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Sex Offenders-history Definitions And Statistics In Canada

Sex Offenders

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Author Note

Sex Offenders History and Statistics in Canada

A sex offender is a person who has committed a sex crime. A sex offense is not attributable to distinct emotional elements and social status, it is a label of the entire society and a community. Social and metaphysical factors are also connected with the manifestation of a sexual offense. There are laws according to which societies release offenders in the communities without management and treatment. It is a culture that succeeds in civilizations and societies which requires suitable awareness to stop the release of sexual offenders in the communities without management such as cognitive therapies ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a19a5hrj3oc","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf (\\uc0\\u8220{}How Female Sexual Offenders Are Perceived Criminology Essay,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)}","plainCitation":"(“How Female Sexual Offenders Are Perceived Criminology Essay,” n.d.)"},"citationItems":[{"id":163,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/8EY89VVH"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/8EY89VVH"],"itemData":{"id":163,"type":"webpage","title":"How Female Sexual Offenders Are Perceived Criminology Essay","abstract":"The purpose of this dissertation is to analyse how female sexual offenders are perceived and treated in society. This was achieved through secondar...","URL":"https://www.uniassignment.com/essay-samples/criminology/how-female-sexual-offenders-are-perceived-criminology-essay.php","language":"en"}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“How Female Sexual Offenders Are Perceived Criminology Essay,” n.d.). It has been reported that women are the 25% accused of police-reported criminal incidents in Canada ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a14fd2qaeb0","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Savage, 2019)","plainCitation":"(Savage, 2019)"},"citationItems":[{"id":367,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/AB49N5RX"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/AB49N5RX"],"itemData":{"id":367,"type":"article-journal","title":"Female offenders in Canada, 2017","container-title":"Juristat","page":"1-20","volume":"1","author":[{"family":"Savage","given":"Laura"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Savage, 2019).

It is important to perceive the justice method in what way it treats and responds to sex offenders. Progenies and females are the core sufferers of sexual violence. Though, studies have exposed that the women are the highest victims globally. Grand figures specify that 2% of the victims are men; and 75% are women ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"abjf1ji5jk","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Bodkin et al., 2019)","plainCitation":"(Bodkin et al., 2019)"},"citationItems":[{"id":369,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/SRRUAESD"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/SRRUAESD"],"itemData":{"id":369,"type":"article-journal","title":"History of Childhood Abuse in Populations Incarcerated in Canada: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis","container-title":"American journal of public health","page":"e1-e11","volume":"109","issue":"3","author":[{"family":"Bodkin","given":"Claire"},{"family":"Pivnick","given":"Lucie"},{"family":"Bondy","given":"Susan J."},{"family":"Ziegler","given":"Carolyn"},{"family":"Martin","given":"Ruth Elwood"},{"family":"Jernigan","given":"Carey"},{"family":"Kouyoumdjian","given":"Fiona"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Bodkin et al., 2019). Females' offending violence against children accounts for only 5 % ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"aj3l00hsmv","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Bodkin et al., 2019)","plainCitation":"(Bodkin et al., 2019)"},"citationItems":[{"id":369,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/SRRUAESD"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/SRRUAESD"],"itemData":{"id":369,"type":"article-journal","title":"History of Childhood Abuse in Populations Incarcerated in Canada: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis","container-title":"American journal of public health","page":"e1-e11","volume":"109","issue":"3","author":[{"family":"Bodkin","given":"Claire"},{"family":"Pivnick","given":"Lucie"},{"family":"Bondy","given":"Susan J."},{"family":"Ziegler","given":"Carolyn"},{"family":"Martin","given":"Ruth Elwood"},{"family":"Jernigan","given":"Carey"},{"family":"Kouyoumdjian","given":"Fiona"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Bodkin et al., 2019). These statistics burden up the fact that women are the most susceptible to all victims. There is a prerequisite of operative management to regulate these offenders and to halt violence against children and women in the communities.

The lover/teacher associations are frequently neglected and the relationship is not castoff as a crime and misconduct. These types of stereotypes constrain violence and produce less damage to the partner and therefore societies do not distinguish it as a sex offense. These criminals are exposed to people and societies. These kinds of criminals are portrayed as a relationship and the subject remained hidden. This is usually not considered as an offense and these offenders are not designated as sex offenders. The susceptible type of offenders uses teenagers and grownups for an extended period for their sensual desire and do not spot it as an offense. They are frequently women and sometimes men also practice their sexual desire using children ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"aqkomj1v4q","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Reale, McCuish, & Corrado, 2019)","plainCitation":"(Reale, McCuish, & Corrado, 2019)"},"citationItems":[{"id":368,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/VUVG4SNN"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/VUVG4SNN"],"itemData":{"id":368,"type":"article-journal","title":"The Impact of Juvenile Sex Offending on the Adult Criminal Career","container-title":"Sexual Abuse","page":"1079063219858073","author":[{"family":"Reale","given":"Kylie"},{"family":"McCuish","given":"Evan"},{"family":"Corrado","given":"Raymond"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Reale, McCuish, & Corrado, 2019). The cruelty is committed in contradiction of the child will and it is additionally common in women employed in the daycares. Another type of sex offender is the male-coerced female offender who commits mistreatment first in the corporation of their male.

In history, the studies have exposed that child abuse was merely committed by the men. Presently researches have recommended that females are also accountable and are intricate in sexually abused teenagers. Various studies have shown that the number of sex offenders in Canada is increasing in recent years. Any type of childhood sexual abuse was reported to be 65.7% among women. One study revealed that the percentage of children sex abuse was 50.4% among women and 21.9 % among men ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a2375cncgj","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Bodkin et al., 2019)","plainCitation":"(Bodkin et al., 2019)"},"citationItems":[{"id":369,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/SRRUAESD"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/SRRUAESD"],"itemData":{"id":369,"type":"article-journal","title":"History of Childhood Abuse in Populations Incarcerated in Canada: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis","container-title":"American journal of public health","page":"e1-e11","volume":"109","issue":"3","author":[{"family":"Bodkin","given":"Claire"},{"family":"Pivnick","given":"Lucie"},{"family":"Bondy","given":"Susan J."},{"family":"Ziegler","given":"Carolyn"},{"family":"Martin","given":"Ruth Elwood"},{"family":"Jernigan","given":"Carey"},{"family":"Kouyoumdjian","given":"Fiona"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Bodkin et al., 2019). Physical abuse reported to be 47% and emotional abuse was 51% recorded. This study has revealed that more than half of the individuals in the prisons of Canada have experienced sexual violence in childhood.

Studies have revealed that the offenders once released from the prisons again committed sex offense during the year or within two years. Though the rate of sex offenders is increasing, however, the offenders are released from the prisons and no treatment and management is been recommended to them in Canada. Most of the offenders are not even directed to rehabilitation treatments. Mass media and networks have not depicted male and female sex offenders as criminals. There is a requirement to understand them as criminal or offender and the criminal justice system has to reconsider while sending them in the people and societies ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a1oh10pd8ur","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf (\\uc0\\u8220{}How Female Sexual Offenders Are Perceived Criminology Essay,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)}","plainCitation":"(“How Female Sexual Offenders Are Perceived Criminology Essay,” n.d.)"},"citationItems":[{"id":163,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/8EY89VVH"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/8EY89VVH"],"itemData":{"id":163,"type":"webpage","title":"How Female Sexual Offenders Are Perceived Criminology Essay","abstract":"The purpose of this dissertation is to analyse how female sexual offenders are perceived and treated in society. This was achieved through secondar...","URL":"https://www.uniassignment.com/essay-samples/criminology/how-female-sexual-offenders-are-perceived-criminology-essay.php","language":"en"}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“How Female Sexual Offenders Are Perceived Criminology Essay,” n.d.). The reoffending actions are only preventable and avoidable by applying appropriate behavioral therapies to the offenders.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Bodkin, C., Pivnick, L., Bondy, S. J., Ziegler, C., Martin, R. E., Jernigan, C., & Kouyoumdjian, F. (2019). History of Childhood Abuse in Populations Incarcerated in Canada: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. American Journal of Public Health, 109(3), e1–e11.

How Female Sexual Offenders Are Perceived Criminology Essay. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.uniassignment.com/essay-samples/criminology/how-female-sexual-offenders-are-perceived-criminology-essay.php

Reale, K., McCuish, E., & Corrado, R. (2019). The Impact of Juvenile Sex Offending on the Adult Criminal Career. Sexual Abuse, 1079063219858073.

Savage, L. (2019). Female offenders in Canada, 2017. Juristat, 1, 1–20.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Sexual Orientation

Name of Student

Name of Professor

Name of Class

Day Month Year

Sexual Orientation

The issue of same-sex marriage and the pertinent issues as same-sex marriages, religion and sexual orientation and the rights of gays and lesbians have always remained contentious in the United States of America (USA). It is paramount to comprehend that the aspect of same-sex marriage is largely affected by religion. The opponents claim the same-sex-marriage explicitly impacts the freedom of religion. The sexual orientation as gay is still deemed a stigma by a wide range of public ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"sGqVAKua","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Al Gayda)","plainCitation":"(Al Gayda)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2147,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/H8YOvGFC/items/ESYP8F7P"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/H8YOvGFC/items/ESYP8F7P"],"itemData":{"id":2147,"type":"motion_picture","title":"Matthew Shepard. A Victim of Hate. RIP","source":"YouTube","dimensions":"597 seconds","URL":"https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W2_ARubZ6rs","author":[{"literal":"Al Gayda"}],"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",3,8]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Al Gayda). However, the same sex-marriages have been legalized by the Supreme Court. People have not thoroughly advanced to embrace offer gays and same-sex marriages an honorable rank in society. Moreover, the LGBTs are largely deprived of their fundamental rights in the United States.

The decision made by the Supreme Court to legalize same-sex marriages across the nation served to promulgate the rights of the LGBTs. These rights vary as per the rules and laws of each state. One of the major atrocities committed against the LGBTs is the discrimination subjected in the workplace. The anti-discrimination laws are promulgated only for federal employees. The attitude of a large number of public reflects them to be inferior members of the community. The absence of federal laws to abrogate and strictly take into account the practices of widespread discrimination is an explicit manifestation of the social structure in the United States.

Several judges and federal authorities have proved through their actions that they do not approve of the same sex marriages. Instead, they confronted the provision of rights to the LGBT community. There exists a specific community in the United States that exploits religion and formulates irrational arguments for changing the perception of the citizens related to radicalize the dimensions of the sexual situation.

Works Cited

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Al Gayda. Matthew Shepard. A Victim of Hate. RIP. YouTube, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W2_ARubZ6rs. Accessed 8 Mar. 2019.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Short Answer Essay

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of Instructor]



Short answer Essay


Sociology is directly linked with people and their relationships with each other as its centralized society. This fact cannot be denied that certain perspectives and concepts that provide a baseline for anything to work on. There are three main sociological perspectives (structure-functional, conflict and symbolic interaction) that have positive as well as negative impacts on culture or society.


Structural-functional perspective

It is one of the perspectives of sociology which claims that society is a complex structure or system which divides work together to promote stability and solidarity. This perspective also asserts that social structures are of central importance that guides people regarding their lives and these structures are directly linked with the stable patterns of social behavior. Strength of this perspective is that it promotes cooperation as it gives more opportunities for communication. One of the main weaknesses of this perspective is, it does not consider inequality and exploitation within society.

Conflict perspective

Conflict perspective claims that society is made up of various groups that compete with each for acquiring resources and power. This perspective also explains different aspects by taking a look at the group i.e. which group is getting what sort of benefit from which particular social arrangement (Ransome, et al.2019). Strength of this perspective is, every individual is given a chance for acquiring power. A weakness of conflict perspective is that it encourages the exploitation of the poor by those who are in power.

Symbolic interaction perspective

Symbolic interaction perspective claims that human behavior got affected by the meanings and definitions that are not only created but also being maintained by symbolic interaction among people. This perspective suggests that a person’s self-consciousness and identity is being shaped by his/her social interaction. One of the basic strength of this sociological perspective is that it focuses on small-scale human interactions. The basic weakness of the symbolic interaction perspective is that it undermines the emotional aspects and dimensions of human conduct as it focuses only on logical behavior.


Taking a look at the above-mentioned discussion, it could be said that all the three sociological perspectives focus on different aspects that shows how society is being viewed. So, it could be concluded that all these perspectives have certain limitations and strengths that sheds a light on main areas that these perspective support.

Work Cited

Ransome, Paul. Sociology and the future of work: contemporary discourses and debates. Routledge, 2019.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Should The President Of The United States Be Impeached?

Your Name

Course Code

Instructor’s Name


Impeachment is a process in which charges against a government official is leveled by a legislative body of that country. Impeachment of a public official is similar to that of an indictment in criminal cases. The legislation of the United States allows the house of representatives the authority of impeaching any person holding public office and make the senate of the country the only place to listen to the impeachment of trials. Impeachment not only removes any official from office but also has the power to disqualify a person from holding the office in the future. The United States Article 2 section 4 describes the impeachment as a conviction of Treachery, Bribery, high profile crimes, or any further transgressions ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"vBQLaIPh","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}Impeachment | US House of Representatives})","plainCitation":"(Impeachment | US House of Representatives)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":83,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/cYhHNKoU/items/L4WJC77M"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/cYhHNKoU/items/L4WJC77M"],"itemData":{"id":83,"type":"webpage","title":"Impeachment | US House of Representatives: History, Art & Archives","abstract":"“The President, Vice President and all Civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.”—\tU.S. Constitution, Article II, section 4The Constitution gives the House of Representatives the sole power to impeach an official, and it makes the Senate the sole court for impeachment trials. The power of impeachment is limited to removal from office but also provides for a removed officer to be disqualified from holding future office. Fines and potential jail time for crimes committed while in office are left to civil courts.OriginsImpeachment comes from British constitutional history. The process evolved from the 14th century as a way for parliament to hold the king’s ministers accountable for their public actions. Impeachment, as Alexander Hamilton of New York explained in Federalist 65, varies from civil or criminal courts in that it strictly involves the “misconduct of public men, or in other words from the abuse or violation of some public trust.” Individual state constitutions had provided for impeachment for “maladministration” or “corruption” before the U.S. Constitution was written. And the founders, fearing the potential for abuse of executive power, considered impeachment so important that they made it part of the Constitution even before they defined the contours of the presidency.Constitutional FramingDuring the Federal Constitutional Convention, the framers addressed whether even to include impeachment trials in the Constitution, the venue and process for such trials, what crimes should warrant impeachment, and the likelihood of conviction. Rufus King of Massachusetts argued that having the legislative branch pass judgment on the executive would undermine the separation of powers; better to let elections punish a President. “The Executive was to hold his place for a limited term like the members of the Legislature,” King said, so “he would periodically be tried for his behaviour by his electors.” Massachusetts’s Elbridge Gerry, however, said impeachment was a way to keep the executive in check: “A good magistrate will not fear [impeachments]. A bad one ought to be kept in fear of them.”Another issue arose regarding whether Congress might lack the resolve to try and convict a sitting President. Presidents, some delegates observed, controlled executive appointments which ambitious Members of Congress might find desirable. Delegates to the Convention also remained undecided on the venue for impeachment trials. The Virginia Plan, which set the agenda for the Convention, initially contemplated using the judicial branch. Again, though, the founders chose to follow the British example, where the House of Commons brought charges against officers and the House of Lords considered them at trial. Ultimately, the founders decided that during presidential impeachment trials, the House would manage the prosecution, while the Chief Justice would preside over the Senate during the trial. The founders also addressed what crimes constituted grounds for impeachment. Treason and bribery were obvious choices, but George Mason of Virginia thought those crimes did not include a large number of punishable offenses against the state. James Madison of Virginia objected to using the term “maladministration” because it was too vague. Mason then substituted “other high Crimes and Misdemeanors” in addition to treason and bribery. The term “high Crimes and Misdemeanors” was a technical term—again borrowed from British legal practice—that denoted crimes by public officials against the government. Mason’s revision was accepted without further debate. But subsequent experience demonstrated the revised phrase failed to clarify what constituted impeachable offenses.The House's RoleThe House brings impeachment charges against federal officials as part of its oversight and investigatory responsibilities. Individual Members of the House can introduce impeachment resolutions like ordinary bills, or the House could initiate proceedings by passing a resolution authorizing an inquiry. The Committee on the Judiciary ordinarily has jurisdiction over impeachments, but special committees investigated charges before the Judiciary Committee was created in 1813. The committee then chooses whether to pursue articles of impeachment against the accused official and report them to the full House. If the articles are adopted (by simple majority vote), the House appoints Members by resolution to manage the ensuing Senate trial on its behalf. These managers act as prosecutors in the Senate and are usually members of the Judiciary Committee. The number of managers has varied across impeachment trials but has traditionally been an odd number. The partisan composition of managers has also varied depending on the nature of the impeachment, but the managers, by definition, always support the House’s impeachment action. The Use of ImpeachmentThe House has initiated impeachment proceedings more than 60 times but less than a third have led to full impeachments. Just eight—all federal judges—have been convicted and removed from office by the Senate. Outside of the 15 federal judges impeached by the House, two Presidents (Andrew Johnson in 1868 and William Jefferson (Bill) Clinton in 1998), a cabinet secretary (William Belknap in 1876), and a U.S. Senator (William Blount of North Carolina in 1797) have also been impeached. Blount’s impeachment trial—the first ever conducted—established the principle that Members of Congress and Senators were not “Civil Officers” under the Constitution, and accordingly, they could only be removed from office by a two-thirds vote for expulsion by their respective chambers. Blount, who had been accused of instigating an insurrection of American Indians to further British interests in Florida, was not convicted, but the Senate did expel him. Other impeachments have featured judges taking the bench when drunk or profiting from their position. The trial of President Johnson, however, focused on whether the President could remove cabinet officers without obtaining Congress’s approval. Johnson’s acquittal firmly set the precedent—debated from the beginning of the nation—that the President may remove appointees even if they required Senate confirmation to hold office.For Further ReadingFarrand, Max, ed. The Records of the Federal Convention of 1787. Rev. ed. 4 vols. (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1937).Kyvig, David E. The Age of Impeachment: American Constitutional Culture Since 1960. (Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 2008).Les Benedict, Michael. The Impeachment and Trial of Andrew Johnson. (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1999).Madison, James, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay. The Federalist Papers. (New York: Penguin Books, 1987).Melton, Buckner F., Jr. The First Impeachment: The Constitution’s Framers and the Case of Senator William Blount. (Macon, Georgia: Mercer University Press, 1998).Rehnquist, William H. Grand Inquests: The Historic Impeachments of Justice Samuel Chase and President Andrew Johnson. (New York: Harper Perennial, 1999).“Report by the Staff of the Impeachment Inquiry on the Constitutional Grounds for Presidential Impeachment,” Committee Print, Committee on the Judiciary, U.S. House of Representatives, 93rd Cong., 2nd sess., February 1974.Storing, Herbert J., ed. The Complete Anti-Federalist. 7 vols. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981).Sullivan, John. “Chapter 27—Impeachment,” in House Practice: A Guide to the Rules, Precedents, and Procedures of the House. (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 2011).Thomas, David Y. “The Law of Impeachment in the United States,” The American Political Science Review 2 (May 1908): 378–395.","URL":"https://history.house.gov/Institution/Origins-Development/Impeachment/","title-short":"Impeachment | US House of Representatives","language":"en","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",10,26]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Impeachment | U.S. House of Representatives).

The process of impeachment is political and not criminal. Under the law, Congress has no right to impose any criminal charges on the convict. However, the court can punish them if they have committed any criminal offense. The question on can the U.S. president be impeached depends upon the offenses that he may have committed. Donald Trump is accused of asking a favor from his Ukrainian counterpart to start an investigation against his possible rival for the presidency, Joe Biden, in the upcoming 2020 elections. His second request was the request of investigation on Fox news space conspiracy theory of foreign tempering ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"eWfD4dYq","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(McCarthy)","plainCitation":"(McCarthy)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":85,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/cYhHNKoU/items/798A84TK"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/cYhHNKoU/items/798A84TK"],"itemData":{"id":85,"type":"article-newspaper","title":"Did Trump commit a crime? The impeachment inquiry, explained","container-title":"The Guardian","section":"US news","source":"www.theguardian.com","abstract":"Congress is considering impeaching the president. What is he accused of, what does he say, who else is involved and what’s next?","URL":"https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2019/oct/04/trump-impeachment-latest-explained-did-trump-commit-what-happens-next","ISSN":"0261-3077","title-short":"Did Trump commit a crime?","language":"en-GB","author":[{"family":"McCarthy","given":"Tom"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019",10,4]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",10,26]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (McCarthy). Though Trump has denied these acquisitions by calling it “witch-hunt” without rejecting any allegations.

The fact that Trump’s administration is unable to deny the original allegations but is trying to justify the wording of the case shows that there is something out of order. Trump has used the government’s power to make others help achieve his personal goals. This clear comes under the conviction of bribery and misuse of authoritative power. Under article 2 of the U.S.' constitution, this comes under impeachment, and the President should be held responsible for it. From a different career, government officials to scholars and different politicians believe that the possibility of an impeachable felony is involved in this matter.

Work Cited

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Impeachment | U.S. House of Representatives: History, Art & Archives. https://history.house.gov/Institution/Origins-Development/Impeachment/. Accessed 26 Oct. 2019.

McCarthy, Tom. “Did Trump Commit a Crime? The Impeachment Inquiry, Explained.” The Guardian, 4 Oct. 2019. www.theguardian.com, https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2019/oct/04/trump-impeachment-latest-explained-did-trump-commit-what-happens-next.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Slowing Down Global Warming

Slowing Down Global Economy

Your Name (First M. Last)

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)

Slowing Down Global Economy

The race of humans has witnessed drastic changes since the past decades. From walking on foot to riding jets in the sky, technological evolution has played an instrumental role to manifest their robust advancement. However, the detrimental consequences of these advancements have cast an adverse impact on the environment. Global warming is the peril which looms over humanity and is accelerating. The pervasive emission of poisonous gases as nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane is causing the earth's temperature to rise at an alarming level. It is essential to highlight that halting emissions in the contemporary era will require a significant amount of time for the environment to stabilize. The threatening aspect is that the surge in the emission of carbon dioxide has just begun. If it continues to be emitted at the same or an increased rate, the sea levels will rise further from thermal expansion, ice will melt drastically in oceans and the freshwater resources and civilization will struggle to meet the necessities of life ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"R4EEjkxN","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Climate Change,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“Climate Change,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":295,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/h6KbaPMu/items/UL5UVD85"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/h6KbaPMu/items/UL5UVD85"],"itemData":{"id":295,"type":"webpage","title":"Climate Change: What Happens after 2100? - Our World","abstract":"In the future, our descendants have a right to the same environmental stability that allowed our civilisation to prosper.","URL":"https://ourworld.unu.edu/en/climate-change-what-happens-after-2100","shortTitle":"Climate Change","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",4,8]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Climate Change,” n.d.).

A wide range of researchers has stipulated the threats of global warming in the future. The menace of climate change is expected to devastate the civilization because of the radical anomalies in the weather patterns, scarcity of food, persistent natural disasters, poisonous air and grave adversities for the aquatic life. Such critical are the ramifications of the rising temperature across the globe. The need of the hour is to promulgate a stringent policy to regulate the emissions of greenhouse gases. The prevention of emission, in the contemporary era, will still take decades to clean the environment and regulate the earth’s temperature. The bottom line is that the rise in the number of greenhouse gases is causing adverse ramifications for humans and circumstances will further aggravate in the future.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Climate Change: What Happens after 2100? - Our World. (n.d.). Retrieved April 8, 2019, from https://ourworld.unu.edu/en/climate-change-what-happens-after-2100

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Smile Day

Smile Day*

Duo Liu


Word count = 600


Smiling is one of the most underrated yet among the most powerful gifts human beings possess. It is a tool at our constant disposal that we often forget to use. In the paper, I will describe my reactions on ‘smile day’ along with the reactions of those I met during the day, and recount how it made me feel to smile throughout the day. I will further relate my personal reactions and of those I met to evidence from research to illustrate the biological and chemical processes involved in the practice.

As I planned to begin my smile day and had scheduled meetings with a lot of people for it, my morning alarm did not go off. As a result, I had got late to the class while driving fast on the way nearly missing another car. Although I had to smile the whole day, the incidents in the morning ruined the mood. However, I tried to force myself to smile and see through the day radiating positivity. I met the dentist with whom I had scheduled an appointment after class. I sat in the waiting room smiling at everyone. After I while, I forgot that I had started the day in a bad mood and started feeling positive. While waiting, I decided to help myself to a coffee and stood in a queue. The lady at the front smiled at me and I smiled back, as I took my cup back to my seat.

Remembering to maintain a smile throughout the day, I began conversing with a nearby person about how good the weather is these days. After a while, I realized that I hardly ever discussed the weather with a stranger before, and would always be absorbed in my own thoughts. It was probably the effect of smiling that created that little change in me. As I walked to the toilet, I found myself to be smiling naturally without forcing myself, even as I washed my hands. The day did not seem bad at all. The time for the appointment came and I met the dentist with a pleasant smile on my face, and he smiled back as he began to screen my teeth to see if it needed a dental filling.

The feeling I got so far was when I smiled towards the world, the world smiled back at me. The people I would normally treat indifferently, and who seemed to treat me indifferently, seemed to smile at me and treat me different than normal. Gradually, I began to see my own self as a since, relaxed, attractive and a reliable man. I felt that the women around me were feeling attracted to me and looked at me differently than before. I realized that just from the act of smiling, I created a chain of smiles around me. Just from the affects smiling had on me, I realized its power to calm the anxiety, insecurity and fear in people, and change the world.

I understood why spiritual experts and scientists alike find the act of smiling to be transformational. It is a common observation that smiles are contagious and can makes one appear more attractive, lifting out mood and those around us. The act of smiling generates feel-good neurochemicals in the brain that affect the happiness we perceive. There is a certain link between happiness, altruism and human nature, and it is possible that smiling has as a principle role in it (Warneken and Tomasello 2006: 1302). Furthermore, smiling releases neuropeptides in the brain that help battle stress, whereas smiling and making eye contact with the other also boosts happiness in others. It is one form of giving support to another person, as Inagaki and Eisenberger suggest that “support giving may be beneficial not only for the receiver but also for the giver” (2012: 3). Moreover, during such time in the brain, a “left-sided activation in several anterior regions is observed during certain forms of positive emotion” (Davidson et al. 2003: 564). The activation of the left-sided anterior portion of the brain leads to an increase in overall positive effects and reduces anxiety, which may explain how smiling affects the other person.

To conclude, although my day started with a bad mood, smiling throughout the day changed my internal as well as external experience. It made me realize that although we cannot control different external factors, we can change how we feel about them through the simple act of smiling.


Davidson, Richard J. and Kabat-Zinn, Jon and Schumacher, Jessica and Rosenkranz, Melissa and Muller, Daniel and Santorelli, Saki F. and Urbanowski, Ferris and Harrington, Anne and Bonus, Katherine and Sheridan, John F. 2003. “Alterations in Brain and Immune Function Produced by Mindfulness Meditation.” Psychosomatic Medicine, 65, 564-570.

Inagaki, Tristen K. and Eisenberger, Naomi I. 2012. “Neural Correlates of Giving Support to a Loved One.” Special Series On Neuroscience In Health And Disease, 74, 3-7.

Warneken, Felix and Tomasello, Michael. 2006. “Altruistic Helping in Human Infants and Young Chimpanzees.” Science, 311, 1301-1303.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Snookie And The Handbag

Name of Student

Name of Professor

Name of Class

Day Month Year

Snookie and the Handbag

The podcast about advertisement covers many crucial points of human behavior. This report is related to the clothing brand Abercrombie & Fitch offered to the reality show star "Mike." Brand offered star for not wearing their clothes instead they want him to wear some other brand. Similar case was with another star who requested to use bags of some other brand raised many questions. Companies adopt this type of strategies due to different human behavior like undesired behavior and social illusion. We believe that people behave according to their wishes and desires for different things. This is a surprising fact which podcast explained that people also behave according to undesired behavior. In which they reject for certain brand or things due to some solid undesired statement they believe in. For example, an individual doesn't trust a certain brand just because his friend had a bad experience with the same brand. Therefore, no matter what, he will not use that brand due to undesired thought he has.

The other important factors that are discussed in the podcast are the social influence, which are not surprising but true. People observe people around, their behavior, appearance, habits, choices and pertinent elements. An example of a lawyer was given who used BMW just because all other lawyers were using it. He was differentiating his behavior by thinking it is his own choice as he was using BMW in a different color than his friend. It does not affect me much, but it definitely discussed some crucial facts. Other than using others material for own publicity, undesired behavior, and social influence, the rejection for new innovation is also true. Human in every society lives in a specific pattern or circumstances. Whenever new innovation emerges the whole society never accepts it. They take time, observe it then accept it. Therefore we can say that human behavior is not just about personal desires. It is the combination of undesired behavior, social influence, illusion, and a specific mindset of society.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300



[Author’s Name]

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]


Modernization theory is associated with the process of modernization in which a nation goes through transitions from a traditional society to the modern one (Bernstein, 1971). In contrast, the legacy of colonialism explains that it is a practice of domination involving the subjugation of one person to another (Olsson, 2009). In the video “The End of Poverty”, depicts how economic regression is a direct consequence of unchallenged policies that have caused global poverty. In the video, it was explained that the reason for poverty is due to the outdated policies and social inequalities prevailing in our society. The Legacy of Colonialism did the best job in explaining the inequalities that were described in the readings and videos for this module. This is because global poverty is not the issue that arises recently but the issue has its roots since the colonial period where Black people were enslaved by the rich people and were forced to live in poverty. According to the Legacy of Colonialism rich people exploit poor people both politically and economically (Olsson, 2009). The video also highlighted that developed countries which are economically stable exploit the indebted underdeveloped countries that result in poverty.

Although, the modernization theory cannot be neglected as transitioning from traditional to modern society is overwhelming yet still, the major reason for global poverty is due to the uneven distribution of wealth among people based on their racial and cultural inequality. In any society, economic inequality is a result of a dysfunctional social structure that hinders social mobility. Due to this reason, rich people are getting richer while poor people are getting poorer day by day. Poverty is the root cause of several problems and the main problems are homelessness. The narrator also pointed out in the video that many people due to poverty have to live on the streets as they cannot afford to buy a house. The narrator also discussed that a declining economy is correlated to the unemployment that makes individuals unsafe as financial strain is a major factor due to which people are deprived of basic healthcare necessities and education. Thus, increasing the rate of poverty among people in a society.


Bernstein, H. (1971). Modernization theory and the sociological study of development. The Journal of Development Studies, 7(2), 141-160.

Olsson, O. (2009). On the democratic legacy of colonialism. Journal of Comparative Economics, 37(4), 534-551.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300



[Author’s Name]

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]


Economic inequality is a term that can be described as the disparity of wealth among different groups. In simpler terms, economic inequality can be described as the distribution of wealth in a way that rich people get richer while poor people get poorer. The issue of economic inequality is the most debated all over the world. The issue affects social mobility and therefore, hinders a chance of an individual to attain high social status. Specifically, discussing the U.S., according to the statistics, from the year 2000 to the year 2006, the number of people living in poverty has increased by up to 15% which is alarming (Nazimuddin, 2014).

In the video as well, the speaker also pointed out the economic inequality that is prevails in U.S. ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"GLQIrSsC","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}Wealth Inequality in America}, n.d.)","plainCitation":"(Wealth Inequality in America, n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":184,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/sbFMNDWM/items/LCM9VU9J"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/sbFMNDWM/items/LCM9VU9J"],"itemData":{"id":184,"type":"motion_picture","title":"Wealth Inequality in America","source":"YouTube","dimensions":"6:23","abstract":"Infographics on the distribution of wealth in America, highlighting both the inequality and the difference between our perception of inequality and the actual numbers. The reality is often not what we think it is.\n\nReferences:\nhttp://www.motherjones.com/politics/2...\nhttp://danariely.com/2010/09/30/wealt...\nhttp://thinkprogress.org/economy/2011...\nhttp://money.cnn.com/2012/04/19/news/...","URL":"https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QPKKQnijnsM&feature=youtu.be%C3%82","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",11,13]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Wealth Inequality in America, n.d.). According to the speaker, in an organization, there is a huge pay gap between the CEO and the average worker. The speaker highlighted that an average worker has to work more than a month to make money that a CEO makes in just an hour. This means that a CEO works 380 times more than an average worker in an hour which is impossible. This huge pay gap indicates that there is indeed an unequal distribution of wealth in our society.

Economic inequality is a social issue as the unequal distribution of wealth not only hinders social mobility but also affects the opportunities to attain a different social status. Education helps an individual to learn new skills that are necessary to get a better job that will in turn benefit in achieving higher social status. This is because the high level of education directly corresponds to high salaries (Nazimuddin, 2014). However, due to economic inequalities, children of wealthy people will get better opportunities than children of people with average or low income. Thus, rich people children have better opportunities as they can admit their children in private schools so that they have secure and bright future as compared to poor children. Thus, the government must intervene to make policies that can facilitate in reducing economic inequality so that a country can progress.


Nazimuddin, S. K. (2014). Social mobility and role of education in promoting social mobility. International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Research, 1-4.

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Wealth Inequality in America. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QPKKQnijnsM&feature=youtu.be%C3%82

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300



[Author’s Name]

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]


Homelessness is a term that can be defined as the people living below the current living standards that a normal person requires. The term is also used for the people who move from one place to another for temporary residence. There are many causes of homelessness yet the main cause of homelessness is poverty. Specifically, discussing the US, according to the statistics, there were more than 552,840 people who were homeless for a night in 2018. ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Utk3e4Gt","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}The-State-of-Homelessness-in-America.pdf}, n.d.)","plainCitation":"(The-State-of-Homelessness-in-America.pdf, n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":188,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/sbFMNDWM/items/DGSD9KPT"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/sbFMNDWM/items/DGSD9KPT"],"itemData":{"id":188,"type":"article","title":"The-State-of-Homelessness-in-America.pdf","URL":"https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/The-State-of-Homelessness-in-America.pdf","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",11,13]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (The-State-of-Homelessness-in-America.pdf, n.d.). However, the most alarming thing is that almost 37% of homeless people have families.

In the documentary, the issue of homelessness, its causes and its effect on children were discussed ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"neaQlL1X","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}Hard times generation}, n.d.)","plainCitation":"(Hard times generation, n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":186,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/sbFMNDWM/items/HLPK2WJE"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/sbFMNDWM/items/HLPK2WJE"],"itemData":{"id":186,"type":"motion_picture","title":"Hard times generation: homeless kids","source":"www.cbsnews.com","abstract":"For some children, socializing and learning are being cruelly complicated by homelessness, as Scott Pelley reports from Florida, where school buses now stop at motels for children who've lost their homes.","URL":"https://www.cbsnews.com/video/hard-times-generation-homeless-kids/","title-short":"Hard times generation","language":"en-US","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",11,13]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Hard times generation, n.d.). According to the presenter, social stratification based on socioeconomic factors is the reason for homelessness. The issue of economic inequality is argued all over the world. Economic inequality affects social mobility and therefore hinders a chance of an individual to attain high social status. In the video, the poverty experienced by the family was not their fault as they were trying hard to bear their family expenses and provide a better future for their children. The reason for poverty is unemployment. Many people were left unemployed after the economic recession in the country due to which many people were left unemployed.

Economic inequality refers to the unequal distribution of wealth among different groups. In any society, economic inequality is because of the social structure in which rich people get richer while poor people get poorer. The dysfunctional social structure hinders social mobility and therefore people have to live in poverty. In the documentary, the presenter interviewed several homeless children. The children told how the homelessness affect their life and the struggles they were facing while living in shelter homes. Living in poverty hinders the opportunities to succeed as due to economic inequalities children of wealthy people will get better opportunities as compared to the children of people with average or low income. Therefore, rich people can admit their children in private schools and universities where they can attain quality education while poor people had to admit their children in public schools and many cases they are even unable to bear the educational expense of their children. Thus, the government must intervene and make policies that reduce economic inequalities.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Hard times generation: Homeless kids. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.cbsnews.com/video/hard-times-generation-homeless-kids/

The-State-of-Homelessness-in-America.pdf. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/The-State-of-Homelessness-in-America.pdf

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Soc 341

Human Trafficking




Human Trafficking


Human trafficking is one of the thousands of transactional crimes conducted by various groups in today’s world. Human trafficking is an illicit trade of human being for the sake of profit. People are made to undergo forced labor, they are sexually and economically exploited. Thus trafficking has violated every rule of human rights and has become a norm. Most of the victims of human trafficking belong to developed countries like Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, Myanmar, Vietnam, and Morocco (Haken, 2011. Sexual exploitation is the most prevailing form of human trafficking and most of the women and children are involved in this type of trafficking. 79 percent of human trafficking involves sexual exploitation and up to 18 percent of victims are involved in forced labors. Forced labor are children belonging to the African containment (Unodc.org, 2019).

Human trafficking is worth $150 billion industry and is among the fastest growing business of the 21st century (Unodc.org, 2019). Everyone is involved in the promotion of this industry directly or indirectly. If any entity is purchased being made by exploited labor then this act will also be considered as a contribution to the industry.

Sexual violence contributes more to the industry. The victim of sexual exploitation are women and both male and female children. International treaty law says that any child who is involved in the process of commercializing sex by fraud or by force is performing sex act for commercial gains. The US Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000 (TVPA defines children as a person under the age of eighteen and the average age of children that were sexually exploited were between twelve and fourteen (Albanese, 2007).

However, a trafficker is someone who is paying off for the exploitation of another human being and generating profit out of that. But till now no specific trafficker has been identified (Albanese, 2007).

Human trafficking is a crime and it is violating human right laws. This crime can be analyzed based on the theories of sociology and those are Social control theory and Conflict theory. It will be highlighted why this crime is prevailing in almost every society and what the theories say about the prevailing factors of this crime.

Literature review

Transactional Organized crime has been a serious issue throughout the 20th century. Failure to develop policies to control transactional crime has made it an international issue (Shelley, 1995). The emergence of Transactional Crime Organization is the result of changes in economic and global politics. The formation of the global village in the mid-twentieth century changed the contact in which both legal and illegal business need to be operated. This gave a huge opportunity for the crime that are conducted in on an international level. The emerging of a single market globally due to globalization, international networks, and the union of major countries increased the frequency of international crime. Transactional activities also increased. The movement of people, money, and objects increased in respect to the bonding between them and countries become closer to each other. The transaction of tangible materials have very significant monetary value and it is considered as a service that is later assigned a monetary value. That is the reason that transactional crime is not surprising and the criminal has little obstacles in their ways to transfer commodities across the boundaries of national jurisdiction (Williams, 1994).

Transactional Crimes include offenses done by the occasional crime as well as the major sophisticated crime by professionals. The most dangerous transactional crimes that have threatened the whole international communities are drug trafficking, human trafficking, frauds, and terrorism. Transactional crime is a challenge to humanity as well as it is a great challenge for the political and economic sector as well. These transactional crimes give very huge benefits to the criminal and that constitutes a problem for the economy as well. Likewise, money-laundering is a challenge to policymakers who are unable to control this from centuries. It has strengthened its roots in every possible dimension and hijacking of transportations has also been increased (Bossard & criminelle, 1990).

The illegal flow of guns, people, drug and natural resources yields approximately $650 billion and illicit drug trafficking contributes the most in this business. Drug trafficking is an industry comprising up to $320 billion. This huge profit drives such criminal activities. The source countries that promote drug trafficking have the issues of forced labor as well because those countries hire labor to process drug activities (Haken, 2011).

Human Trafficking

Human trafficking and migrant smugglings are two different approaches. In migrant smuggling, the individual is being sent to a country to gain residential or economic benefits. Whereas human trafficking is defined as the act of transferring, recruiting, transporting and harboring them on purpose of exploitation. The control person receives money for them or for parts of their organs. Human trafficking and human smuggling are more or less the same things. Human smuggling might be like when an individual is being smuggled to another country and is made slave in order to pay his or her bill by doing chores is an example of human smuggling. Thus that individual is exploited so human smuggling is close to human trafficking (Haken, 2011).

Human trafficking is a modern type of slavery and is an issue of international criminal justices. Though it does not yet come to know that from where these victims of human trafficking originate but the majority of them are from developing countries. UNDO’S study of sex trafficking to the European countries show that the majority of them are from the Balkans and the states of the former Soviet Union. These victims are in rare cases forcedly sent to other countries, majority of them come on their own in search of a better life. Majority of the victims belong to countries like Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, Myanmar, Vietnam and Morocco (Haken, 2011).

Sexual exploitation is the most common form of human trafficking and women make the biggest portion of this trafficking. 79 percent of human trafficking involves sexual exploitation and 18 percent forced labor. Children make 20 percent of the trafficking victims. 100 percent of those children are from West Africa (Unodc.org, 2019).

Human trafficking is a violation of human rights:

Human right laws proclaimed the unlawfulness and immorality of a person who is making another human labor or misappropriating the personality of another human being. Human right laws have banned discrimination on the ground of race and sex. It has determined certain rights for non-citizens and forced marriage, sexual exploitation of children and women is forbidden. The right to leave and come back to a specific country is given by the human right laws. The international human right laws prohibit certain tasks of trafficking of the modern era. Debt bondages is forbidden by human right laws. The promising of services for the sake of debt payment and the value of those services is not liquidated or the time period of those services is not mentioned. Such services are banned by human right laws (Rezaeian, 2016).

Convention number 29 of human right declaration prohibit forced labor. The human right treaties, the Convention on the Rights of the Child and article 6 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women contain some references to this crime of trafficking. The trafficked individual is entitled to all human rights even though they reside outside their home countries (Feingold, 2005). There human trafficking is a crime as it violated international human right laws.


Social control theory:

The social control approach to give an understanding to Crime and is among the major sociological viewpoint in criminology. Social control theory became more popular in the 1960s and it is when Travis Hirschi included his view of control theory. That says that traditional rule in society can be strengthened by social connections. Crime happens when this bond is weakened and the cost of crime for that individual increases. It is unlikely to other theories which say why people show a different behavior, the social control theory says that why an individual abstains himself or herself from offending (Greenberg, 1999).

Thus criminality is a possibility for all individual in a society those have little or no attachment to the people living in their communities, in their families or in their friend zones. The social control theory is a theory of conformity. Instead of finding out the motivation behind the criminal behavior the social control theories ask why that specific person conform to crime. The answer to this problem lies with the conventional moral values, active institutional participation and individual behavior (Greenberg, 1999).

The theory was first given by Travis Hirsch’s in 1969. He presented this theory in his write up called “Causes of Delinquency”. The theory is based on the assumption of Hobbes that human behavior is not conforming inherently but criminal acts could also be attempted by human as a human is a farm of animals. Conformity can be achieved through socialization. According to Hirschi society comprise of four major building blocks. The stronger these elements the less likely be delinquent behaviors.


Is the effective ties of the individual with significant others. The family environment could be a great source of attachment and the parents become the role model and helps their children to learn acceptable behavior.


It is an aspiration to get an education and get a secured job. This is a type of investment in the conventional behavior which lessens down the risk of delinquency of the youth. Individuals with family members are the social circle involved in drinking or crime will affect his or her risk of conducting those crimes and commitment to goals will lessen down that.


Involvement refers to associations and participation in conventional tasks that develop social value systems. The quality of the activities of the youth and their connection with their future goal is important to lessen down delinquency. Time spent on educational tasks can be seen as always of achieving high rank in societies by getting jobs of high status.

The theory says that belief is something that is considered to be the acceptance of social rule and it is the central part of the theory of social control. If people are made less bound by rules the more they are likely to break it (Wiatrowski, Griswold, & Roberts, 1981).

Conflict theory:

Social Conflict theory focuses on the distribution of resources and the developing competition due to that. It is a macro-oriented pattern in sociology that defines society as a field of inequalities that become the causing factors of conflict and social change. The central aspect of the theory is that society is designed in a way that few get benefits with the expense of the majority of the people. It talks about the relationship between dominant and minority group. Karl Marx is the founding father of this social conflict theory (Gibbons, 1979).

Conflict theory examines economic and social factors as they are the causing force of criminal activities. The conflict theorists do not look at those factories as a positive social quality as considered by the functionalist. The conflict theorist challenges social disorganization theory that ignores socioeconomic and racial issues and did not take care of social trends. They correlate gender with wealth and crime (Tittle, 2018).

The theory is inspired by the thought of Karl Marx who used to believe that the general public is based on two groups. The bourgeois who control the means of production and all the wealth in society. The other part of the society is the proletariat who is dependent on the wealthy class for survival. He believed that the wealthy class has centralized the power in society and expanded their position in societies. He did not talk about the deviances but his ideas created conflict theory which highlights the interaction of deviance and crime with power and wealth (Tittle, 2018).

Crime is always linked with the underprivileged group of the society and the crime conducted by wealthy people is not frequently highlighted. Thus the privileged remain free and unpunished. The crime of burglary and motor vehicle theft lost $15.3 billion dollars and it is reported by FBI and the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission stated that the losses of the financial Ponzi scheme fraud were almost $50 billion (Unodc.org, 2019). This shows that class power is still prevailing in developed countries like the United States.

Explanation of the human trafficking crime in perspective of Social control theory and conflict theory.

Trafficking is an issue of huge concern for the world. Human trafficking is a very weird form of commercialization of innocent people by the top criminals. Most of the victims in this business are women and children. Trafficking emerges where poverty prevails. In countries like western Africa, poverty is a symptom of social structure and 100 percent of the children that are victims of human trafficking belongs to this part of the globe. Poor people are motivated and promised to give quality life and thus global poverty is the cause of this business (A. Patel, 2015).

According to social control theory, involvement and commitment of an individual towards a positive thing can prevent criminal activities. The investment in education will set positive goals for the individual but in poor societies, children are in search of labor works so that they could get something for survival. Poor parents are willing to send their children to other developed countries so that they could fight against poverty.

Sexually exploiting of women and children in a society lead to moral and social destruction. It is against human right and the social bonds in societies disturb due to this. Such societies are unable to develop a social value system, and people in those societies do not focus on long term planning of for top school and get a well-reputed job. They focus on the fasts means of getting money so that they could get rid of poverty thus send their women and children are sent to other countries for sexual activities. In such cases, a better life is not set by an educational goal but by getting wages. So the women and children are more exploited sexually and economically to get a high wage.

So poverty is the main cause of human trafficking and this crime can be reduced by generated source of income for the families so that they could focus on the positive up bringing of their children. They cannot be able to teach positive behavior to their children and the social connection disturbs and criminal activities emerged in society.

This criminal act of human trafficking can be analyzed by the help of conflict theory as well. According to conflict theory, social life is competition and based on the distribution of wealth, and power (Boulding, 1962). The criminal mindset in society is emerged due to the unequal distribution of resources in a society. The economic and social factors that lead to unequal distribution of wealth are the main causes of criminal activities in society.

Human trafficking is a global phenomenon and poverty is the driving factor of this crime. Most of the victims of this crime belong to developing and underdeveloped countries. Africa, Central and Eastern European countries, Asia, former the Soviet Union and Eastern bloc, Caribbean and Latin American countries. Poverty versus wealth is the indicator of trafficking and migration in these countries. The people in these countries have the desire to get wealth and thus they get exploited by criminals. In many cases the victims are asked to pay their debt by providing services thus they became the part of this business (Fayomi, 2009).

The conflict theory says that the wealthy people have centralized the power and thus the unequal distribution of the wealth occur in a society. The developed countries have control over all the resources and peripheral countries have to work for them for their survival. Human trafficking is the result of the same phenomenon of unequal distribution of wealth. The victim belongs to that country which has the highest rate of poverty. The top 27 world’s poorest countries belong to the African continent with a 30 percent poverty rate (N. Patel, 2018). Therefore, most of the victims belong to Africa and it is poverty that is compelling them to be involved in the illegal business of high-class people of developed countries like USA, Canada, China, Japan, and Western European countries. So people struggle to get resources from the wealthy society and involved in criminal activities.

The limitations of this explanation:

This explanation is mainly based on “poverty” as a driving force behind human trafficking. It does not explain that in a globalized world with full fleshed human right laws why still such crimes prevail and why not poverty is controlled in these countries.

It is not discussing the drawbacks of policies in those countries which are more involved in human trafficking. It is not arguing that the developing countries are giving platforms for human trafficking’s and all the developed countries are hosting such crimes. The explanation is not giving any suggestions regarding the strengthening of social bonds so that a child or women will not be sexually exploited but will be helped by the local people.


Human trafficking is an international crime and is driven by poverty. Most of the underdeveloped countries become the victim of this crime. Extreme poverty can be controlled by making policies like Food and Peace Reform Act by USAID. This act says that combating against the food crises and hunger issue will assist those who are being effected without disturbing the local economy (Martin, 2014).

The social control and conflict theory say that social ties and wealth distribution are the factors that can control the criminal actions in a society. Thus if poverty preventive measures are designed by equally distributing wealth and by investing on the educational goals of the youth then such huge crimes can be controlled. People are in competition with each other due to the unequal distribution of wealth in a society. They forget their social and moral values and tried their best to get their desired wealth. The children who belong to the poor community do not have the platform to help those set goals for themselves so they become victims of such criminal activities.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[["http://zotero.org/users/local/LY9XXHSK/items/NIGXCPSF"]],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Albanese, J. (2007). Commercial sexual exploitation of children: What do we know and what do we do about it. National Institute of Justice Special Report. December 2007.

Bossard, A., & criminelle, O. international de justice. (1990). Transnational crime and criminal law. Office of International Criminal Justice, University of Illinois at Chicago.

Boulding, K. E. (1962). Conflict and defense: A general theory.

Fayomi, O. O. (2009). Women, poverty and trafficking: A contextual exposition of the Nigerian situation. Journal of’Management and Social Sciences, 5(1), 65–79.

Feingold, D. A. (2005). Human trafficking. Foreign Policy, 26–32.

Gibbons, D. C. (1979). The criminological enterprise: Theories and perspectives. Prentice-Hall Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Greenberg, D. F. (1999). The weak strength of social control theory. Crime & Delinquency, 45(1), 66–81.

Haken, J. (2011). Transnational crime in the developing world. Global Financial Integrity, 12(11).

Martin, M. F. (2014). US-Vietnam economic and trade relations: Issues for the 113th congress. Current Politics and Economics of South, Southeastern, and Central Asia, 23(3/4), 269.

Patel, A. (2015). Criminological Explanation of Trafficking in Women and Children in India. Social Crimonol 3: e107. doi: 10.4172/2375-4435.1000 e107 Volume 3• Issue 2• 1000e107 Social Crimonol ISSN: 2375-4435 SCOA, an open access journal 5. Sharma, Renu (2007) Trafficking in Women and Children in India: A Situational Analysis in Maharashtra. International Journal of Criminal Justice Sciences, 2, 85–100.

Patel, N. (2018, November 21). Figure of the week: Understanding poverty in Africa. Retrieved May 9, 2019, from Brookings website: https://www.brookings.edu/blog/africa-in-focus/2018/11/21/figure-of-the-week-understanding-poverty-in-africa/

Rezaeian, M. (2016). The emerging epidemiology of human trafficking and modern slavery. Middle East Journal of Business, 55(3705), 1–5.

Shelley, L. I. (1995). Transnational Organized Crime: An Imminent Threat to the Nation-State? Journal of International Affairs, 48(2), 463–489.

Tittle, C. R. (2018). Control balance: Toward a general theory of deviance. Routledge.

Wiatrowski, M. D., Griswold, D. B., & Roberts, M. K. (1981). Social Control Theory and Delinquency. American Sociological Review, 46(5), 525–541. https://doi.org/10.2307/2094936

Williams, P. (1994). Transnational criminal organizations and international security. Survival, 36(1), 96–113. https://doi.org/10.1080/00396339408442726

Unodc.org. (2019). Global Report on Trafficking in Persons. [Online] Available at: https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/human-trafficking/global-report-on-trafficking-in-persons.html [Accessed 9 May 2019].

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 10 Words: 3000

SOC-100 Short-Answer Quiz 2


After reading the chapter 3 of the textbook I realize that I my current life course stage is at Transitional adulthood (18-29 years). This is because I have completed my high-school and also concerned about my future career. I have also worked at some places but still need to find a stable job. At this age I am going through transition because I recently ended my studies and my have to make a better decision regarding my job and future career. I have experienced a total transformation from youth to maturity because I used to live a care free life.

Dramaturgy refers to one’s interaction with others in everyday life. I had an interesting experience of dramaturgy at high-school when I was working in a project with other team members. In the project I was required to collect information about one of the big multinational companies and collaborate with the members of the team. This required interactions and discussions on daily basis. By adopting a flexible attitude I managed to fit in the group and perform my role more appropriately.

I engage in my personal bubble by relying on distance zone as mentioned in the textbook. The personal distance zone convinces me to maintain my privacy and avoid sharing things with others. I never allow someone enter into my personal space because I value privacy more. Personal space is important for me because it also allow me to focus on my goals.

The first socialization agent that I experienced is impression management on the front stage where I am entirely open person. The second socialization agent is backstage that revolves around my personal or private life. The third socialization agent is role performance in which is acts in an influential manner.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

SOC-100 Pillars Of Society Matrix

SOC-100 Pillars of Society Matrix

Part 1: Matrix

Instructions: Complete the matrix below. Each cell/cube of the matrix needs to have a three- to five-sentence response.


What have you read about how the economy impacts each of society’s pillars today? (Use your textbook and other academic readings.)

What have you observed about how the economy impacts each of society’s pillars today? (Draw upon your own personal experience.)

How does your community impact the pillars?

How has technology impacted each of the pillars?


There is a strong link between politics and economy of any society. The interconnection of politics and economy is also expressed in the fact that the summarized economic relations and ties, direct integrated economic interest are embodied in such phenomena as economic, industrial, agricultural, scientific, technical, structural, financial, credit, investment, information, foreign trade and other varieties (types) of policies.

The influence of the economy on the political system is obvious, because it is its material component. Any political ideology cannot exist separately without any financial basis; it needs a reliable production basis.

The economy of any country and in any industry, segment always tries as much as possible to adjust, take into account and satisfy the economic needs of citizens.

The active role of politics in relation to society as a whole and its economic structures is manifested primarily in the exercise of its functions of managing the general affairs of the state, ensuring the priorities of socio-economic development, the stability of social and economic systems; strengthening law and order. when a crisis occurs in a country due to a decline in production and a lack of financial resources, the government should pursue an active policy aimed at attracting foreign investors.

Politics is a very intricate part of ​​human relations. One of its most significant tasks is the organization of society, as the benefits of many social actors. These benefits are often jointly select.

Today, in the modern world, information is for political phenomena the same basic property as matter and energy. As a result of the presence or absence of proper information, the subject can gain or lose power, the possibility of influence, the realization of his interests in the political sphere. Thus, obtaining proper information becomes the specific goal of any actors acting in politics and interested in influencing the government. Information is a mechanism that provides targeted action by subjects, and its accumulation allows for the correction of the behavior of subjects and institutions of power

Marriage and Family

economic point of view, marriage (or, more generally, living in pairs) can be considered as a partnership aimed at achieving both consumptive consumption and production. The most important and universally recognized of these productions is, of course, the giving birth and the education of the children. But we can advance three other advantages related to the life in couple.

The perspective adopted in the economic theory of marriage, which applies moreover to the setting in couple that the institution of marriage itself is the same as in economic theory in general: decisions on marriage and divorce are those taken by rational individuals who will adopt, in a "market" of marriage, a behavior similar to the one they have on the job market, for example. No economist claims, of course, that the economic aspects are the only ones or even the main elements involved in the marriage market..

Among the vast majority of philosophers, sociologists, and even ethnologists, not to mention people far from any science, there is a perception that marriage is between individuals and the family, i.e. a group of men, women and their children has always existed. Many of them claim that the existence of this kind of marriage and this kind of family is due to the biology of human reproduction and that these institutions are inherited from its animal ancestors. A family is a small group based on marriage and / or consanguinity, whose members are united by living together and housekeeping, emotional bond, mutual responsibilities in relation to each other.

Also, a family is a social institution, i.e. a stable form of relationships between people, within which the bulk of people's daily lives

Technology may affect family and marriage. Rate of divorce is increasing . another new concept of virtual relations came up with technology.


According to Max weber, observed the connection among religion and economics. He found that Protestants had the best economic success. In history, there are only a few examples of the positive influence of religion on the economy. One of them is connected with the influence of Protestant ethics on the formation of capitalism. In the Ecology of Morality". It has already been said that one of the main tasks of human society is to restrain the aggressiveness of its individuals.

A religious system with political, legal and other systems forms a “superstructure”, which is determined by the economic system and has the opposite effect on the economic basis. The religious system performs an ideological function, representing the interests of the ruling classes as a universal interest and thereby protecting the system based on the exploitation of man.

Religion acts as one of the types of association and activities of people along with such communities as national, scientific and economic (in the form of transnational corporations), regional, etc., each of which can facilitate or inhibit the development of society.

Kant (1724–1804) was one of the first thinkers of the new time who justified the possibility of considering religion from the standpoint of scientific thinking, reckoning only with the essence of the matter and logic, not referring to theology: the mind has more powerful arguments than those available church doctrine and scripture.


Education as a reproduction of culture could not help but form as a definite system, within which different subsystems differentiate (depending on the age of students, learning objectives, attitudes towards the church, and the state)..

First of all, we emphasize that education as a social institution is a complex system that includes various elements and the relationships between them: subsystems, management, organization, personnel, etc

The connection between education and culture is the strongest, the earliest stages of the formation of the institution of education are connected with a cult, a ritual: culture required constant reproduction. One of the basic principles of the existence and development of education is “cultural identity”.

The concept of “education” is a universal, holistic, multifunctional and polysynaptic category. However, despite the difference in approaches to the interpretation of the concept of education, it contains something universal, unified and existent.

Part 2: Summary

Instructions: Write a 100-150-word summary of your matrix. Cite one to two resources you used to complete the matrix.

Politics, marriage, education and religion are pillars of society. In the modern sociology of religion, and political concepts of the evolution of religion as a two-pronged process are developed - the impact of religion on society and the development of religion itself under the influence of social factors, changes in society in the course of historical development. But even in the area of marriage and divorce, the contributions of economists are far from negligible and have been integrated, not only in other disciplinary fields, such as sociology, but also in aspects of daily life, like court decisions on divorce.Education is another important aspect that need to be consider when talking about pillars of society.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

SOC-100 Social Media And Socialization Survey And Analysis

SOC-100 Social Media and Socialization Survey and Analysis



Author Note

Part 2 - Analysis

How much of an impact does social media have on the socialization of people that completed the survey?

The survey was conducted among middle-aged individuals, based on the sample group that responded to the survey. A common trend that was noticeable among all these individuals was the fact that their preference for a modern, digital lifestyle was also reflected in the device they used and the hours the spent online. While all of them used the internet and all of them had a preference for social media, their choices and the hours they spend online is different. This difference was also visible in their views on the subject. The people who chose online communication to face to face spent more time online compared to those that preferred to interact in person.

How did the impact differ among the various age groups? Why do you think that this is the case? Explain.

At present, almost 90 percent population of the US own a smartphone, with more than 70% spending a better part of their day on it. While most use it to place phone calls or send a random text and email, others spend most of their time online. This also includes various online dating platforms for people between the ages of 30 and 40. Apart from social media, these individuals often also spend time on dating apps which takes up a better portion of their time. However, while the younger generation uses it as their most frequently used mode of communication, the older one would much rather prefer face to face communication.

Explain how social media affected people’s social interaction. Why is social interaction important to humans? Explain.

Good, strong and stable social interactions are key to fostering a good relationship. Human beings are often described as social animals. They need the comfort of surrounding themselves with people and their company in order to thrive. People cannot survive on their own, thus they form societies to ensure that they are, at all times surrounded by the culture of like-minded individuals and find solace in their company.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Social Behavior And Inequalities Summary

Social Behavior and Inequalities Summary

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Social Behavior and Inequalities Summary

Social behavior is a very popular and interesting topic of research among not only sociologists but also psychologists, criminologists and the individuals working in the law enforcement agencies. Social behavior refers to the behavior of a specific set of actions among two or more individuals sharing the same social space. This interaction or behavior is mostly noted among the organisms belonging to same species and the effects and after effects of such type of behavior is evaluated on basis of the various course of actions and reactions by these organisms.

In almost all the societies, the individuals are expected to act and behave in a certain way which suites the values and norms of that society. This expected social behavior is in accordance with the culture and religion of that specific area or region. If any person tries to diverge from these usual or accepted standards, it is known as deviance. Most of the times, deviance refers to the divergence in the form of social and sexual behavior (Conrad, P., & Schneider, 2010). In a sociological perspective, the term deviance refers to the violation of social norms that are generally acceptable. Usually, this violation is of such severity in nature that it gains hatred or disapproval from the majority of the population of that society. Deviance may be criminal or non-criminal in nature.

Social inequality refers to an unequal distribution of opportunities and resources among the members of a society or group of people (Hurst, Gibbon, & Nurse, 2016). This distribution may refer to the providence of different type of rewards or services against different statuses or social positions. Social inequalities may be a result of segregation of the in various classes like financial classes and racial discrimination. Another reason behind social inequality is the different types of social treatments by the police and the judicial systems working in society.


Conrad, P., & Schneider, J. W. (2010). Deviance and medicalization: From badness to sickness. Temple University Press.

Hurst, C. E., Gibbon, H. M. F., & Nurse, A. M. (2016). Social Inequality: Forms, causes, and consequences. Routledge.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Social Behavior And Inequalities Summary

Social Behaviour and Inequalities

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Social Behaviour and Inequalities


When it comes to sociology, it tends to describe deviance as behavior and action that violates social norms. Such norms include informal violations of social norms along with enacted rule such as crime. Regardless of having a negative connotation by deviance, it has been observed that violation of social norms does not each time tends to result from a negative action. One thing that must be taken into consideration is that behavior can be classified either as acceptable or positive, but norms can be violated each time (Lareau, 2015). The matter of fact is that social norms are not the same in each case as they may differ from culture to culture. The perfect example in such a scenario would be of a deviant act that can be committed in society. However, in some particular scenarios, such deviant act may be normal for another society.

Social Norms and Deviant Behaviour

There is no doubt that when it comes to the social order, it is considered to be fundamental for each society. The matter of fact is that social order is customary and typical social arrangements of the group which allows a society member to base his/her actions on. It has been observed a reciprocal expectation between the individuals that are in the same group about such norms. Norms play an important role in society, and each deviance from such norms is considered to be a threat to the current social structure and order. There is no doubt that crimes tend to violate norms.

Social Inequity and Deviance

Social inequities are simply the disparities in wealth and power. In most of the cases, social inequities are seen to be accompanied by a number of factors such as low wages, poverty, and discrimination (Lareau, 2015). The reason why social inequality is seen in the society is that, in a number of scenarios, resources are distributed unevenly typically by certain norms. Such type of inequality leads to discrimination which in most of the cases is due to the wrong use of power by the authority. In a nutshell, it can be said that social inequality leads to deviance. The reason for that lies in the fact that both of them tend to violate certain norms that must be insured in any particular society, workplace, or institute.

Causes of Social Inequality

The matter of fact is that everything happens due to some specific reason so as social inequality. There is no doubt that poverty tends to impact a million of people. It must be considered that such people that are affected by poverty are not only just in underdeveloped countries, but in the most developed countries like the U.S. poverty rate is high as well. When it comes to poor, it can be said that they themselves are responsible for poverty (Amato et al., 2016). However, it must be taken into consideration that the main factor that paves the way to social inequality is the lack of employment. Apart from this, there are not proper rules made to prevent such actions. Moreover, the lack of skills and motivation are also one of the main factors behind social inequality.


Amato, P. R., Booth, A., McHale, S. M., & Van Hook, J. (2016). Families in an era of increasing inequality. Springer International Pu.

Lareau, A. (2015). Cultural knowledge and social inequality. American Sociological Review, 80(1), 1-27.+

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

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