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Spaces Of Consumption

Spaces of consumption

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The Elm Tree is termed as a Mediterranean restaurant that has a family run modern trend. This restaurant is famous for its undoubtedly fresh and high-quality product, taking into account that the menu focuses at offering familiar ingredients that are delivered with comforting food with unique delivering. There are specific compartments of customer service, inferring age oriented setup facilitating all age customers. The objectives highlight that this business aims at a friendly ambiance with a casual atmosphere where customers can feel comfortable. An overall analysis reveals that The Elm Tree is a place where all the features of a right place with great food and soothing environment can be found.

Culture (Brand image)

With the advancement of time and emergences of capitalism, one thing that has been noticed, is the sudden rise of food business. People started giving much attention to food and specifically they are more concerned with place where they are going to eat with their loved ones. For having quality time with family and friends, one cannot find a better place than a restaurant (Lundberg,et,al,1989). It has been seen that people when want to have a break from their busy schedules for getting peace of mind they usually move to good restaurants for having a portion of delicious food that could cheer them up. People step into restaurants by keeping these things in their mind that their life is just like a restaurant where they walk in by hoping; they are going to find good food and people and after spending good time could back out.

The restaurant that has been selected is "The Elm Tress Restaurant." Like all the rest of restaurants, this restaurant is one of the best known for serving people with the best taste and comforting them with their grasping and lavishing services. It is a family-run mode Mediterranean restaurant. Culture of any place matters a lot specifically in the case restaurants in it matters, more than anything else. The Elm Tree has been best known for making people relax by serving them with best, of their service. Working members have polite and welcoming attitude. The Elm Tree is transformed into a well-developed and well- reputed restaurant in just few years because of its values, norms, and culture that it has adopted. Services that this restaurant provides to its customers are incomparable. One of the main things that helped it, in achieving such heights in the marketplace is its focus how customers should be treated. From the culture of this restaurant, it could be said that merely mouthwatering food cannot help a restaurant in making it an eye-catching place in the field of restaurants.

Values and norms are one of the fascinating things for dragging high number of customers. Apart from making more customers, this restaurant had a motto in which cultural values were being given the central position (Scharenborg,et,al,2018). According to the observations, they were welcoming and positive that could be seen from the smiling faces of members whether they are guest receivers, waiters or managers each one was well-mannered. Values of this restaurant involved excellent hospitality, authenticity, cultural connectivity, teamwork, a sense of social and ecological responsibility and economic sustainability. There is no doubt that this restaurant as a brand is crucially important, but having a great sense of values is another thing that added a lot in the success story of this restaurant. Being a brand in the view of this restaurant, is how it is perceived by its guests. By taking an in-depth look at the management system of this restaurant it has been observed that it was developed with proper techniques, so it acts like a magnet for its guests. Restaurant culture has always been a trendy topic that is about staff members and their hiring. As in the case of the restaurant culture, behavior of all the working members’ matters a lot, so in this restaurant, calm, impressive and sober behavior of the working members has been observed as one of the strengths of its culture. This kind of positive behavior has been seen promoting a positive brand image for it. Supporting culture is another highlighter that torches a light on the culture of this restaurant.

The overall organization of the restaurant:

Merchandising is the practice that helps in promoting the products of any company for selling. It also means a variety of product is available for sales. Merchandising of this restaurant is best as management knows how to display their products for attracting more and more guests. Traffic flow that has been seen was of great importance, as this restaurant knows how to display their product in order to appeal more guests, so it is a general observation that traffic flow of this place was phenomenal. Traffic flow strategies made by this restaurant controls a number of people. Material that has been used for filling the space is quite attractive. Not only the spacing material is fascinating, but it is comfortable as well. Material that has been used for organizing this restaurant has been seen as trendy that seems stylish according to the demands of the time. As it is said, first impression is the last impression so it could be said that this concept applies rightly to this restaurant.

Customer services and other services

Customer service is one of the strongest areas of this restaurant, and it is the only direct thing that is going to grasp attention of the diners. When the guest arrives here, they are warmly welcome and are treated with love and respect so that they would come again. It also has mesmerizing décor that holds the attention of the guest and cherishes their mood. Even before having the meal and other services at The Elm Tree Restaurant, it has been seen that décor impress the guests (Lynn,et,al,2018). Management of this restaurant is entirely focused on the material that has been used at this place for holding the attention of guests. Sound along with the visual is also another thing that the guests are going to notice. So it has been seen that this restaurant tried all those things that would cast an impressive impression on the guests.

For the management, this thing is of great concern that they have to keep the mood of their guests calm and have to make their guests realized that everything there is perfect. By using most appropriate music, food, décor, and other material, they want to make their guests feel that they are at the top of their priority list and their arrangements are for them. By looking at the response of the guests, it could be said that all their efforts that they put depicts their success. Depending on the people, who were there it was seen that they were having a good time being there. As a brand, this company is running successfully among other competitors in the food market. It is the brand of food where people come to satisfy their appetite.

Behavior of people at The Elm Tree Restaurant

It was witnessed that people moved there with confidence and excitement. They were seen moving happily in as they were being welcomed there with all the best services and things. Behavior of people was different from each other. Not all the people sitting in this restaurant were behaving in the same way (Schaefer,et,al,2017). But as a whole, it could be seen that the guests were cheerful and were enjoying their meal. On the other hand, it could be said that people who were working there were treating others with respect. They were moving there with an attitude that they have to serve all their guests with the best of their services.

The mood of the people at the space

While looking at the varying moods of people it could be said that they were seen enjoying their meal and services of the restaurant staff. Even it would not be worthless to say, the atmosphere of restaurant changed mood of people. Most of the people were happy and one of the most amazing things that were seen is that the captivating atmosphere of The Elm Tree Restaurant changed the mood of those who were not in a good mood. Like most of the restaurants, The Elm Tree Restaurant also finds tracking of the food commodities little hard. They buy only those products that remain in demand or are about to get short. It also manipulates the prices of the item as food is the main thing that is going to cost the most. Without any manipulation, it would be difficult for management to manage the burden of food cost. The market is the main thing that would interact between buyers and sellers. The market has been seen as a way for this restaurant that would organize strategies for determining market price of the goods.

Storage of products

This restaurant used to buy products from various sources who have been its supplier for many years. Before storing the products in their store, they check whether the product is meeting the level of the quality that they want (Boyer,et,al,2018). Management of The Elm Tree Restaurant looks at the margins, and after buying the required products, they visit the store personally. They also compare their product with other samples of the market. They also grasp the advantage of the retailer's competition in the marketplace. They pack the items and keep them in the store that they are not going to use in few next coming days.


Boyer, R. R., & McKinney, J. M. (2018). Food storage guidelines for consumers.

Lundberg, D. E. (1989). The hotel and restaurant business(No. Ed. 5). Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Lynn, M., & Brewster, Z. W. (2018). A within-restaurant analysis of changes in customer satisfaction following the introduction of service inclusive pricing or automatic service charges. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 70, 9-15.

Schaefer, C. (2017). Learning from a Restaurant Business Studied by Harvard Students.

Scharenborg, O., & Larson, M. (2018). Investigating the Effect of Music and Lyrics on Spoken-Word Recognition. arXiv preprint arXiv:1803.05058.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 5 Words: 1500



Church beliefs and spirituality is linked to one’s happiness. This is an effective way of feeling happy and positive. My personal experience allowed me to understand the connection between spirituality and happiness. I believe that in situations of excrement anxiety and worthlessness one can feel better by giving a little charity. Such acts allow people to realize that they have been the reason for someone’s happiness or comfort. Consider a situation in which a rich man is lacking peace irrespective of his wealth and luxurious life. By giving a donation to the deserving human beings he can develop a sense of relief or satisfaction. This is an act of virtue that makes him believe that he has saved someone from poverty or famine.

Spiritual beliefs convince an individual to engage in activities that involve kindness and virtue. The theory of happiness claims, “the way to lasting happiness seems to include acts of civic engagement, kindness, and other behaviours far more beneficial to society than an endless pursuit of momentary pleasures and trivial pursuits” (Derek 2010). This is because when a human being is involved in a certain kind of activity that brings relief to his fellow being, he attains inner peace and satisfaction. Church beliefs of giving donations or helping humankind are also associated with happiness. People who have faith in religion are more likely to engage in such activities for attaining virtue and happiness. Contrast to that, when an individual denies offering help to deserving irrespective of his paying capacity he will become sad or unhappy at the end of the day.

People who lack happiness irrespective of their possessions are undergoing an inner conflict. They are often lacking a purpose in life that makes them depressed and unhappy. Religious beliefs and spirituality stress on identifying a right and meaningful purpose that is not limited to self. This means one's engagement in the act of piety or humanity defines a greater purpose of life. This reflects that “one feels inclined to say that the intention that man should be 'happy' is not included in the plan of 'Creation” (Lama and Cutler 1998). Human beings will struggle to search for happiness until they are unable to find the purpose of their creation. A Nobel purpose like helping human beings is linked to inner peace and happiness.

Religious upbringing affects my behaviors related to happiness. This is because the church told me to stay kind with fellow beings and help the poor. If I am having a capacity of helping someone I cannot refuse to help. Denial makes me guilty and unhappy. Similarly, when I help someone I get the feeling that I have committed a virtuous act. Such behaviour is the product of religious beliefs that trained me to become a good human being. Religion upbringing also told me to follow the rules set by nature and God. He is the one with supreme authority, “obedience is owed to the person of the chief who occupies the traditionally sanctioned position of authority” (Weber 1922). This reflects that I must accept the authority of God and follow his orders.

I believe that the concept of happiness in religions is not limited to this world. They emphasize on real happiness that is linked with one's connection with God. The act of pleasing God is linked to humanity. Bible mentions are many instances to follow the laws of God. One important concept linked to religion is of helping humankind and avoiding harm. Happiness is against the act of inflicting pain on humans.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Derek, B. 2010. The Politics of Happiness: What Government Can Learn from the New Research on Well-Being.

Lama, D., & Cutler, H. 1998. The Art of Happiness. Riverhead Books.

Weber, M. 1922. Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Strategic Communications + Media Plan

Strategic Communications and Media Plan

[Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees]

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Author Note

[Include any grant/funding information and a complete correspondence address.]

Strategic Communications and Media Plan


Since the advent of the industrial revolution, collective efforts have been put in action at an individual and societal level to improve living standards and increase those amenities in life which do not require much physical work. Economic growth and development have been the primary target of the governments and various consortiums of several countries. In the pursuit of extracting huge returns from investments and initial financial capitals, multi-national companies and corporations compromised the safety of future generations and did not realize how their lucrative actions are damaging the ecosystem. Within the shortest time possible, sustainable development was replaced by unsustainable development and has since imposed great suffering on the human race.

Unsustainable development meets the temporary needs of top-notch conglomerations and billionaires of the world who only constitute roughly 1% of the global population but their collective wealth is 44% of the world’s total wealth. Although a small segment of the world’s population are benefitting greatly from these multi-billion dollar corporations and the huge amounts of profit earned, at the same time the ability of future generations to have a secure environment, which is conducive for their survival, is being compromised.

According to a recently published report, which targeted a lot of subjects and various ecosystems in their findings, the human race is living far beyond what it can afford in terms of ecological and environmental resources and means. Massive exploitation of natural resources, irregular planning and establishment of infrastructure, and the resulting environmental degradation and various types of pollution are some of the dangers which pose a constant threat to the precariousness of future descendants of the current generation. A lot of adverse global conditions are indicative of the increased human demand and the alarmingly low levels of nature's supply of supportive capacities. Some of these adversities which the planet earth is constantly facing are climate change, global warming, deforestation and soil erosion, unavailability of potable water, diminishing productivity of land and soil, and extinction of wildlife species which is the biggest threat towards the survival of humans.

Dominant Narrative

The dominant narrative is based on close analogies between unsustainable development and a fraudulent investment strategy, which is essentially a market failure. Increased unsustainable investment is only possible because economic activities by different lucrative economic organizations are intentionally distanced from their actions’ outcomes CITATION Mad11 \l 1033 (Madhavan, 2011). The perspectives by the business owners who shirk from their corporate social responsibilities present their definitions and concepts about the scopes of sustainability regarding relentless economic development CITATION Ste05 \l 1033 (Steurer, 2005). Technological advancements and recently emerging concepts of equity with changing times and needs are accredited to when concerns are raised regarding environmental degradation. The initial investors of this deceiving strategy are the winners, but everyone who is following their steps is a victim. Even though the majority of the population is greatly benefiting from the fruits of developmental activities, people can never begin to cover the costs incurred as environmental damage. In this context, almost the entire human race is a victim of its own doing CITATION Kop16 \l 1033 (Kopnina, 2016). The dominant narrative denies the burden of responsibility; no one wants to stand culpable for the depletion of resources and massive environmental degradation, but everyone is certain that economic growth has the means and ends for its decline. For simplicity, it can be stated that when no one will be around as an adverse effect of unsustainable development, who will enjoy the fruits of economic activity?

Literature has established two different definitions of sustainability; weak and strong, owing to its intensity and the degree of threat posed by either one of them CITATION Sha19 \l 1033 (Shang, 2019). These descriptions are also ill-defined in their inherent nature because sustainability is largely based on the extent of substitution between the natural sources meant for the human race and man-made capital.

One of the key factors which pave way for the currently prevailing narrative of unsustainable development is a wide scope of deception which is directed by those who benefit from economic development and are only slightly affected by its adversities. The current living standards are represented inaccurately and the levels of investment to meet the global demands are also wrongly propagated and interpreted.

New Narrative

Stories based on reality are needed for guidance and correct understanding of how severe the issue of unsustainable development is. Currently, extant heroic narratives which indicate towards magical realism and courageous actions solving some of the biggest problems in the fraction of a second are no longer helpful and a new narrative which is fully based on real facts and figures should be spread CITATION Dar19 \l 1033 (Darby, 2019). Finding new and pragmatic solutions for unsustainable development is extremely necessary if we want to ensure the continuity and survival of our future generations and ultimately of the human race.

Our organization, “Environmental Defense Fund”, will help build the new narrative through a series of actions and tactics so that individuals, different associations and policymakers give this issue bigger part of their time and a major effort is allocated towards its resolution.

The manifestations of unsustainable development (e.g. depletion of the earth's assimilative capacity, a growing legacy of environmental degradation which is being transferred from one generation to the next and the decline in quality of living standards) are evident in the contemporary world and the new narrative will revolve around the gravity of this problem. The potential theme to build the new narrative would be to make people realize that all these economic activities at the cost of environmental degradation which are being regarded as steps towards utopia, are a catastrophe and no one will be exempted from its harmful effects. Everyone is equally responsible, and everyone is equally a victim.

Slogans, Hashtags or Memes


Environmental Defense Fund will use the following slogans for spreading awareness:

Earth Day- Each day, Earthy day

Resist Plastic---- (& patriarchy)

Think Sustainable- Live Responsible-

Keep calm and cut carbon!

I object- to NOT developing sustainably!

Who owes ecology an apology? You, me and modern technology

What will your children drink?

What will your children breathe? What do you breathe?

Where is the Environment?


#SustainableDevelopment #sdgs #mdgsHaveDefaulted #TimeToWakeUp #NoFoodForTheFuture #Pollution #LetsNotFoolOurselves #UnsustainableDevelopment #GlobalGoals #CarbonFootprint #LessIsMore #Recycling #WasteDisposal #CorporateSocialResponsibilty #CorporateSustainability #Environment #ClimateAction

#ecofriendly #LivingInIgnorance #corruption #accountability #ponzischeme #fraudulentinvestment #temporarybenefits #dyinggenerations #nofuelforfuture #nowaterforfuture #nowater #nolife #growingeconomies #cleanenergy #reduceconsumption #humanplanetinitiative #conservationoflife #cutcarbon #thanksbutnothanks #noplastic #globalchoices #teachsdgs



The long-term objectives of our campaign are:

Addressing a wide range of social needs of the local community involving food security, potable water, sanitation facilities, job opportunities

Tackling climate change locally

Preventing the environment in a small capacity

Safe removal and management of solid waste

Bringing a decline to air pollution by launching another ‘no smoking’ campaign

Intermediate goals:

Raising awareness

Promotion of an active dialogue among the general public and the stakeholders of the multi-billion dollar companies

Establishment of live web lectures and informational videos about the dangers of unsustainable development

Talking to people (word-of-mouth)

Addressing the children in schools and parks and teaching them the grave consequences of unsustainable development through skits and dramas.

The campaign will win concrete improvement in peoples’ lives by educating them and the children in the local community. It will be a two-process where all the agents of socialization will actively learn from each other and adapt practices on securing the future for coming generations. The people of the local community will have a complete sense of autonomy on the amenities they use and on the proper ways of waste disposal which they were previously unaware of.

Some short-term or partial victories that can be won while moving towards the long-term goals are proper practices of waste disposal being implemented in the local community, and awareness developed among the children who have impressionable brains and thus will become functional citizens of the society in the future.

Organizational Considerations


The staff of the organization including local policy specialists, event managers and digital strategists will put in their services for this campaign.


Following is the budget breakdown for this campaign:


Office rent and utilities


Phone cards




Internet access (it was present but need to update the speed)


Postage charges

Volunteer charges





Other paraphernalia (stickers, signs, banners, slogans)





Staff appraisals

School visits

Park visits


Community meetings

Door-to-door canvassing

Meetings with stakeholders and their acquaintances

Media and Communication

Radio ads

Newspaper ads

Website updates

Press releases


Specific Ways in Which the Organization Will Be Strengthened by This Campaign

The Environmental Defense Fund will be strengthened by the promotion of an enabling environment, the involvement of all the stakeholders in dialogues regarding future policy and monitoring and evaluation of all development activities.

Internal Problems to Be Considered

The internal problems of the organization do not add much to form a barrier in the way of this campaign because this organization is a non-profit, allocating all its resources and collective effort to save the planet from the harmful effects of unsustainable development. Apart from running short of expenses and some discrepancies in the budget, there are no internal problems of the organization to be considered.

Constituents, Allies and Opponents

All participants of the campaign who are affected by the problem will be the constituents. Some influential members of the local community such as political leaders, clergy will also be involved. The discussion will be done with them in advance and they will be apprised of the different events of the campaign.

Chief executive officers of the local civic organizations working for the welfare of the local community are the allies of our organization and will also support the cause of our campaign.

The owners of the plastic utensils businesses are the opponents of this campaign and they may pose barriers in the smooth working of our campaign.


Meeting with the state minister



Report on the economic impacts on the environment

Newspaper advertising

Actions for information and public hearing

All the above-mentioned tactics are directed at specific targets and are flexible and creative which will engage the interest of a large number of people from the public community.


This campaign will take 2 weeks and then on the evening of the last day, a fundraiser will be conducted for donations and charity works for the unprivileged section of the community.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Darby, S. &. (2019). Between and beyond social entrepreneur and activist: Transformative personas for social change. ACME: An International e-Journal for Critical Geographies, 724-750.

Kopnina, H. (2016). The victims of unsustainability: a challenge to sustainable development goals. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, 113-121.

Madhavan, S. &. (2011). Unsustainable Development: Could it be a Ponzi Scheme? SAPI EN. S. Surveys and Perspectives Integrating Environment and Society.

Shang, C. W. (2019). Weak sustainability is not sustainable: Socioeconomic and environmental assessment of Inner Mongolia for the past three decades. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 243-252.

Steurer, R. L. (2005). Corporations, stakeholders and sustainable development I: a theoretical exploration of business–society relations. Journal of business ethics, 263-281.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 6 Words: 1800

Study Guide


Instructor Name


16 December 2019

Chapter Wise Study Guide

This book is a collection of journal articles that are written by numerous authors that happen to be the experts of their respective fields of discussion. In this guide, we will take a look at the articles that are provided in the first half of this collection of articles by Paula S. Rothenberg.

The first chapter called Racial Formations is a comprehensive study of the concept of race. The author attributes the concept of race to ignorance about the different cultures that are alien to us. He gives the view of Race as a social construct while tracing the historical roots of the concept.

The second chapter called Constructing Race, Creating White Privilege further adds to the argument that is presented above while adding the concept of the superiority of the white race. The whole chapter is discussed concerning the Atlantic Slave Trade and the period until the American Independence. He also describes the qualities that made a person to be considered as a white elite.

The third chapter called How Jews Became White Folks is about the racial differences between the Jews and the rest of the Americans. The author compares the social standings of the Jews in the United States and compare it to their racial standings in the 19th and 20th century Europe. The author also accuses the US Federal Government to institutionalize these activities by measures such as Sub-Urbanization and numerous legislative measures.

The Fourth Chapter called Night to His Day is about the concept of gender as a social construct. The author believes that gender is a dynamic concept that is constantly changed by human interactions. The author also attributes the concept of ageism as a major driver in the changes in the concept of gender. The author also explains the different meanings of the concept as understood by individuals and societies.

The fifth chapter called The Invention of Heterosexuality talks about the evolution of the concept from the Early Victorian Times till today, as the concept itself has come under critically evaluating questions. The author also carefully discusses the concept providing a detailed analysis in the end.

The sixth chapter called Masculinity as Homophobia is about societal constraints about the concept of masculine gender. The author talks about how masculine is shaped in the world through a series of historic and contemporary arguments. He also defines the concept in the context of racism, saying that often men are forced into a rigid societal role that they may rescind due to several reasons that may be racial, economic and even ageist.

The seventh chapter called Transgender Feminism is a discussion about transgender roles in the modern world. It tries to explain how the concept of gender may have biological underpinnings. The author also discusses the role of gender from the perspective of theories and several other disciplines that signify the concept under the third wave of feminism.

The eighth chapter called Disability and Justification of Inequality in American History tells us about the steady amalgamation of inequality in our societies. The authors argue about how the concept is used to justify some shady concepts in our society such as racism and slavery.

Works Cited

BIBLIOGRAPHY Paula S. Rothenberg, Soniya Munshi. Race, Class, and Gender in the United States: An Integrated Study. Ed. 10th. New York: Macmillian Learning, 2016. Ebook. <https://4.files.edl.io/1c97/05/06/19/170057-b1a94e75-3a11-42ee-aecd-0fe284f6d19e.pdf>.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Study Guide

Author Name

Instructor Name



Study Guide

How Jews became White Folks

The author illustrated that European immigrants were considered biologically different rather than white in American society. Anti-Semitism was a part of American society due to which Jews were discriminated against in every aspect. The author demonstrated that all sorts of discriminatory treatments against Jews were a broader pattern of racism in the 19th century. Jews who were deported and believed to belong to an inferior race were immediately recognized as middle-class white suburban citizens after their participation in World War II. The Invention of Heterosexuality

The heterosexual belief has a pivotal place in society, dating to the late nineteenth century. The concept of heterosexuality did not inhabit earlier. While, the concept of heterosexuality is only based on the perceptions, categorization, and imagination of the social relationships of the sexes within these societies. The modern impression of eroticized began to establish from 1860 to 1892. For the first time, the notions of manhood, womanhood, and true love were idealized by the white middle-class of America, which gave birth to the freedom of sensuality ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"bkbPJazO","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Rothenberg)","plainCitation":"(Rothenberg)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1489,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/F0XOCTdk/items/FJNZVNB9"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/F0XOCTdk/items/FJNZVNB9"],"itemData":{"id":1489,"type":"book","title":"Race, Class, and Gender in the United States: An Integrated Study","publisher":"Worth Publishers","URL":"https://books.google.com.pk/books?id=6Cu2CwAAQBAJ","ISBN":"978-1-319-08189-8","author":[{"family":"Rothenberg","given":"P. S."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Rothenberg). However, for the first time, the use of heterosexuality was used by Dr. James G in a medical journal article. The heterosexuality is an analytical tool that is applied in the society uncritically.

Masculinity as Homophobia

The meaning and perceptions about masculinity are changed with the time passage, and these perceptions or more relatively, the tangible properties are being rewarded. According to Kimmel, masculinity in societies is taken as successful start rituals that are arduous. Manhood has been very challenging as the meanings also change with time, and it is not limited to a definite meaning in society. The meaning of manhood is defined according to the cultures, furthermore, and manhood is socially constructed. The perceptions in the manhood have given birth to prejudices in society.

Homophobia as a Weapon of Sexism

The system of sexism and ideology is referred to as the patriarchy or the male dominance in society. In many societies, the subordinates of men are women, and they are threatened by pain and loss. It is important to analyze the economy, the opportunities that are available in the economy will decide the role and place of women in society. The economy is responsible for both racism and sexism; hence, it is a controller for both. With the freedom, gay men have become a threat to patriarchy, and they are the objects of extreme hatred in the society.

The Transgender Crucible

This is a story about CeCe by Erdely. CeCe became a heroic icon for the whole community of Transgender after defending herself from an attack by a gang when she was out for the shopping. This story reflects the life of CeCe, which she lived as a prostituted, and she also faced hardships in her life. This reflects the story of a woman who was homeless for years and was charged for murder while defending herself. This story also reflects different genders, specifically transgender people who are treated in a negative by society.

A New Vision of Masculinity

The author stated that violence by the boys or men is a tool that allows them to dominate amongst other genders. It is also being taught that violence is one of the sources to express emotions. These masculine behaviors may change if boys learn to accept the vulnerable behaviors which they adopt for expressing their behaviors. They need to learn about being cooperative and conflict resolution in nonviolent means. The traditional behaviors can be changed by creating a greater understanding of their consequences.


Racism is a personal ideology that involves different cultural messages and individual practices. Racism is the concept that allows one group to be superior over the second group based on their race, color, and personality traits. The author mentioned that racism does not necessarily mean to target all people of color. It varies with gender and their multiple identities.

Self-fulfilling Stereotypes

Stereotypes are based on the assumptions that lead individuals towards a gender gap. Based on these assumptions, people with different genders are involved in stereotypes, and they are also involved in acting different behaviors towards others. One of the best examples of the stereotype of men is that they treat women based on their physical attractiveness. While this is only an assumption that leads to the stereotype of men.

Work Cited

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Rothenberg, P. S. Race, Class, and Gender in the United States: An Integrated Study. Worth Publishers, 2016, https://books.google.com.pk/books?id=6Cu2CwAAQBAJ.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Study Guide Module 9/10


Instructor Name


7 January 2020


Race, Class, and Gender in the United States: An Integrated Study is about the differences that are prevalent in American society but are seldom talked about. This book is a collection of well-chosen articles that gradually tried to prove that there is preferential treatment regarding different classes, races, and genders in the US.

In the article For Many Latinos, Racial Identity Is More Culture than Color, the author presented the case for the racial identity of Mexican Americans and other Latin American Immigrants that are collectively known as Latinos. She talks about how the Latinos are going through the process of acculturation and how slowly their identity is disappearing as the Census data is trying to identify them based on the color of their skin.

In the article Crossing the Border Without Losing Your Past, the argument goes further in favor of the Latinos as several of their stories are cited in which their children often find themselves concerning their new identity in the US.

In the article For Asian Americans, Wealth Stereotypes Don’t Fit Reality, the argument is more or less the same, but this time, the stereotype is not racial, but rather an economic one. Many Asians are considered as rich as they live in San Francisco in California. True that Asian Americans are doing better than most ethnic minorities in the US, yet they are not as rich as people deem them to be. The article is basically about an Asian called Rosa Chen and her clarification about the stereotypes that society has attached to her.

In the article The Black Codes, there is a detailed discussion about the laws that were enacted against the African-Americans or the Blacks as they are normally called. Most of these laws were rather draconian as some laws even punished the slaves if they accidentality caused harm to the animals that were in use of their white masters. They were even traded as currency to settle debts among the southern whites. Their status was so low in the courts that they were not allowed to testify against a white person, even though that person was the slave's master or not.

Many articles link themselves to the description of The Black Codes like An Act for the Better Ordering and Governing of Negroes and Slaves, South Carolina, 1712. This legislation was a collection of codes that were strictly enforced against blacks to keep them in line. Some of the notorious mentions of this article are the check-and-balance imposed on the blacks to leave their plantations, the case of fugitive and runaway slaves and the cases of slaves that steal goods. In all cases, strict and harsh punishments were imposed. Another article An Act Prohibiting the Teaching of Slaves to Read expressly prohibited the learning and educating of the slaves by even their white masters.

Several cases are also cited in this regard like Plessy v. Ferguson in which there were attempts to define the boundary of the blacks concerning the rights of the whites. Another case Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka was intended at giving the right to blacks to get educated in the same classrooms as the blacks. Today these cases may not seem like a huge deal, yet at the time they were about racial equality and equal protection under the laws of the United States.

The native Indian Tribes were no differently treated like blacks. The situation may have ten times worse for them as they were driven out of their lands, unlike the blacks that did not even belong there. The discussion in this article is strictly based on racial facts and their implications on the Native Indian Population of the United States.

The argument can be summed up in the article Where “English Only” Falls Short. There the author talks about how English is vigorously promoted in the course of the business in New York. Likewise, how other ethnic groups fight fire with fire and value their ethnic brothers and sister first before the general English speakers of the region.

Works Cited

BIBLIOGRAPHY Paula S. Rothenberg, Soniya Munshi. Race Class and Gender in the United States: An Integrated Study. Ed. 10th. New York: MacMillan Learning, 2016. Ebook. <https://4.files.edl.io/1c97/05/06/19/170057-b1a94e75-3a11-42ee-aecd-0fe284f6d19e.pdf>.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 2 Words: 600



Student’s name

Course ID

Submitted to




The paper deals with the problem of racism in modern society. In any human society has always existed its social norms. Today, the word “racism” is interpreted by the majority in the light of fascist views; however, if we turn to history, it becomes clear that The psychological principles and mechanisms of racism are rooted in the distant past. This paper examines the qualitative and quantitative evidence to support the issue of racism. This paper also explains the roots of racism and how it affects society. In the last, this paper examines the solution of the racism issue.

Keywords: Racism, history, consequences and solution

Table of Contents


Qualitative and Quantitative evidence………………………………………….…….…..05

Roots of Problem………………………………………………………………………...08


Policy Solution Options…………………………………………………………………10

Opinion about policy……………………………………………………………………11




Today, the word “racism” is interpreted by the majority in the light of fascist views; however, if we turn to history, it becomes clear that The psychological principles and mechanisms of racism are rooted in the distant past. This racism was based on the fact that all of humanity is divided into separate races, differing in their thinking abilities, which means that they are inclined to progress to varying degrees (Salter et al. 2018). In recent months, several events have occurred in the United States that are not related to each other: Barack Obama was re-elected president, the trial of the accused in the murder by the name of Zimmerman began, the movie “Lincoln” was released, and some well-known General Powell made some surprising statements who served in essential posts in the Republican administrations (in particular, in Bush).

These events, however, have a “common denominator”, which makes us once again recall Marx’s expression about “patterns that make their way in the form of accidents”. Those who care about what is happening now in America should pay attention to these “accidents”. A person can start, apparently, with the fact that an ordinary person who came to America from the side, its current national and racial problems may seem not to exist (Trepagnier, 2017). Human “affections” and hostility are innumerable: there will always be those who dislike red or fat, lean or narrow-eyed. People do not call such eccentricities problems: they are nothing more than personal prejudices. They become social problems when they receive the support of many and begin to influence the order in society.

Evidence of The Social Problem: Both Quantitative and Qualitative

According to scientists, many racial symptoms arose spontaneously in the early stages of human development. Many of these symptoms appeared to help people. Adapt to the harsh environment and already in the process of natural selection entrenched in the genes, and then passed on to the next generations. According to Ansell, (2016), “Racism is a theory that ascribes superiority or inferiority. Specific racial or ethnic groups, justifying the right of some people dominate others or reject them” (Ansell, 2016). Racist theories in practice expressed in the policy of racial discrimination, that is, in an exception, based on race, colour, descent, national or ethnic of origin violating human rights and fundamental freedoms in political economic, social, cultural and other areas of public life

America is a country of accessible statistics, and if a person is determined to know the truth, it does not take much time to understand that black’s problems are not at all in racism directed against them: their education is not weaker because of “rejection”, but because of unwillingness to learn their per capita training is greater than in other countries, the results are much more modest, for the same reason unemployment is higher.) Similarly, the percentage of prisoners they no longer have because of “injustices”, but because of elementary violations laws. This is not far from the understanding that the resettlement of whites to black areas is rarely not because of “white racism”. DiAngelo, (2018) said, “Racism itself is denigrating a person or a population either by ethnicity, beliefs or other specific issues, is having hate, and other negative feelings, racism is not something current, can be seen at all times of the human history” (DiAngelo, 2018).

Modern racists believe that the bearers of each culture are predetermined their place on Earth, where they should always be and which should not be left. The slogans of modern racism are: “incompatibility of cultures”, “the inability of migrants to integrate”, “threshold of tolerance”. Partly, the course of historical events that initiated the formation and spread of racism in society was partly to blame for the bias of the “worst” race. As quoted in the work of Ullucci, K. (2006) about the book “Racism, fairness, personality” by A. A. Belik. “When K. Marx and F. Engels wrote in 1848 that “proletarians have no fatherland,” this was a real reflection of that historical situation (Ullucci, 2006). Yes, the proletarians had nothing; they even took away their fatherland; they were only a commodity, a “labour force”. Since then, the world has undergone significant changes, and to make the slogan of the mid-nineteenth century. The basis of national, more precisely, non-national policies in the second half of the twentieth century. It meant, sooner or later, bringing the nations to tragedy.

New York Times wrote on July 23, 1963: “By manipulating numbers, the demonstrators follow a truly unworthy principle. The requirement to provide 25% (like any other percentage) of jobs to blacks (like any other population group) is unfair for one simple reason: it is associated with the “quota system”, which is essentially discriminatory ... religious quotas in appointing judges; likewise, we reject racial quotas in the distribution of jobs, whether they are the highest positions or low-paid manual labour (Flows, 2018)..”

According to Horowitz, the theory that the whole system was the one that did not allow African-Americans to excel, occupy important positions, or study, gained a lot of followers. The idea was raised that all institutions, academies, large companies, and government departments were linked in a circle of complicity in which only Caucasians managed to excel (Horowitz, 2003). In this way, the attempt of the Americans to demonstrate that the culture of racism had been eradicated began. “White guilt,” as Shelby Steele mentions in her book of the same name, triggered something like a new kind of African-American leadership. In this case, they were not African-American moralists who appealed for fair and equitable treatment for all who, like him, wanted equality (Steele, 2006). They were, on the contrary, all those people without profession, specialists in moral outrage, so to speak, those who caused pity and caused guilt in the Americans. This new group managed to get ahead blaspheming against the political and social system of their state. Many books evoking the question of racism between black and white often face the main pitfall related to this question: A Manichean perception that “blackens” one side and “whitens” the other. Unlike in previous times, the current racist expressions are more disguised. Historically, discriminatory manifestations in the Western world were characterised by direct rejection as well as by the hostile attitude towards a minority group. This type of intolerance, sometimes called “old-fashioned racism” was segregationist and openly accepted and defended white supremacy (Van Dijk, 2015).

There is much quantitative evidence such as nowadays; most societies consider it “less acceptable” to speak of racial superiority or express discriminatory positions. Publicly, various groups reject negative judgment about a minority, based on racial perception or ethnic background. Likewise, democracy and pluralism gain strength. This does not imply that racism has disappeared.

According to an interview with a manager of an organisation dealing with racism explains that it has been transformed to be replaced by a “modern” or “symbolic” movement. For the oppressed sectors, these new tendencies still entail the rejection of minorities with the foundation of erroneous assumptions, including discriminatory behaviours that limit the quantity and access to available resources that guarantee their development and promote the creation of a plural and democratic society that allow free coexistence between different human groups. Trump is always in the news about the issue of racism. He gave statements many times against racism. Such as, according to Trump’s view, “I am not a racist. I'm the least racist person you will ever interview” (Bobo, 2017).

Social Roots of the Problem

In the middle of the XIX century, the first generalising work on racism appeared. Atkin, K. (2018) mentioned about the essay, “An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races”, J. A. Gobino declared the supreme race of Aryans, whom he considered the creators of all great civilisations, preserved in the purest form among the aristocracy of the German peoples. Gobino did not give an exact description of the characteristic features of the “Aryans”, he sometimes attributed roundness of the head, and sometimes elongation, then light, dark or even black eyes (it should be noted that he was a Frenchman with black eyes). The Gobino theory, based on the unlawful identification of races and language families, has become the cornerstone of many racist concepts.

From the end of the 19th century the evolutionary theory of Charles Darwin, especially his theory of natural selection, the struggle for existence and survival of the most adapted species, was used as a supposedly irrefutable argument in favour of racism (Ansell, 2016). The so-called social Darwinism that emerged during this period as a result of the imposition of this scheme on human history played a decisive role in giving the scientific appearance to racism and was accepted by scientific circles of Europe with considerable enthusiasm. This was facilitated by the high prestige of the German biologist E. Haeckel (the fundamental biogenetic law formulated by him, stating that in ontogenesis, that is, in the development of biological individuals, the primary stages and features of phylogenesis, that is, evolution of the species, inevitably reproduced why this law and took one of the central places in the ideology of national socialism), the English philosopher G. Spencer (from whom the national socialists borrowed the main idea of ​​the organic school in The sciences are about the survival of the fittest as the fundamental law of social development) and many of their followers who had the reputation of serious scientists (Loewen, 2018).

Social Consequences of The Problem

Slavery in the USA was abolished after the Civil War in 1865. However, the feeling of oppression felt by African Americans by Caucasians continues. The guilt that makes Americans feel African Americans has caused severe changes in the American system (Macedo, & Gounari, 2015). One of these changes is related to a new type of African-American leadership. The second deals with the theory that was generated that postulates that the entire American system is against African-Americans. The third and last change is linked to changes in education. All due to poor communication and too much resentment (Pérez Huber, & Solorzano, 2015). Racism has had damaging effects that have been seen throughout history. Among the most dangerous are:


The “racial cleansing” has been perpetrated in massacres such as those that occurred in the Holocaust, the Nanking Massacre and the Rwandan Genocide.


An example is that of South Africa, in which blacks were denied their full freedoms. In the United States, there was a very similar regime in which there could not even be interracial marriages.


The widespread practice during the time of European colonisation and that lasted well into the nineteenth century (Richeson, 2018).

Division and social inequality

The most practical example is the caste system imposed by the Spanish Crown in its American domains, in which the upper castes had better socioeconomic conditions than the lower ranks.

Policy Solution Options for This Social Problem

Policy against hatred on the internet

Faced with the development of social networks platforms, the proposal proposes determined measures to modify national legislation to discontinue the propagation of hate on the internet. At the national level, real solutions that comply with the legal regime applicable to digital platforms will be introduced, including the obligation of legal representation in the US, the platform transparency moderation efforts, the simplicity of the illicit digital content and the closing of anonymous accounts which broadcast illegal content (Atkin, 2018).

Educating Against Racism And Anti-Semitism

The School is at the heart of the plan with its mission to educate children by giving them the means to access critical thinking. Thus, from elementary school, children must know the history and mechanisms of racism and anti-Semitism as well as those of resistance to hatred and extremism, as provided by the programs, particularly in moral and civic education (Atkin, 2018). Higher education and research are also mobilised to improve knowledge and counteract racist and anti-Semitic phenomena.

Protecting citizens and supporting victims

To improve the management of victims, a system of detectives and magistrates specially trained in the fight against hate victims will be tested in September 2018. By the end of this first semester, an online pre-complaint structure for racist and anti-Semitic offences will be operational.

Also, references to racism and anti-Semitism and discrimination will be designated within the departmental directorates of public security and gendarmerie groups. In Switzerland, racist grievances and racial discrimination can meet in the most harmless places at first glance: at a festival at a cafe, or on the site of an architectural firm (Pérez Huber, et.al. 2015). The law against racism, which provides for punishment for the humiliation of the human dignity of an individual or a group of people, as well as incitement to hatred and the propaganda of racism, makes it possible to combat such phenomena actively.

Investing New Fields Of Mobilization

Territories, public authorities, associations, sport, media and US exchanges are all new fields that must be spent to strengthen the fight against racism, anti-Semitism and discrimination (Richeson, 2018). The involvement of the sports movement will be at all levels (communication campaigns, educational training and citizens of top athletes). Regarding media and communication, the visibility of diversity will be extended.

Policy Option for The Problem

I want to say that racism is an anti-human, unlawful form of expression of his domination over another person. It can be expressed in an offensive word and even the death of an innocent person. Everyone needs to think about the consequences of racism. Even the least aggressive forms of racism can inflame a national conflict and even world war, due to which everyone will suffer. It is necessary to create an independent commission to solve the problems of racism and hostility towards foreigners, by the requirements of the US. The issue of racism should often be highlighted in the mass media. Communication, in the cinema, should be held conversations with students on this topic. All this should be aimed at the formation of a tolerant attitude and moral qualities to representatives of different nationalities.


In the United States, being white racist is completely unthinkable: to admit the mildest statements not only about the inequality of races, but even that races are not the same, will be an act of political and professional suicide. But black racism is such a noticeable phenomenon that dissertations are depended on it. No one person, whether black or white, can claim the property of another person. The rights of a particular person are not violated if an individual private person refuses to deal with him. Racism is a pernicious, irrational and morally flawed theory, but theories cannot be legally prohibited or prescribed. Just as we are forced to defend freedom of speech for the Communists, although their methods are disastrous, we are forced to protect and the right of the racists to control their property. Racism of a private person is not legal, but a moral problem, and it can be solved only by appropriate means, say, an economic boycott or social ostracism.

Of course, if the bill on “civil rights” is approved, it will be the most serious attempt on the rights of owners in the regrettable list of such actions in American history. Paradoxical evidence of the philosophical madness of the present epoch and, as a result, of its suicidal development is the fact that the very people who most need them are black citizens. Here it should be recalled that it is impossible to become victims of all the same racists, yielding to racism; It is impossible to blame all dark-skinned people with disgusting nonsense, preached by some Negro leaders. Nowadays, no group has the proper intellectual leaders or adequate representation. The government should implement national policies to prevent the issue of racism.


Atkin, K. (2018). Institutional racism, policy and practice. In Primary Healthcare and South Asian Populations (pp. 19-30). CRC Press.

Ansell, A. E. (2016). New right, new racism: Race and reaction in the United States and Britain. Springer.

Bailey, Z. D., Krieger, N., Agénor, M., Graves, J., Linos, N., & Bassett, M. T. (2017). Structural racism and health inequities in the USA: evidence and interventions. The Lancet, 389(10077), 1453-1463.

Bobo, L. D. (2017). Racism in Trump's America: reflections on culture, sociology, and the 2016 US presidential election. The British journal of sociology, 68, S85-S104.

DiAngelo, R. (2018). White Fragility: Why It's So Hard for White People to Talk About Racism. Beacon Press.

Flows, C. (2018). How Would Ayn Rand Have Commented On Last Week's Supreme Court Race Ruling?. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/realspin/2013/07/01/in-light-of-the-supreme-courts-ruling-a-look-back-to-ayn-rand/#3838bfd4cc6a

Horowitz, D. (2003). Uncivil wars: The controversy over reparations for slavery. Encounter Books.

Loewen, J. W. (2018). Sundown towns: A hidden dimension of American racism. The New Press.

Macedo, D., & Gounari, P. (2015). Globalization of racism. Routledge.

Pérez Huber, L., & Solorzano, D. G. (2015). Visualizing everyday racism: Critical race theory, visual microaggressions, and the historical image of Mexican banditry. Qualitative Inquiry, 21(3), 223-238.

Richeson, J. A. (2018). The Psychology of Racism: An Introduction to the Special Issue.

Salter, P. S., Adams, G., & Perez, M. J. (2018). Racism in the structure of everyday worlds: A cultural-psychological perspective. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 27(3), 150-155.

Steele, S. (2006). White guilt: How blacks and whites together destroyed the promise of the civil rights era. HarperCollins Publishers.

Trepagnier, B. (2017). Silent racism: How well-meaning white people perpetuate the racial divide. Routledge.

Ullucci, K. (2006). Book Review: Racism Without Racists: Color-Blind Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality in the United States. Urban Education, 41(5), 533-540.

Van Dijk, T. A. (2015). Racism and the Press. Routledge.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 8 Words: 2400

Summary/ Anaysis Of The Article Following The Procedure Stated.


Students Name



Black criminal stereotype

The researcher expected to find the association of the African American or rather the black American with crime. This is stereotyped to every young black man found in the street. According to the research therefore, the young black men are associated with all criminal activities which include the drug abuse, violent and more likely to engage themselves in criminal activities as compared to the whites. According to the research done most whites refer black young men as criminal this is not only seen in America but also in Canada. This association of crime with the young black is portrayed by the society and not the behavior itself.

The researcher discussed this association of the black young man and he crime by the stereotype theory. This is a study that has carried out to bring about the whites perceptions toward the blacks. It is perceived by the white that black men are criminals. This is evident in that they tend to relate violent crimes along the streets with the black. Blacks are involved in a number of crimes according to the research done which sometimes surpasses that of the whites. This therefore does not mane that white are not criminals they also have quite a number in criminal cases.

Investigations have been therefore carried out to show how blacks are associated to crimes more than the blacks. The first research involved the war on drugs. According to the researcher this was the major facilitator of the blacks association with crime. The blacks became more prone to cocaine when its prices went down and the ethnic group had a very large number of people who were using the drug. 75% of the drugs prisoners are assumed to be blacks. Due to the black association with drugs they are assumed to be the country’s drugs problem and since the abuse of drugs is associated to other criminal activities the blacks are assumed to be robbers and assaulters as well.


How a black American man is viewed today is what brings about his association with crime. From the fact that the blacks are identified as criminals is because of their association with crime this mostly involves the violent offenses and the increased use of cocaine.

The sources of these stereotypes are however as a results of discriminatory practices. All these observation are however used to join the criminal act with the crimes and this becomes race exploitation.


Welch, K. (2007). Black criminal stereotypes and racial profiling. Journal of contemporary criminal justice, 23(3), 276-288.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Surface Culture Vs Deep Culture

Surface culture Vs. Deep culture

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Surface culture Vs. Deep culture

Surface culture include food , arts, religious practice , historical and contemporary figures. Deep culture include ceremony, marriages, aesthetic, ethics, family ties, health and family medicines, folk myth, sex role etc. One might think that culture is about the same as a way of life. The reason of selecting Finnish culture and to find out the difference between surface culture and deep culture. Finnish culture is something that you have to experience on the spot in order to fully understand it. Although relatively small, Finland has extensive traditions and cultural manifestations, which often vary in detail from region to region. Although people, culture and customs may be different in, for example, Lapland compared to the Helsinki metropolitan area, all regions of Finland and their people share basically the same customs, values ​​and culture (Ruuhijärvi & Hyvärinen, 2006).

According to this line of thinking, culture includes all the things that people, and nations have learned to do during their history, to appreciate what they have learned to believe in and to enjoy. Cultural traits are learned, not inherited. Culture includes, for example, art and literature, ways of thinking and knowing, behaviors or patterns, such as showing or hiding emotions, or maintaining physical distance from others, greeting or eating, body language, lifestyle, tradition, the fundamental rights of the individual, convictions and value systems.

Each individual carry with them the ways of thinking and the ways in which they know and act, which they have learned throughout their lives. Learning takes place especially in childhood. In other words, culture is formed by the shared attitudes, values, beliefs, practices, goals, and practices of a particular institution, organization, nation, or group.

Culture is always a collective phenomenon, not an individual phenomenon. Culture is shared, at least in part, with people living or living in the same social environment, such as the same neighborhood or school or workplace. There, culture was just learned. There are elements in all cultures that only a few members of a cultural district support, and they also vary. So there is no cohesive culture as such. In every culture, there are always those who do not follow the norms or customs maintained by the majority or share the central ideas of the culture. According to Geert Hofstede, culture consists of unwritten rules of social play . Every Finn knows how to operate in Finland according to unwritten rules, all of which he has never even thought of.


The visible and invisible parts of culture can be divided into visible and invisible parts. The visible parts of culture are easier to classify and compare and to discuss. The visible parts of the culture also change faster than the invisible parts. Invisible parts are more difficult to identify and to understand their significance. An iceberg comparison is often used to illustrate the division between visible and invisible parts. It shows only a fraction of the mountain above sea level. It means that the biggest and most meaningful part of what a culture is invisible (Shaules, 2010). For example, there is a prominent part of culture the food we eat, food manufacturing practices, clothing, buildings, people-to-people interaction, set of values, norms and the concepts by which we think and express ourselves

Cultural values ​​and practices

Expressions of different cultures can also be divided into values ​​and practices that are like onions: different manifestations are found on different layers. Peeling the onion layer by layer gives you a deeper insight into some culture. From the elements of culture, the practices are on the surface and the values ​​are at the core of the bulb.

Cultural practices

Cultural practices are symbols, heroes, and rituals and are visible. However, their cultural significance is invisible, and their meaning can only be interpreted by a person of cultural significance.


Joint activities that are technically unnecessary to achieve the desired thing but are considered socially necessary / highly relevant within a given culture. They are therefore performed for their own sake. These include greetings, tributes, social and religious ceremonies such as weddings or funerals.


living or dead persons, real or imagined, whose traits are valued and therefore act as behaviors.


words, gestures, pictures and items that have a special meaning and need to share the same culture to understand. words in a particular language, clothing, hair styles, flags, status symbols New symbols are easy to develop, and old ones disappear. They are copied from one cultural group to another.

The values ​​of culture

Furthermore, values ​​are the core of culture. Values ​​tend to prefer one thing or one thing to another. The values ​​point in two directions, good and bad, plus and minus; good-bad, dangerous-safe, paradoxical-logical, irrational-rational etc. Talking about values ​​can sometimes be difficult, because then you have to justify why one thing is actually considered to be better or safer. One has to acknowledge and question one's own motives, emotions and taboos, which may not be used to detailing. If your own culture is like the air you breathe, a foreign culture is like water: both require special skills to survive. This is exactly what intercultural encounters are about. (Van Vianen, De Pater, IKristof-Brown, & Johnson, 2004).

Concludingly, the notion of 'culture' includes not only tangible things such as traditional meals and events, but also, inter alia, the values ​​of citizens. Finns around the world are known for their quiet and even inward-looking nature and customs, but this stems from the fact that Finland values ​​its own space and modesty. In addition, honest values, independence, individuality and equality are important values ​​for Finns. Another extremely Finnish value and attribute is the famous craze found in every Finn. The most important values ​​characteristic of Finns do not differ too much from one region to another, unlike, for example, regional differences in traditional foods in Finland. In addition to intangible values, nature is a very big part of the value culture for Finns. Here in the land of thousands of lakes, nature is a very important part of Finns' lives, and it often tones the everyday life of many. Finns enjoy jogging in the nature, spending refreshing holidays in hiking national parks and engaging in outdoor activities in nature.


Ruuhijärvi, J., & Hyvärinen, P. (2006). The status of pike‐perch culture in Finland. Journal of

Applied Ichthyology, 12(3‐4), 185-188.

Shaules, J. (2010). A beginner's guide to the deep culture experience: Beneath the surface.

Nicholas Brealey.

Van Vianen, A. E., De Pater, I. E., Kristof-Brown, A. L., & Johnson, E. C. (2004). Fitting in:

Surface-and deep-level cultural differences and expatriates’ adjustment. Academy of Management Journal, 47(5), 697-709.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Survey Research Design




Word count = 1800

Sexual assaults on campus

The educational institutes in the United States have an increased concern regarding the sexual assaults on their campuses. The recent as well as the previous governments have taken numerous steps to overcome this issue. Many States have also launched different strategies to tackle this problem.

It is not only the problem of educational institutes of the United States but it is a burning issue in many different countries. The topic has also received press and electronic media attention as well ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"SY5SfeT8","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Anon 2019a)","plainCitation":"(Anon 2019a)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":"i89Qu4ui/z5dPnVSx","uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/LY9XXHSK/items/4RYT4B9M"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/LY9XXHSK/items/4RYT4B9M"],"itemData":{"id":84,"type":"article-newspaper","title":"NAICU - Sexual Assault on Campus . Naicu.edu.","issued":{"date-parts":[["2019",4,8]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Anon 2019a).

Sexual assault is a severe type of sexual violence that includes various ranges of unwanted and forced sexual activities. It includes sexual touching, emotional and psychological pressure, and rape. It is commonly defined as touching someone’s body without their permission. Treat and other sorts of imitations are also considered as sexual assaults ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"2oG9x924","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Anon 2019c)","plainCitation":"(Anon 2019c)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":"i89Qu4ui/TRbzEmo0","uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/LY9XXHSK/items/G2MNH74R"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/LY9XXHSK/items/G2MNH74R"],"itemData":{"id":87,"type":"article-newspaper","title":"Realities of Sexual Assault on Campus |","issued":{"date-parts":[["2019",4,8]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Anon 2019c).

The Rape abuse, and incent National network has recently identified that one person is sexually assaulted every 98 second and this issue needs to be addressed properly ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"VSuctSfA","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Anon 2019c)","plainCitation":"(Anon 2019c)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":"i89Qu4ui/TRbzEmo0","uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/LY9XXHSK/items/G2MNH74R"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/LY9XXHSK/items/G2MNH74R"],"itemData":{"id":87,"type":"article-newspaper","title":"Realities of Sexual Assault on Campus |","issued":{"date-parts":[["2019",4,8]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Anon 2019c).

However, the majority of sexual assault or rape survivors do not have the courage to report their cases and it is due to fear of uncertainty, shame and a though that people may find it not even a serious assault. Thus the survivors suffer with serious psychological and physical illnesses. Most of the victims of sexual assaults on campuses are women and girls. They are unable to report the crime due to lack of social support. So the research is an analyses of sexual assaults on campus and it will hopefully let the administration know the rates of sexual assaults on campus. It will help to lessen down this issues and will hopefully contribute in policy making for on campus students security.

This research will try to find out the answers of the follow research questions.

Does females clothing lead to sexual assaults on campuses?

Does parting on campus increase the rate of sexual assaults?

Sampling method:

Sampling methods are chosen based on the topic of research and the data collecting tool that I am going to use for my research is survey and the sampling methods for this is non probability sampling.

Non-probability sampling is a sampling technique that let the researcher choose sample area from a population of interest and where everyone is not get a chance to be included in the survey but the once who are available on that time zone. The units are chosen based on the needs and judgment of the researcher ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"qURVOC8R","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Anon 2019b)","plainCitation":"(Anon 2019b)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":"i89Qu4ui/YXN0iPGD","uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/LY9XXHSK/items/SJVUAQP4"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/LY9XXHSK/items/SJVUAQP4"],"itemData":{"id":88,"type":"article-newspaper","title":"Non-probability sampling | Lærd Dissertation.","issued":{"date-parts":[["2019",4,8]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Anon 2019b)

The unit of analyses for this research would be students on campus of either gender with no age limit and they will be chosen on the bases of availability on campus.

Sample Size:

The sample size for this research will be 300 students who are enrolled with the institute and who will give their time for the survey. To make sure that those student will participate in the survey, the below steps should be taken,

The email addresses of highly active students will be noted down

A request email will be send to those students who want to be the part of the survey.

After receiving their acceptance letter, an online survey paper with detail guidelines will be send to those participant.

Reminding emails will also be send to let the students know to finish on time

A help line number will also be available for any sort of question or confusion.


Hypothesis is a statement that shows the relationship between the dependent and the independent variables in a research ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"koZTl6Bd","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Anwar, Hayat, and Janjua 2014)","plainCitation":"(Anwar, Hayat, and Janjua 2014)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":"i89Qu4ui/M5jqsNar","uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/LY9XXHSK/items/MMKR89W6"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/LY9XXHSK/items/MMKR89W6"],"itemData":{"id":89,"type":"article-journal","title":"Participatory Development Strategy: and Effect on Community in Punjab (A Case Study of Water Supply and Sanitation)","container-title":"Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies","page":"47","volume":"3","issue":"6","author":[{"family":"Anwar","given":"Haq Nawaz"},{"family":"Hayat","given":"Aamir"},{"family":"Janjua","given":"Irfan Mehmood"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2014"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Anwar, Hayat, and Janjua 2014).

Hypothesis will be made based on the research questions and there will be one null hypothesis and one active hypothesis. Both should be tested later in the research and conclusion will be drawn after testing the hypothesis.

The hypothesis for this research will be,

H1: Females clothing lead to sexual assaults on campuses.

H0: Females clothing do not lead to sexual assault on campus.

H2: Parting on campus increases the rate of sexual assaults.

H0: Parting on campus do not increases the rate of sexual assaults


A variable is defined as anything that has a quantity or quality that varies.

A variable is something that has a value that varies. It can be either dependent variable or independent variable. An independent variable is that variable which can be changed or controlled during the research while dependent variable is the one that is being measured and tested during the research. The can be viewed on the bases of cause and effect relationship. If the values of dependent variables are changes then the values of independent variables will change. When the results are being plotted then dependent variables will be on x-axis and independent will be on y-axis ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"C2T7nUGk","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Helmenstine 2018)","plainCitation":"(Helmenstine 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":3,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/EYvTgKtN/items/RVF24LYU"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/EYvTgKtN/items/RVF24LYU"],"itemData":{"id":3,"type":"article-journal","title":"What Is the Difference Between Independent and Dependent Variables?","author":[{"family":"Helmenstine","given":"Todd"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018",10,7]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Helmenstine 2018).

In this research the dependent variables are denoted by “x” and independent variables are denoted by “y”.

So the dependent variables are x1= clothing and x2 = Partying while independent variable, “y” is sexual assault.


I want to examine the relationship between clothing of female students and sexual assault on camps because I want to check out whether it is the appearance that matter or the mentality of the people. Secondly most rapes and other sexual assaults have been examined during parties so I want to know what the reasons behind it are. I will take help from published research papers to generate the best argument.

Survey on the research topic of Sexual assault on campus


You are requested to take part in this study about, sexual assault on campus. You were chosen for this survey because you are a very active student and currently enrolled with the university. Please go through this form carefully before taking part in this study.


The purpose of this study is to identify the reasons behind the increasing rate of sexual assaults on campus and to find out ways to overcome it. Participant in this survey are the students of the institutes. It will not take more than thirty minutes to complete this survey. The survey sheet will display questions related to the topic of sexual assaults on campus and you will be provided the details guidelines of how to answer. The question will address mental health, sexual experience, and events that bothered you on campus. You can skip questions if you are not comfortable of attempting those.

However, your response will be kept confidential and that is our responsibility to protect your information. We do not have access to any of your portal so your identity will not be discovered.

Your participation in this survey is highly valuable because it will help us to help us to reach the depth of this issue.

Who am I?

I am the student of this institute and am doing this research for a compulsory course.

If you have any concern regarding this survey you can reached to me in this email id,

[Your email id please].Please kindly click “I agree to be the part of this survey” to process further.

Demography and college history:

Please give the following details

Year of enrolment: Click here to enter a date.

Expected date of graduation: Click here to enter a date.

Have you been enrolled with another university or college?

No ☐Yes☒

Are you a

First year of your of your undergraduate program☐

Second year of your undergraduate program☐

Third year of your undergraduate program☐

Fourth year of your undergraduate program☐

Are you a graduate student?

Yes ☐ No ☐

What age range are u in?



Above 50☐

What is your gender?



3rd Gender☐

Are you an international student?

Yes ☐

No ☐

Please indicate the following with a tick if you have experienced any of them during you stay on campus or after you leave campus. Leave the box unchecked if you have not experienced any of them.

1. Have you experienced to hear offensive sexual stories on campus?

Yes☐ No ☐

2. Have you ever dragged to any sexual activity by a friend? If yes what could be the reasons?

Yes☐ No☐

3- If you are a female student, do you think your clothing leads to sexual assault on campus?

Yes☐ No☐

4- Have you ever experienced any unethical incident due to your dress up?

Yes ☐ No☐

5-Have you ever got any offers while parting around on campus?

Yes ☐ No☐

6- Do you think on campus parties are the cause of increasing sexual assaults?

If yes how?

Yes ☐ No☐

7-Have u ever got any inappropriate remarks about your body?

Yes ☐ No☐

8-Do you think covering yourself up will decrease the rate of sexual assault on campus?

Yes ☐ No☐

10- Some one ever made attempt to manipulate you for sexual work by offering you rewards?

17- I have been raped on campus party.

Strongly agree

moderately agree



Strongly disagree

18- I have been sexually cooperative due to my dressing.

19-I over drink on campus parties that leads to sexual assault

20-Women below the age of 35 become the victim of sexual assault very often

21- Do you think women with bold looks get effected very often?

22- Have u ever witnessed any sexual activity on campus?

23-Do you agree with the fact that girls become the victim of sexual assaults very often than boys?

24-Do you agree that victims of sexual assaults need to be supported and encouraged to report the incident?

Yes ☐ No☐

Answer in one line to the following question from 11-16.

11- What could be the possible cause of sexual assault on campus?

Click here to enter text.

12-How your behavior on campus welcome unethical responses?

Click here to enter text.

13-Have you ever been drunk and got involved in any sexual activity on campus parties?

Click here to enter text.

14- Have you ever been touched by someone during a class party?

Click here to enter text.

15- What could be the possible security steps taken against sexual assaults on campus?

Click here to enter text.

16 What sorts of people become the victims of sexual assaults?

Click here to enter text.

Please mark with number if you strongly agree, moderately agree, neutral. Disagrees or strongly disagree. 5 being the highest and One for the lowest that is strongly disagree

25- Policies of the institute need to be changed

26-Can you suggest any policy change that will decrease the rate of sexual assaults on campus?Click here to enter text.

27- What security measures should be taken against sexual assaults on campus?Click here to enter text.

28- Who you think are responsible for this increasing rate of sexual assault?Click here to enter text.

29- Do you think that on campus parties need to be safeguarded? Click here to enter text.

30- How to create healthy environment on campus?

Survey citation:

Question number 1, 2, 7, 28 along with the consent form is taken from General social survey and (Jennifer J, Rosenthal, & Smith 2014)

Rest of the question are done by me.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Anon. 2019a. “NAICU - Sexual Assault on Campus . Naicu.Edu.” April 8.

Anon. 2019b. “Non-Probability Sampling | Lærd Dissertation.” April 8.

Anon. 2019c. “Realities of Sexual Assault on Campus |.” April 8.

Anwar, Haq Nawaz, Aamir Hayat, and Irfan Mehmood Janjua. 2014. “Participatory Development Strategy: And Effect on Community in Punjab (A Case Study of Water Supply and Sanitation).” Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies 3(6):47.

Helmenstine, Todd. 2018. “What Is the Difference Between Independent and Dependent Variables?”

Smith, Tom W., Michael Davern, Jeremy Freese, and Michael Hout. General Social Surveys, 1972-2018: cumulative codebook / Principal Investigator, Tom W. Smith; Co-Principal Investigators, Michael Davern, Jeremy Freese and Stephen L. Morgan. – Chicago: NORC, 2019. 3,758 pp., 28cm. – (National Data Program for the Social Sciences Series, no. 25).

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 6 Words: 1800

Survey Research Design

Title page

Survey research


Student veterans must be considered as non-traditional students because they face extreme challenges having adverse impacts including physical disability and neurobehavioral issues. the present study aims at finding the factors that cause veterans to struggle at colleges and how their influence their performance and success. They encounter difficulties to adjust in the civilian life and undergo financial, physical and mental issues. Veteran students have undergone situations that are different from traditional students. Their services in the military affect their behavior and those who have undergone any physical or mental disability are unable to adjust to the colleges. They face difficulties to integrate back to the normal life (Ghosh and Fouad, 2016).

Survey design

The survey design involves quantitative research in which the researcher investigates the selected sample from the entire population for studying their attitudes, beliefs, assumptions and behaviors. The process of scientific research applies to all fields and subjects as research has become an essential part of all studies. The quantitative research uses the statistics and facts that lead to appropriate findings. The quantitative research incorporates the statistics and systematic measures to find results. The qualitative research does not rely on statistics and quantitative facts but uses an interview that does not need formal measurements CITATION Pau081 \l 1033 (Lavrakas, 2008).

Questionnaire survey

The researcher will conduct a questionnaire survey by targeting the veteran students at colleges. This survey relies on face-to-face interaction between the researcher and the participants. The respondents are asked to fill the survey and return to the researcher. Questionnaire surveys are appropriate when the researcher wants to obtain specific information from a general population. A written set of questions is presented to the participants that inquire information about the veteran's success at colleges. Questionnaires are convenient to handle because they include statements that can be understood by the respondents.

Instruments for quantitative research

The quantitative research relies on questionnaires that include a certain set of questions asked from the participants of the research. The purpose of designing a questionnaire is to analyze the responses of the participants. The present research chooses closed-ended questions in which options are provided to the respondents. The closed-ended questionnaire is convenient for the researcher because the participants have to choose the right option only. It offers many benefits to the researcher including time efficiency. The respondents take few minutes in filling the questionnaire. While in the open-ended questionnaire they have to think about the suitable statement. The students will be handed questionnaires directly and they will return to the researcher after filling those. In designing appropriate questionnaire an important step is to consider the length in mind.

Research questions

What factors have an impact on a veteran's academic success in college?

Sampling method

The purpose of sampling is to choose some people from the population under discussion for studying their views. Because it is impossible to investigate the entire population small sample size is selected. Keeping in view the nature of the research random sampling is selected. “Random sampling refers to a variety of selection techniques in which sample members are selected by chance, but with a known probability of selection. Most social science, business, and agricultural surveys rely on random sampling techniques for the selection of survey participants or sample units, where the sample units may be persons, establishments, land points, or other units for analysis” CITATION Pau081 \l 1033 (Lavrakas, 2008). Randomness in this technique refers to the probabilities of selection. Probability sampling is used when participants are selected randomly for the study. It is based on chance events including the number of participants. The researcher must not misrepresent the sampling method that will help him to identify the issue that requires more attention. It is a specific process that identifies the number of participants before the conduction of the survey.

Pilot study

A pilot study is a feasibility study that was conducted to evaluate the reliability of the questionnaire. The pilot study will inquire 15 veterans under the same criteria of the original research. The purpose was to identify the ambiguities and the questionnaire more understanding. Certain changes were made such as simplifying the terms, formatting and typographical errors. A pilot study is essential for modifying before conducting final research. This allows the researcher to identify the weaknesses of the developed questionnaire and address the flaws. This step allows the researcher to find if the questions are understandable to the participants CITATION Pau081 \l 1033 (Lavrakas, 2008).


The hypothesis is the prediction made by an idea, and these are falsifiable statements. The researcher can refute the hypothesis that depends on the results and analysis. The hypothesis that is not falsifiable reflects the inappropriate construction of the hypotheses. Two types of hypothesis the researcher employ involve null and alternative hypothesis. Under the null hypothesis, the researcher states that there is no difference between the groups that are being studied. If study participants are not in the research, the null hypothesis fails to build a relationship between the variables.

The main difference between the null and alternative hypothesis is that of difference. The alternate hypothesis also focuses on the difference between two variables and null hypothesis represents no difference between the variable. The null hypothesis states that no difference exists between the two groups while the alternative hypothesis states the difference between the two groups. The number of null hypotheses can be more than one, and that depends on the research study. The two possible responses of a null hypothesis are the acceptance or rejection by research findings. The acceptance of the null hypothesis states that the variables present no difference and the rejection of the null hypothesis states that there is a difference between variables. Hypotheses developed for the present research are as follows;

Veteran students who served in military face difficulties to adjust in college.

Veteran students having college experience are more likely to complete higher education.

Veteran students having disability struggles more at college.

Veteran students who lack assistance and support struggle more at college.


Another crucial step in research design is the identification of the variables. Five variables are selected in the present study that includes; service in US military (SM), the source of income (SOI), college experience (CE), disability related to military service (DM) and factors that make it hard or easy to integrate back to society after the military (FIS).

The indicators for measuring service in the military (SM) include; the army, air force, coast guard, marines or navy. The affiliation with any such field will explain that the veterans have served in the US military. The indicators for measuring the source of income (SOI) include; have a job ready, savings, unemployment benefits or GI bill benefits. These indicators will explain how veterans at colleges are covering their financial expenses. The indicators used for estimating college experience (CE) are; some, yes or completed college. This will explain if the veterans are having college experience or not. The indicators for assessing disability related to the military (DM) are; yes, do they have access to physical and mental health care, do they utilize disability resource centres or do they connect with the veterans resource centre. These indicators will be used for determining the current status of disability and the aid received by such veterans. Factors that make it hard or easy to integrate back to society after the military (FIS) is measured by indicators; military prepare them before getting out, no family support, nowhere to go after the military, no source of income after the military, no mental and physical health access. These indicators are used for assessing if veterans manage to integrate back to society after military service or not.


There is no single theory that could identify the factors impacting the success of veteran students at colleges. Although a college education is important for a successful career and stable future but veterans experience complexities due to the nature of their work that limits educational opportunities for them. Social Science Theory “predicts and controls action through an if-then logic; explains how and/or why something happens by explaining its causes; and it provides insights and guidance for improving social life” (Saldana, 2013). This theory stresses on explaining the connection between abstract concepts. The causes will be determined for identifying the factors that impact the performance of veterans at the colleges.

Grounded theory is used for will be used for anticipating the factors that influence the success of veterans at the colleges. “Grounded theory seeks to not only uncover relevant conditions but also to determine how the actors respond to changing conditions and the consequences of their actions” (Corbin and Strauss, 1990). The observation of the actors helps in finding the factors that undermine the performance of veteran students. This is useful for developing an abstract understanding of the veterans. Quantitative research stresses on conceptual framework used for establishing inductive data. Grounded theory offers a theoretical framework for finding what factors contribute to the overall development of veteran students that allow them to integrate back to normal lives. The theory is a practical method used for identifying ways of assisting veteran students in academic lives (Reyes et al., 2014). This is also effective for building resilience among veteran students.

The sense of Belonging stresses on providing assistance and support to the veteran students for integrating into colleges. It suggests that the veteran undergo hard times that undermine their ability to return to normal lives. It stresses on integrating development strategies that provide them opportunities for reconciliation. It states that students receiving adequate financial and emotional support are more likely to become normal that contributes to college success. The sense of belonging has a positive correlation with academic performance that increases the probability of veterans success at colleges. The GI Bill also was known as the Post-9/11 Veterans Educational Assistance Act 2008 approved the provision of a significant increase in educational benefits for the veteran students. The bill is designed for covering the higher education benefits of the veterans and offers the opportunity for vocational training CITATION Geo05 \l 1033 (Marczyk, DeMatteo, & Festinger, 2005). Research studies indicate that colleges must focus on building a sense of belonging among veteran students because it has a significant impact of elevated levels of motivation and provides the opportunity for reconciliation. The sense of belonging promote positive feelings such as increased attention and learning attitudes CITATION Kat181 \l 1033 (Starnes, 2018).

Data analysis

Statistical software SPSS will be used for analyzing the data obtained through a questionnaire survey. T-test will be computed for comparing the means of dependent variables. The dependent variable will be estimated on a continuous scale while the independent variable will include categorical groups. Descriptive statistics will be computed through SPSS that will explain the basic features of the data. This will be used for summarizing data in organized formal in charts and tables. ANOVA will be computed in the software for comparing means of independent variables. It will explain if the means are significantly similar or dissimilar.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Alias, Z., Zawawi, E., Yusof, K., & Aris, N. (2014). Determining Critical Success Factors of Project Management Practice: A conceptual framework. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 153, 61 – 69.

Ahern, J., Worthen, M., Masters, J., Lippman, S.A., Ozer, E.J. and Moos, R., 2015. The challenges of Afghanistan and Iraq veterans’ transition from military to civilian life and approaches to reconnection. PloS one, 10(7), p.e0128599.

De La Garza, T., Wood, J.L. and Harris III, F., 2015. An exploratory assessment of the validity of the Community College Survey of Men (CCSM): Implications for serving veteran men. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 39(3), pp.293-298.

Ghosh, A. and Fouad, N.A., 2016. Career transitions of student veterans. Journal of Career Assessment, 24(1), pp.99-111.

Lavrakas, P. J. (2008). Random Sampling. Encyclopedia of Survey Research Methods.

Marczyk, G., DeMatteo, D., & Festinger, D. (2005). Essentials of Research Design and Methodology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Perkins, D.F., Aronson, K.R., Morgan, N.R., Bleser, J.A., Vogt, D., Copeland, L.A., Finley, E.P. and Gilman, C., 2019. Veterans’ Use of Programs and Services as They Transition to Civilian Life: Baseline Assessment for the Veteran Metrics Initiative. Journal of Social Service Research, pp.1-15.

Reyes, A.T., Kearney, C.A., Isla, K. and Bryant, R., 2018. Student veterans’ construction and enactment of resilience: A constructivist grounded theory study. Journal of psychiatric and mental health nursing, 25(1), pp.37-48.

Starnes, K. B. (2018). At Ease: Developing Veterans’ Sense of Belonging in the College Classroom. Journal of Veterans Studies, 3 (1).

Simmer, C. and Harmening, D.S., 2015. Exploring Significant Factors that Impact the Academic Success of Student Veterans in Higher Education. Journal of Higher Education Theory & Practice, 15(7).

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 6 Words: 1800

Survey Your Friends


The survey participants were asked the question “If you knew you were dying, what five regrets would you have about your life, about the way you’ve lived your life?” The participants included three males and two females.



Ethnicity/ race

Respondent 1




Respondent 2




Respondent 3




Respondent 4



Non-white Hispanic

Respondent 5




Respondent 1 was a female, was 21 a Caucasian having an age of 21 years. The respondent stated that her five regrets include; her inability of enjoying life to the fullest, I wouldn’t have lived to fulfill other’s expectations, unnecessary worry for future, giving more time to work and overthinking. She mentioned I failed to live a happy life due to my attempts of making others happy. If I knew I had little time to live, I wouldn't worry about the future and get rid of my overthinking.

Respondent 2 was an African-American female of 21 years. She expressed her five regrets as; I could be happier, I could work hard, anti-social life, I wish I had worried less and forgiven more. She expressed that I could have been happier if I had a better social life, but I failed to do that because I was unable to forgive people for little things.

Respondent 3 was an African-American male having an age of 20 years. He identified his most important regrets as; I wish I had lived my life, I cared less about people who made me feel bad, I had worried less and lived happily. He mentioned I always bothered people who annoyed me and it made me feel bad. I would have lived a better and happy life if I learned to forgo things.

Respondent 4 was a non-white Hispanic male of 22 years who stated that his regrets include; I wish I had faced my fears, I didn't spend time on wrong things, I could be happier, I could have worried less, and I had been honest. He expressed, I was weak to face fears, and if only I learned to deal with that I would be happier.

Respondent 5 was a 21 years old Caucasian male identified his regrets as; I wish I would have worked less, enjoyed more, stayed honest with others, I would be more friendly and lived happily.

The results of the respondents depict that everyone wished they could have lived a happy life if they knew they had to die. They would worry less about things and give more time to the enjoyment. This show that the art of happiness lies in dealing with the problems and sufferings of the world. People have some goals in life, and when they fail to achieve them, they become unhappy (Burnett 2018). Overthinking and worries discourage happiness, joy and restrain people from living life with its full potential. The results suggest that ethnicity/ race does not influence the thoughts of respondents because everyone wished to live more happily. McMahon states, “the pursuit of human happiness, it would seem, has been with us from the start” (McMahon 2006: 2).

My regrets before dying are; I wish I had worried less, loved people more, worked less, faced fears and lived happily. Bok mentioned that happiness is linked to life’s satisfaction (Bok 2010). I think we lack the art of attaining happiness because we associate it with our goals or things (Davis 2017). When we fail to deal with the problems or sufferings, we become worried and unhappy (White 2017). If I knew I had to die, I would work less and give more time to things that made me feel better (Lama 1998).


BIBLIOGRAPHY Burnett, D. 2018. The true secret of happiness? Accepting that there isn't one. Retrieved 02 03, 2019, from https://www.theguardian.com/science/brain-flapping/2018/may/03/the-true-secret-of-happiness-accepting-that-there-isnt-one

Bok, D. 2010. The Politics of Happiness: What Government Can Learn from the New Research on Well-Being. Princeton University Press.

Davis, T. 2017. What Makes You Happy in Life? (And How to Do It) . Retrieved 02 03, 2019, from https://www.berkeleywellbeing.com/what-makes-you-happy.html

Degges-White, S. 2017. The Secret to Happiness. Retrieved 02 03, 2019, from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/lifetime-connections/201703/the-secret-happiness

Lama, D. 1998. The Art of Happiness. Hachette.

McMahon, D. 2006. Happiness: A History. NY: Atlantic Monthly Press.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Team Dynamics

Team Dynamics

[Name of the Student:]

[Name of the Institution:]

Team Dynamics

1. Team dynamics are the psychological factors that influence the team members as to how they respond to particular situations and what will be the level of their motivation and performance. Team dynamics can be positive or negative given the characteristics and training of a particular team. A successful team leader adopts an approach for coaching and directing the team members, which aligns with his team dynamics. The basic elements contributing to effective team dynamics are commitment of all the team members, their contributions that will sum up to make one whole output, effective communication between team members, and collaboration between the tasks.

The team leader should find the clue of lack in their spirit, and motivate them with broader objectives of work. The team leader should make them realize that the loss of a team is loss every member. He/she does not have to alter the way of thinking of the team members altogether. The only concern of the team leader's job is to shift the focus of the team’s psychological forces/processes from their personal or interpersonal problems to the common issues confronted by the team on the whole.

2. Team dynamics have a direct correlation with performance and productiveness of the team. A team with positive dynamics will consist of team members who trust each other and strive for collective goals. They will support one another in fulfilling their tasks, and they will consider themselves to be accountable for any failures. Further, good team dynamics will influence the team members to have a positive attitude and work constructively. They will mend themselves as well as correct the mistakes of others with a team spirit. Good team dynamics ensure efficient communication between the team members, which is essential to finding out any flaws or imperfections in work.

With a team having negative dynamics, the team leader faces great difficulty. Such a team seems to be like an untamed horse, and all team members look like deviated from their designated paths. They will blame one another for mistakes and failures. Most of the team members will give gloomy impressions. The teamwork is prone to imperfections caused by lack of communication. The loss of one worker of a team would become a loss of all other workers.

3. I had a situation in my prior college when I was on a research work in a team. We had to conduct the study and present our findings in the class. The tasks had been divided between the team members, and every one of us had to complete the individually assigned work. As we finished the teamwork and submitted our works, we found that one of our team members had not finished the task. That team member did not communicate with anyone of the peers about the problems confronting in accomplishing the assigned task.

The effect of that team member on the teamwork was negative and caused other team members to endure for which they had not been responsible. Our team could not secure the grade that we had been expecting from our effort. The reason behind was only one person’s carelessness; it did not matter how much all other team members contributed to the project. The team suffered at the end due to non-submission of that person’s work. Our team failed to exhibit a successful teamwork due to one person's irresponsibility and lack of communication with other team members.

4. The situation that our team faced in my prior college would have not occurred if we had worked on improving the team dynamics. We should have made it clear that all our team members were having good communication with one another. We should have worked with a sense of collaboration, asking each other if anyone had problem with the assigned task. This was due on our part to avoid the consequences we faced at the end. However, that person who caused all the trouble to the team must have enough courage, openness, and communication that could urge him/her to inform the team of the problems in time.

As a good team leader, I would have understood the team dynamics, effectively communicate instructions, and tried to resolve any conflicts between the team members. It is the most important job of a team leader to understand fully and respond immediately to the team dynamics. If team dynamics are overlooked by the team leader, he/she cannot guarantee an efficient and productive teamwork even if other job responsibilities are accomplished sufficiently.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Team Dynamics Summary

Team Dynamics Summary

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Team Dynamics Summary

Team dynamics are very important for any organization because they can have a strong impact on how a team behaves or performs their tasks. It affects the whole team, and sometimes the effects of team dynamics can complex. The factors that contribute to team dynamics include cohesion, communication, stability, team size, identity, and role. Team cohesion is an important factor and has a huge impact on team dynamics. It shows how team members are connected to each other. Communication is one of the most important factors and has a huge effect on team dynamics. It is important for the team to develop an effective method of communication because effective communication impacts a lot on the whole team and help them achieve their goal (Bright Hub PM, 2010).

The stability among members of a team also influences the performance of the team. It is also important to evaluate the team size because it helps to create a team which will maximize productivity. However, team size must be stable and should not increase a certain level which was defined by the manager at the start of the project. An organization must identify the roles of the team members because different members have different skills and they should be given roles according to their skills otherwise it will affect the performance of the whole team (Bright Hub PM, 2010).

Team dynamics can affect the productivity and effectiveness of the whole team. It is important to create team dynamics which are both in favor of team members and organization. To create a team effectively and increase its productivity, members should be given proper direction from their manager on the project they are working. A good manager will provide the complete instructions of the project to the team members before they start working on it to achieve their goal. It is essential to ensure the individual member accountability in a team to increase the effectiveness and productivity of the team. If the role of each member is not defined in a project, it affects the productivity and effectiveness of a team badly.

Team dynamics are very important for creating a team which will produce effective results. I will apply all these factors in team dynamics to increase the profitability of an organization. As a manager, I want to create a team which will be productive and effective. So to create a team which will be productive, I have first to analyze the credibility of members and then will assign the roles according to the credibility of the individuals. Team dynamics not only increase the performance of the individual but also the whole team. So it is important to create team dynamics which are effective.


Seven Factors of Successful Teams: The Keys to Ensure High Team Performance. (2010). Bright Hub PM. Retrieved From https://www.brighthubpm.com/monitoring-projects/62415-seven-factors-of-effective-team-performance/

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Team Dynamics Summary

Team Dynamics

Institutional Affiliation

Student Name




Team Dynamics

Team dynamics are psychological forces which influence the behavior and performance of the team. There are various factors which contribute to team dynamics. One of them is the commitment of the group members. This is the measure of how each member contributes towards completing a certain task. We also have better communication which also determines how members work together. Better communication enhances exchange of ideas and even support in ensuring the team meets its goal (Collins et al 2019). Another factor is cooperation, whereby team members are expected to collaborate in achieving certain goals. Conflict management also helps in enhancing team cohesion, which in turn improves the positive dynamics of the team.

A team which has positive group dynamics tends to have members who trust each other. This makes it possible to for them to work towards collective decisions and at the same time they become accountable for each and every outcome. This helps in making the group more effective, since each member tries as much as he/she can to impact the team in a positive way. Having people who tend to support each other in attaining specified goals highly enhances the effectiveness of the team. Positive dynamics also encourages creativity since members tend to exchange a lot of ideas in achieving belter outcomes. This in turn increases the productivity of the team (Collins et al 2019).

There are various ways in which I can apply the concept of team dynamics in my professional life. This is through encouraging members within the organization to work together, support each other and also have common goals for better outcomes. This is very important especially when working on complex projects. Having a supporting team makes every task easier, since the whole thing is broken down into portions where different people are expected to work on each portion. In general, I would apply the knowledge when working with other workers, to ensure that various tasks are well handled within the shortest time possible. Enhancing positive team dynamics is very important even when it comes to making various tasks more effective. It also enhances improved outcomes.


Collins, C. G., Kozlowski, S. W., Luciano, M. M., & O'Neill, T. A. (2019, July). Explorations of Team Dynamics: Advances in Theory and Methodology. In Academy of Management Proceedings (Vol. 2019, No. 1, p. 15775). Briarcliff Manor, NY 10510: Academy of Management.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Team Proposal

Team Proposal

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Team proposal

The team which is going to be proposed will be for the Red Lobster which is a restaurant company. Red Lobster is hosting an event for which they require a team which can work together and pull off this fantastic event. We are all from different departments of the company, and we are going to work together to make this event successful. The goals of our group will be to work as a team, communicate with each other, time management and meeting the deadlines before the event. We are going to be a group of 6 people, and we will manage all the work equally. The goal of our team will be to make this event successful for the company by effectively communicate with each other to resolve each other's issues and know each other's point of view.

Every member of a team is responsible for the management of this event, so we will work towards a common goal by collaborating and making effective teamwork. The person who we selected as our leader has great leadership skills. A leader is the one who is responsible for all the outcomes of the company. A quality of a good leader is to communicate with team members and help them whenever they require help from them. We selected a leader who has experience in event management and can help the members of the team who would not have knowledge of event management.

The characteristics we look in the team members while selecting them for our team where they should be supportive, they should be flexible in the situations, they show genuine commitment, and they should be reliable and always ready to help each other. Each member is given different roles to perform in this event. From the team of 6 members, there is one leader of the team, and two persons will be the acting as a host, the remaining others will be managing the event operations.

There are four methods for enhancing group cohesion. The first method is to make a team of similar interest, the second method will be they able to communicate with each other effectively, the third method will be to develop trust with each other in a team and the last method will be to represent creative ideas which will help in the overall growth of the group. We selected team members because they were having all the characteristics of working in a group.

We build a team who are mature enough to avoid conflicts and act like a mature person. The team members in our team are compromising and collaborative. They know how to accommodate each other during a conflict. In every team leader is responsible for the problem solving, but team members are also responsible for the outcomes of the organization. Our team will first define a problem, and then they will look at the potential causes for the problem, identify alternatives to solve the problem, select an approach to resolve problems and plan how they will implement their plan.

We will create an agenda on which the whole team will work in our first meeting. In the agenda, we will describe about the roles of each team members in details and collaborate with them. We will discuss how the outcomes of this event will affect each team member and how we can make this event successful. Every team member will be given a chance to describe their opinion, and in the end, a leader will select the best option which will help the group to achieve a common goal.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Technology And Social Change

Technology and Social Change

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Technology and Social Change


Technology is playing a vital role in shaping our present way of life. It has become an essential need from years and helping a lot in so many ways in our daily life. Technology has brought a huge revolution in the daily life of people by allowing them to do more in less effort. It has become difficult to find out the importance which technology has brought in the daily life of people, and without any doubt, it has a huge impact on society. Technology has made advancements in the community and provided tremendous opportunities to people. It has played a significant role in almost every field of life. Technology has brought new ideas and brought many changes in the society. It has brought a revolutionary change by providing new means of communication to interact with people (Rasmussen, 2018). Technology has brought many positive changes as well as many negative changes in the society, and it’s been a huge concern for society that which steps are required to deal with the negative changes in future.


Technology has played a vital role in bringing different ways of communication and affected social interaction among people. With the help of social media, people can interact with each other from anywhere in the world. Social media enables users to create a community and connect with people from different countries (Rasmussen, 2018). It helps in building a relationship with people and engaging with them by sharing pictures and videos. Social media websites and applications are not only used for interacting with people but also used for finding jobs. Many websites are providing an opportunity for users to find a job according to their field. Social media has provided many benefits to the individuals as well as society.

Social media websites like Facebook, Instagram and Twitter, are also providing a platform for marketing and advertising of products and services. They are also allowing many people to sell their products. Many companies are doing online business on social media websites and earning a lot from them (Lange et al., 2016). Social media websites are best for doing business for individuals who need a platform for a startup. They allow entrepreneurs to market their brand and attract with customers. Employers can also use social media websites to engage with their employees.

Social media allows employers to make job advertisements and publicize job openings. It helps employers to verify the background profiles of the employees. Social media allow employers for sharing events and values of the company with their employees and customers (Lange et al., 2016). These websites are also allowing many individuals to earn from them. YouTube is one of the great sources of income for many vloggers and tutors. However, Social Media websites have brought many conflicts in society as well.

Many relationships are affected because of social media. The divorced rate has increased because of social media. People also share fake information on social media sites and cheat people. There are many companies who are sharing fake information about them just to increase their market value. Social media platforms have opened doors for hackers who can easily access sensitive information of an individual as well as organizations. Many people waste a lot of time on social media which affect their work. One of the biggest disadvantages of social media is that it has affected the lives of youth badly. Youth spend a lot of time on social media websites which are affecting their studies and their mental health.

Technology has also completely changed the workplace. Machinery has replaced humans and has made it easy for organizations to use machines for their work instead of paying heavily to labor. Technology has removed a lot of barriers which the organization faced such as communication barriers, task-performing barriers, management barriers, outsourcing barriers. Software and various applications have made it easy for organizations to remain focus on their goals (Arthanat et al., 2016). Technology has changed the way people were used to communicating in the workplace. The arrival of smartphones, chat applications and social media websites has brought communication to a new level. Companies can interact with their employees with the help of emails and applications like Skype, Whatsapp, LinkedIn, etc. They can engage with their colleagues from anywhere at any time.

Technology has helped a lot in keeping the business more organized. Many software are helping the organization in the development of product and its maintenance. Softwares are also allowing an organization to test the performance of their products and maintain the quality of the product. Technology has helped managers in supervising workplace activities. It has fixed the important problems which many companies face such as accountability, efficiency and timed delivery of tasks assigned to people. There are many software's in the market who help in boosting the efficiency of the product. Technology has helped a lot in improving the quality and quantity of the work.

Technology has provided a lot of benefits to the organizations but also has created many problems for them. There are a lot of threats to an organization because of technology. Hackers can get access to the company's confidential data and make use of that data for wrong purposes. Technology has increased the risk of security breaches for organizations. It has also brought problems for an organization such as negative feedbacks can destroy a company's reputation (Agnihotri et al., 2016). A company required a high number of resources their social media presence and responding to the customers on time. Technology has also made problems for labour as machines are taking human place, so companies are firing labour because they are getting the work done with lesser payment from machines.

Technology has also created communication gaps between families. Youth is not able to give time to their parents as they spend more time using cell phones, laptops, etc. It has become a huge concern for parents that how they can communicate with their children. Youth also waste a lot of time playing games on gaming consoles or watching movies on Television which badly affect their studies and their mental health (Kardefelt, 2017). There have been seen a negative effect on children as well. The biggest problem technology has brought for children is that they don't do any physical activity and waste their whole day sitting in front of consoles, laptops, televisions, etc.


Technology has provided many advantages to society as well as disadvantages. However, the future is all about technology, and it will take the place of humans in future. Technology has already brought a revolutionary change in society. It has completely changed the workplace and social interaction. Technology may have caused many problems, but it has provided a lot of benefits. It all depends on the individual how they use technology because technology has become an essential need for everyone and in this current era without technology, it is very difficult to survive. Future of technology is for dreamers who hope to give more innovative ideas on how they can improve the technology in future. However, there must be some limitations on the usage of technology to avoid any future threats which currently world is facing.


Agnihotri, R., Dingus, R., Hu, M. Y., & Krush, M. T. (2016). Social media: Influencing customer satisfaction in B2B sales. Industrial Marketing Management, 53, 172-180.

Arthanat, S., Lesner, K., & Sundar, V. (2016). An evaluation framework to measure usability of Assistive Technology at workplace: A demonstration study. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 44(2), 213-226.

Kardefelt-Winther, D. (2017). How does the time children spend using digital technology impact their mental well-being, social relationships and physical activity? An evidence-focused literature review. Innocenti Discussion Paper 2017-02. Florence, Italy: UNICEF Office of Research-Innocenti.

Lange, D. B., Yang, H. C., Zhang, X., Wheeler, G. A., Joyce, J. J., Moore, D. M., & Pandit, B. (2016). U.S. Patent No. 9,294,576. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Rasmussen, T. (2018). Social theory and communication technology. Routledge.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

Technology: Beneficial Or Harmful To Our Society

Technology: Beneficial or Harmful to our Society


[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Technology: Beneficial or Harmful to our Society

In the development of societies, technology plays a crucial role because societies and countries are dependent on multiple disciplines of life. Deciding on technology as beneficial or harmful to our society is a hot topic, and this paper will be discussing this subject by providing different arguments for both. Advancements in technology are beneficial and harmful to our society.

The world has become more globalized and most people’s lives have become dependent on technological use in the present era. Technology has made a positive impact on our society in a way that has helped to make better relations with other people around the globe ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"nPmPzyHf","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Bosamia, 2013)","plainCitation":"(Bosamia, 2013)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1850,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/F0XOCTdk/items/P2WYZADE"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/F0XOCTdk/items/P2WYZADE"],"itemData":{"id":1850,"type":"paper-conference","title":"Positive and Negative Impacts of Information and Communication Technology in our Everyday Life","source":"ResearchGate","abstract":"In today's interrelated world, information and communication technology (ICT) is extensively used by our country and it affects our lives everyday. In the current digital age everyday new technology comes as ICT riot. These new technologies have been accessible by people in their everyday life and increase their living standards. Now days, many ICT gadgets are used in our life and they facilitate with mobility thus used anywhere and anytime. These gadgets operate for Information, Speed, and Communication and reduce the physical and mental human work load. By that principles, modern day gadgets truly helped mankind in daily life. ICT has contributed a lot to change our everyday life such as letter to e-mail, market shopping to on-line shopping, classroom learning to e-learning, etc. This paper present's the effects of ICT as Home and Domestic Activities, Social Networking, Education, Health, Commerce, Banking, and Employment. Based on this review, positive and negative impacts to use ICT in our day to day life are discussed.","author":[{"family":"Bosamia","given":"Mansi"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2013",12,28]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Bosamia, 2013). Moreover, technology has helped us to develop better communication with our family members, for example, mobile phones have made it easier to be connected with our family members who are far away from us. Due to our busy routines, we interact with our family members, very rarely. In such case, advanced technological tools including mobile phones and laptops help us to talk to our family members online ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Tcz5Nn73","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Olimat, 2013)","plainCitation":"(Olimat, 2013)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1849,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/F0XOCTdk/items/S4YFU7FX"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/F0XOCTdk/items/S4YFU7FX"],"itemData":{"id":1849,"type":"article-journal","title":"Positive and negative impact of technology and information revolution on compiling the dictionary","container-title":"American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal","page":"205","volume":"5","issue":"3 special issue","author":[{"family":"Olimat","given":"Sameer Naser"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2013"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Olimat, 2013). Whereas, within technological development, the internet is a major development as this makes a huge impact on our society. Our society has become more connected to the other parts of globe and this technology, particularly social media platforms have enhanced communication and cultural exchanges.

Technology is helping different societies to improve educational patterns. E-learning has become a trend, which is a result of advanced technology ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"PfP0yR7w","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Van Laar et al., 2017)","plainCitation":"(Van Laar et al., 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1857,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/F0XOCTdk/items/2B8TIZV9"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/F0XOCTdk/items/2B8TIZV9"],"itemData":{"id":1857,"type":"article-journal","title":"The relation between 21st-century skills and digital skills: A systematic literature review","container-title":"Computers in human behavior","page":"577-588","volume":"72","author":[{"family":"Van Laar","given":"Ester"},{"family":"Van Deursen","given":"Alexander JAM"},{"family":"Van Dijk","given":"Jan AGM"},{"family":"De Haan","given":"Jos"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Van Laar et al., 2017). This is the learning process with the help of electronic technology, and includes computer learning. E-learning has become one of the effective learning methodologies where learners are provided with multiple options with resources. In the education development of societies, technology contributes positively as it provides many opportunities for learning tools and resources to the members of society, whether they are infants or adults ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"bfspidaw","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Van Laar et al., 2017)","plainCitation":"(Van Laar et al., 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1857,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/F0XOCTdk/items/2B8TIZV9"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/F0XOCTdk/items/2B8TIZV9"],"itemData":{"id":1857,"type":"article-journal","title":"The relation between 21st-century skills and digital skills: A systematic literature review","container-title":"Computers in human behavior","page":"577-588","volume":"72","author":[{"family":"Van Laar","given":"Ester"},{"family":"Van Deursen","given":"Alexander JAM"},{"family":"Van Dijk","given":"Jan AGM"},{"family":"De Haan","given":"Jos"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Van Laar et al., 2017). Enhanced and developed education system helps societies to overcome socio-economic and political issues. Technology allows students to be more aware about the different sectors of life, as a result, students or learners become able to understand societal issues ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Tcz5Nn73","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Olimat, 2013)","plainCitation":"(Olimat, 2013)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1849,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/F0XOCTdk/items/S4YFU7FX"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/F0XOCTdk/items/S4YFU7FX"],"itemData":{"id":1849,"type":"article-journal","title":"Positive and negative impact of technology and information revolution on compiling the dictionary","container-title":"American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal","page":"205","volume":"5","issue":"3 special issue","author":[{"family":"Olimat","given":"Sameer Naser"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2013"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Olimat, 2013).

However, each development in the society is not meant to be beneficial, it can be harmful as well. Technology has become harmful to society in a way that, it has made negative impacts on the health of people. People using technology have become limited only to these devices and media platforms and stopped physical activities. Physical activities including exercise and walking are important for a healthy lifestyle, as these boost body metabolism ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"RX5cFIdK","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Warburton & Bredin, 2016)","plainCitation":"(Warburton & Bredin, 2016)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1856,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/F0XOCTdk/items/GMQQGNFH"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/F0XOCTdk/items/GMQQGNFH"],"itemData":{"id":1856,"type":"article-journal","title":"Reflections on physical activity and health: what should we recommend?","container-title":"Canadian Journal of Cardiology","page":"495-504","volume":"32","issue":"4","author":[{"family":"Warburton","given":"Darren ER"},{"family":"Bredin","given":"Shannon SD"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Warburton & Bredin, 2016). Technology has caused major health issues including skin diseases, psychological disorders, and eyesight issues. Excessive use of screens is harmful, and it may result in the disorders of body mechanisms including cardiovascular diseases ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Tcz5Nn73","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Olimat, 2013)","plainCitation":"(Olimat, 2013)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1849,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/F0XOCTdk/items/S4YFU7FX"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/F0XOCTdk/items/S4YFU7FX"],"itemData":{"id":1849,"type":"article-journal","title":"Positive and negative impact of technology and information revolution on compiling the dictionary","container-title":"American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal","page":"205","volume":"5","issue":"3 special issue","author":[{"family":"Olimat","given":"Sameer Naser"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2013"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Olimat, 2013). Lack of physical activities is a source that promotes such diseases, and technology is one of the factors involved in the lack of physical activity. Hence, it is important to make shifts in our preferences over excessive use of technology to physical activities.

To conclude, it is important to understand both aspects of technology as beneficial as well as harmful. Societies have developed with the help of advancements in technology and this is a positive aspect, moreover, this has helped individuals to communicate with their family members and other people as well ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"AqVkJmaL","properties":{"unsorted":true,"formattedCitation":"(Naikoo et al., 2018)","plainCitation":"(Naikoo et al., 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1853,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/F0XOCTdk/items/VB3Z6XRC"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/F0XOCTdk/items/VB3Z6XRC"],"itemData":{"id":1853,"type":"article-journal","title":"Development of Society under the Modern Technology - A Review","container-title":"scholedge international journal of business policy and governance","page":"1-8","volume":"5","source":"ResearchGate","abstract":"The main objective of the present study is to know the relationship between society and technology, where emphasize have been put on development process under modern science and technology and its perspectives. Technology has completely revolutionized present era in every aspect of life especially dealing with society. Technology has transformed the methods of education, communication, business, art and literature, and has resulted in the enhancement in the core spheres of life, before this blessed gift the knowledge regarding the above mentioned spheres was limited because of the restricted methods and methodologies etc. Due to blessings of science and technology we are now able to check the advancement of every department working around our society with a single click of internet. It is technology which helps us to differentiate about the development process of all sections of society and help us to maintain the development process. Technology has brought our society close to each other where we can take any initiative about any social issue or discuss any matter of concern regarding the society by sitting in our homes like using video or audio conferencing. This paper will elucidate all over development process of our society under the shades of science and technology.","DOI":"10.19085/journal.sijbpg050101","journalAbbreviation":"scholedge international journal of business policy and governance","author":[{"family":"Naikoo","given":"Aasif"},{"family":"thakur","given":"shashank"},{"family":"Guroo","given":"Tariq"},{"family":"Altaf","given":"Aadil"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018",4,20]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Naikoo et al., 2018). At the same time, it is important to understand technology as a harmful source that has made huge impacts on our health causing cardiovascular diseases, psychological disorders, and skin diseases. To avoid harmful impacts caused by technology it is important to change our choices and give priority to our physical activities.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Bosamia, M. (2013, December 28). Positive and Negative Impacts of Information and Communication Technology in our Everyday Life.

Naikoo, A., thakur, shashank, Guroo, T., & Altaf, A. (2018). Development of Society under the Modern Technology - A Review. Scholedge International Journal of Business Policy and Governance, 5, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.19085/journal.sijbpg050101

Olimat, S. N. (2013). Positive and negative impact of technology and information revolution on compiling the dictionary. American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal, 5(3 special issue), 205.

Van Laar, E., Van Deursen, A. J., Van Dijk, J. A., & De Haan, J. (2017). The relation between 21st-century skills and digital skills: A systematic literature review. Computers in Human Behavior, 72, 577–588.

Warburton, D. E., & Bredin, S. S. (2016). Reflections on physical activity and health: what should we recommend? Canadian Journal of Cardiology, 32(4), 495–504.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Teens Who Spend More Time On Social Media Suffer From Depression And Anxiety

Your Name

Instructor Name

Course Number


Effect of Social Media on Teens

Social media has taken hold of our lives by becoming an essential component of our daily routines which governs most of our actions ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"7Q592XSU","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Amedie)","plainCitation":"(Amedie)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":428,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/CKNkWnK9/items/PDJZE4YZ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/CKNkWnK9/items/PDJZE4YZ"],"itemData":{"id":428,"type":"article-journal","title":"The Impact of Social Media on Society","container-title":"Advanced Writing: Pop Culture Intersections","URL":"https://scholarcommons.scu.edu/engl_176/2","author":[{"family":"Amedie","given":"Jacob"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015",9,3]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Amedie). Studies have reported that this excessive domination of social media in our daily lives has contributed to the prevalence of mental health issues in the population. Evidence suggests that teens who spend an excessive portion of their day on social media such as Facebook, YouTube and Instagram, etc. are reported to have an elevated ratio of depression and anxiety i.e. thirteen to sixty six percent as compared to those who do not spend much time on a social media ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"ZyI7u1Eh","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Keles et al.)","plainCitation":"(Keles et al.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":425,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/CKNkWnK9/items/8S5ND9CL"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/CKNkWnK9/items/8S5ND9CL"],"itemData":{"id":425,"type":"article-journal","title":"A systematic review: the influence of social media on depression, anxiety and psychological distress in adolescents","container-title":"International Journal of Adolescence and Youth","page":"1-15","volume":"0","issue":"0","source":"Taylor and Francis+NEJM","abstract":"While becoming inextricable to our daily lives, online social media are blamed for increasing mental health problems in younger people. This systematic review synthesized evidence on the influence of social media use on depression, anxiety and psychological distress in adolescents. A search of PsycINFO, Medline, Embase, CINAHL and SSCI databases reaped 13 eligible studies, of which 12 were cross-sectional. Findings were classified into four domains of social media: time spent, activity, investment and addiction. All domains correlated with depression, anxiety and psychological distress. However, there are considerable caveats due to methodological limitations of cross-sectional design, sampling and measures. Mechanisms of the putative effects of social media on mental health should be explored further through qualitative enquiry and longitudinal cohort studies.","DOI":"10.1080/02673843.2019.1590851","ISSN":"0267-3843","title-short":"A systematic review","author":[{"family":"Keles","given":"Betul"},{"family":"McCrae","given":"Niall"},{"family":"Grealish","given":"Annmarie"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019",3,21]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Keles et al.).This paper will explore the possible reasons why excessive social media use promotes the incidence of depression and anxiety in teens.

Social media has made teens greedy for “likes” on social media. This has resulted in the inclination of teens towards making choices that do not define them instead defines the society. They alter their daily life activities, appearances, and even their behaviors for social acceptance. However, a greater percentage of the teenage population is aware that social media is only showing the part of the big picture, which actually may not be what it looks like, still they compare various aspects of their life with others under peer pressure. ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"y2MT9oOV","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Lots of Time on Social Media Linked to Anxiety, Depression in Teens\\uc0\\u8221{})","plainCitation":"(“Lots of Time on Social Media Linked to Anxiety, Depression in Teens”)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":423,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/CKNkWnK9/items/W88SZM2K"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/CKNkWnK9/items/W88SZM2K"],"itemData":{"id":423,"type":"webpage","title":"Lots of Time on Social Media Linked to Anxiety, Depression in Teens","container-title":"US News & World Report","abstract":"US News is a recognized leader in college, grad school, hospital, mutual fund, and car rankings. Track elected officials, research health conditions, and find news you can use in politics, business, health, and education.","URL":"https://www.usnews.com/news/health-news/articles/2019-09-11/lots-of-time-on-social-media-linked-to-anxiety-depression-in-teens","language":"en","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",11,30]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Lots of Time on Social Media Linked to Anxiety, Depression in Teens”). Moreover, through the excessive use of social media, people are more prone to the risk of cyberbullying which increases the incidence of depression and anxiety often leading to suicide attempts. Another reason is that due to the limited privacy, teens are inclined to gather the excess amount of fake friendships which increases the risk of cyberbullying. Furthermore, less face to face social interaction and increased online meeting hinders the development of the genuine connection between various relationships such as family and friends which often leads to a lack of empathy and compassion ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"g4N4vMBC","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Social Media and Teens\\uc0\\u8221{})","plainCitation":"(“Social Media and Teens”)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":421,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/CKNkWnK9/items/ANDLICN9"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/CKNkWnK9/items/ANDLICN9"],"itemData":{"id":421,"type":"post-weblog","title":"Social Media and Teens: How Does Social Media Affect Mental Health?","container-title":"Psycom.net - Mental Health Treatment Resource Since 1986","abstract":"Do the benefits of social media, like finding support online, outweigh the negative affects social media can have on teens' mental health?","URL":"https://www.psycom.net/social-media-teen-mental-health","title-short":"Social Media and Teens","language":"en-US","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",11,30]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Social Media and Teens”).

All of these factors are possible candidates for the prevalence of depression among teens. Teens must learn to keep a balance between their time spent on media and face to face meetings to overcome the feelings of depression and anxiety.

Works Cited

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Amedie, Jacob. “The Impact of Social Media on Society.” Advanced Writing: Pop Culture Intersections, Sept. 2015, https://scholarcommons.scu.edu/engl_176/2.

Keles, Betul, et al. “A Systematic Review: The Influence of Social Media on Depression, Anxiety and Psychological Distress in Adolescents.” International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, vol. 0, no. 0, Mar. 2019, pp. 1–15. Taylor and Francis+NEJM, doi:10.1080/02673843.2019.1590851.

“Lots of Time on Social Media Linked to Anxiety, Depression in Teens.” US News & World Report, https://www.usnews.com/news/health-news/articles/2019-09-11/lots-of-time-on-social-media-linked-to-anxiety-depression-in-teens. Accessed 30 Nov. 2019.

“Social Media and Teens: How Does Social Media Affect Mental Health?” Psycom.Net - Mental Health Treatment Resource Since 1986, https://www.psycom.net/social-media-teen-mental-health. Accessed 30 Nov. 2019.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

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