holds an ignominious place in American history. With the dawn of the 20th century, Americans began to perceive immigration as a potential threat to what they call “pure American race”. The idea of “Yellow peril” was reinforced following the enactment of the “Chinese Exclusion Act” which would affect the influx of Asian ethnicities on American soil ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"RC2BmANm","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Larson, 2009)","plainCitation":"(Larson, 2009)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1182,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/T7BJ7DEE"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/T7BJ7DEE"],"itemData":{"id":1182,"type":"article-journal","title":"The Reception of Darwinism in the Nineteenth Century: A Three Part Story.","container-title":"Science & Christian Belief","volume":"21","issue":"1","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"The Reception of Darwinism in the Nineteenth Century","author":[{"family":"Larson","given":"Edward J."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2009"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Larson, 2009).The widespread use of social Darwinism prohibited Afro-Americans and other European ethnicities from having equal opportunities in economic, social and political spheres. Not only did science affect the public policies as it grew by leaps and bounds, but also shaped public opinion. Social Darwinism rendered scientific racism and allowed people having economic and political power for exploiting minorities. Legal segregation in southern states of America following Jim Crow laws systemized a “separate but equal” status that yielded social, economic, and educational disadvantages for Afro-Americans (Dixon, 2009)

For the Social Darwinist, colonialism and imperialism are justified under the premise of ‘might makes right’. The colonizers have developed a culture—through a combination of geography, opportunity, ability, and pure providence—that has led to a dramatic evolution in how said culture operates. One only need to look at how the British Empire exploded in power from the end of the Napoleonic Wars to the Great War itself. By a subtle combination of enlightenment ideals, industrial development, increased military power, and more dominating ideals in how the world should be run, Britain was able to rule 10,000,000 square miles (26,000,000 square km) of territory that encompassed over 400 million people into the administration of the Empire.

Social Darwinism, sans the more contemptible racial and Eugenics aspects, holds firm to a time-tested maxim of history: might makes right. Stronger cultures will dominate the weaker ones, this is a simple reality ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"sOTksXbA","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Keas, 2010)","plainCitation":"(Keas, 2010)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1184,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/HXLE7QZZ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/HXLE7QZZ"],"itemData":{"id":1184,"type":"article-journal","title":"Darwinism, Fundamentalism, and RA Torrey.","container-title":"Perspectives on Science & Christian Faith","volume":"62","issue":"1","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Keas","given":"Michael N."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2010"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Keas, 2010). It is up to the people themselves to change their own culture, their own societies into competitive ones in an era of globalization. To do otherwise is to invite subjugation and oppression from others and paves the way to an eventual path towards extinction.

Fundamentalist Christians oppose social Darwinism, for they care about actual people and oppose the ideological deployment of science for pseudo-scientific, anti-human agendas that violate human rights (which are, after all, meant to be at the core of liberal values) ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"TMrylreq","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Keas, 2010)","plainCitation":"(Keas, 2010)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1184,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/HXLE7QZZ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/HXLE7QZZ"],"itemData":{"id":1184,"type":"article-journal","title":"Darwinism, Fundamentalism, and RA Torrey.","container-title":"Perspectives on Science & Christian Faith","volume":"62","issue":"1","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Keas","given":"Michael N."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2010"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Keas, 2010). What is a more striking question is why self-declared evangelical Christians de facto support social -Darwinist economic systems, such as free-market capitalism, and despise Jesus’ warnings about rich men, camels and the eyes of needless. Most of the people also wonder how the prosperity gospel crowd square their worship of material wealth with Jesus’ explicit statement.


Dixon, Thomas. America's Difficulty With Darwin. 2009.

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Keas, M. N. (2010). Darwinism, Fundamentalism, and RA Torrey. Perspectives on Science & Christian Faith, 62(1).

Larson, E. J. (2009). The Reception of Darwinism in the Nineteenth Century: A Three Part Story. Science & Christian Belief, 21(1).

Subject: History and Anthropology

Pages: 2 Words: 600


Name of Student

Name of Professor

Name of Class

Day Month Year

Final Exam

Pair ID# 1: Manifest Destiny and Compromise of 1850

History shows that Southern slaveholders wanted to increase the power of Congress by expanding new territories. On the other hand, Northern politicians wanted to limit slavery to certain slave states by confining their territory. On other hand, South wanted to support salves "Manifest Destiny" was used as a term for the first time in 1845 by a newspaper editor which described the mindset of the 19th century of American expansionists. Manifest was not a government policy nor a political philosophy. It was a conviction that expansion of American freedom and values would benefit those who were influenced by it. Compromise of 1850 was a package consisting of five September bills passed by Congress of the United States in September 1850. This package of bills resolved the conflict between South and North, by defusing a political confrontation between free and slave states on the status of territories acquired in the Mexican War. Compromise of 1850 played a significant role in give and take game between north and south when they were not happy with what they got. It was believed that America was destined to expand by God in which North America was destined to spread its special virtues of American people. Institutes of North America along with the spread of its democratic values were also destined (Woods et al, pp. 438-456). It is the Compromise of 1850 that allowed the United States for accepting California so that America could expand its territory. California was enriched with natural resources such as gold and agricultural things that would make the country economically rich. So, in order to know the attitude of South and North America towards slavery and expansion both the concepts helped people. Given two terms are interrelated as one points towards divine idea of expansion and others reflect upon comprise of states regarding the separation in the form of bills passed.

Pair ID# 2: Cotton and the industrial revolution

The terms cotton and industrial revolution go hand in hand. It could be seen that cotton was the main raw material of the industrial revolution. Strong fibers of cotton, suited to hard mechanical treatment were spanned in machinery. The industrial revolution started with cotton production in and around Manchester. During the revolution, cotton was import from the slave plantations only. It were the slaves who provided the cotton raw material for the industrial revolution and they contributed the most for the economic growth. The foundation of the industry was laid on the slave labor. They provided the central raw material for the founding the base of the industrial revolution. In the 16th century, cotton was first imported to England and with this import industrial revolution started (Koetsier et al, pp. 177-207). Though initially linen and yarn were also imported with cotton, but in the 1750 industrial revolution was marked by the pure cotton cloth production in Britain. So it won’t be wrong to say that with cotton, industrial revolution started and that was supported by the slave labors. In 1774, demand for cotton boomed and cause people to invest in improving the production of cotton and related products. In 1833 Britain revolutionized world industries by producing a huge amount of cotton. Cotton production revolutionized inventors, finance organizations, and industries. All these areas changed under the influence of cotton raw material that paved the way for the industrial revolution.

Essay: what caused the Civil War?


American history is full of events and one of the most prominent events is the Civil War. Civil war resulted due to many causes. Period of the Civil war was the most depressing in American history. It leads towards many social and political changes and halted centuries of slavery in the country. Though America was already ripped up and torn up because of the negative fad in race relations Civil war shook political and social structure. This war started with the conflict that arose mostly from the issue of slavery but in-depth analysis shows that the Civil war started because of the economic difference that existed between south and north. According to historians and experts, a large number of causes are there due to which the Civil war started in America. The Civil war was the result of many conflicts and it would be right to say no single issue directly led to the war. Slavery is believed to be the root cause of division but in fact, other reasons contributed to the split of the union. Though slavery was the main point of contention but conflict of states' rights were one of its causes. Generally, it is asserted that causes of slavery include pressing the issues, slavery in society as well as the economy, conflict of rights and slave and non-slave states, etc.


The American Civil War of 1861-1865 is referred as a fight between Union (northern and southern states). A clear conflict was there in the mindset of southern and northern people, as the south believed in the rights of states so that they could set their laws, whereas the northern believed in the unity of strong federal government over the state it rules. A great socially difference was also there between north and south territory. North was based on the new social set up such as cities and industrial life. On the other hand, in South America, life was more close to nature as agriculture and rural life were more prominent there. Another major cause of the Civil war is there came a change in people's way of thinking. They started having individual opinions and conflict between the southern and northern mindset that inculcated in them a sense of insecurity for due to which they wanted to empower them (Miller et al, pp. 141-143). Slavery is another major cause that led the Civil war that divided people who ruled and who were ruled by others. Not only people but also the states were labeled with the title "slave state and non-slave state". It was the southern people who realized the importance of slaves but the northern people never realized how slaves could help them in making their territory strong socially and economically as they were inconsiderate about the Southern farmers. Unfair compromises were created and inculcated feelings of hatred and enmity in people from both sides.

Slavery was inconsistent with ideals incorporated in the Constitution but allowed the founding father to the perverse union at any cost. Slavery was not a new issue but was there for years. American government failed to solve it and constant propagation led towards freedom and liberty. The unrest of the slaves and how they were treated incorporated feelings of insecurity. Slavery was the primary cause and this hatred between the whites and blacks was intensified when America gained freedom from Great Britain. Revolutionaries did not pay much attention to the slave that spark animosity towards the Confederation and whites. Over the issue of federal power, states fought for prohibiting and encouraging slavery (Allen et al, pp. 675-677). History shows that slavery played central role in the Civil war as Southern political leaders’ resistance against the attempts of Northern antislavery political forces to block the expansion of slavery in western lands. The majority of slavery during the time, in the northern areas, was illegal. North never considered slaves as equal and did not bother to think of slaves living in the north. The situation was opposite in the south as it used its workforce of slavery for supporting its economy. Efforts were made to raise the chattel slavery and discouraged the idea of selling and purchasing slaves as property but people in the north did not support this idea. Culture abolitionists in the Union and on the other hand, the desire of supporting slaves created a conflict between both sides that ultimately escalated.


So, taking a look at the above discussion, it could be asserted that the Civil war resulted because of various causes and not only a single cause could be blamed for this historic event. Inequality of rights claimed by states and social as well as economic differences led to the conflict which changed into Civil war when disputes were not settled. It has been observed that despite taking steps to settle the issues between south and north territories, pressing the issues exploded and caused great damage to American. Change of mindset was also a cause of conflict as slavery was ending on the southern side and support was given to slave as they were the backbone of economy and farming in the south. In the north, freedom of slaves was opposed as industrial and city life dominated that land. So as a whole, it could be concluded that though there are various causes of Civil war one of the most prominent was the slavery and conflict between the south and north regarding slavery.


Allen, Austin. "Melissa Milewski. Litigating Across the Color Line: Civil Cases between Black and White Southerners from the End of Slavery to Civil Rights; Kimberly M. Welch. Black Litigants in the Antebellum American South." (2019): 675-677.

Koetsier, Teun. "The first wave of the industrial revolution: Cotton textiles and pig iron." The Ascent of GIM, the Global Intelligent Machine. Springer, Cham, 2019. 177-207.

Miller, Richard F. "Boston and the Civil War: Hub of the Second American Revolution." Historical Journal of Massachusetts 47.2 (2019): 141-143.

Woods, Michael E. "The Compromise of 1850 and the Search for a Usable Past." The Journal of the Civil War Era 9.3 (2019): 438-456.

Subject: History and Anthropology

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

Foreigner In There Own Home

Oscar Lopez

Instructor Name

Course Number


Title: “Foreigner in their own home”

Immigration is defined as the international movement of people into any other country without having citizenship of that country to reside in that country. Some people immigrate due to their employment, some are on a scholarship program to study or do an internship, some are refugees while others are sponsored by their family or are direct relatives of the citizens of that particular country. There are number of people who migrate to the US to get higher and professional education.

The US is considered a “melting pot” because people living in this country are diverse with different cultures, race, and identity. Immigrants are the main reason for this cultural diversity. According to the survey conducted in 2015 US is ranked as the country that has a larger immigrant population than any other country in the world. The “yearbook of immigration statistics” shows that one million legal immigrants were residing in the US out of which 20% were sponsored by their family and 47% were direct relatives of the US citizens and 13% were refugees as well. It is still a matter of discussion that whether immigrants are helping the economy or causing adverse effects. Most of the researches show that immigrants benefit the country's economy and are involved less in crimes as compared to US citizens.

This essay will discuss the arrival of different immigrants in the US specifically Asian Americans, their cultural differences and their impact on the US education system, economy and political mobility. Also, immigration laws affecting the immigrants and the contribution of immigrants to the US development.


The US has been considered as a nation of immigrants. Firstly, Native Americans ancestors arrived in North America and scattered over the land which is now considered a part of the US before the arrival of Europeans immigrants. Many of the immigrants arrived because of religious freedom and some for job opportunities. However, many enslaved Africans were migrated against their will due to which in 1803 the US congress passed a bill to prohibit the migration of slaves to their country. From 1820 to 1870 the US experienced a second migration wave that includes people from western Germany and Irish background. The reason for Irish people's migration was the failure of potato crops. During this time in 1848, the war between Mexico and America ended making people living in Mexico a part of the US. Also, with the discovery of gold many Chinese and Latin Americans migrated to the west coast. The third migration wave started in 1881 with the arrival of almost 23.5 million people from Russia, Poland, and Italy. The reason for their migration was the religious and economic conditions of their country. In 1898 the Spanish-American war ended leaving Puerto Rico and Guam a part of American jurisdiction and their people American citizens although they are still struggling for their rights. Moving on, in 1924, the Immigration Act was passed in which fixed quotas of national origin only while in 1929 Congress establishes the annual immigration quotas permanent. (Soennichsen, 8).

Asian migration

Immigration of people from the continent of Asia to the US is referred to as Asian immigration. In 19 century the US experienced first wave of Asian immigration in the region of Hawaii and the west coast. Although, they faced exclusion due to the immigration laws of the US and were prohibited to migrate until 1940. Due to the elimination of the law in which Asians were prohibited to migrate there has been a tremendous increase in the number of immigrants belonging from continent Asia. The people mostly worked as cheap labor for different American companies. Gradually the immigrants started to settle down and as they came to know about their rights they started to protest against minimum wage and increase work hours. Due to which many companies’ owners had to reconsider their policies. In 1185 mostly Japanese people seek refuge in the US to support their families due to an increasing poverty rate in their own country.

After the discovery of gold in California many Asian people migrated to the US to get away from the war and poor social status of their country. Additionally, many merchants from china also migrated to the US to invest their savings, forming the beginning of china town. In 1882 an act known as The Chinese Exclusion Act was passed by the government which prohibited all immigration from China except merchants, diplomats, and students.

Discussing South Asia some Sikh farmers were the first ones to migrate to the US. Although, most of the immigrants were men.

Cultural differences

Every person has a unique identity and set of beliefs on which his or her whole life depends. As it is human nature to adjust according to their surroundings they often tend to follow other cultures as well or at least them. While comparing the culture between Anglo American and Asian immigrants there are lots of differences that can be taken into account. Specifically talking about Chinese and American culture, the people of Chinese society is all about the group while Americans prefer individuality. For Chinese people, teamwork is very important and they think that it is their moral duty to consider how their actions affect other people. Also, Hierarchy is very important for Chinese people. Americans, on the other hand, prefer equality and have a much flatter structure in their working environment. Most Americans speak directly without hesitation while Chinese people consider it mandatory to speak in a polite tone with their elders and to their seniors.

Another factor that differentiates the two is food. Chinese people chopsticks while Americans use forks and knives. For Chinese people family is important so the always prefer round food table. In contrast, Americans typically believe in individuality and person space so they prefer a square table. Their cuisine is also very different. If we talk about south Asian people they love spices but for Americans, too many spices are hard to bear. Likewise, mostly Japanese and Korean food is different from American food as people in America are more inclined towards fast foods rather than home-cooked meals and vegetables.

The other major cultural difference is celebrations. In America people celebrate Christmas, Halloween, Easter while in Asian countries they have different celebrations like in South Asia people celebrate Diwali, ‘Eid and Holi. Additionally, in china people celebrate like spring festival, Qingming Festival and many more.

Impact of cultural differences on Americans and immigrants

When guests arrive at our home to live we make certain adjustments to cater to them or if we are guests we also need to make adjustments. Likewise, when people migrate to any other country they have to get along with the culture of the people living there. Also, the citizens of the country had to make adjustments to accept the differences in their culture.

Previously people used to accept each other cultures as a way of unifying different groups. They used to celebrate every event with joy. Nowadays people are getting more protective of their own culture and beliefs to an extent that they defy celebrating different events. This is also because most immigrants entering the US have no intention of becoming a part of America or its culture rather than they focus more on their community. Immigrants have created their separate communities where they practice and celebrate their own beliefs and events.

Another barrier that people face in unifying different culture is religion. Although every religion teaches peace yet their basic ideology, beliefs and practices are different. This cause a huge impact on people as now they are less tolerant of the diverse background of people. The fear of losing their culture that has been passed on to them from ages makes people more vulnerable (Kruzykowski, 16).

Cultural differences cause a major impact on children. As living in a place where people are of a different color, race, ethnicity and, looks children often feel socially alone. They often get bullied by others because of their looks and color due to which they develop certain mental issues as well. This bullying culture is not limited to school. Immigrants of all ages face this discrimination on daily basis. Although, many people including Americans are speaking up for the rights of immigrants so that everyone can lead a happy life.

On the contrary cultural differences often do have a good impact as well. Accepting diversity and getting knowledge of every culture can have lots of positive effects on people.

Public attitude towards immigrants

According to most of the researchers, immigration causes a very great impact on the economic condition of the country. Many US citizens consider the US a place where every person deserves equality and free will to practice their religion and follow their culture. According to these people, diversity has a positive impact as people can learn new things from others. In contrast, many people are against immigrants. They think that immigrants are polluting their culture and religious beliefs. They also think that immigrants are taking all the benefits from the government as they have a specific quota in every field of life. Most of the immigrants that came to the US on employment visa works on very low wages which is very beneficial for the companies causes a major problem for the US citizens who are not very skilled. Also, many new immigrants especially Chinese are highly educated due to which they are more likely to get a better job than average Americans which is again a big problem for the Americans who dislike immigrants (Wong, Hirschman 387).

Impact of immigration laws on immigrants

In the US the immigration laws have changed a lot. In recent years’ immigrants are also given certain benefits in every field of life but things were not the same back then. While talking about the Asian community, they suffered a lot because of the immigration laws. During the exclusion era the “Chinese Exclusion Act” was passed in which Chinese and Japanese immigrants were prohibited to migrate to the US. This act was further expanded prohibiting immigrants from some parts of the Middle East, Central, and South Asia to migrate to the US. This was a major concern as even the existing immigrants were forced to leave the country and were excluded from labor, jobs and, etc (Juniu 358).

When the era of exclusion was over and the government allowed some of the Asian people to migrate to the US, Asian people faced lots of racial discrimination and some of them were even considered ineligible for citizenship despite fulfilling all the requirements. They also faced employment discrimination and prohibition on buying any property. They were not allowed to vote. Even the children were not spared they also faced segregation in schools.

Recently, many immigration laws are changed and immigrant has a separate quota in every field of life. Children are allowed to take admissions in any school even student visas are issued for several Asians to get higher education in American universities. However, while talking about Muslim Asian immigrants, policies, and laws are still the same. People from many Muslim Asian countries are still banned from entering the US except few and even those few face the same discrimination as other migrants use to face many years ago (Menjívar and Lakhani)


Migration is not easy as it requires lots of strength and patience. It is never easy to adjust in any other country whose culture and language are different from that of immigrants' own culture. Immigrants play a very important role in the country's economy. Talking about Asian immigrants, they are typically hard-working and will work on even lower wages as well despite being highly skilled. Most Asian immigrants are highly educated and have higher educational attainment than all foreign and US-born adults due to this reason they have achieved a significant advance in their income.

Although Chinese Americans have struggled a lot their yet their hard work lead them to achieve success and moving to urban areas. They also found employment in various industries, forming their neighborhoods due to which Chinatowns came into being. They also began introducing their cuisine and due to its variety and taste it is famous not only in USA but around the world. Traditionally Chinese gave immense importance to the education of their children. They have always set a bar so high. This cultural diversity attracts lots of tourists to visit the USA, also as Chinese American merchants are spreading their business in every country and even this will, in turn, benefit the economy of the US. Thus the success of Chinese Americans may also be considered as American immigrant success.


Juniu, Susana. "The impact of immigration: Leisure experience in the lives of South American immigrants." Journal of leisure research 32.3 (2000): 358-381.

Kruzykowski, Katerina G. "Reconciling two cultures: The experience of immigrants and first generation Americans from non-western countries." Social Sciences Journal 7.1 (2007): 7.

Menjívar, Cecilia, and Sarah M. Lakhani. "Transformative effects of immigration law: Immigrants’ personal and social metamorphoses through regularization." American Journal of Sociology 121.6 (2016): 1818-1855.

Soennichsen, John. The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. ABC-CLIO, 2011.

Wong, Morrison G., and Charles Hirschman. "The New Asian Immigrants." (1979).

Subject: History and Anthropology

Pages: 7 Words: 2100

Generation Kill: A Conversation With Stanley McChrystal

Generation Kill: A Conversation with Stanley McChrystal

Generation Kill: A Conversation with Stanley McChrystal

The United States remained involved in a battle in Afghanistan and Iraq from past fifteen years. The war was aimed at combating terrorists, which were suspected of the 9/11 attacks of 2001. The United States started combating those terrorists ferociously after the 9/ 11 incident. Despite spending billions of dollars on this war against terrorism, it is an obvious understanding that terrorism today still possess a range of challenges, both at the social and political level. In consideration of these issues, this essay will analyse, those challenges inferred from an interview of a commander in the Iraq war, Stanley A. McChrystal.

As reported and described by Stanley McChrystal, a centralized and narrowly focused fight was ongoing with the terrorist’s organizations before the attack of 9/11. For instance, most of the actions were not grounded on a high mark of intelligence. Further, only a few operations were executed with a high level of concealment, before the 9/11 incident ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"n8dteBh3","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(S. McChrystal & Rose, 2013)","plainCitation":"(S. McChrystal & Rose, 2013)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2143,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/JB686VSL"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/JB686VSL"],"itemData":{"id":2143,"type":"article-journal","title":"Generation kill: A conversation with Stanley McChrystal","container-title":"Foreign Affairs","page":"2–8","volume":"92","issue":"2","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Generation kill","author":[{"family":"McChrystal","given":"Stanley"},{"family":"Rose","given":"Gideon"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2013"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (S. McChrystal & Rose, 2013). Things changed after the 9/ 11 incident, which totally changed the pattern as to how these operations were planned and conducted. Precisely, it also became appropriate to look into the issues clearly. In order to attain this objective, the US army allied in all the parts of the battlefield. The basic aim was to collect evidence and gather intelligence, right after any incident takes place anywhere in the world.

This resulted in the need for high intelligence and secretive operations. In addition, to that, the 9/11 attacks carried a new prospect to counterterrorism. As a result, the American Army had to stay connected and interlinked so that they could obtain information in no time. The five-step procedure that was used initially to communicate was taking more time and was inefficient to get the communication where it was required to move. Hence, the commander had to come up with something new that could cut the steps involved in the process, keeping it simple yet effective. In addition, they required to move far being capable to catch just one person at night. “You understand who or what is a target, you locate it, you capture or kill it, you take what intelligence you can from people or equipment or documents, you analyze that, and then you go back and do the cycle again, smarter ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"G4yK9yaM","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Generation Kill,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“Generation Kill,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2146,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/V36EZ82H"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/V36EZ82H"],"itemData":{"id":2146,"type":"webpage","title":"Generation Kill","URL":"https://www.foreignaffairs.com/interviews/2013-02-11/generation-kill","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",8,25]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Generation Kill,” n.d.)”.

McChrystal devised a plan that not only reduced the steps involved in the process but also enabled to catch more than one person at night. McChrystal also shared that things have changed strategically. It commenced with their well-trained commandos, but McChrystal mentioned three things to be changed. The first thing is this global positioning system, the second-night vision goggles and the third one unmanned aerial vehicles. The first one enables navigating from one part to another, the night equipment enabled perform night operations by seeing in the night and unmanned aerial vehicles enabled them to have a bird’s eye view and sharing the live feed. In addition, these technologies reduced the number of commandos needed in the field ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"UeBIxJx8","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(G. S. A. McChrystal & McChrystal, 2014)","plainCitation":"(G. S. A. McChrystal & McChrystal, 2014)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2148,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/GZMFTPD7"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/GZMFTPD7"],"itemData":{"id":2148,"type":"book","title":"My share of the task: A memoir","publisher":"Portfolio","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"My share of the task","author":[{"family":"McChrystal","given":"General Stanley A."},{"family":"McChrystal","given":"Stanley A."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2014"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (G. S. A. McChrystal & McChrystal, 2014). The number of raids also increased since technology also enabled night raids.

McChrystal believed that using technology against terrorists will make them more vulnerable to them. For instance, he believed that using sophisticated technology against terrorist will make drag them more close to a terrorist. This can also impact the United States counter-terrorism measures negatively. If for any unfortunate reason, the terrorists are able to get a part of their technology, they can make it more destructive. This can also make the allied forces working against those terrorists more vulnerable to them. This is the reason McChrystal has remained against the use of technology against terrorists.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Generation Kill. (n.d.). Retrieved August 25, 2019, from https://www.foreignaffairs.com/interviews/2013-02-11/generation-kill

McChrystal, G. S. A., & McChrystal, S. A. (2014). My share of the task: A memoir. Portfolio.

McChrystal, S., & Rose, G. (2013). Generation kill: A conversation with Stanley McChrystal. Foreign Affairs, 92(2), 2–8.

Subject: History and Anthropology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

How Confessions Illustrates The Transition To The Christian World

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How Confessions Illustrates the Transition from Ancient Roman to the Christian World


St. Augustine (354-430 C.E), also known as Aurelius Augustinus, who was one of the Catholic bishops who lived in North America. He is also known to be a Roman Trained rhetorician who was a prolific writer and a Christian philosopher. He was one of the keen observers of society before the fall of the Roman Empire, where his views on social and political philosophy comprise of critical and intellectual connections between the emerging medieval world and late antiquity (Augustine). The life span of St Augustine is also spanned as one of the most important phases in transition from Roman paganism to Christianity. The impulse of Augustine's thinking was driven by the cultural and education system that supplied the initial impulse for Augustine’s thinking. His passion for searching truth and wisdom initiated by reading lost dialogue if Cicero, “The Hortensius”. One of the most historic and commendable experiences of the philosopher was that of “Confessions” written by him when he was forty years old. This writing not only changed his interest and vison but it gave a new vision and direction to his life accompanied by the search of wisdom. The Confession is a profound account that illustrates Augustine’s transition from ancient Roman to the Christian World.


In the book, "The Confession", Saint Augustine presents confession of his life of sin to God along with a critical insight into the biblical doctrines such as the relationship between man and nature, human nature, creation, and the divine nature. It would not be wrong to say that the book is more like a transition from the narrative to a psalm like confession accompanied by worship to the doctrinal expression. Confession is an amalgamation of both, philosophy and human relationships. The essence of family relationship is traced in the inspiration from mother Monica, Ambrose, who was the Bishop of Milon and two unnamed friends who died, one of the friends who converted to Christianity along with Augustine and then the son of his friend Adeodatus. There are 13 books in confession, each addressing one of the doctrines of Christianity. These themes are Sin, Grace and, Freewill. One of the major evidence of Augustine’s conversion to Christianity is a quotation from the book, “Our Heart is restless until it finds rest in you” (Augustine). The major section describing Augustine’s conversion to Christianity can be found in the first three chapters of the book, deciphering a series of conversion that Augustine has underwent. There are several experiences of conversion quoted in The Confession, where the first conversion was studying Carthage. After that Augustine embraces Manicheanism which is defined as the gnostic interpretation of Christianity and it is views matter as evil and he is encouraged to create the spark of light from within.

In the Confession, St Augustine is an all-rounded person, a mixture of different feelings and emotions such as a candid personality, acerbic, restless man, passionate being, ambitious souls and some who are subjected to flaws of pride and excess in all dimensions of life. There are a lot of examples that illustrates his transition to Christianity, found in each book, In Book, one Augustine expresses the expression of utility for God in all sections of work and analysis of God as a sovereign Creator (Augustine). In Book II, Augustine noted that God worked through his sins by offering him sensual pleasure that is also found to be a personal experience (Augustine). In Book III, he identifies the idolatry of this worldly philosophy and denounces it by beginning the process of intellectual admonishing asserting it as a path that can lead to truth (Augustine). In Book IV, Augustine explains his attempt to redeem himself after the confession of the sin of fornication by elaborating virtue of his affection for the love of a child (Augustine). In Book V, Augustine expresses his delight in confession that is found to be consistent with the regeneration of the soul, (an ideology in Christianity) indwelt by the spirit of God (Augustine). In Book IV, Augustine exemplifies humanity and contrition in accepting the correction in the practice of her faith and life in general causes. Here is seen in the pace of revelation that has brought clarity to the fielding faith (Augustine). Book VII, explain Augustine having inklings of God’s omnipresence as he struggles with his inner self and the physical image of God that he has viewed and observed in his whole life (Augustine). In Book VIII, the title “Conversion” asserts and specifies Augustine’s decision of being obedient to baptism. He explains salvation in an emotional trance where he finds conversion as an instantaneous task that can occur at any time (Augustine). In Book IX, he elaborates his conversion in full bloom and he narrated his decision of abandoning his teaching career to give time to spiritual thoughts. Book X, explains the principals of confession and Book XI shows Augustine’s insight into time and eternity. In the end (Augustine). In Book XII, Augustine describes heaven and earth, and then the creation of heaven and hearth to explain spiritual realms (Augustine).

A more exegetical account infers that “The Confession” opens in restless confusion accompanied by faith. It is an illustration of how Augustine proceeded from faith to the understanding of his inner voice. There are several topics of discussion, that step by step depict and explain his feelings and gathering from different events, leading him to a strong believe in Christianity. In Confessions, Augustine presents his autobiographical account of the life that ended in converting to Christianity. He discusses the aftermath of the monumental spiritual event and, hitch can be observed throughout confessions. The philosopher has offered his vulnerable and honest rumination on past that was way-war and worldly attitudes where poignantly and painstakingly directed him to the reconciliation with Divine Creator. Also, the earliest works of the saint also depict his inner passion towards Christianity as he quoted in one of the texts. "I would know you [God], I would know myself. (Augustine)" The text of the book itself is an essential stage of the development of spirituality in Augustine along with an awareness that what that has been already passed is history what matters is, what lay ahead. It is observed that Augustine is searching his heart with a desire to discover and expose the fact that human beings are weak in their nature, they are sinful and sensual but on the same board, they are hopeful and filled with passion that they will find out the truth one day.

The confession opens with a prayer, “Grant me, Lord, to know and understand" (Augustine). Here, Augustine is seen scrutinizing his memory and remanuring his ambitions from the past that he hates to be deceived and he founds delight in truth as a catchline. It is also critical to note that the essence of Confession is marked by an unfailing consistency of the authenticity of style and tone, where writer's function and a believer is one with no embarrassment and no awkwardness. There are three major confessions found in confessions. The first one is, of God and the soul is all that Augustine wants to know and if they are to be known in the best relationship to each other, the session confession we as the acknowledgment of the weakness and then the power and greatness of God. These three confessions are a profound illustration of the transition where faith declares what has transpired to the community of those who believe. It would not be wrong to say that confession is more like a working out of the redemption in the life of a sinner.

To Augustine, sin has always been unprincipled self-assertion. He gives several examples to determine the distinct for survival in the bests of the wills that made a man turn away from the love of God and get attracted towards pride and emptiness, He uses the imagery of society, being at the brink of commuting himself to the lofty ideals, he made gestures to express his underlying passions. He questions the postponement of his baptism and what impact it brought to life (Augustine). So, it would not be wrong to say that Confession is more like a story of a saint, with each section explaining one step towards the transition to Christianity. Augustine’s book is deeply devotional work that is full of praise, prayer, communion, praise and confession, all directed towards God.


St Augustine, one of the greatest thinkers and philosopher who belongs to Ancient Rome, converted to Christianity and this conversion is explained in detail and passionate way in the book Confession. As inferred from the title, this conversion starts with the feeling of confession that strengthened with some familial and world association. Augustine’s book the Confession is not a straightforward account but it is a description of events that keyed a major role in driving saint to Christianity. In a nutshell, the book, “confession” is a dramatic, and logical insight into the facts and figures along with a sentimental approach that pushed Augustine to hear his inner voice and convert to Christianity, Also, the book is a source of inspiration for Christianism in terms of philosophical connotations and religious understandings.

Work Cited Augustine, Saint. The confessions. Clark, 1876.

Subject: History and Anthropology

Pages: 6 Words: 1800

Liberty Challenged In Nineteenth Century America

Liberty Challenge in 19th Century America



Liberty Challenge in 19th Century America


Most horrifying and disastrous crimes are the one that is against humanity. Slavery falls into not only the category but on the topmost horrible thing which humanity has to suffer. In our American history, we have committed this crime of denying people of their most basic human right. Comprehension of this is very sad but it is a truth that our modern America foundation was laid on the bones of slaves under key and lock, as they were the pinnacle of progress. When America got its independence, it gets the culture of slaves keeping from the same colonist mindset and used it to get its achievement on this basis by using slaves for agricultural development. Some events led to the Civil War that resulted in slavery abolishment are discussed in paragraphs to follow.

3/5th Compromise:

The Three-Fifth Compromise took place in 1787 in the house of representatives. According to the compromise, all the slaves were counted as three-fifths of the white man in order for states representation in the House of Representative. Its motive was to give southern states more representation by this amount but not equal so that it does not mean that slaves are counted as that of free men.


Southern states had not proportionate effect as compared to the northern state in selecting president, speaker oh house, and also no influence on Supreme Court.

It also resulted in the USA having an equal number of slave and free states

Missouri Compromise

It was legislation passed by the United States 16th Congress on 3rd March 1820 to admit Maine as USA Free State and alongside Missouri a slave state thus maintaining balance set by three fifth compromise(Etcheson, 2005).


Short term outcome of the Missouri compromise was that they become states

In the long term the country is divided into South and North section, which later resulted in battles later fought over slavery and also led to the Civil War.

1850 Compromise

1850 compromise consists of five bills that are separate from one another by Congress of USA in 1850 September that is presented in order to resolve the conflict between free and slave states on territorial acquisition status after the war of America and Mexico.


Strengthen of fugitive state law and new free state California for North

In Washington DC, trading of slaves is banned but slavery was not prohibited.

Kansas Nebraska Act

This act was passed by Congress of the USA on 30th May 1854. It gives the right of decision to territorial people of Kansas and Nebraska whether to allow or not slavery within its territory.


The clause of law concerning sovereignty leads to Kansas flooded with pro and anti-slavery elements with voting up or down the slavery, results in the number of armed conflicts that we know now as "Bleeding Kansas"

This controversy surrounding the act was the main cause of the Civil War.

Dred Scott Decision

The decision of Dred Scott is a legal case that was heard and given a decision by the Supreme Court of USA on 6th March 1857 who ruled 7 to 2 that Dred Scott a slave who became resident of Free State was not given a free citizen entitlement and declared Missouri compromise as unconstitutional.


Missouri Compromise is abolished due to this case

It led to the civil war because the limit of spread Missouri compromise put to slavery and balance of power is negated by this act

Incompatibility of Slavery

Slaves are not allowed the right of education which led to no industrial development(Ransom, 1989).

Our present economic system is based on a capitalistic economy which leads to self-autonomy that is opposite to that of slave labor based economy on communism.

As our present stress on autonomy and free will negates the idea of slavery.

Civil War

Slavery is the main driving force that led to the Civil War. The south uses slave labors for field working while north believes slavery was an evil(Rose, 1994). The clash between the ideology of south and north eventually results in the Civil War.

States' rights are another cause behind the Civil War. It was felt by the southern states that their rights were taken from them by the federal government.

The power shift between southern and northern states due to westward expansion was also the cause because it makes fear in southern states that their power would be lost due to expansion.


Etcheson, N. (2005). The Origins of the Civil War. History Compass, 3(1).

Ransom, R. L. (1989). Conflict and compromise: the political economy of slavery, emancipation and the American Civil War. Cambridge University Press.

Rose, A. C. (1994). Victorian America and the Civil War. Cambridge University Press.

Subject: History and Anthropology

Pages: 2 Words: 600


Saleh A

Instructor Name

History and Anthropology

2 December 2019

Responses to Posts

Part # 1

Yes, I agree with your point-of-view that Witchcraft was used as a misogynic weapon against the women of the relevant period. This belief can be confirmed by the fact that the women that were targeted in these witch-hunts were either too intelligent for the people in power to handle or too powerful and posed a serious threat to the rule of a monarch. The most famous example that is citable here is that of Joan the Maiden, who was later known in history as Joan d’ Arc. She was a brilliant military commander at just nineteen years of age and posed a serious threat to the British progress in the hundred years war. She was declared a witch and burned at a stake because she had become too powerful for the British to handle CITATION Ken191 \l 1033 (Kennedy, 2019). But we simply cannot rule out the possibility that some of these actions might have been driven under superstitious beliefs, even though only women were targeted in these extensive witch-hunts.

Part # 2

There should not be any doubt that these misogynic witch-hunts were given the cover of superstitious beliefs like Satan’s influence or possession by evil spirits and many other stories. But there is a possibility that the witches were used as scapegoats by the rulers of the time to divert their attentions to the general state of misery that they were in as common folks CITATION Lah15 \l 1033 (Mia Lahtinen, 2015). In any area where the rulers would fail, they would blame it in the witches and the community would vent out their anger mostly on the innocent women. In addition to that, there is another noteworthy point that the women that were accused of being witches were generally troublemakers according to their rulers because they often challenged a set of well-established beliefs and asked for rights and liberties that were considered as resentful in their societies. That is were Briggs is rightful to assume that this is the result of misogyny.

Works Cited

BIBLIOGRAPHY Kennedy, L. (2019, May 30). Why Was Joan of Arc Burned at the Stake? History.com. Retrieved from https://www.history.com/news/joan-arc-burned-stake

Mia Lahtinen, A. K. (2015). Cultures of Death and Dying in Medieval and Early Modern Europe. Helsinki: Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies. Retrieved from http://www.helsinki.fi/collegium/journal/volumes/volume_18/Death%20and%20Dying%20in%20Medieval%20and%20Early%20Modern%20Europe.pdf

Subject: History and Anthropology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

The Development Of The American Economy

Post-Civil War Revolution

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The American Civil War (1861-1865) was the bloodiest conflict in the Western world between the Napoleonic wars and the First World War. There were a lot of changes that occurred after the civil war including poverty, slavery, and the industrial revolution. Nullification Crisis also brought to light the deep economic divisions between states. Those in the Northeast industrialized rapidly, and this industrialization, especially the emergence of the railroad, began to transform the American economy. Protectionism was becoming an increasingly popular policy in these industrialized states, which wanted the United States to close imports of manufactures imported from abroad. The economies of the West and South were based on exports, wheat and other cereals for the West and cotton for the South: these states were in favor of free trade. They wanted access to European manufactured goods, which were cheaper and often of better quality, and to continue buying them, they needed to export their crops freely.

The main export crop of the southern states was cotton, which was produced by slave labor. The invention in 1793 of the first gin (which separated the fiber inexpensively and efficiently) made cotton production very lucrative. Even though popular imagery represents a South of great mansions and thousands of slaves, a quarter of slave owners owned only between one and nine slaves, a good half-owned between ten and 49 and only a quarter in had more than 50. Besides, the number of slave owners was declining. In 1850, 36% of the white southerners owned slaves; in 1860, they were less than 25% (Korstad & Lichtenstein, 1988). The states of the North abolish slavery one after the other, few granted the right of citizenship to black Americans; the right to vote, to be part of a jury or to marry whites were denied. In the western states, so-called "black codes," which banned black Americans from living or moving there, were also popular. The majority of historians recognize that what was called "Negrophobia" overwhelmingly dominated the opinion of white Americans, whether in the North or the South. (Gordon, 2017).

The growing importance of American industrialization and related issues such as economic development, transportation, urbanization, and pre-war protectionism are discussed by Charles G. Sellars, The Market Revolution: Jacksonian America 1815-1846. The economic boom of the 1920s, succeeding the profits made during the war years, seems to bring the United States to a future without problems (Westad, 1992). Production increases continuously - or almost -, the standard of living of most Americans is increasing, a consumption spree is on new products, including the automobile, and seems to entail with it the appearance of a way of life ensuring material comfort and free of worries for the next day. An industrialist like Ford designs his cars to sell to his workers.

During the 1920s, the number of strikes continued to decline. Where they took place, it was very often because of the role played by radicalized or communist militants. Most of these strikes were met with open and ferocious repression. In addition to the hunt for workers' militants and the "reds", and the roadblocks against attempts to organize themselves collectively, the employers did not disdain to get rid of the unions of the very conservative trade union confederation AFL (the American Federation of Labor), to set up house unions in their place. In 1926, there were 432 house unions, with more than one million three hundred thousand workers and more than a third of the number of workers organized by the AFL (Wright,1987). This number will also increase at the time of the crisis and during the first months of the Roosevelt administration. The AFL represented the most conservative tradition of American trade unionism.


Gordon, R. J. (2017). The rise and fall of American growth: The US standard of living since the

civil war (Vol. 70). Princeton University Press.

Korstad, R., & Lichtenstein, N. (1988). Opportunities found and lost: Labor, radicals, and the

early civil rights movement. The Journal of American History, 75(3), 786-811.

Westad, O. A. (1992). Cold War and revolution: Soviet-American rivalry and the origins of the

Chinese Civil War, 1944-1946.

Wright, G. (1987). The economic revolution in the American South. Journal of Economic

Perspectives, 1(1), 161-178.

Subject: History and Anthropology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

The Impact Of The Feminist Movement

Impact of Feminist Movements

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Social movements are crucial to comprehend and assessing their impact on any society is generally difficult. In societies that had been under the shadows of patriarchy for generations, feminist movements brought about revolutionary changes. The contemporary women's movement in the west has made significant progress in developing feminist theories related to the place of women in society and generating pragmatic studies of the past and present of our societal cultures. But a little is known and about the experiences of women in the non-West and to what degree the feminist notions conform to women's insights and political aspirations. In the United States, in the early 70s, feminist movements became a strong force that started reshaping the role and importance of women with the society and it also reformed the relationships between men and women in a pragmatic way.


The three waves of feminist movements shook the western society to its core. It changed the way women were view in the era and even motivated individual units of society to look at women from a very different perspective. For a very long time, women were seen with judgment and bias in society. They oversimplified the issues faced by women, which prompted them to rise in their defense. It all began with the women’s suffrage movement that ultimately resulted in the amendment of the American Constitution and gave women the right to vote, alongside the men in the country. This movement began in the late 19th century and the women were allowed to finally vote in 1920. While this changed and improved things for the better, the women and their fight for the attainment for their rights was far from over .

In the 1960s, for the first-time women campaigned for the liberation movement was initiated. This movement paved for the attainment of their basic rights. After a long and hard struggle, the women were finally able to have the right to their bodily integrity, they had the right to hold public office, to hold a job, along with a semblance of equal pay in the workforce. They were also not only allowed to inherit a property in their name but to own property as well. They could enter into legal rights and even hold marital and prenatal rights.

These rights had a direct impact on the gender roles associated with women. When there were supposed play a nurturing role in the society and look after the young, these women left the confines of their home and seek employment, even if they were married. Earlier, it was impossible for women to be married and yet hold on to a job. Following the waves of feminism, women were not only able to do so, introduce the concept of division of labor within the household. It also removed the stigma associated with bearing a child out of wedlock and make the concept of sexual gratification commonplace in case of both men and women . At the end of it all, women were not only able to enjoy the same rights as men, but also seek employment in the same workplaces, study at the same institutions and even speak their mind without having their intellectual opinions and voices subjugated by society.


Feminist organizations face notable challenges with the agenda of fixing as many problems within a structural gender equality paradigm as possible. Feminism isn't just white or straight or Western. Labeling feminism as Western or non-Western creates ambiguities that whether it refers to a geographical, ideological, political, cultural, historical or racial hegemony? Does it reserve the colonialist divisions among the West and the rest? It was the resistance to the post-Enlightenment individualism led to the creation of the Western feminism that shaped the autonomous and rational beliefs of individuals.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Changing the World. New York, N.Y.: New York, N.Y. : Films Media Group, 2014.

Outshoorn, Joyce. “Assessing the Impact of Women’s Movements.” Women’s Studies International Forum 35, no. 3 (May 1, 2012): 147–49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wsif.2012.03.013.

Subject: History and Anthropology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Townsend Chapter 2: Native People And European New Comers Shoemaker Chapter 2: First Encounters

Mayra Spinello

Enter the name of Instructor

History and Anthropology

September 18, 2019.

Townsend Chapter 2: Native People and European New Comers Shoemaker Chapter 2: First Encounters

The Eastern Woodland culture was comprised of the Indian tribes living throughout the length and breadth of Eastern America and Canada. The gender roles among the Native Americans were accustomed according to the region and community they were the parts of. Compared to them the Indian tribes of the Eastern Woodlands also shared similar cultural traits. The Indian’s societies were divided into classes, which included a tribal chief and some commoners. The English views of gender influence the viewpoint of Eastern Woodland Native Americans, more in the form gender roles. Although divided into classes, the gender roles among Indians were based on the division of labor. Normally, the Indian females will tend to work in the fields of maize with digging sticks and hoes. The English considered that Algonquian- English gender roles have been influenced by the gender perception of Indians in the manner that English people often questioned about the agricultural role of women among the Indian tribes and about their other social roles ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"tnDxYObB","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Brown)","plainCitation":"(Brown)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":217,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/AHSRFRBE"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/AHSRFRBE"],"itemData":{"id":217,"type":"article-journal","title":"The Anglo-Algonquian Gender Frontier","container-title":"Negotiators of Change: Historical Perspectives on Native American Women","volume":"30","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Brown","given":"Kathleen M."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1995"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Brown).

The Native American culture was influenced by the European New Comers in many ways. Other than the roles in labor and gender classification, the gender classification in the Southern part of America is the proof of this fact. The early American culture provided a great autonomy to women, however, the eastern Woodland Culture was different ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"YEZFdQ5K","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(GUERRERO)","plainCitation":"(GUERRERO)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":220,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/SX4Y6TK3"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/SX4Y6TK3"],"itemData":{"id":220,"type":"article-journal","title":"“Patriarchal colonialism” and indigenism: Implications for Native Feminist spirituality and Native womanism","container-title":"Hypatia","page":"58–69","volume":"18","issue":"2","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"“Patriarchal colonialism” and indigenism","author":[{"family":"GUERRERO","given":"MA JAIMES*"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2003"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (GUERRERO). It opened the ways for gender inequality and oppressions and this was how things started influencing the American culture. Other than labor distribution patterns and about the role of women, the Woodland culture remained insignificant for altering the societal pattern of the American society. Many historians believe that such distance remained for the fact that Early Americans were so possessive about their gender roles and cultural patterns ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"5yDC3kCH","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Restoule)","plainCitation":"(Restoule)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":218,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/A3NPLMAL"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/A3NPLMAL"],"itemData":{"id":218,"type":"article-journal","title":"Aboriginal identity: The need for historical and contextual perspectives","container-title":"Canadian Journal of Native Education","page":"102–112","volume":"24","issue":"2","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Aboriginal identity","author":[{"family":"Restoule","given":"Jean-Paul"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2000"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Restoule). They believe that any other social pattern or way of life might affect their pattern of living tremendously.

Works Cited:

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Brown, Kathleen M. “The Anglo-Algonquian Gender Frontier.” Negotiators of Change: Historical Perspectives on Native American Women, vol. 30, 1995.

GUERRERO, MA JAIMES*. “‘Patriarchal Colonialism’ and Indigenism: Implications for Native Feminist Spirituality and Native Womanism.” Hypatia, vol. 18, no. 2, 2003, pp. 58–69.

Restoule, Jean-Paul. “Aboriginal Identity: The Need for Historical and Contextual Perspectives.” Canadian Journal of Native Education, vol. 24, no. 2, 2000, pp. 102–112.

Subject: History and Anthropology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Two Responsive Posts

Part 1)

  At first, I felt like Reformation did not affect women's lives.  However, throughout the reading you can see how some of them really had to change their lives around.  "They did not vote or serve on city councils, and even abbesses were under the direct control of a male church official" (Wiesner 295).  According to the reading, women were unable to vote and were not able to attend Universities. This made it difficult for them to know what's going on with religious changes that were happening. For women, their status was important in order to impact any part of the reformation (Wiesner 296). They only learned about the changed through the men and had to take their word for it. "Former priests and monks could become pastors in the new Protestant churches, but former nuns had no place in the new church structure" (Wiesner 297). The reformation affected those who did not agree with the new way of life that they were made to follow. It was definitely a bad change for them. It made them weaker. For nuns, they were forced to quit what they were doing and get married. Others chose to live together or move back with their families (Wiesner 297). "She had no voice in guild decision making and took no part in guild festivals, though she may have baked more than her husband" (Wiesner 306). Women couldn't choose a path for themselves, everything was based on their husbands now. To summarize, I feel like women were not part of the reformation, but were quite affected by it.


I agree with the similar prospect that the protestant Reformation turned the entire life pattern of women and confined them to a limited territory of the household. As a matter of fact, in every epoch, women populace surpasses the number of men; therefore, any substantial alteration, modification, or eradication in the theoretical framework of political and societal perspective affect women to an exacerbated extent (Stetina, 2017). The underlying implications of Reformation made life most onerous for females. While reading the history of that time, it seems that I am reading “The Handmaid’s Tale,” in which women were compelled to be used only for reproduction purposes and enforced to live a life designed by higher authorities. In such scenarios, men get unfair privileges that consequently gulp down the career or any other social and economic opportunities for female faction; the same phenomenon can be observed through exploring the haphazard of Reformation.


Stetina, Kenin. "What The Reformation Did And Didn't Do For Women." The Good Book Blog - Biola University Blogs. N.p., 2017. Web. 18 Nov. 2019.

Part 2)

The Protestant Reformation has substantially affected women’s lives, and it began with the nuns and lay sisters. They were encouraged to “leave their houses and marry” and those who accepted the Protestant message gave up their lands and went out to marry, the ones who couldn’t find a husband ether were able to fend themselves and those who were not able to marry or support themselves had to fall back on their family (Wiesner 297). However, other nuns who didn’t accept the Protestant message still realized “the realities of political power” and gave up their holds; yet, these women would continue living together after the Prostatane reformation, “trying to to remain as a religious community”, although they heavily relied on their families for support: Some nuns received pensions, but we aren’t sure what happens to most women because there weren’t any record to what to them (Wiesner 297). Furthermore, wealthy women were heavily against the protestant reformation, and example is St. Clara convent in Nuremberg, “whose nuns were all wealthy Nuremberg families and whose reputation for learning had spread throughout Germany”, and the only two women convents in Nuremberg would not submit to the Protestant message, while four out of six male houses closed down immediately (Wiesner 297). Also, the female house was harassed and intimidated so they would close down, and two daughters were physically pulled out of the convent by force; yet, the convent didn't submit and lasted until the last member died(Wisener 297). I believe that the Prostane Reformation has some good things come out of it, mostly "champion a women's role as wife and mother" (Wisener 297). However, I think it was a bad thing because, after the Protestant Reformation, there has been continued belittlement of women and limiting women in roles in society. Which, in my opinion, hasn't been fixed fully to this day.


“The continued belittlement of women,” that is the most viable point and the darkest side of Protestant Reformation and other similar catastrophes. The Reformation regulations turned women’s life upside down, and such impacts were devastated on the faction of nuns. Nuns opted for a convent lifestyle and in due course, shunned the notion of the regular and routine life of mothers and wives, and they were comfortable with their surroundings. However, the Reformation devised rules and restrictions that coerced nuns to say adieu to their pieties and sacred life and forced them to get married and managing households. In due course, many nuns bowed their wills; meanwhile, some stood against the unfair implications of such regime; Caritas Pirckheimer was the most eminent nun who found it irrational to pursue such absurdity (Karabacak, 2018). Like men, women are human too, and such chronologies have tarnished the authentic visage of humanity and equality altogether.


Karabacak, Emre. (2018). The Protestant Reformation and Women.

Subject: History and Anthropology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

"Sidewalk" Final Paper


Mitchell Duneier’s Conceptualization of Habitat and Formation of a Moral Economy


[Name of the Institution]

Mitchell Duneier’s Conceptualization of Habitat and Formation of a Moral Economy

As a participant-observer, Sociologist Mitchell Duneier tries to understand the informal sidewalk economy of Greenwich Village in New York City in the 1990s. The main focus of his book is Sixth Avenue, one of the commercial hubs of Greenwich Village. Duneier acquaintance with a large number of low-income magazine and book vendors, panhandlers and scavengers help him understand the intricate economy of the sidewalk. He observes that these vendors left the formal economy for the street because of sociopolitical forces such as racism, stringent drug policies, inadequate job opportunities, disturbed family relations and dissatisfaction with corporate life. The author highlights several factors that he thinks are responsible for making Greenwich Village a suitable place for the vendors. The upper middle class of the Village residents is sympathetic towards them. In the informal economy of the Village, the complex relations among these vendors are sustained through competition, mentorship, informal social norms, etc. The author also explains how policing and law enforcement threatens the booming economy by hindering the conduct of the business of Sixth Avenue.

The author lauds the homelessness of street people on Sixth Avenue and their innovative solution of collecting, discarded, donating and selling books on the sidewalks. This remedy serves everyone so well. The place becomes a center for cultural exchange and commerce. To the author, it serves as a prototype for the power of ideas and inventiveness that integrates the misfits, creates sustenance for the homeless and builds a stable society for Sixth Avenue in general.

The author provides a critique of racial and class stereotypes and how it affects the work of vendors by recounting the story of a black man Robert F. Kennedy Jr., who is arrested for misconduct on the Sixth Avenue. The officers think he is insane when they hear his name. Kennedy decides to call himself John Smith or Kenny to avoid the hassle. These vendors are seen as trouble. Most politicians aim at eliminating such "troublesome" people by introducing stringent laws that criminalize homelessness and reduce the sidewalk space available to these vendors. On the one hand, this approach is flawed because it deals with the effect, no the underlying cause. Other the other, it fails to acknowledge the life of the sidewalk as a means of social order and cohesion.

Excluded from the mainstream, these stigmatized people define their own moral standards and live by them. They have developed bonds with customers and secured their dignity by “earning an honest living”. How the outside world looks at the life of the street is explained by the author as he narrates his own opinion about the earnings of these vendors. When he finds his own book in Hakim Hasan’s table, he supposes that Hasan might have stolen it. But Hasan turns out to be a well-educated man. Through this incident, Duneier makes the point how these street people are assumed to be criminals.

Duneier found an extremely sophisticated economy on the street that maintained an organized moral order. Every individual was held accountable, as in the street culture all members were closely associated and kept an eye on one another.

Although some had chosen to work on the street for making profits, most were there out of compulsion. There were addicts, homeless and jobless people. Despite that, there was despair. Instead, they sought "repair" and "self-respect" on the sidewalks. Mentors like Hasan played a vital role in helping addicts, novices and youngsters, even encouraging them to earn school degrees. The sophisticated economy of sidewalks is regulated carefully through community policies in order to avoid the dangers of a disordered marketplace for business. For instance, they arrive early in the morning to capture suitable spots; there are persons who scavenge the city for magazines and books; there are persons dedicated to bringing books from and to the lockers every day; etc. The author also mentions Hasan’s mentorship of Jerome, who is a low-wage worker in a vitamin shop. Since Jerome faces great pressures, the author, after observing how is being encouraged by Hasan, say, “I am thinking about the sidewalk. Thank goodness for the sidewalk.”

The alternative economy of the sidewalks will perhaps never rise to compete with traditional and mainstream economies but it is indeed a constituent of the system- an informal social system that keeps things running, safe and organized.

The author shows how the policymakers and the citizens, in general, fail to understand the life of these street people. The problems of these people living on the margins of society will never be solved by enacting more and more stringent law made with the lens of middle-class respectability. He remarks that problems such as housing segregation, after-effects of Jim Crow poverty and flawed drug policies can never be addressed by harassing people on the street. In fact, it is street people who contribute towards the solution by striving to live orderly, respectable and moral lives in an environment where they are deemed the “problem”.

The arguments of the author are compelling. However, there is one significant limitation in the research and study of the writer. The focus of the author in the book is solely on the Sixth Avenue of the Greenwich people. The readers wonder if the writer's observations, remarks, and suggestions will hold true for other localities as well. Since that area has many universities and more than its share of wealth, the vendors of books and magazines have quite a suitable market for what they sell. There are customers, both students, and professors, who buy the latest magazines, expensive journals and books. The question arises whether or not such an economy can flourish elsewhere as well.

However, the reader cannot object to the author’s approach for he does not claim to offer a universal solution or a panacea for all the problems of an American city. His message seems logical and reasonable that instead of dealing with symptoms, the major focus should be on addressing the underlying causes. Rather than presenting his argument from the perspective of racial or social limitations, Duneier refrains from making any argument at all. His solution is rather slanted and inorganic. Perhaps it is the most sustainable solution within the status quo. Therefore to deal with urban heterogeneity, only creative compassion seems to be a feasible solution.

T-Shirt Travels: meanings attached to second-hand clothing by Zambians

T-Shirt Travels is a documentary about the selling and use of second-hand clothes in a third world country, Zambia. The documentary introduces the viewer to the current economic crisis of Zambia and its debt status. It explains how used clothes from the developed world end up in Zambia and how they have far-reaching consequences for the third world country. Bundles of used clothes donated by citizens to charitable organizations such as Good Will and the Salvation Army are sold to private commercial enterprises. These private enterprises clean these clothes and ship them to the underdeveloped countries. In these third world countries, their market value is increased again, and they are sold to dealers and distributors.

The consequences of these clothes are far-reaching. Zambian clothing manufacturers argue that the indigenous industry was destroyed when the country allowed imports of clothes under free trade agreements. This opening of doors began in 1991. Consequently, hundreds of containers arrived in Zambia. As a result, the Zambian manufacturing companies were pushed out of business. One by one, the factories closed and now the skills, capital and infrastructure have become extinct. Not even a single manufacturing company has left the country. Those teachers, nurses and civil servants who lost their jobs entered the clothing trade and started buying and selling second-hand imported clothes.

The documentary highlights the insurmountable debt of Zambia and explores the role of stringent economic policies of international organizations such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank in bringing the country at the verge of economic collapse. "We do not have political colonialism in Zambia, we have economic colonialism," says Soph Phiri, an investment banker. She is of the opinion that if it is the World Bank and the IMF that are calling the shots, then Zambia is not an independent state in the true sense of the word.

The documentary explains how Africa is entangled in a vicious cycle. Since the workforce is sick, hungry and uneducated, the loans which are soaring high cannot be paid. The documentary warns that if the international organizations and first world countries keep imposing such policies on the third world, we will reach a point where one-sixth of the total population of the world will be deprived of their right to see their children live a healthy life.

Can (Good) Shopping and Philanthropy Save the World?

Shopping is a confusing term. The 21st-century jargon has added to the confusion by introducing the term sustainable shopping. In today’s world of unprecedented climate changes, sustainable shopping means eco-friendly purchases. However, the term can also encompass sustainability of society. Commercial activities and economic transactions are essential for the survival of any community. This has been an illustration by Mitchell Duneier in his book Sidewalks. In order to earn an honorable living, the street people of Sixth Avenue of the Greenwich Village embarked upon selling books and magazines. The innovative idea not only helped these street people earn revenue but also enabled them to connect with one another and customers in a way that resulted in a sustainable Sixth Avenue habitat. A whole moral economy was evolved with the passage of time.

Today, the distribution of wealth is not uniform at the global, regional, and societal level. 25% of the people of the world have more than 75% of the total world wealth. Perhaps the economic disparity is starker than ever before in the history of mankind. In such times, both good shopping and philanthropy are a way of distributing wealth and reducing economic disparity. International organizations such as the UN have come up with strategies, including Millennial Developmental Goals and Sustainable Developmental Goals, to bring people out of poverty, create job opportunities and combat malnutrition. The positive results have enabled the UN to set goals of bringing all the people below the poverty line out of it by 2030, thereby proving that donations can help alleviate poverty around the globe.

The world we live in today is facing global problems such as climate change, terrorism, refugee crises, and wars. More than ever, the world needs sustainable development. The terms such as green or good shopping have entered our vocabulary. Green shopping means buying goods and services that are environmentally friendly. Big businesses have embarked upon philanthropic activities under their self-imposed corporate social responsibilities in order to create jobs and help develop sustainable societies. Initiatives such as USAID help hundreds of people from the third world to acquire modern education, establish their own businesses and earn honorable livings.

It would not be wrong to say that in the face of global socio-economic disparity, climate change and a myriad of other problems, not only growth but sustainable growth is necessary to save the planet. Good and green shopping and philanthropic activities can indeed play a vital role in helping us achieve sustainable growth, and societies.

Subject: History and Anthropology

Pages: 6 Words: 1800

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