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How has the shape of Vietnam affected its stability? Is the shape of Vietnam an asset? or a liability. to the country as a whole? Why?

Vietnam is another country in Southeast Asia. Which is at the easternmost point of the Indochina Peninsula Has an S shape (S), longitudinal Therefore making both the terrain and climate different than other Indochina countries .The state, stretched in the shape of the letter "S", is located in Southeast Asia, in the east of the Indochina peninsula. Neighbors from the west are Laos, Cambodia and China. The coast of Vietnam is washed from the east and south by the South China Sea and Bakbo Bay, a small south-western tip has access to the Gulf of Thailand. The area of ​​Vietnam is 329.6 thousand square meters. Regardless mountains and forests, the northern Vietnamese area has a elongated history with China. Not just a country in the Asian region that has adjacent borders Vietnam and China have a long history together. Because the Vietnamese had been under the rule of the Chinese dynasty for two thousand years and that made Vietnam influenced by China in terms of culture, art, architecture, as well as political administration and communism. Which makes both countries have the same market economy.

The territory of Vietnam is a narrow strip stretched along the meridian. The east coast of Vietnam is very long, and this feature of its geographical position has a great influence on climate formation. There is a problem in relations between Vietnam and China related to territorial disputes around the Spratly and Paracel Islands. This problem leads not only to diplomatic scandals, but also to various incidents. The geographical location of Vietnam is bot assets and liability because it can have conflict with any of the borders and moreover Vietnam’s key geographic challenge is to protected buffer areas together with land and sea. Currently, Vietnam's requires more space and security in the South China Seas against China. likewise in the throes of oceanic development, consequently adding a new perception to Vietnam's long-lasting struggle to cut space for itself contrary to its bigger northern neighbor.

Subject: Geography

Pages: 1 Words: 300

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SHIFT OF INFLUENCE IN AFRICA

NAME OF WRITER

AFFILIATIONS

Since many advanced countries have moved from being in the phase of industrialization to being developed and industrialized. However, since the continent of Africa is very less developed regions of all the habitant continents in the world and less development means very large growth potential. The first step in many countries development is the utilization of natural resource. Most of the African countries have very large reservoirs of natural resources that can be used to kick start the growth, and to avail these natural resources a country requires a certain level of infrastructure. That is one of the reasons China along with some other countries has shifted its focus towards Africa. By investing in farming and mining world superpowers, in this case, China can profit from Africa's growth.

Due to the economic development in China's manufacturing industry since the early 2000's the labor cost has risen and for that china is now looking for low-cost labor across the world. The country of China who was famous for its cheap labor in the world is no longer competitive for low cost development. That is the prime reason most companies of China are setting up their manufacturing firms in Africa. Due to low development and opportunities Africa is the cheapest and lowest skilled labor markets in the world. That is the primary reason China is now the biggest trading partner with Africa. The comparison can be seen in the fact that America traded $48b of goods with Africa in 2016 while China traded $128b. The main reason behind it is that private Chinese industries are taking hold of Africa.

The setting up structure and power in less developed areas is what European colonists did. The motives behind the European countries spreading their power between the 15th and 20th centuries and that of China spreading their power today are very similar. The motive behind china's investment is through these investments is to gain political influence over Africa. The results are obvious in the fact that if a country recognizes Taiwan as an independent country they receive on average 2.7 fewer Chinese infrastructure projects. The outcome is that China is receiving a lot of power on the international stage as in the United Nation each country gets one vote despite their population.

Subject: Geography

Pages: 1 Words: 300

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[Name of the Writer]

[Name of Instructor]

[Subject]

[Date]

European Union

The original purpose of European Union was to prevent war in Europe coupled with the promotion of prosperity and development of European nations. Following the WW II, whole of Europe was devastated so, European nation formed a union to deal with horrific legacy of Nazism. In addition, ease of travel, Ease travel, employment hiring, loans, collection of debts, were also the core purposes European nations wanted to address through European Union. The EU System is modeled after the United States, in that States have their own rules, and well defined rules, while the Feds take care of Inter-State (border crossing) business and defense of the realm, and yes, Germany is moving towards a EU Military so that it doesn’t have to be U.S. tanks lining up in Poland. The difference is that corrupt U.S. politicians are elected, in the EU System, they are appointed.

The EU does not “have power” over member states except to the extent that member states are expected to abide by the treaties they themselves negotiated and signed on to. The EU competencies are mainly restricted to ensuring the free trade rules are maintaining but they can’t really do all that much when countries act in violation of EU principles. Take Hungary, for example. Hungary is largely flouting its non-compliance with a whole bunch of EU regulations, which has provoked a flurry of finger-wagging and tut-tutting but little else. EU member states do, in principle renounce sovereignty over certain areas, mainly economic, in which sovereignty is pooled and one county doing its own thing will negatively impact other members. The thing is though, none of this competency was “taken” all of it was authored by the nation-states themselves who chose to turn the EU into a common market area.

Subject: Geography

Pages: 1 Words: 300

02 Final Paper

World Food Crises

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

World Food Crises

Introduction

The world food crises are observed across the globe and there are various regions that are affected by it. Due to intense conflicts and wars among the allies or the colonization, the areas like Asia, Africa, US, and other parts are facing severe hunger. International organizations and the United Nations estimated that 124 million people in more than 51 states are facing the food insecurity. There are 75 million food insecure people who have needed urgent assistance and security. Those who need urgent humanitarian action are the insured people and they are rising with 11 percent every year. Various efforts and resolution are in progress for the crises management and escalation of people under the dozens of leading regional and global institutions. These crises are also addressed through the country-specific and thematic analysis of the particular area.

Individuals have limited access to the basic needs of food and because of the unsustainable development, inequitable trade, and destructive agriculture policies; it became widen over the passage of time. The significant gap between poverty and affluence is expanding and hunger is coming in waves (Bello, 2008). Major investors and multinational corporations became rich over the benefits they are getting from the services of poor’s. The devastation of the poor has put the rest of the planet at serious economic and environmental risk. In systematic terms, such types of destruction are referred to as the food riots which is not prevalent in poor countries of Asia and Africa but also in the industrialized nations of the US and Europe. Further, the international aiding agencies and organizations like the US Department of agriculture, an alliance for a green revolution in Africa and the world food programs are failing to address the real causes of hunger.

Discussion

The modernization of the middle class and the population in Asia led for the majority of the population to directly affect the dilemma. It is a matter of debate for many as the crises are systematic and well determined (Bernstein, 2016). The rise of population in India and China is the case in point which reflects the clear change in the demographics and demand for excessive food resources. Other factors that contribute to the crises are the increasing demand and requirement for the basic needs of people living in developing areas. The growth rate in these regions is rise by 70 to 80 percent and the corresponding increase in the middle class provided for the adoption of different lifestyle and eating habits. More and more variety is required for the competition among various parts of African and Asian places (Farrell, 2017). Similarly, the developed nations in the agriculture sector are developing a relationship between petroleum and food prices.

Both prices are correlated with each other with the estimated correlation and coefficient of 0.6 along with other factors. The systematic changes in the use of fertilizers for agriculture and the need for these instruments have increased dramatically. For example, the hike in oil prices in 2007 reached their maximum peak in the next year. It also contributed to the prices of phosphate, potash, urea, and ammonia. The cost of transportation was also doubled and after the period of two years, it leads to the complication for the supply chain of food and other products. Other than the prices and increase in various aspects of consumptions, the environmental factors have also a drastic impact on agriculture (Bouët & Debucquet, 2016). The productivity of the soil and the environmental compositions are directly put their part in destroying the food services.

The research and reports of FAO reflect that most of the hikes in prices are due to the usage and production of biofuels which derive their energy from the biological carbon fixation. More than a hundred million tons of grain is being converted from fuel to food on yearly basis. Prices of farm commodities are increased with the primary impact of biofuels (Fraser et al., 2016). These products contribute to the food supply including barley, maize, soybean, and corn. The industry of dairy, livestock, and poultry are the largest corn and soybean, consumer. The World Bank also issued a report on the large increases in biofuels and reflected that it is the primary reason for the steep rise in world food prices. Increase in the prices of the dollar is also the major reason as many scholars consider this element is destructing the entire economy.

The nature of the economy in recent decades is global in nature.

Trade policies and implication of subsidies are directly affecting the consumers of a poor country. It became a network as a well-reputed theorist and scholar Martin Khor observed that developing nations are also inter-related with the developed world (North, 2013). The non-democratic forces like the IMF and World Bank are promoting their agenda of colonizing people of Asia and Africa by giving them heavy loans with the condition of not using that particular money for any of the basic needs. These funds are issued for major development and returned through heavy interests rates. The cycle of debts and violation of sustainable policies is continued from many decades. In the case of these developing states, western nations subsidize food imports where the people have a reliance on foreign goods and services (North, 2013). The local production left behind and it contributes to an increase in prices which are not accessible by poor members of the communities.

Despite the fact that increases production and consumption of agriculture commodities along with the other aspects there are millions of hungry people across the world. The recorded estimates by FAO and the World Food Program shows that in the last decade there was a record grain harvest which was enough for the food consumption. Against the backdrop of a 1.5 percent increase in the population, there was a rise in food production with more than 2 percent. The question arises here that what constitutes the gap that is faced by the people across the world. It is primarily the corrupt practices and the unfair use of policies by those who have power at the global level (Puma et al., 2018). Food is placed on the shelves but the prices are putting out the people from the market. The government of the United States and International aid agencies is in hesitation to call these global food crises because they are involved in snatching the bread from poor communities inside and outside of their world.

Since the crises of the Great Depression, the United States is facing one of the worst situations in the contemporary era of economic and food dilemma. To bail out the Wall Street government is putting billions of dollars but fail to meet the hunger requirements of poor people. Further, the reforms of the free market which are championed by the United States contributed to massive consolidation in the agriculture industry. The deregulations in the financial industry allowed the banks to cross over their investments.

The centralization of banking system give loans to the small businesses including the farms which became harder to come by and the falling prices are always left farmers to get big or get out the situation. The traders of commodities are increasingly invested in the other financial services where the large traders moved into the markets (Tadasse, et al 2016). There are banks that traded in the financial services along with products to save their loans. Consolidation and the deregulation markets are vulnerable to shock when the famous crises of subprime mortgage hit in 2007.

The system of bailout and deregulation has put a negative impact on the economy and food system. The less regulation and breeds with more consolidation contribute to the stability in agriculture and financial markets. Investments and because of the markets the system intertwined which lead to crises and failure in financial and food markets (Wolf, 2008). The actual problem is addressing the root cause of crises but most of the stakeholders that are operating internationally just issued certain bailout package which is not the reasonable measure for resolution.

In the same way, the stable and sustainable market of food and other forces can provide the real outcome and support to local farmers, borrowers, banks and other stakeholders. The dramatic departure from the free market and the idea of fundamentalism should be decided immediately to come out of the crises. Those ideas which are not compatible with modern warfare against hunger should be eliminated as soon as possible. In the contemporary era of economic war, there are certain solutions that can be helpful in overcoming hunger crises. The more corporate welfare, technological fixes and the concepts of free trade are good news for the farmers and those who are related to the food services sector. Despite these measures, the inequitable distribution of prices and fairs along with the structure of environmental damages are the core areas which should be addressed in a proper way.

The consolidation of monopoly and the prolong windfall monopoly are creating complexities for the food and agriculture sector (Fraser et al., 2016). First of all the fixation of the food system and the regulation of the market can be a positive point. The decrease in power of oligopolistic food corporations and the development in the ecologically resilient system is the requirement of time. There is a need for affordable food that could turn the system into economic and social development.

One cannot wait for the fixation of food system before making the farming viable, marketing and affordable food. These three elements need to work in a collaborative manner. The localization of food power and the renegotiation of trade agreements that are done globally should be done accordingly. On the fair prices, World Food Organization should purchase the food locally. Fair distribution is one of the major factors that should be considered and such practices should avoid the dumping of feeding more people with cheap grains. The improvement in safety nets for poor individuals should also be supported (Fraser et al., 2016). Through the state level welfare programs there should be an increase in food banks with healthy and fresh commodities. The support for the independent community has based on the businesses at a local and global level. The sovereignty of food is the basic right for everyone and it should be given to the states in the Asian and African region. It is the right of these people to define their own system of agriculture and food distribution.

Conclusion

Concluding the discussion there is an intense need of revisiting the unequal and distorting food prices and policies. The improvement in the power of consumers can fill the gap that hinders their access to basic needs. Further, extensive research and conferences on the subject matter can also resolve the crises. Development in poor states in every aspect of their life is mandatory; otherwise, the impacts of these will flourish to other parts of the world. Basic governance, health, technology, infrastructure and the system of macroeconomics should be improved accordingly.

References

Bello, W. (2008). How to manufacture a global food crisis. Development, 51(4), 450-455.

Bernstein, H. (2016). Agrarian political economy and modern world capitalism: the contributions of food regime analysis. The Journal of Peasant Studies, 43(3), 611-647.

Bouët, A., & Debucquet, D. L. (2016). Food crisis and export taxation: revisiting the adverse effects of noncooperative aspect of trade policies. In Food Price Volatility and Its Implications for Food Security and Policy (pp. 167-179). Springer, Cham.

Chen, Y. (2016). Trade, food security, and human rights: the rules for international trade in agricultural products and the evolving world food crisis. Routledge.

Farrell, B. (2017). The World Food Crisis: The Way Out. Future of Food: Journal on Food, Agriculture and Society, 5(3), 76-77.

Fraser, E., Legwegoh, A., Krishna, K. C., CoDyre, M., Dias, G., Hazen, S., ... & Sneyd, L. (2016). Biotechnology or organic? Extensive or intensive? Global or local? A critical review of potential pathways to resolve the global food crisis. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 48, 78-87.

Holt-Giménez, E. (2008). The world food crisis: What’s behind it and what we can do about it. Policy brief, 16.

North, J. (2013). Bangladeshi Garment Workers Fight Back. Thenation. com.

Puma, M. J., Chon, S. Y., & Kakinuma, K. (2018). A Developing Food Crisis and Potential Refugee Movements [STUB].

Tadasse, G., Algieri, B., Kalkuhl, M., & Von Braun, J. (2016). Drivers and triggers of international food price spikes and volatility. In Food price volatility and its implications for food security and policy (pp. 59-82). Springer, Cham.

Wolf, M. (2008). Food crisis is a chance to reform global agriculture. Financial Times, 29.

Subject: Geography

Pages: 6 Words: 1800

02 Proposal

02 Proposal

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Outline

Introduction

Discussion

World Food Crises

Resolving the Crises

Summaries of Academic Sources

A Way Forward

Conclusion

02 Proposal

Introduction

The transformation of the middle class and the population has led to the majority of the population to directly affect the dilemma of hunger. It is a matter of debate for many as the world food crises are systematic and well determined. The rise of population in India and China is the case in point which reflects the clear change in the demographics and demand for excessive food resources. Other factors that contribute to the crises are the increasing demand and requirement for the basic needs of people living in developing regions. The growth rate in these regions is extensively at the rise and the corresponding increase in the middle class has provided for the adoption of certain modifications in the lifestyle and eating habits. However, the question arises what behind it and what can we do to reduce the crises of food security in the world.

Discussion

Over time, there are various measures that are undertaken by the authorities, international aid agencies and other stakeholders. These steps were based on the elimination of hunger and success to a certain level is also achieved. Similarly deregulation of the prices, process and practices of food supply chain management contributed to the intense rise and exploit the poor from accessing their basic needs (Bouët & Debucquet, 2016). On the starvation and through a series of restrictions, these vulnerable people are unable to reach out for the fulfilment of their needs. There are various systematic approaches that can be achieved through practical and professional movements.

World Food Crises

The natural disaster of world food crises is not new to the individuals of this planet. It goes back to the era before World War I, II and especially after both wars were fought. The unaware population became helpless due to the massive destruction of those who have power in one or other way. When these deprived people have no choice to approach their particular area and especially the basic needs for food, it is commonly referred to as world food crises (Farrell, 2017). Billions of people have their risk of hunger due to varied and professional reasons. Multinational companies and investors are becoming rich by exploiting these poor people of the world. The arguments are well supported by the researchers and scholars who work for the food crises that are prevailing in the entire world.

Resolving the Crises

Various steps can be taken to counter the issues of hunger like the localization of food power and the renegotiation of trade agreements that are done globally should be done accordingly. On the fair prices, World Food Organization should purchase the food locally. Fair distribution is one of the major factors that should be considered and such practices should avoid the dumping of feeding more people with cheap grains. The improvement in safety nets for poor individuals should also be supported. Through the state level welfare programs there should be an increase in food banks with healthy and fresh commodities.

The support for the independent community has based on the businesses at a local and global level. The sovereignty of food is the basic right for everyone and it should be given to the states in the Asian and African region. It is the right of these people to define their own system of agriculture and food distribution. Further the fixation of the food system and the regulation of the market can be a positive point (Bernstein, 2016). The decrease in power of oligopolistic food corporations and the development in the ecologically resilient system is the requirement of time. There is a need for affordable food that could turn the system into economic and social development. Every single person from the middle class cannot be able to afford the expensive prices and a shortage of food in their localities.

Summaries of Academic Sources/Literature Review

Bernstein, H. (2016). Agrarian political economy and modern world capitalism: the contributions of food regime analysis. The Journal of Peasant Studies, 43(3), 611-647.

Through the selective survey of food regime, the author pointed out key elements like the international state system, patterns of trade and the international system of labor. There is a discussion on the relation of industry and agriculture along with the modalities of accumulation. Further the tension and contradiction among the specific food regimes are effected by social forces and other elements. The peasant turn of the corporate food regime is the empirical weakness related to it. In other words neo liberal globalization has put the entire burden on peasants of the contemporary era.

McMichael, P. (2016). Commentary: Food regime for thought. The Journal of Peasant Studies, 43(3), 648-670.

In response to the analysis under taken by the Bernstein in his research article, the present paper claim that there is a misinterpretation of the food regimes that are misguided as peasant turn. It focused on the class position of peasants to face this situation of food crises and supported the fact that based on changes and progression in the social and world environment. Advancement and the idea of neo liberalism have unmasked the dirty politics and undemocratic steps like free trade which provided a comparative edge to the corporate sector.

Epule, T. E., Peng, C., & Lepage, L. (2015). Environmental refugees in sub-Saharan Africa: a review of perspectives on the trends, causes, challenges and way forward. Geo Journal, 80(1), 79-92.

These authors in their research have critically analyzed the challenges, causes and trends as a way forward for the environmental refugees in the African region. The challenges for these people living in deserted areas of Africa have increased over the last three decades. The rise of the population is seen as the main dynamics for causing the crises along with wars, vegetation and droughts. Stressing up of the resources through economic, political and environmental pressure is also the reason for crises.

Fraser, E., Legwegoh, A., Krishna, K. C., CoDyre, M., Dias, G., Hazen, S., & Sneyd, L. (2016). Biotechnology or organic? Extensive or intensive? Global or local? A critical review of potential pathways to resolve the global food crisis. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 48, 78-87.

The paper discussed the effects of political and scientific pathways for the global food crises. While reviewing the policy, sovereignty, distribution and technology, these authors have viewed that local food system is good and preferable over the globalized enforcement of policy options for reducing the crises. A fair distribution of power must be accepted in the particular policy formulation.

Akbarzadeh, S., & Conduit, D. (2016). The Syrian refugee crisis. Ethos, 24(2), 8.

The paper reflects the crises in Syria, which are one of the most disturbing and destructive challenges for the people to remain normal and stable with the food requirements. It is the greatest humanitarian challenge to settle the displaced person from their localities to new places. These people have cost their lives and have no access to basic needs like food and clothing.

Conclusion

To improve in the power of consumers we must fill the gap that hinders their access to basic needs. Further, extensive research and conferences on the subject matter can also resolve the crises. Development in poor states in every aspect of their life is mandatory; otherwise, the impacts of these will flourish to other parts of the world. Basic governance, health, technology, infrastructure should be given to vulnerable people of this planet.

References

Bernstein, H. (2016). Agrarian political economy and modern world capitalism: the contributions of food regime analysis. The Journal of Peasant Studies, 43(3), 611-647.

McMichael, P. (2016). Commentary: Food regime for thought. The Journal of Peasant Studies, 43(3), 648-670.

Epule, T. E., Peng, C., & Lepage, L. (2015). Environmental refugees in sub-Saharan Africa: a review of perspectives on the trends, causes, challenges and way forward. Geo Journal, 80(1), 79-92.

Fraser, E., Legwegoh, A., Krishna, K. C., CoDyre, M., Dias, G., Hazen, S., & Sneyd, L. (2016). Biotechnology or organic? Extensive or intensive? Global or local? A critical review of potential pathways to resolve the global food crisis. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 48, 78-87.

Akbarzadeh, S., & Conduit, D. (2016). The Syrian refugee crisis. Ethos, 24(2), 8.

Bello, W. (2008). How to manufacture a global food crisis. Development, 51(4), 450-455.

Holt-Giménez, E. (2008). The world food crisis: What’s behind it and what we can do about it. The policy brief, 16.

North, J. (2013). Bangladeshi Garment Workers Fight Back. Thenation. com.

Puma, M. J., Chon, S. Y., & Kakinuma, K. (2018). A Developing Food Crisis and Potential Refugee Movements [STUB].

Tadasse, G., Algieri, B., Kalkuhl, M., & Von Braun, J. (2016). Drivers and triggers of international food price spikes and volatility. Food price volatility and its implications for food security and policy (pp. 59-82). Springer, Cham.

Subject: Geography

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

02 Reflection

02 REFLECTION

Your Name (First M. Last)

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)

02 Reflection

The author draws critical attention to the menace of the pervasive food crisis. Environmental, political and financial dimensions are underpinned to highlight the causes and consequences of the flawed policies of the stakeholders. Essentially, the food crisis has cast adverse impacts on more than three billion people. From 1974 to 2008, the international bodies and governments have advanced to promulgate policies to eradicate hunger and poverty in the form of treaties. However, the efforts put by the stakeholders have remained unsatisfactory and thus futile to have a significant impact on the alleviation of the global food crisis. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations (UN) has persistently monitored the paradigm of the food crisis.

In addition, the inflation in the price of food has immensely fueled the factors that caused food crisis. The author deliberates the economic obscurities in the specific portion. The timely intervention of FAO has remained critical to warn the nations regarding the food crisis ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"gQyCYVrL","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Home\\uc0\\u160{}|\\uc0\\u160{}Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“Home | Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1884,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/H8YOvGFC/items/A2WGUNT4"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/H8YOvGFC/items/A2WGUNT4"],"itemData":{"id":1884,"type":"webpage","title":"Home | Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations","URL":"http://www.fao.org/home/en/","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",1,17]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Home | Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,” n.d.). The prominent and detrimental event existed in the winter of 2007. For instance, the bomb of food price exploded in the world markets. The article further offers an in-depth of the essential factors contributing towards the instigation of the global food crisis. Agriculture, the explosion in population, food reserves and vulnerable population are thoroughly mentioned in the article. A critical aspect is noteworthy to mention while assessing the theme of the article. The article was published in 20018 and thus specifically analyzes the implications for the United States of America (USA). The writer has offered keen insights on the menace of the food crisis by stipulating not only the prominent economic factors but also the historical financial elements. The merger of the banks in the United States revolutionized the economy in a rather radical manner. The small scale investors and farmers faced daunting challenges to expand under the centralized system of banking.

Besides, each argument stated in the article is supplemented with rational argument and empirical evidence. The food crisis had decimated the backbone of the farmers. With the passage of time, input cost as seed, fertilizer and other ingredients used in irrigation accelerated rapidly ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Wt8dBZnz","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}The global food crisis: an overview - ODI HPN,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“The global food crisis: an overview - ODI HPN,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1886,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/H8YOvGFC/items/63NF8F8A"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/H8YOvGFC/items/63NF8F8A"],"itemData":{"id":1886,"type":"webpage","title":"The global food crisis: an overview - ODI HPN","URL":"https://odihpn.org/magazine/the-global-food-crisis-an-overview/","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",1,17]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“The global food crisis: an overview - ODI HPN,” n.d.). The most imperative discussion is conducted at the end of the article in the form of potential solutions to confront the global food crisis. A systematic intervention is proposed rather than implementing the protracted policies of economic development. The fundamentals of free trade, technological advancement and dismantling the monopoly of power were the potential steps proposed to fight the global food crisis. The international bodies as the World Trade Organization (WTO) assume an instrumental role to propagate the culture of Free Trade Agreements in true letter and spirits ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"VQqtkCHJ","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Food | United Nations,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“Food | United Nations,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1889,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/H8YOvGFC/items/X7MJKZ2Z"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/H8YOvGFC/items/X7MJKZ2Z"],"itemData":{"id":1889,"type":"webpage","title":"Food | United Nations","URL":"http://www.un.org/en/sections/issues-depth/food/","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",1,17]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Food | United Nations,” n.d.). Moreover, the agro-ecological management of food ought to be revisited. The agriculture industry dominated by the multinational corporations and the biased trade policies must be abrogated and replaced with a democratized food system. These were the primary solutions to curb the global food crisis that rose in 2008. The crux of the idea highlights the economic and political elements responsible for instigating the menace in the past decades. The bottom line is the article critically analyzes the factors responsible for radicalizing the food control and price system. The conclusion emphasizes the potential solutions to fight the centralized food system with the assistance of the technological advancements, free trade policies and profound economic policies intended at benefiting the deprived communities. The essential material and facts discussed are rational and top of that published by the world hunger organization.

References

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Food | United Nations. (n.d.). Retrieved January 17, 2019, from http://www.un.org/en/sections/issues-depth/food/

Home | Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (n.d.). Retrieved January 17, 2019, from http://www.fao.org/home/en/

The global food crisis: an overview - ODI HPN. (n.d.). Retrieved January 17, 2019, from https://odihpn.org/magazine/the-global-food-crisis-an-overview/

Subject: Geography

Pages: 2 Words: 600

10 P

10 P

[Name of the Writer:]

[Name of the Institution:]

10 P

The economic sexuality is an expression of sexuality that involves some financial transaction in the sexual relationship between a man and a woman. The study of the economic impact on sexuality has become a topic of significant interest in today's scholarly groups. In this speech, thoughts of different authors about the economic sexuality shall be presented, as well as the connections and relevance between them shall be explored. Further, these thoughts and conclusions will be supported by real-life examples; raising questions at the end to provoke curiosity for further research.

Thoughts of Different Authors on Economic Sexuality

Debra Satz’s Views on Economic Sexuality

Debra Satz, in her article, “Markets in Women Sexual Labor”, discusses two approaches to address the question of employing women's sexuality and reproduction as commodities on sale. She presents the economic approach and essentialist approach to deal with the issue. In her view, the economic approach considers the impacts of sexual relations developed in exchange for money on the society's efficiency or welfare. The concept of morality is overlooked in this approach to precisely measure the efficiency of economic sexuality. On the contrary, the essentialist approach looks at sexuality for sale from the perspective of happiness and satisfaction. It explores what an individual gets in return of these sexual relationships in terms of esteem, gratification, and reputation. The author discusses types of prostitutes and the negative impacts of this profession concerning different approaches under discussion. Further, the author develops her argument that she wants to emphasize the adverse effects of prostitution concerning sex discrimination. She argues that prostitution generates a sense of inferiority in women against men, which is the worst social effect of this economic exchange (Satz, 1995).

Linda Anne Rebhun’s Thoughts

In her book, “The Heart is Unknown Country”, L. A. Rebhun writes a chapter on ‘Love as Connection’. She describes the patterns of connection, role of love as the connector, and other values in such a society. She sets her discussion in the city of Caruaru, which is very particular in its specific attributes. The author describes the connection of economy and emotion in a city like Caruaru where people know each other better than those living in large, metropolitan cities. She describes love as an expression of affection; people come closer in different contexts, and they touch to express their feelings. Different groups of people behave in their specific ways to show their emotions. Rebhun describes love expressions as the attitudes of lovers toward their beloved ones. The writer elaborates the patterns of emotional influences on the economy of such a city. The transactions take place regarding their traditions, which are quite different from large cities. People in Caruaru like places develop certain codes of communication to express emotional content. People interacting for the sake of business have found ways to earn benefits based on differences in exchange types. The shifts in exchange types have shaped the relations in Caruaru type markets (Press, 2019).

Casselman and Tankersley’s Reviews

Ben Casselman and Jim Tankersley argue in a news article that women in Economics report that they have been sexually assaulted and biased numerous times. They say their colleagues or peers have attempted sexual assaults on them. The authors have presented numerous statistics regarding sexual harassment and discrimination based on gender. Many economists were surveyed to find out that they had faced intense discrimination based on gender, race, or sexual orientations. This study has been confined to economists to know the impact of their sexuality, and its related behaviors on them. The result was pretty disappointing that suggested that such a culture cannot be accepted from any perspective. The numbers shown in these surveys gave an idea of how the careers of these economists have been disturbed by the biases they faced and the harassment they suffered (Nytimes.com, 2019).

Jeff Kearns’s Review

In an article similar to the aforementioned article, Jeff Kearns states that nearly half of the female economists in the US report being sexually abused or harassed. The author stresses that eliminating sexual harassment is inevitable to put the suffering of economists at the end as well as to attract new female talent to the industry. He narrates that thinkers emphasize the ways to find a solution to the problem by arranging group discussions on forums and using a code of conduct. The individuals who have been involved in any kind of sexual assaults must be discouraged by canceling their promotion and depriving them of awarding honors and degrees (Bloomberg, 2019).

Relating the Thoughts of Satz and Rebhun

Debra Satz studies the impact of sexual exchanges based on some kind of financial agreement. Her thoughts reflect a comprehensive understanding of the impact of economic-sexual exchanges on the psychology of women, their status, and self-esteem. Linda Anne Rebhun studies the impact of love and emotion on the economy of a particular urban area. She describes how patterns of economic exchange are developed and shaped by the connections made through emotional attachments. People give and take and ultimately an economy is built that demonstrates its specific rules and preferences of exchange.

In typical, Brazilian urban societies as depicted by Rebhun, people take advantage of their friendships and kinships. They exploit every means of getting benefits from their social networks. Power is considered to be more successfully exploitive of their resources and networks. It is evident from the particular terms used in Brazil, such as agitar, jeitinho, arrumar, etc. that their economy is based on making efforts to persuade their targets to become beneficial for them or to do as they want it. Satz studies the economy getting affected by the paid sexual engagements and their outcomes. Men take advantage of the weaknesses of their clients, manipulate them, and make them behave in a very manner they want them to do. In a society where gender inequality has deep roots, the exploitation of women disseminates negative waves of contempt, disrespectfulness, and selfishness. The economy suffers as the essential consequences of sex labor.

Rebhun describes love advances as the different types of "touch" used in various contexts. Boys put arms on the shoulders of one other while girls stroll holding their hands. Babies are caressed; winners are tapped. Amor is the outcome of favorable experiences of long-term intimacy. The emotional influences of touch construct certain patterns of exchanges in the economy. People develop communication to their advantage that expresses their sentiments and brings favorable consequences. In Satz’s view, prostitutes sell their sexuality that involves intimacy with their clients. This is also a phenomenon of touch. Prostitutes earn money by selling their physiques as economic commodities that offer their clients value in terms of experiences of sensations and intimacies. The whole world is confronted with the challenges of exploitation, manipulation, and harassment.

Relationship between the Aforesaid Articles and News

The aforesaid articles and news have connections based on the concept of economy mentioned in all of these resources. All the authors have tried to study the economic influences on certain sexual behaviors or vice versa, that is, the impact of certain sexual initiatives on the economy. In other words, it can be said that sexual encounters involving financial transactions affect the economic phenomenon and the economy contributes considerably to sexual behaviors.

Satz expresses her views about prostitution and affirms that prostitutes engage in economic sexuality out of different reasons. Some need to support their loved ones, and others have to make both ends meet. There are many who take this as a profession only to satisfy their psychological and physical needs. Whatever their motive may be, the common point is that all get financial support from this involvement. The similar is the argument of Rebhun regarding the emotional connections shaping the economy of particular urban societies. Love, as a modified form or substitute for sexual activity, constructs the building blocks of an economy where people avail opportunities based on social networks. When considering the newspaper articles discussed earlier, it can be noticed clearly that a large number of economists are affected adversely by the sexual behaviors of their co-inhabitants or co-workers. Their careers take unwanted turns, their morale is suppressed, and their motivation is swept away by the physical, sexual, and psychological assaults of their peers.

All the authors confirm sheer loss in the overall economy by the unwanted sexual exchanges. They call for immediate actions to remove all negative elements from the society to improve the economic conditions. Immoral sexuality creates hatred, anxiety, and stress that lower the productivity of professionals. It also causes diseases and emergencies that ultimately affect the economy. Satz's point of interest is the gender discrimination and the resulting attitude of thinking women inferior. She strongly opposes this attitude of disgrace and contempt toward women. The stereotypical image of prostitutes is destructive for the self-esteem of women. A similar theme is the point of discussion in other reading and news articles. Men have mostly no regard for women. This fact is obvious from the figures of assaults on women as published in the news articles mentioned.

Examples to Reflect the Topics

In an extensive survey (sent to more than forty-five thousand persons) of black economists, only fourteen percent said that they get their due respect in pursuing their professions. Otherwise, all of them confirmed that they had been the target of discrimination based on either ethnicity. Most of them argued that they are compensated unfairly.

Sex discrimination proves to be a major cause of income inequalities in society. In the year of 1992, the wages earned by women were thirty-four percent lower than those earned by men provided that both worked for equal hours in jobs of equal capacities.

Another research reveals that women are confronted with job segregation issues, and they very unlikely to occupy rewarding, high-profile jobs in society. The study disclosed that forty-six percent of all the working women in the US hold low-profile jobs of waitresses, maids, etc. The families headed by women are mostly living a life below the line of poverty.

One study related to the division of labor in a family stated that women are destined to work more in household tasks even after working outside on a regular eight-hour job. The study said that housewives do only a fraction of more work than do the women employed outside as full-time workers. The difference in their amount of household work done was only thirteen percent. All these kinds of social injustice lead to moral degradation of women in the society, as well as leave a negative impact on the economy and welfare.

Questions to be Answered

Does sex discrimination have an impact on economic-sexual exchanges?

What are the economic impacts of distorted sexual behaviors?

Describe some of the pros and cons of prostitution on an economy that is indifferent to morality?

References

Bloomberg. (2019). Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 18 September 2019, from https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-03-18/almost-half-of-female-u-s-economists-report-sex-discrimination

Nytimes.com. (2019). Women in Economics Report Rampant Sexual Assault and Bias.  Retrieved 18 September 2019, from https://www.nytimes.com/2019/03/18/business/economy/women-economics-discrimination.html

Satz, D. (1995). Markets in Women’s Sexual Labor. Ethics, 106(1), 63–85. 

Press, S. (2019). The Heart Is Unknown Country: Love in the Changing Economy of Northeast Brazil | L. A. Rebhun. Sup.org. Retrieved 18 September 2019, from https://www.sup.org/books/title/?id=411

Subject: Geography

Pages: 6 Words: 1800

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Trends of AIDS in South Africa

Name of Writer

Affiliations

Trends of aids in South Africa

In the book "Love in the Time of AIDS," the writer “Mark Hunter” explored the effects of changing trends of intimacy and tried to understand the roots of AIDS. He discussed every inequality occurring in society, which has resulted in deaths. In Africa, first the division based on racial and then the poor economy, which resulted in continuous and long-lasting unemployment. These things have affected the general ideas about sex, femininity, masculinity, and have resulted in a continuous chain of HIV/AIDS. In some parts of South Africa, almost one in every three people is suffering from HIV positive. The books primarily focus on the changing trends and notions that have resulted in this virulent epidemic. In his book, Mark Hunter has tried to collect love letters, cell phone messages, and any other thing that could have been achieved. Through this expression of description abut people and their mutual differences, similarities, cultural understandings, and habits, Mark tried to understand the conventional meaning and trend of HIV/AIDS in South Africa.

As the AIDS epidemic progressed in the mid-1990s, anthropological and social scientists started conducting research on finding out the association between the disease and the social and cultural behaviors. The significance of cultural systems in the transmission, progression, and prevention of disease was deeply studied. However, the focus of attention also shifted towards the structural factors that influence the vulnerability to the disease. The consequences of social inequality, political disparities, and economic instability over the prevalence of HIV and AIDS were an important subject by the 1990s. As there has been a convergence in the cultural and structural approaches, the two major tendencies were identified that possessed serious challenges. The behavioral research was driven by biomedical and epidemiological approaches, along with the psychological attitude towards sexuality ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"lvUDWiXu","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Parker, 2001)","plainCitation":"(Parker, 2001)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":702,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/OnfrXiA2/items/QT92TL9K"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/OnfrXiA2/items/QT92TL9K"],"itemData":{"id":702,"type":"article-journal","title":"Sexuality, culture, and power in HIV/AIDS research","container-title":"Annual review of anthropology","page":"163-179","volume":"30","issue":"1","author":[{"family":"Parker","given":"Richard"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2001"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Parker, 2001).

Huge funding is allocated for research to understand the social-spatial factors of AIDS pandemic. The majority of the research is being carried out on biomedical research focusing on the treatment, vaccination, and preventive measures. However, there is a lack of public health risk measurement factors that are often assimilated with epidemiology. These include the factors to monitor the disease pattern by using sophisticated statistical methods. There is no sound explanation for the high prevalence of AIDS in Africa, which has led to the formulation of the Western psyche about the African lascivious system of sexuality.

In order to counter racist stereotypes, researchers have sought to focus on the political and economic roots of AIDS. Several researchers have tried to expose the long-standing associations among racial capitalism and sexually transmitted infections. They depicted the contrasts among AIDS and extended syphilis pandemic that emaciated in the 1940s. Sidney Kark, in his famous article 'The Social Pathology of Syphilis in Africans,' established that how migrant labors restrained the Africans from settling down in the urban areas and enforced males into protracted absences from their rural households. While they were living in overcrowded settings, some males got involved in sexual intimacies with women from urban cities. Thus, they transmitted these infections to their spouses who lived in rural areas. The broader research studies helped in understanding the social, political, and cultural scope of HIV and AIDS. The researchers have extended the perspective of cultural and interpretation by giving attention to other subjects in the study such as women, gays, lesbians other sexually oriented people. The anthropologists have shaped the sexual experiences and opened several new paradigms for highlighting the epidemic locally as well as cross-culturally.

“Markets in Women’s Sexual Labor” by Debra Satz presents an asymmetry theory, which states that the sex and reproduction market is different from the traditional labor market. They think that sex and reproductive capacities should not be treated as commodities. They think that treating prostitution at the same level as teaching or any sport professionalism is wrong ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"RKuMS7nf","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Satz, 1995)","plainCitation":"(Satz, 1995)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":"Hyf0IpmV/VPSjg7JH","uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/cYhHNKoU/items/WUD9TFNW"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/cYhHNKoU/items/WUD9TFNW"],"itemData":{"id":229,"type":"article-journal","title":"Markets in women's sexual labor","container-title":"Ethics","page":"63-85","volume":"106","issue":"1","author":[{"family":"Satz","given":"Debra"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1995"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Satz, 1995). Debra Satz, in his article, asks the questions of what makes it wrong for women to sell her body parts as compared to her skills. She further raised her concerns about the attitude towards asymmetrical theory and its consequences on public policy. She used two theories which are “economist” and “essentialist” to discuss the asymmetric approach from people. “Markets in Women’s Sexual Labor” focuses on the concept and theories about the cultural background and their negative association with people in sex markets. While Mark Hunter in his book focuses on the description of all the things that are leading people towards the virulent epidemic of HIV/AIDS. The ultimate goal of both these writers is completely different; one is focusing on the effect of certain values on the future policies, while other is focusing on the changing traditions that promote in creating an environment that leads to disease propagation. The primary point of discussion for Hunter was to discuss the inequality and disproportions happening in the labor market that led to the deaths of many people.

In the article “Heterosexuality, Heteronormativity and Gender Hierarchy: Some Reflections on Recent Debates”, Stevi Jackson discusses the modern-day new interest in creating a problem out of heterosexuality, and the article also discussed the new development happening with the theory of queers and whether the status of heterosexuality is normal or not? However, the difference between queers and heterosexuality is significant as queer theories have life and direction of their own ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"ejOJvkRY","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Jackson, 2003)","plainCitation":"(Jackson, 2003)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":"Hyf0IpmV/uvVkVQgz","uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/cYhHNKoU/items/Y3T7U8WG"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/cYhHNKoU/items/Y3T7U8WG"],"itemData":{"id":230,"type":"article-journal","title":"Heterosexuality, heteronormativity and gender hierarchy: Some reflections on recent debates","container-title":"Sexualities and society: A reader","page":"69-83","author":[{"family":"Jackson","given":"Stevi"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2003"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Jackson, 2003). However, according to Stevi Jackson, the response from heterosexual feminists has been positive and there is a readiness to get involved in the debate of queers and heterosexuality as a practice. A specific area of distinction has been raised from the activism of AIDS awareness, which helped in devising political theories. This broad topic apart from all heterosexual people included gays, lesbians, bisexuals, and transsexuals. However, in his book, Mark has explained the concept of heterosexuality and homosexuality in terms of its effects on the origin of AIDS. Mark explains that caution should be applied while relating any intimacy towards the social category of sexual division. Mark explains that to hide the failures and incompetence politicians nowadays are making it an excuse that it is a new problem but in reality, the meaning of homosexuality and same-sex relations remained the same throughout history ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"u3xIIvtO","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Hunter, 2010a)","plainCitation":"(Hunter, 2010a)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":704,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/OnfrXiA2/items/56685XQC"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/OnfrXiA2/items/56685XQC"],"itemData":{"id":704,"type":"book","title":"Love in the time of AIDS: inequality, gender, and rights in South Africa","publisher":"Indiana University Press","ISBN":"0-253-00481-0","author":[{"family":"Hunter","given":"Mark"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2010"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Hunter, 2010).

IH Meyer in his article “Why Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Public Health?” describes the current health issues and its solution to the LGBT community. The article focuses on social conditions based on discrimination as it helps in better understanding of the issues that are specifically related to the LGBT community. The main reason is that other huge ranges of issues are also connected with the community which includes research priorities, prevention and intervention programs, and providing standard treatment care ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"UskVBSDO","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Meyer, 2001)","plainCitation":"(Meyer, 2001)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":"Hyf0IpmV/G79IOAM5","uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KfR9yuY2/items/6SG9PYTE"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KfR9yuY2/items/6SG9PYTE"],"itemData":{"id":179,"type":"article-journal","title":"Why lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender public health?","container-title":"American Journal of Public Health","page":"856","volume":"91","issue":"6","author":[{"family":"Meyer","given":"Ilan H."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2001"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Meyer, 2001). There is also a lack of attention towards the LGBT community as many social and cultural stigmas are attached to them and stereotype thinking makes people ignore the matter. The health conditions of the LGBT community and the related issues can be categorized in specific areas where they are at increased risk because certain environmental experiences influence these groups differently. According to Mark Hunter, AIDS first surfaced in Africa among white gay men. He stated that many campaigns on the rights of gay men have been formed including the US civil rights movement and the gay rights movement. However, in Africa, the issue of AIDS was spreading irrespective of gender and sexual preference. More women were HIV positive than men were and the greatest number of people facing the disease were Malawian migrants. South Africa was, however, one of the first countries to give rights and protect sexual orientation in its constitution and then a few years later full citizenship rights were also awarded to the community and passed bills for gay and lesbian couples to marry ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"WnDmM6VA","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Hunter, 2010b)","plainCitation":"(Hunter, 2010b)","dontUpdate":true,"noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":"Hyf0IpmV/vwi9YswK","uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KfR9yuY2/items/GF7EZ9SR"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KfR9yuY2/items/GF7EZ9SR"],"itemData":{"id":180,"type":"book","title":"Love in the time of AIDS: inequality, gender, and rights in South Africa","publisher":"Indiana University Press","ISBN":"0-253-00481-0","author":[{"family":"Hunter","given":"Mark"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2010"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Hunter, 2010).

“Love, commitment and the pure relationship” which is part 4 of the book “Transformation of Intimacy: Sexuality, Love, And Eroticism in Modern Societies”, Giddens shares the investigation of Sharon Thomson. Sharon said that he interviewed 150 American teenagers from different backgrounds and ethnicities. Despite the differences and similarities in their cultural backgrounds, the answer of all the boys was similar to each other and very different from the girls ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"CNv7sn2A","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Giddens, 2013)","plainCitation":"(Giddens, 2013)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":"Hyf0IpmV/wQbUbmAG","uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/cYhHNKoU/items/Z6CWZYV2"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/cYhHNKoU/items/Z6CWZYV2"],"itemData":{"id":234,"type":"book","title":"The transformation of intimacy: Sexuality, love and eroticism in modern societies","publisher":"John Wiley & Sons","ISBN":"0-7456-6650-7","author":[{"family":"Giddens","given":"Anthony"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2013"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Giddens, 2013). All the boys failed to talk about sex in a chronicle form and considered it as a periodic episode of intimacy. However, when the same question was asked by girls, they were able to talk in detail and the form of almost a fantasy novel. They were focusing even on minute details and complex stories and talked about their intimate relationships for hours. They see sex as a sparkling device that can lead to the eventual destination of a romantic relationship. While Mark in his book described the history of intimacy among young people of Sundumbili, which is one of the most advanced settlements that was built for African people. Those young people were more aware of their rights than in other parts of the country and they frequently discussed their issues and rights. However, according to Mark, this made him think about the knowledge of universal traditions and the spread of the AIDS virus. He further discussed that among young people, sex became a symbol of one’s identity. The changing traditions among young people changed the perception of sexual intimacy in South Africa as well. Ukusoma and Ukuhlobonga were introduced as a non-penetrative form of sexual intimacy.

In the article “AIDS, Africa and cultural theory”, the author Paula A. Treichler discussed the profile of seven countries and referenced Africa as a hub of different viral diseases. However, according to him, it is being exaggerated and only three of the countries are severely affected. Furthermore, percentages in different studies represented the estimated population of HIV infection and not the cases of AIDS that are being reported. Also, all studies were based on sexually active adults, engaged in intimate activities, and reside in urban areas. He accused modern researchers of paying extra attention to even very little details when it comes to Africa. He further stated that the culture and upbringing of people in Africa plays an important role in shaping their mind towards specific intimate relationships, erotic life, marriages, family life, labor patterns, childbirth and their upbringing ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"NVVOnqln","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Treichler, 1991)","plainCitation":"(Treichler, 1991)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":"Hyf0IpmV/huiilQyB","uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/cYhHNKoU/items/XHPDQAYB"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/cYhHNKoU/items/XHPDQAYB"],"itemData":{"id":235,"type":"article-journal","title":"AIDS, Africa, and cultural theory","container-title":"Transition","page":"86-103","issue":"51","author":[{"family":"Treichler","given":"Paula A."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1991"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Treichler, 1991). This, in turn, affects the health policies, labor market, and national and international economy. The article “AIDS, Africa and cultural theory” is among one of the articles that Mark Hunter used for the research of his book "Love in the Time of AIDS". He referred to this article and stated that AIDS is racially intermixed with the culture and origins of African people. Many people across the world have a stereotypical point of view towards Africans and consider it the hub of modern-day AIDS culture in the world. People across the world blamed the origin of AIDS on the traditional practices of “dry sex” and “witchcraft” of people in Africa. They blamed the spreading of AIDS on the set of sexual practices that are being carried out in Africa.

In the article “Hegemonic Masculinity: Rethinking the Concept” R. W. Connell and James W. Messerschmidt discussed the concept that the hegemony of men in the research field has affected the studies on genders and has also attracted serious criticism. They trace the origins of this idea and identify how research is taken over by masculine thinking. The authors defend the ideas of hegemonic masculinity but they consider that the criticism on the models of gender and typologies very comprehensive. According to authors, through flexibility in recent psychological models of research, hegemonic masculinity can be improved ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"xD4Jdsw4","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Connell & Messerschmidt, 2005)","plainCitation":"(Connell & Messerschmidt, 2005)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":"Hyf0IpmV/eaf7u9mj","uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/cYhHNKoU/items/DDQ3LBQD"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/cYhHNKoU/items/DDQ3LBQD"],"itemData":{"id":236,"type":"article-journal","title":"Hegemonic masculinity: Rethinking the concept","container-title":"Gender & society","page":"829-859","volume":"19","issue":"6","author":[{"family":"Connell","given":"Robert W."},{"family":"Messerschmidt","given":"James W."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2005"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Connell & Messerschmidt, 2005). However, the difference between social reproduction and the concept of hegemonic masculinity must be recognized. There is also a need to identify that some masculine identities influence essential forms of research. The authors suggest that four major steps should be taken to improve the formulation of studies which include; highlighting the actions of women, recognizing the geographical backgrounds of masculinities, designing a new complex model for gender order, and focusing on the interaction of communication on national and international level ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"bxwrRZMZ","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Connell & Messerschmidt, 2005)","plainCitation":"(Connell & Messerschmidt, 2005)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":"Hyf0IpmV/eaf7u9mj","uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/cYhHNKoU/items/DDQ3LBQD"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/cYhHNKoU/items/DDQ3LBQD"],"itemData":{"id":236,"type":"article-journal","title":"Hegemonic masculinity: Rethinking the concept","container-title":"Gender & society","page":"829-859","volume":"19","issue":"6","author":[{"family":"Connell","given":"Robert W."},{"family":"Messerschmidt","given":"James W."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2005"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Connell & Messerschmidt, 2005). However, Mark Hunter discusses masculinity in terms of modern unemployment and its effects on society. Mark further discusses the concept of alcohol consumption, and relates it to the modern-day definition of freedom and accompanied stresses. According to Mark, alcohol gives rise to courage and this improvement in courage might lead a person to violence. Mark states that modern masculinities are greatly affected by the greater consumption of alcohol. However, Mark focuses on the point that many modern-day researchers relate male violence to their poverty and changing trends in the economy. The stereotypical violence of men is common across the world; however, it is not right to just blame it on the policies of apartheid and poverty ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"V1ITOmhU","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Hunter, 2010a)","plainCitation":"(Hunter, 2010a)","dontUpdate":true,"noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":"Hyf0IpmV/pWc9ZY1Y","uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/cYhHNKoU/items/I2YFWEAL"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/cYhHNKoU/items/I2YFWEAL"],"itemData":{"id":231,"type":"book","title":"Love in the time of AIDS: inequality, gender, and rights in South Africa","publisher":"Indiana University Press","ISBN":"0-253-00481-0","author":[{"family":"Hunter","given":"Mark"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2010"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Hunter, 2010). Mark argues that the racial rule not only weakens men but also has deep psychological impacts on the ideas of manhood.

In the article “Loving in a time of hopelessness: on township women’s subjectivities in a time of HIV/AIDS” by Nthabiseng Motsemme, discusses the increasing rates of HIV/AIDS among the young and adult citizens of democratic South Africa. The writer suggests that in the last three decades, South Africa became famous throughout the world for having the highest rates of HIV/infection rates. The area which was affected the most by this thread of increasing HIV infection rates was KwaZuluNatal. Because of the severity of the conditions of poverty, lack of medical equipment and a constant threat of death looming over their heads, the interest on studying the subject increased a lot in the past few years. However, the lives of many women are continuously under threat as they are living in highly strained and contaminated conditions. On a daily basis, they have the risk to go through death experiences and extensive desire of intimacy has proved even more dangerous. Apart from changing trends of intimacy and its effects on women's lives, research also focuses on the flawed activities of many young women. Young girls, nowadays, are trying to remake their social connections under the huge threat of AIDS. The research has focused on the social and historical backgrounds of African women and analyzed sexual fantasies and practices of young girls. The writer further focused on the issues caused by these activities on relationships, choices, risks, love, community interactions, personhood, risk of exposition towards epidemics and childbearing. The author has also tried to generate ideas based on the cultural framework of African women. Mark Hunter has discussed the issues of independence, rights, and wrongs of women based on equality, geography and social divisions. The added unemployment has destabilized levels of interventions between men and women. The apartheid policy has further created differences between men and women based on male dominance. In the course of increased and generalized unemployment, marriages continued to struggle after the introduction of the policy. The tendency for men to work, earn a living out of it and make a woman happy became less important. The concept of marriages dwindled even further as it meant more responsibilities and financial pressure. The path for women to be economically independent became even more difficult due to difficult economic conditions.

In the article “Global Woman Nannies, Maids, and Sex Workers in the New Economy” the authors Barbara Ehrenreich and Arlie Russell Hochschild discuss the current issues that women are facing overseas. The authors discuss that women are migrating from poor countries to developed nations in search of work, where they work as maids to raise other people’s children, however, they leave their children behind to suffer ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"o3ihYPKb","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Ehrenreich, Hochschild, & Kay, 2003)","plainCitation":"(Ehrenreich, Hochschild, & Kay, 2003)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":"Hyf0IpmV/IHS4uNce","uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/cYhHNKoU/items/LH2M7J3V"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/cYhHNKoU/items/LH2M7J3V"],"itemData":{"id":238,"type":"book","title":"Global woman: Nannies, maids, and sex workers in the new economy","publisher":"Macmillan","ISBN":"0-8050-6995-X","author":[{"family":"Ehrenreich","given":"Barbara"},{"family":"Hochschild","given":"Arlie Russell"},{"family":"Kay","given":"Shara"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2003"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Ehrenreich, Hochschild, & Kay, 2003). They have a choice where they leave their country and earn a living for themselves and provide food for their children but do not get a chance to raise them. The other option these women have is to raise their children but in a very difficult situation. The author further discusses that knowingly or unknowingly, many women are pushed into prostitution so that they can earn money because of the dire situation of poverty that they are in. Mark Hunter also raised the issue of migration of poor white girls from rural areas and towns who faced the issue of meager industrial wages and were forced into prostitution ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"1ooIeaeK","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Hunter, 2010a)","plainCitation":"(Hunter, 2010a)","dontUpdate":true,"noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":"Hyf0IpmV/pWc9ZY1Y","uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/cYhHNKoU/items/I2YFWEAL"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/cYhHNKoU/items/I2YFWEAL"],"itemData":{"id":231,"type":"book","title":"Love in the time of AIDS: inequality, gender, and rights in South Africa","publisher":"Indiana University Press","ISBN":"0-253-00481-0","author":[{"family":"Hunter","given":"Mark"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2010"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Hunter, 2010). Education and awareness was the most important step that not only promoted safe sex but there was also a massive state investment aimed at schools during the apartheid era. It is notable today that the unemployment rate among white is 4.6 percent while in Africans it is 42.5 percent While the percentage of marriages is at the same proportion in both communities.

In the section “Love as Connection; Social Network and Connection in An Ambiguous Economy” of his book, Hunter used the reference from the article “The Heart is Unknown Country”. The author LA Rebhun discusses the issue of the Caruaruensus people that migrated in the past 30 years, and their economies and style of communication were significantly better than people living in modern cities. However, the northeast cities and towns had emotional and economic conditions that were very similar to that of rural areas in the past. According to the author, people do not consider love as a singularity. Love is considered as a declaration of meaningful emotions that cover a variety of feelings on togetherness in the form of a continuous chain of stories ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"y4UvYGRw","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Rebhun, 1999)","plainCitation":"(Rebhun, 1999)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":"Hyf0IpmV/HqaKNND0","uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/cYhHNKoU/items/QYSR875U"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/cYhHNKoU/items/QYSR875U"],"itemData":{"id":239,"type":"book","title":"The heart is unknown country: Love in the changing economy of northeast Brazil","publisher":"Stanford University Press","ISBN":"0-8047-4555-2","author":[{"family":"Rebhun","given":"Linda-Anne"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1999"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Rebhun, 1999). There is also a great difference between love motivated by emotions and that motivated by economic gains and pleasures, according to Christian theology. Mark Hunter described the explanation of AIDS through the influences of politics and the economy. However, he also believed that this notion also fails to explain the greater movements of women in society. This ignorance has resulted in an increase of AIDS prevalence from 1 percent to 30 percent in pregnant women.

References

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Connell, R. W., & Messerschmidt, J. W. (2005). Hegemonic masculinity: Rethinking the concept. Gender & Society, 19(6), 829–859.

Ehrenreich, B., Hochschild, A. R., & Kay, S. (2003). Global woman: Nannies, maids, and sex workers in the new economy. Macmillan.

Giddens, A. (2013). The transformation of intimacy: Sexuality, love, and eroticism in modern societies. John Wiley & Sons.

Hunter, M. (2010). Love in the Time of AIDS: inequality, gender, and rights in South Africa. Indiana University Press.

Jackson, S. (2003). Heterosexuality, heteronormativity and gender hierarchy: Some reflections on recent debates. Sexualities and Society: A Reader, 69–83.

Meyer, I. H. (2001). Why lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender public health? American Journal of Public Health, 91(6), 856.

Parker, R. (2001). Sexuality, culture, and power in HIV/AIDS research. Annual Review of Anthropology, 30(1), 163–179.

Rebhun, L.-A. (1999). The heart is unknown country: Love in the changing economy of northeast Brazil. Stanford University Press.

Satz, D. (1995). Markets in women’s sexual labor. Ethics, 106(1), 63–85.

Treichler, P. A. (1991). AIDS, Africa, and cultural theory. Transition, (51), 86–103.

Subject: Geography

Pages: 10 Words: 3000

12 1a

Environmental Discourse

[Name]

[Institution]

[Date]

Environmental Discourse

The environmental crisis has given birth to a common environmental discourse and according to Mühlhäusler and Peace (2006) discourse is a shared way for a group of people to understand the world around them. This understands is rooted in the language being used to explain that particular crisis. Language is used to interpret the world around us and then those interpretations will lead to a final decision. The environmental crisis could also be solved by this habit of discourse building. Mühlhäusler and Adrian Peace (2006) further say that environmental discourse could occur because the environmental issue is a social problem and it is not an issue of a single person.

There are various stakeholders who are facing this issue who could have a different perception of the problem and could have different ways to solve this issue.

Mühlhäusler and Peace (2006) discussed the concept of environmental discourse and they also declared language as a binding force between human beings and the environment. They analyzed that environment has an impact on the health and overall wellbeing of a human so it needs to be studied under a common discourse.

Maarten and Versteeg (2005) define discourse that it is used in various meaning and for them, it is the analysis of the regularities of linguistics and they have related it with environmental politics. According to them, it is the set of ideas which are necessary to describe a social phenomenon. They further discuss discourse analyses and said that it is the study of a specific language in use and this language is used to identify the common phenomenon.

Both of the papers of Maarten and Versteeg (2005) and that of the Mühlhäusler and Peace (2006) refer to designing common environmental discourse as to mitigate the current environmental risks and to lessen down the current environmental issues.

The research paper of Maarten and Versteeg (2005) has highlighted three strengths of discourse analysis and these are the role of language in politics, it emboldens in practices and its ability to answer the question starts with how. The write up also reveals some challenges to the discourse analyses and says that the nature of policymaking is changing and discourse analyses will identify a totally new version of politics and it will help to analyze the dynamics of politics as well.

The contribution of discourse analyses to the study of environmental politics

Maarten and Versteeg (2005) that nature is a very important cultural object for human beings. The relationship of human with nature is a social connection. They said that nature is not something that is there by default but it is a norm, a memory, and an image and thus discourse analysis has a focus on the rhetoric of nature. Considering nature as an external entity has left the responsibilities of nature on some human beings like the poet, laymen or the architects. But if nature is considered as a cultural artifact then it would be considered a duty of the whole human population to take care of it.

Discourse analyses in an environmental policy filed will help to identify the role of environmental politics and will help to include the environment in the objectives of the policymakers. It will be a pioneer of policy outcomes. Maarten and Versteeg (2005) explain the worth of language and say that language can make politics; it will design signs and symbols that will shift the power to create harmless events in order to have less political conflicts.

Mühlhäusler and Peace (2006) say that green economic policies, green advertising, and green consumerism are all discussed under environmental politics and have suggested four categories along with the political discourse in order to solve the challenges of environmental crisis. These are problem-solving, sustainability, survivalism, and green radicalism. Their study also highlights the significant features of the environmental discourse and they have explained it interim of ethnography like,

The communications tools in an ethnographic study are used for observation and this ethnographic study includes those study that has not yet been given any attention.

The environmental moments have transferred to social moments. And this issue has been transformed from a cultural phenomenon and became the concept of environmental politics emerged in response to the realist way of tackling the environmental issues. As said by Hajer (2005) that the explanation of the environmental crisis was based on power of the parties involved in the decision makings group. The method of analyzing the environmental issues used by the realists have kept the government apart from these issues and they were of the opinion that the government was taking steps too little and too late.

The Hajer (2005) further says that British government was not willing to accept the fact of the sculpture dioxide and the nitrogen oxide emitted by the power stations of coal were creating the incident of acid raining in Europe. The study says that a conflict of interest was not allowing the government to tackle this issue. The study had tried to analyze the acid rain controversy by using discourse analysis. The approaches to pollution that compete for dominance in the land of British environmental politics. To solve this issue the study has suggested an approach of “traditional pragmatist in order to better design the Institutions arrangements for pollution control in the country.

The environmental crisis like the acid- rain issue cannot be solved by relating it to a particular identity but rather the perspective of the local people will be taken into consideration while designing environmental policies. In politics, various elements are drawn from a various group of people so there is no central discourse to focus on in a political set up. But natural science plays an important role in environmental politics and it makes a very accurate form of discourse. The discourse made by natural science makes a centralized discourse but again people with diverse backgrounds have various ideas that are being neglected in policy analysis (Howarth & Torfing, 2004).

The discourse not only pays attention to the content being communicated but to the form of the linguistics used as well. Both of these factors need the socio-political and economic conditions of society (Weingart, Engels, & Pansegrau, 2000).

Instrumentalism in Environmental discourse:

As said by Mühlhäusler and Peace (2006) environmental discourse has various speech forms and various channels. Due to the involvement of many groups in developing an environmental discourse this phenomenon has widened its approach. It has now included media as well to reach to the massive and to grip their ideas in order to make policies against environmental issues.

Media:

Researcher shows that media plays an important role in developing information and shaping the awareness of the public regarding environmental issues so media should be included in the public agenda (Carvalho, 2010).

The concept of globalization and the emerging power of media has to boost up the development of environmental discourse. The multimedia structure of the globe fully embeds the environmental discourse. Media helps to capture some ecological changes but the relevant factors cannot be understood by everyone around the globe. Due to a lack of common language and this type of linguistic restriction mostly creates stereotyping and gives birth to information not entailing proper facts and figures. The connection between the message given by the media and its audience should be strengthened by the help of media ecology. An eco-advocacy text should be sent to make the concern of the audience clear to make them a party of the discourse (Mühlhäusler & Peace, 2006).

Form of Speeches:

Little attention was given to all the dialects and accents used in the speeches and the environmental discourse is also in the English language. Although environmental issues affect the middle class more and those people have various forms of languages so a common standard of writing and speech should be identified in order to discuss the issue of environmental crisis (Mühlhäusler & Peace, 2006).

Genre:

The traditional genres like the myth, narrative, and sermon are replaced with new ones like the Environmental Impact Assessment. But Narratives have always been considered as a source to reduce the complexities in a text. The study of Mühlhäusler and Peace (2006) has included narrative as a framework and the idea of folk tales, stories give a set value that can be used to understand the history of environmental crisis and can be helpful to develop new. Likewise, Environmental history has been an important genre from decades.

Norms of interaction:

Western experts have explained the environmental matters in respect to their eco-missionaries and their imperialistic mindsets. The western specialists are ignoring the fact that scientific knowledge could be bound to culture and those findings could not be right about another culture. So the western assumptions of environmental crisis could not be applicable in a different country with a different culture.

There are two opposing communication models that could help to understand the interaction of environmental matters. One is the model used in the scientist, economic and political discourse to communicate the message of the experts to the common people. In such a model the developed part of the society make policies that are then communicated and applied to the developing world. This model could create a crisis between the two classes because of the norm. Language and the overall culture of developing countries are different from developed countries.

The study of Maarten and Versteeg (2005) says that different communities have different interactive norms and lack of a common norm makes it impossible to implement the policies of the developed world to the rest of the world. The norms that have shaped the environmental discourse are also following the belief system of the developed world by focusing more on the developed world. Thus people in the west belief in scientific discoveries more than the political thoughts over the green discourse.

corporate bodies have also included the scientific explanation of green discourse while displaying their products. The products that are out in the market are showing environmental claims and such acts make the decision process regarding environmental crisis even more difficult.

Role of Metaphor studies:

The limitation of environmental understanding could also be drawn from the fact that the scholars of the field pay huge attention to environmental myths. The different sorts of environment discourse are being understood on the bases of metaphors. Root metaphors are used either to distinguish various sort of environmental discourse or it can be targeted for criticism.

Conclusion

The relationship between discourse and environment could be considered by the help of the linguistic devices, who are helpful to explain environmental crisis. Most of the discourse focuses on pleasing human and have been used to examine environmental politics.

However, the political filed s are changing but the solutions to the various environmental issue can no more be found within the limits of the nation-state where environmental debates take place in institutes that are driven by power. So the middle class should be made the part of policymaking in order to tackle environmental issues.

References

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[["http://zotero.org/users/local/LY9XXHSK/items/R4RYCDKP"],["http://zotero.org/users/local/LY9XXHSK/items/E58DNWW5"]],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Carvalho, A. (2010). Media (ted) discourses and climate change: a focus on political subjectivity and (dis) engagement. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 1(2), 172–179.

Hajer, M. A. (2005). Coalitions, practices, and meaning in environmental politics: From acid rain to BSE. In Discourse theory in European politics (pp. 297–315). Springer.

Hajer, M., & Versteeg, W. (2005). A decade of discourse analysis of environmental politics: Achievements, challenges, perspectives. Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning, 7(3), 175–184.

Howarth, D., & Torfing, J. (2004). Discourse theory in European politics: Identity, policy and governance. Springer.

Mühlhäusler, P., & Peace, A. (2006). Environmental discourses. Annu. Rev. Anthropol., 35, 457–479.

Weingart, P., Engels, A., & Pansegrau, P. (2000). Risks of communication: discourses on climate change in science, politics, and the mass media. Public Understanding of Science, 9(3), 261–284.

Subject: Geography

Pages: 6 Words: 1800

12 A3

12 a3

[Name]

[Institution]

[Date]

12 a3

The science of climate change is going to be changed by the White House

Climate change is a global issue and various regulations have been set on countries that are involved in global warming. However, Trump’s administration has tried several times to dismantle the climate change regulations. Trump administration has attacked climate science and the president has pulled back the United States from Paris Climate accord. The White House is also denying the facts about climate change and is considering “global warming” as a punch, not a prognosis. Mr. Trump has not even followed his predecessors and is going to introduce a new assault (“The White House Plan to Change Climate Science - The New York Times,” n.d.).

Moreover, the White House will finish their rollback of a federal effort started by the Obama administration to control the emission of greenhouse gas. Trump’s administration will implement the hard view of the president regarding climate change. Recently Trump has refused to sign a communiqué that was meant to protect the increasing melting of the Arctic region. Mr. Trump is abandoning the causes of dangerously warming of the earth. So the federal government of the United States will not accept the science of climate change (“The White House Plan to Change Climate Science - The New York Times,” n.d.).

The attack of the federal government in the science of climate is based on the assumptions of a petroleum geologist and the former astronaut James Reilly. He says that scientists have used computer-generated models to explain the impact of climate change until 2040 rather than checking it until the end of the century. He says scientists are not giving the accurate picture of climate change and the impact of the current emissions will show their impact after 2040. The model presented by the scientists shows that global warming will increase at the same rate until 2050 but until the end of this century the rate of warming will differ with respect to an increase or decrease in the emission of carbon gas (“The White House Plan to Change Climate Science - The New York Times,” n.d.).

However, the powerful regime of Donald Trump is implementing the approach of Environmental racism on the rest of the world. As the environmental decision is made by the powerful societies and is implemented on the less privileged societies. The costs of environmental benefits are paid by the poor people and industrial policies are made by the rich class in their favor. The environmental policies of the United States provide benefits to the white people but still, the consequences of climate change are affecting the livelihood of the whole public(Robert, 2000).

The current dominant institutes are unable to control the environmental changes and the environment is no longer considered as an issue many. Ecological problems are spreading rapidly and the current capitalism is also becoming friendly towards the environment. As capitalism is dependent on economic growth and without that investment is not possible. If economic growth did not happen then capitalism will be the reason for unemployment, political instabilities and inequality among the public (Dryzek, 1992).

But if ecological limits are implemented then growth will cease and the market price system will fluctuate. The only shift to growth would be applicable if environmental friendly measures are adopted by the capitalists (Dryzek, 1992).

However, sustainable developed could be taken into account by the help of environmental, social, economic and institutional imperatives (“Sustainable Development, Volume 21, Number 2,” 2013). Thus environmental and social responsibilities cannot be neglected in order to get institutional and economic benefits.

The consequences of climate changes could be worse for countries like the United States if significant steps are not taken by the government. The United State should play a leading role in controlling carbon emission but the current government is mocking the consequences of climate change and the science behind it.

References

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Dryzek, J. S. (1992). Ecology and discursive democracy: Beyond liberal capitalism and the administrative state. Capitalism Nature Socialism, 3(2), 18–42.

Robert, D. B. (2000). Dumping In Dixie Race, Class, And Environmental Quality. (3rd ed.).

Sustainable Development , Volume 21, Number 2. (2013). Sustainable Development, 21(3), 206–206. https://doi.org/10.1002/sd.1564

The White House Plan to Change Climate Science - The New York Times. (n.d.). Retrieved July 2, 2019, from https://www.nytimes.com/2019/05/29/podcasts/the-daily/trump-climate-science.html

Subject: Geography

Pages: 2 Words: 600

12 F

Economic Impact on Environmental Geography

[Author’s name]

Economic Impact on Environmental Geography

Introduction

Environmental geography is recognized as one of the crucial branches of geography. It is one important prospect of consideration because it is used to define the prevailing connection between human beings and the environment. Today, the importance of approach of environmental geography increased because human interaction with the natural world is expanding over time. This form of geography, also known as integrated geography because it focuses on critically discuss the prevailing connection between humans and the world. Undoubtedly, it is interesting to examine how the increasing role of human beings can influence the overall functioning of the natural environment. Environmental geography, as the crucial form of geography, can be used to understand different dimensions of involvement of humans with the natural environmental systems ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"z73GSa1B","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Chilvers, 2009)","plainCitation":"(Chilvers, 2009)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2046,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/SGHRXHHP"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/SGHRXHHP"],"itemData":{"id":2046,"type":"book","title":"Deliberative and participatory approaches in environmental geography","publisher":"Wiley Online Library","ISBN":"1-4051-5622-8","author":[{"family":"Chilvers","given":"Jason"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2009"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Chilvers, 2009). Proper investigation in the form of environmental geography can be helpful to identify all the environmental issues that appear due to the existence of an improper connection between humans and the surrounding environment. It is vital to observe how different domains in the form of humans’ involvement can cause growing concern for the natural approach of the world. Consideration of the environmental geography further assists to figure out various aspects of environmental politics. It is necessary to critically examine how different paradigms of environmental politics have the tendency to influence the environment. Here the particular aim is to critically analyze the economic impact on environmental geography in the context of the international political scale.

Discussion

Many former research studies in the field of geography made it clear for the world that the natural environment is gradually changing contrasting to its basic functioning. Today’s natural environment is different from the past years. There are many reasons for this particular change in nature and increasing human interaction with the natural world is one of them. It is vital to evaluate how the prospect of integration in different forms can impact the operations of the natural environment.

Concept of Environmental Geography

At the first step, there is a need for examining the actual meaning of the environmental geography. This form of understanding eventually helps to identify the particular factors that impact the operations of the environment when it comes to human integration. The study of environmental geography provides the foundations to understand different components or characteristics of the environment when human beings enhance their interactions with those domains. In other words, the phenomenon of environmental geography is developed to examine various aspects of interrelationships that exist between living organisms and the natural approach of the environment ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"2EgDijPr","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Knox, Marston, & Imort, 2016)","plainCitation":"(Knox, Marston, & Imort, 2016)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2047,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/K9I3ZD9W"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/K9I3ZD9W"],"itemData":{"id":2047,"type":"book","title":"Human geography: Places and regions in global context","publisher":"Pearson New York","ISBN":"1-292-10947-5","author":[{"family":"Knox","given":"Paul L."},{"family":"Marston","given":"Sallie A."},{"family":"Imort","given":"Michael"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Knox, Marston, & Imort, 2016).

Timely assessment of the various components of the earth is integral to identify potential problems. This form of understanding eventually helps to find out possible solutions concerning the protectiveness of the natural world. The main goal of this form of examination is to propose better solutions to different environmental problems. These specific problems can observe in many different forms, such as environmental pollution, natural calamities, waste management, etc.

Economic Impact on Environmental Geography

It is critical to establish how different economic factors at the global level can influence the overall approach of environmental geography. When it comes to the interaction between human beings and the natural environment, then complications of economic aspect can never ignore. The structure of the economy recognized as the major criteria to make inferences about the sustainability approach for the environment. The institutional perspective of geography can never consider complete without focusing on the economic aspects. It is observed that different economic development ultimately impact the functioning of the natural environment in different and crucial forms. Changes in the ecological system can better apprehend through the involvement of an economic perspective in the whole scenario ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"svOKuatE","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Demeritt, 2009)","plainCitation":"(Demeritt, 2009)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2048,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/X2KG78F7"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/X2KG78F7"],"itemData":{"id":2048,"type":"article-journal","title":"From externality to inputs and interference: framing environmental research in geography","container-title":"Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers","page":"3-11","volume":"34","issue":"1","author":[{"family":"Demeritt","given":"David"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2009"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Demeritt, 2009). The concept of environmental geography offers the consideration of modern perspectives that appears in the form of changes in the environment.

Various forms of economic resources are utilized by humans to enhance the integration with the natural environment. The influence of economic approach on the environment is established as a global discourse that comprised of countries’ attempt to influence different characteristics of the natural environment. Nations focus their social, political, and economic policies to effectively handle different concerns that appear in case of the functioning of the environment. The growing concern of climate change can be established as a suitable example to discuss the impact of economic aspects concerning the broad concept of environmental geography. All the countries at the global level actively involve the issue of climate changes. Different measures are adopting by different authorities to ensure the suitable transition of climate change. It is significant to establish how the economic domain impacts the perspective of environmental geography, considering the involvement of humans in different components of the environment. A better understanding of the main topic is only possible by critically examining different associated aspects in a detailed manner.

The Significance of the Topic

Assessment of the actual significance of the economic impact in the context of environmental geography is necessary. It is essential to figure out that different economic decisions can impact the overall approach of the environment. The proper combination of the political and economic domains is established as an essential condition when it comes to addressing different ecological problems. Climate change is characterized as one major concern considering the overall paradigm of environmental geography. Different political and economic developments are adopted by nations to attain the institutional environmental forms in a revolutionary manner ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"yCnED55k","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Dryzek, 1992)","plainCitation":"(Dryzek, 1992)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2043,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/JDXU95GB"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/JDXU95GB"],"itemData":{"id":2043,"type":"article-journal","title":"Ecology and discursive democracy: Beyond liberal capitalism and the administrative state","container-title":"Capitalism Nature Socialism","page":"18-42","volume":"3","issue":"2","author":[{"family":"Dryzek","given":"John S."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1992"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Dryzek, 1992). The phenomenon of climate change defines the issue of global warming that greatly impacts all the regions of the world.

The age of development brings different and crucial forms of changes in the context of the environment. The scenario of growing development cause different changes in the environment that impacts living approaches of human beings. Growing competition between nations about the global ecological systems in the example of the prevailing connection between economic domains and the overall approach of the environmental geography. The growing involvement between humans and the natural environment can identify in the form of climate change. This specific issue recognized as the major threat for the economies operating at a global level. The complication of the issue can appear in further forms such as the rise of sea level and various types of pollution that greatly linked with the economic approach adopted by the countries.

The growing concerns in case of environmental geography increase the interest level of the countries to invest a huge amount of money on the prospect of forecasting. The phenomenon of anticipation of the environmental changes ultimately helps stakeholders to take necessary measures according to the actual requirements. Today, capitalism is established as the recognized economic system adopted by the countries at the global level. This specific approach is closely linked with the changing spectrum of the environment that appears in various forms. Modern forms of environmental, political economy comprised of the requirements of enhancement of environmental goods and new perspective of resource management. Growth and economic development are the major ideas that prevail for the countries in the form of capitalism. It is observed that nations at the global level are greatly interested to invest their resources concerning the objective of economic growth. The increasing trend of economic development at the global level ultimately impact the natural functioning of the environment. Ecological operations are used by the countries as the instrument to enhance the idea of economic development.

The portrayal of Topic on Media

Media is established as the major pillar to discuss different social, economic, and political aspects at both national and internal level. Consideration of the media reports on the issue of economic impact and the environmental geography can be helpful to observe different opinions in this regard. Evaluation of different media narratives helps to identify how the connection of economic impact and environmental geography is described by the entity of media. The knowledge in the form of media reports helps to better understand the phase of development and how it is received by different countries to get an advantage of the global competition ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"pcMZVrVW","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Stanford\\uc0\\u8217{}s School of Earth, Energy & Environmental Sciences, 2019)","plainCitation":"(Stanford’s School of Earth, Energy & Environmental Sciences, 2019)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2044,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/FDSGQLUU"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/FDSGQLUU"],"itemData":{"id":2044,"type":"webpage","title":"Climate change has worsened global economic inequality","container-title":"Sciencedaily.com","author":[{"family":"Stanford's School of Earth, Energy & Environmental Sciences","given":""}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Stanford’s School of Earth, Energy & Environmental Sciences, 2019). Environmental issues are actively raised by the media to enhance the awareness about the potential hazards involves in case of growing connection between humans and the natural approach of the environment. It is vital to examine how different forms of human development can cause damage to the environment, and it requires huge financial investment to address these concerns. The important role of the media can examine through the detailed explanation of the issue of climate change. The threats of climate change in the context of economic prospect are under consideration with the objective of saving the natural environment ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"2SSFNeee","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(London School of Economics, 2018)","plainCitation":"(London School of Economics, 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2045,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/KPIQYSCH"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/KPIQYSCH"],"itemData":{"id":2045,"type":"webpage","title":"Economic models significantly underestimate climate change risks","container-title":"Sciencedaily.com","author":[{"family":"London School of Economics","given":""}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (London School of Economics, 2018). It is established that growing concern of climate change in different forms eventually increases the issue of economic inequality at the global level. The gap between the richest and poorest countries is expanding that is closely relevant to the nations; approaches towards economic development.

Consideration of Relevant Ideologies and Theories

Various researchers adopted different theories to make inferences about the existing association with the economic paradigm and environmental geography. Ecological modernization is the concept that provides an indication of the changing aspects of the environment. The facets of developments are the basic aspects of consideration. It is one emerging idea that reflects the perspectives of environmental change and political paradigms. The ideologies of modernism and development can be used to critically examine the impact of changing the face of environmental geography. The idea of development closely related to the consideration of the technological advancement that ultimately impacts the functioning of the natural environment. The theoretical grounds of modernization makes it essential to critically analyze the idea of development in the context of technological change that is linked with the sensitive perspective of the environment ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"OlZNpsz4","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Christoff, 1996)","plainCitation":"(Christoff, 1996)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2039,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/5C5QG8WZ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/5C5QG8WZ"],"itemData":{"id":2039,"type":"article-journal","title":"Ecological modernisation, ecological modernities","container-title":"Environmental politics","page":"476-500","volume":"5","issue":"3","author":[{"family":"Christoff","given":"Peter"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1996"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Christoff, 1996). Exploration of the prevailing connection between modernity and ecological system is effective theoretical foundations to analyze the economic impact in the scenario of the environment.

Consideration of development theory is vital to make inferences about the facet of ecological sustainability. This form of consideration is essential because the idea of sustainability-related to the economic perspectives of the countries. Development theory is feasible to approach to assess different economic aspects exists in the form of the progress of science, technology, and consumer behavior under the context of ecological modernization. Combination of the modernity and ecology can be a helpful perspective to identify the changing requirements of the environment. This specific phenomenon further helps to examine how these changes influence the operations of the environment in both short-run and long run. This form of understanding also assists to measure the magnitude of the risk that nations have to face in the form of economic and political scenarios ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"QFbPr2OW","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Tol, 2012)","plainCitation":"(Tol, 2012)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2042,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/YH5NTAMN"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/YH5NTAMN"],"itemData":{"id":2042,"type":"article-journal","title":"On the uncertainty about the total economic impact of climate change","container-title":"Environmental and Resource Economics","page":"97-116","volume":"53","issue":"1","author":[{"family":"Tol","given":"Richard SJ"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2012"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Tol, 2012). Application of the development theory is proposed by former researchers to measure the impact of the development on the nations in different social, economic, and political forms. The theoretical foundations of development theory can successfully use to determine the prevailing association between the changing face of the economy of the nation in the context of environmental alterations. Consideration of the economic theory is also vital to explore the potential risks involves in case of new economic approaches. Selection of this theoretical perspective ultimately helps to identify the existing relationship between the economic changes and the broad discipline of environmental geography. The theoretical foundations of the main idea to explore the functioning of different environmental characteristics in the context of increasing human involvement.

Various Debates on the Issue

The approach of economic impact and environmental geography come up with diverse approaches that turned as the debate. The prevailing association between these facets can examine in a different manner. It is observed that the outcomes of the change the ecological system turned as the controversy due to the prevalence of different approaches. The approach of economic impact in the context of environmental geography can examine by focusing on different domains of considerations. The diverse perspectives of the issue can better examine through the example of climate change. There is the existence of a different school of thought when it comes to the exploration of the actual impact of climate change in different political, social, and economic prospects ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"jMnM3N4R","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Hart, 2001)","plainCitation":"(Hart, 2001)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2040,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/HBZ64E63"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/HBZ64E63"],"itemData":{"id":2040,"type":"article-journal","title":"Development critiques in the 1990s: culs de sacand promising paths","container-title":"Progress in Human Geography","page":"649-658","volume":"25","issue":"4","author":[{"family":"Hart","given":"Gillian"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2001"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Hart, 2001). Different researchers adopted different characteristics of environmental geography to discuss the connection between human beings and the natural environment. This domain can also observe in case of the problem of climate change. The global ecosystem perspective comprised of different aspects of consideration that helps to identify the potential impact of political and economic domains.

Relevance to the Power Relation and Broad Economic Phenomenon

It is significant to examine how the approach of the environmental geography linked with the broad form of power relation and the economic phenomenon. Rich countries at global economic level used the prospect of an ecological system to gain as much influence as possible. Currently, the new forms of development used as the instruments by the nations to gain maximum economic share at the global business level ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"aYppTBJT","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Sachs, 1997)","plainCitation":"(Sachs, 1997)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2041,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/ESDIFXV2"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/ESDIFXV2"],"itemData":{"id":2041,"type":"book","title":"Development dictionary, The: A guide to knowledge as power","publisher":"Orient Blackswan","ISBN":"81-250-1135-8","author":[{"family":"Sachs","given":"Wolfgang"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1997"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Sachs, 1997). Economic development is used as the tool to gain more power at the international political level and influence other nations.

Environmental politics is the growing trend which is considered by economies to make their position strong and enhance the approach of power. Natural resources are used by humans to make their economic and political position strong in the global context. The prospect of environmental geography and the economic impact greatly linked with the great economic domain. This specific association exists at the global level to enhance the overall position by expanding authority. Attainment of different natural resources ultimately increases nations’ position to gain a competitive advantage in the global political and economic environment. Today, the perspectives of politically and economically powerful nations can never imagine without expanding the prevailing association with the environment.

Conclusion

In conclusion, it is worthy to indicate that the approach of environmental geography can be helpful to examine the existing relationship between humans and the natural environment in different crucial contexts. The prospect of economic perspective can never ignore as currently, countries are focusing to utilize natural resources to gain power at the global business level. Political aims can also be never achieved without the active focus on the approach of an ecological system. The current situation is also an indication of future directions that focus on the importance of the successful acquisition of natural resources.

References

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Chilvers, J. (2009). Deliberative and participatory approaches in environmental geography. Wiley Online Library.

Christoff, P. (1996). Ecological modernisation, ecological modernities. Environmental Politics, 5(3), 476–500.

Demeritt, D. (2009). From externality to inputs and interference: Framing environmental research in geography. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 34(1), 3–11.

Dryzek, J. S. (1992). Ecology and discursive democracy: Beyond liberal capitalism and the administrative state. Capitalism Nature Socialism, 3(2), 18–42.

Hart, G. (2001). Development critiques in the 1990s: Culs de sacand promising paths. Progress in Human Geography, 25(4), 649–658.

Knox, P. L., Marston, S. A., & Imort, M. (2016). Human geography: Places and regions in global context. Pearson New York.

London School of Economics. (2018). Economic models significantly underestimate climate change risks.

Sachs, W. (1997). Development dictionary, The: A guide to knowledge as power. Orient Blackswan.

Stanford’s School of Earth, Energy & Environmental Sciences. (2019). Climate change has worsened global economic inequality.

Tol, R. S. (2012). On the uncertainty about the total economic impact of climate change. Environmental and Resource Economics, 53(1), 97–116.

Subject: Geography

Pages: 8 Words: 2400

12 News

12 news

Ray

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Author Note

12 News 171

AFP. (2019, June 2). Donald Trump urges Britain to go for no-deal Brexit. Retrieved June 6, 2019, from The Economic Times: https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/international/world-news/donald-trump-urges-britain-to-go-for-no-deal-brexit/articleshow/69620726.cms

In the news report, Donald Trump recent advice to UK officials regarding Brexit is covered wherein he supported the view that the UK should simply walk away without paying any outstanding liabilities in case their negotiations with the EU do not prove fruitful. Although, the UK has agreed to pay nearly $50 billion, it has failed to find sufficient domestic political support for the divorce agreement, which in turn has caused multiple delays in the process.

The Brexit deal involved the UK parting ways with the EU following a public referendum in which a majority voted to leave. Since the EU and Britain have been close trading partners, Prime Minister Theresa tried to largely avoid an exit without a deal. Political parties as well as the public stand divided into the issue, however, the U.S. under President Trump has offered to extend their own trading relationship to make Brexit a success. These political developments are of serious concern to environmental stakeholders as negotiations between the EU, the UK, and the U.S., center heavily on competitive deregulation of various industries. It is possible for the UK to lower its environmental standards when enhancing trade with non-EU partners, under lower regulation levels.

ANI. (2019, June 7). India's forest cover increased by 1% in the last 5 years: Javadekar. Retrieved June 11, 2019, from The Economic Times: https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/environment/the-good-earth/indias-forest-cover-increased-by-1-in-the-last-5-years-javadekar/articleshow/69693261.cms

The news report discusses India's success with increasing its overall forest cover by 1% within the last 5 years. A key factor in the success is reported to be public participation wherein every single person was asked to contribute to planting at least 10 trees to protect the environment. In this regard, a ‘Selfie with Sapling’ initiative is being launched by the local government which encourages people to post their pictures on social media while planting a sapling.

The move is significant because globally high deforestation levels require increased efforts by communities to undertake practical measures to sustain and protect their land resources and forests. Community structures are highly valuable and useful channels for natural resource management of the lands they derive social and economic benefits from. The view that sees these resources as common property will inculcate a sense of shared responsibility to rehabilitate areas which are environmentally degraded and efficiently manage the use of sources. For this purpose, local community initiatives can significantly drive improvements and relieve pressures on governments.

Friedman, L. (2019, June 8). White House Tried to Stop Climate Science Testimony, Documents Show. Retrieved June 11, 2019, from The New York Times: https://www.nytimes.com/2019/06/08/climate/rod-schoonover-testimony.html?rref=collection%2Fsectioncollection%2Fclimate

In the news report, the White House’s move to block an Intelligence analyst from giving congressional testimony is discussed. The official was expected to discuss climate science that the reporter mentions was blocked because it contradicted the administration's policy and views about Climate Change. The view was that years of independent scientific data pointed to a long-term global warming trend.

The environment and climate policy of any nation significantly depends on their administration. The current U.S. administration already announced its plans to roll back some of the major environmental policy initiatives undertaken by the previous administration to reduce emissions. In such cases, economic considerations continue to mar efforts to prevent the planet's temperature from rising over the next few decades as a result of fossil fuel emissions. The results of these emissions would be substantially felt by 2040, and thus any attempt to politicize science by current and future administrations could lead to serious consequences.

Guardian Editorial. (2019, May 21). The Guardian view on Greens in Europe: hopeful signs. Retrieved from The Guardian: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/may/21/the-guardian-view-on-greens-in-europe-hopeful-signs

The Guardian in its recent editorial argues that the victory of pro-environment political parties in recent European elections could lead to significant positive developments in terms of environmental reforms. The green party's representation in the legislature has increased further which also demonstrates that a considerably large bloc of voters stands in recognition of the global environmental existential crises. The EU is known to be a major player in the global struggle for environmental progress, and the rising electoral strength of the Green party could further guide the EU towards an anti-carbon direction.

In many countries, certain political parties have a visibly greater commitment towards environment preservation and climate change compared to others. The success of Democrats in U.S. mid-term elections in the U.S. has led to a removal of fossil fuel subsidies and greater investment in pro-environment measures. Yet, as many quarters take the carbon-dependence issue seriously, many emerging economies such as India and Brazil have hardly any environmental agenda in their local politics.

Henley, J. (2019, May 28). European elections: triumphant Greens demand more radical climate action. Retrieved June 11, 2019, from The Guardian: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/may/28/greens-eu-election-mandate-leverage-climate-policy

The Guardian article also reports on the Green Party's success in creating better leverage in European parliaments to further push an agenda of social justice and climate action.

The success of the party indicates the deep concerns shared by a younger generation of voters regarding the climate crises. Moreover, the shrinking electoral power enjoyed by center-left and center-right groups now provides a way for the Green party to push for serious climate action.

In many western countries, green economics generally prioritizes ecological health as a key indicator of human well-being. Green policies generally exhibit a lack of trust in traditional capitalism which they see as a system which values economic growth and profit over environmental concerns and ecological health. Capitalism led economic growth ignores and often promotes damage to the Earth's biosphere, something that green politics seek to reverse. The view is supported by the rationale that any economic growth which promises an increase of material but lowers ecological health, in fact, reduce the overall quality of human life. The view aligns with several environmental theories, and the success of the Green party in Europe indicates a greater legitimacy of these claims in public opinion.

NOAA. (2019, June 4). Carbon dioxide levels in atmosphere hit record high in May. Retrieved June 10, 2019, from Science Daily: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/06/190604140109.htm

The article discusses the rising carbon dioxide content in the Earth’s atmosphere in the current year. In May the CO2 levels reached 414. ppm, a consecutive increase since several years. The sustained rise of CO2 levels in these long-term measurements is an accurate indicator of the effects of fossil fuel emissions in altering the climate. Moreover, environmentalists and researchers use these measurements to make and verify their climate model projections.

Currently, there is conclusive and abundant evidence to indicate that carbon emissions are behind climate change. However, the consumption and production taking place in the global economy are directly connected to energy, of which fossil fuels are a primary source. Any economic activity is therefore expected to create a rise in global emissions. For instance, electric power generation and the automobile industry are directly associated with many country's economic development and growth, yet remain the source of potentially harmful gases targeting the atmosphere. The rising CO2 levels each month should be a matter of genuine concern for governments and drive sustainable policies and innovations. The success of political parties that put the environment at the front of their agenda is an indicator that the indicators, mentioned in reports like these, are rapidly becoming a cause for concern among voters.

University of York. (2019, May 27). Antibiotics found in some of the world's rivers exceed 'safe' levels, global study finds. Retrieved June 11, 2019, from Science Daily: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/05/190527094120.htm

The article discusses findings of a recent study which discovered the presence of antibiotics at alarmingly high levels in over 65% of the sites monitored in 72 countries. In countries such as Bangladesh, the antibiotic concentration has risen up to 300 times the safe levels. Traces of common antibiotics such as Ciproflaxin had been found in over 51 places at unsafe levels.

Studies such as this reveal the risks of inadequate wastewater treatment systems and the adverse effects of sewage or waste dumps. The antimicrobial resistance issue is an increasingly concerning matter for policymakers and scientists, and such data indicates that contaminated rivers could be one major contributor towards the problem. Substantial investments have to be directed at wastewater treatment and management infrastructure and alongside stricter regulations to prevent contaminations. The presence of antibiotic elements within river systems could promote the development of resistance among bacteria populations that current life-saving antimicrobial medicines may not be able to treat. Such a situation warrants urgent improvements towards the management of hygiene and health services especially in lower-income nations to prevent antimicrobial resistance from developing, and in turn, creating illness.

Subject: Geography

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

12 Speech

12 Speech

Your Name (First M. Last)

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)

12 Speech

Main Points

The study deliberates the economic impact of climate change by utilizing a vote counting procedure to evaluate the density function of the overall economic impact as the parabolic function related to global warming. A significant amount of uncertainty exists pertinent to the implications of climate change up to 3◦C. Exceeding 3◦C will manifest adverse impacts while warmer temperature than 7◦C is likely to cause a welfare loss. The consequences of climate change are not strategically or critically comprehended in contemporary times. The enumerative method stipulates the physical impacts of climate change acquired through the papers of natural science. For instance, the cost of land lost and coastal protection is constituted by the rise in sea level which is postulated in the engineering literature. In this case, the economic ramifications highlight the value of land and cost of dike building. The alternative approach is statistical. It advances to specify the direct approximations of the welfare impacts by utilizing the observed variations in expenditures to discern the impact of climate. However, the enumerative approach harnesses the advantage it relies on the essential natural science experiments, data and models which persistently yield physically realistic results. The first figure demonstrates the chosen traits of the published estimates. The first aspect of agreement in the study is the welfare impact of the doubling of atmospheric concentration of the greenhouse emissions is relatively small on the economy these days. For instance, it is approximately equivalent to the year’s growth of the global economy. Besides, several studies have illustrated the initial advantages of the increase in temperature which are followed by disadvantages as the temperature rises further. The studies published after 1995 indicate the regions equipped with net gains and losses because of global warming but the earlier researches focused on net losses only ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"UvXdd1Am","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Tol, 2011)","plainCitation":"(Tol, 2011)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":335,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/yvjivw9i/items/4MAMZN7G"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/yvjivw9i/items/4MAMZN7G"],"itemData":{"id":335,"type":"report","title":"The Uncertainty about the Total Economic Impact of Climate Change","collection-title":"Papers","publisher":"Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI)","source":"ideas.repec.org","abstract":"This paper uses a vote-counting procedure to estimate the probability density function of the total economic impact as a parabolic function of global warming. There is a wide range of uncertainty about the impact of climate change up to 3ºC, and the information becomes progressively more diffuse beyond that. Warming greater than 3ºC most likely has net negative impacts, and warming greater than 7ºC may lead to a total welfare loss. The expected value of the social cost of carbon is about $29/tC in 2015 and rises at roughly 2% per year.","URL":"https://ideas.repec.org/p/esr/wpaper/wp382.html","number":"WP382","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Tol","given":"Richard S. J."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2011",4]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",5,11]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Tol, 2011). In addition, the uncertainty as per the studies is immense. Studies comprising the benchmark warming as 2.5◦C reflect an average approximation impact of the climate change on the standard deviation of 1.2% of GDP and output of -0.7% of GDP.

In all of the studies mentioned above, the economic losses are associated with direct costs after ignoring the partial equilibrium and general equilibrium effects. The instances of extreme climate scenarios comprise the disintegration of crucial ice sheets and the alteration of patterns of ocean circulation. The primary manifestations of the factors causing these changes or estimating the consequences of these changes are unknown. Besides, the impact of climate change in the long run is a grave concern yet unknown. A wide range of studies suggests the adverse implications of climate change are likely to accelerate until 2100. It can not only impact the biodiversity through the variations in precipitation and temperature but can also affect nutrient cycles, land use, the likelihood of incursion of habitats by alien species and ocean acidification. The growth ratio of the mean social cost of Caron throughout the 21st century is 1.99% each year as per the integrated assessment model of DICE99 ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"UvXdd1Am","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Tol, 2011)","plainCitation":"(Tol, 2011)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":335,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/yvjivw9i/items/4MAMZN7G"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/yvjivw9i/items/4MAMZN7G"],"itemData":{"id":335,"type":"report","title":"The Uncertainty about the Total Economic Impact of Climate Change","collection-title":"Papers","publisher":"Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI)","source":"ideas.repec.org","abstract":"This paper uses a vote-counting procedure to estimate the probability density function of the total economic impact as a parabolic function of global warming. There is a wide range of uncertainty about the impact of climate change up to 3ºC, and the information becomes progressively more diffuse beyond that. Warming greater than 3ºC most likely has net negative impacts, and warming greater than 7ºC may lead to a total welfare loss. The expected value of the social cost of carbon is about $29/tC in 2015 and rises at roughly 2% per year.","URL":"https://ideas.repec.org/p/esr/wpaper/wp382.html","number":"WP382","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Tol","given":"Richard S. J."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2011",4]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",5,11]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Tol, 2011).

Reflection on the Reading

The research study critically addresses the uncertainties pertaining to the net cost of climate change. It utilizes both the previous studies and the integrated assessment models to conclude and estimate the uncertainties. It is evident from the study that the incremental consequences for any warming are negative but can be avoided. However, climate change is highlighted as positive initially. It is essential to deliberate the significance of the published estimates for the study. They added to the study by postulating that climate change is not primarily a major problem. Meanwhile, these published studies predicted the approximations of 3.0◦C where actual value can be much larger. The key aspect in the study is the accumulation of primary estimates to establish the probability density functions on the impact of warming as 1.0, 2.5 and 3.0◦C. The utilization of vote-counting was also critical instead of Bayesian updating as the fundamental purpose was the preservation of widespread uncertainty. The ambiguity related to carbon is an explicit illustration of uncertainty which is growing over time. The subsidization of the greenhouse gases cannot be excluded yet the estimated value of the social cost of carbon refers to a carbon text. As per the research studies conducted in the readings, the carbon tax begins at $30/tC and advances at 2% each year.

Furthermore, it is imperative to highlight the limitations of the study. There existed several limitations which highlight the areas to be assessed in the future researches. First, only the uncertainty related to the economic impact of climate change was assessed. A critical appraisal of the study reflects that the uncertainty about the future concentrations and emission is completely disregarded. Likewise, the variations in the vulnerability to climate change were also overlooked which is often deemed a modulated of climate change. Since the fourteen studies in the readings did not mention this factor, it is not discussed or estimated. One of the major aspects is the lack of policy implications. In addition to the social cost of carbon, the carbon tax should have been levied. These limitations pave the path for future research which ought to focus on these aspects to comprehend the intricate implications of the climate change on the welfare loss by reaching global warming. Likewise, it is critical to shedding light on the models and methods used by the researcher. The vote-counting method is used as it does not narrow the uncertainties rapidly.

Contemporary Instances Pertinent to the Issue

A special study published by the United Nations highlighted the economic implications of climate change. In 2017, California promulgated legislation stating utilities to have 100% renewable energy power until 205. The emissions by Britain declined back to 1894 levels in 2016. After the surge of technologies as the electric cars and offshore wind in the market, the potential of drastic shifts in the economy is also accelerating. These instances are likely to make climate politics further existential and less distributed. It is essential to differentiate between the distributed and existential paradigm. The distribution politics can be related with the reading as it underpins the climate politics comprising the confrontation over cap emissions or tax carbons, subsidies on several types of energy and the estimated worth required to be transferred by developed states to the prone states. This political aspect is primarily a confrontation between the most vulnerable entities and environmentalists. The energy-intensive sectors and fossil fuel producers are also critical to change the economic implications and further accelerate the uncertainties. In the contemporary era, the insurance corporations, military bases, agriculture and property holders are already getting affected by the adverse economic impacts. With the passage of time, the damage is likely to enhance which is directly proportional to the economic distortion. The formulation of long-term strategies is essential as it will protect the most vulnerable sectors like real estate, agriculture and insurance. Since the events are uncertain in the future, it is imperative to expect the worst and prepare for it in true letter and spirits. The delay will not only affect the economy but also create a further burden on the taxpayers for reactive and expensive measures.

The other issue is the contemporary approach and progress of the United States of America (USA) on the issue of climate change and its implications on the economy. The policymakers have advanced to avoid the worst-case scenarios through mitigation to reduce the economic losses across the state. The extent of the economic harm is uncertain which can perhaps affect the economy till the very end of the century. However, the expert has revealed that behavioral and policy changes to curb the emissions can reduce the damage by half. As per the estimates, the control on emissions can reduce the losses by 48 % in 2090. A new venture of the National Climate Assessment that addresses the interest of the state highlight the critical implications for the agriculture sector. It contributes $136.7 billion directly in addition to 2.7 million jobs in the United States. In the case of economic adversities inflicted by climate change, the sector will receive detrimental impacts which are tied to both home and abroad. The reports published by NCA are entirely different from those published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change of the United Nations. The recent studies discuss the difference between the environment that warms 2 degrees and 1.5 degree Celsius. However, a few researchers have conducted studies to quantify the consequence of climate change on the corporations of the United States and the effectiveness to confront the impacts.

Two Questions

What are the prominent steps taken by developed states to curb the emissions? Assess the significance of those steps pertinent to the long-term impacts of climate change on the economy.

The International treaties and organizations are substantiating the economic advancement of the developed states in comparison to the non-developed states. Discuss the validity of this statement by evaluating the previous and contemporary economic impacts of those treaties and developments.

References

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Tol, R. S. J. (2011). The Uncertainty about the Total Economic Impact of Climate Change (No. WP382). Retrieved from the Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI) website: https://ideas.repec.org/p/esr/wpaper/wp382.html

Subject: Geography

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

31 Ethnography Proposal

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Ethnography Proposal

Introduction

The chief and important goal of this research is to center such technique where recognizable young peoples group are conceptualized, viewed and observed in the modern society when the research which reconnoiters their lives is conducted. This research concludes that it can be accomplished by identifying techniques that socially construct the childhoods, by applying young and children individuals human rights framework, and by appreciating the importance of adult and child relations (Ott, 2019). Socio-historical contextualization allows gratitude of the childs world view that is centered by adults. This paper debates that by observing childhood as the construction of society and highlighting the political, economic, and social contexts in the environment where the child lived it, delivers bases on which operational framework of this study is based.

This paper reflects upon the methodological approach and research design that is embraced in ethnographic research with youngsters. Specifically, this research paper strengthens the importance of conducting innovative methods and qualitative participatory with children and young people, along with the significance of relationship constructing. For this research, qualitative participatory techniques are undertaken in utmost suitable mode to respect, empower and motivate youngsters. Moreover, this paper scrutinizes several important considerations while conducting research on young people (Shildrick, 2006). Qualitative methods triangulation was significant in understanding and reconnoitering lives of youngsters in every locality. Moreover, it is permitted for meaningful and in-depth examinations of particular themes as well. Complementary, additional and corresponding methods that are employed with customary methods was specifically appropriate in understanding the everyday lives of young people because intricate experiences and practices are always not delivered by customary methods alone.

Literature Review

People who are young are regularly regulated, scrutinized, and monitored as they have not reached adulthood. Age of individuals is the basic factor in distribution of participation, rights, and power. Institutional dependence of the children on the grownups and their junior years of life have imposed limitations on their citizenship (Wilson, 2006). In addition, race, sexuality, gender, and structural relation of the class shape specific structures of the childhood and explain that not every childhood is universally practiced in the similar ways and that young age is a heterogeneous category (Shildrick, 2006). Influence of the class and specifically research of ethnography exposed that current sociological relativity of a place and a class is in understanding the experience that is lived (Wilson, 2006).

The preferred methodological tactic here dwells the youngsters at focused point of research like the experts in the worlds of their own. Ethnography is a method preferred by natural choice while conducting research with people that are young and children. Applying methods of ethnographic research extends and shares a tradition that is expressed by other researchers of youth when gratitude of the rights of young people and children is supreme (Threadgold, Coffey, Farrugia, 2019). This devotion to a framework surrounding young peoples and childrens human rights unambiguously recognizes that young people have right to speak out when they think or ponder, and their opinions should be taken into account according to UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. In this research, it is confirmed by the employing of qualitative methods that the youngsters were given an open chance to express perceptions, experiences and thoughts that concern with the safety, security and policing throughout the entire fieldwork. The government of the United States of America has implemented several procedural measures and policies to promote and incorporate the human rights of children. This has been supplemented by the growing use of participatory approaches and methods which aid the rights of young people and children to take part in the research actively. However, young people and children have never been viewed as dynamic builders of the social meaning (Threadgold, Coffey, Farrugia, 2019). Over the last 29 years, it has been seen that more advanced improvements in different means in which both youth and childhood of individuals are observed to have influence on the research (OReilly, 2009). The latest sociology of the childhood of individuals identified the discovery of youngsters and children as the agents. Moreover, few of the analysts debated it had placed young people and children in more focus within important characteristics of the social science research (Threadgold, Coffey, Farrugia, 2019). Methods for the research here represented a symptomatic of the more unambiguous approach that is based on the right which has become commonplace in the research of youth (Wilson, 2006). Although, the realistic standpoint of ethnography has been criticized for the lack and nature of the methodological consistency. Most of the criticism circles around the impact of the researcher on data and information by their existence in the platform and interpreting and recording of the observations (Shildrick, 2006). There is a possibility that bias and such implications may occur when the data is interpreted by the researcher (Ott, 2019). Other than that, tactics like triangulation, respondent validation, and reflexivity can be utilized which were the part of this study to evaluate rationality of the collected data and to lower any effect which is corrupting, and part of the researcher might have endorsed. Conceding the significance of the reflexivity where it is must for the researcher to interrogate their own role during the process of the research, it was applied to the entire process of research (OReilly, 2009).

Research Questions

Why it is of utmost necessary for young people to express and participate in the society

Why adults need to understand the place of young people in the society

How much respect is given to the opinions and participation of the youngsters in the society What is their place and how can they be given what they really deserve

Research Plan

Overall, the research is aimed to subsidize the contextualized understanding of conducts of peoples experience of policy and safety localities of their own. Ethnographic research on two coastal lands is to be conducted where people were aided by youth organizations. The age of the participants should be between 10 and 17. The range of methods that will be used to generate qualitative data such as focus groups, group discussions, semi-structured interviews, etc. Unstructured questionnaires will also be used to generate more data. Observational methods are also used to understand peoples perceptions and experiences. Wilson, a scholar, focuses on digging deep into the locality for the purpose of research and observing the people and their interactions with the youth organization. The objective of the research is to understand the modes of engagements of people with their own community members and locals. Observational methods have been employed in various research studies to in different countries, which involve observing the street children. The ability to directly record the participants behavior and the environment without having help by others is also of the great benefit as per the suggestions. Participant observation also proved to be an effective way which resulted in the better understanding and relationship building with younger people.

While conducting the experiential research, choosing of the most appropriate, suitable and right tools for the achievement of the reliable and valid data (precise and right answers to the queries) which is certainly not disturbed by the techniques of collection, it is of utmost significance along with the devotion to the conception of participation that is related with human rights (Wilson, 2006). It is expected that through the 13 months of thorough research, corresponding techniques will be employed on additional naturalistic, opportunistic and resourceful standard. Organizations of youth where most of the data will be gathered, are expected to be distinctive in purpose and nature. Although, such activities that involve the group discussions by using flipcharts will be regularly employed in both of the organizations for the means of achieving the young peoples point of views on the specific matter. Therefore, Methods will be adapted for the events and activities to engage youngsters in. By doing that, additional meaning, understanding and information about youngsters in each research site will be collected. The impulsive strategies of participation like flip charts, drawings and brainstorming, all of will prove to be effective corresponding techniques and methods of data collection. Youngsters are acquainted with working in such ways and that is why I adopted an approach like this for additional method of gathering data. By writing the questions for the young people on the flip charts and asking them to write answers with markers, it is a well-used and famous strategy in both of the youth organizations.

It will be used as the exercise of standalone on some of the evenings, and it will also be included in the groups that will be focused on the discussion sessions. Furthermore, a distinct method that will be implemented is the participatory mapping exercise that is related to the safety and security in the public space. This technique and method can be effectively used by others to explore and understand the perceptions of young people and it successfully uncovered the experiences and perceptions of young people of safety and security and of policing in the public space through various methods of communications. Employing visual methods while conducting this research will emphasize participatory authoritative and permit the study to integrate the education which cannot be accessed orally. This enhances and advances the participation of the youngsters in the research, and meaningful and essential data that it will produce.

Ethics

In the society we live in, there are many ways in which children and young people are let down and limited to use the right of expressing their opinion by adults. Mostly it is concerned by adults in society that young people and children are not good enough and not old enough to express something as they are less mature. It limits the creativity, participation and lowers the confidence of the young people. When they grow up, this lack of confidence and barriers over their creativity, inventiveness, and participation disturb their personalities as a whole. Therefore, for adults, it is an unethical thing to do by stopping children and young people from expressing and participating. This disturbance further leads and embarks its strong imprints on the entire generation which affects the productivity and advancement in the society.

The ethical purpose of this research is to raise awareness among adults about the consequences that this society will face if the young people are stopped from expressing and participation. This research collects data that enlightens why it is necessary for adults to claim their place in society that they deserve which is higher and front. This study is for those adults who think young people should not be given this much freedom, it enlightens the legal rights of the children and young people and describes how important it is for adults to let young people do what is legalized by the government. It is against the ethical codes and conducts to make anyone feel less and influence it with the pressure that creates the barrier around the personality of individuals. Children and young people should be respected and given importance in society just like adults because they are the future of society. This research reflects that if compromises are made on such issues, then it will lead to some drastic consequences.

Analysis, Writing, and Follow up

By centering the voices of young people and children in this study, it is represented by this study that it can challenge the quantitative concentration of the typical criminology and the study that inclines to be subjugated by intently suggested mainstream schemas (Threadgold, Coffey, Farrugia, 2019). The research discussed here delivered the data which is highly approved of the experiences of young people and hence reaffirms case for the approaches of ethnography. Wilson points out that it should not only strived by the social scientists to gather many examples of the recognized phenomenon but seek for the collection of many types of evidence as well, to elevate the strength of the specific conclusion. Therefore, different methods were employed to elevate the validity and quality of this research, whereas at the same time highlighting the needs of youngsters and childrens participation in the techniques which affect these people. While understanding and identifying the significance of new sociology of childhood that promotes the active and independent voice of the young people, methodological design that are targeted for the enhancement of the involvement of the youngsters in the process of research. Shildrick argued that growing and increasing trend of the nervousness that is surrounding the criminologists who have been engaged in the ethnographic studies. This study has elaborated and discussed some reasons for nervousness and foregrounded and outlined the ethical quandaries that those who are doing this research may experience while getting closer to the children or youngsters. There are possibilities of risks that are involved in the viewpoint of natives, also there are possible threats which may be faced while entering in different communities that are marginalized as an unskilled researcher. Significantly, this research and study recognized the tactics that can be employed for the successful negotiation of the concerns and explained ways in which conduction of ethnographic research is applied in modern environment that is methodological risk averse.

This research paper has confirmed the part that is played by ethnography while reconnoitering lives of the children and youngsters and promotes it by means of methods and tactics that are innovative, ingenious and traditional while conducting the research for children and young people. While doing it all, the methods of the ethnography pointed it out that the analytical regard into lives of children and youngsters in the coastal resorts and delivered education that is original regarding their perceptions and experiences they related to policing, their conceptualization of security and safety (in different settings, the one that is marginalized, debarred and excluded context whereas the other is more successful, effective and affluent using up of space). This research integrated voices of youngsters and centered them into the research, generated data which is capable of challenging the common assumption about children and youngsters usage of public space in several conducts.

References

Ott, J. (2019). The Social Condition, Modern Identity and Youth. Retrieved from http//www.publicseminar.org/2015/04/the-social-condition-modern-identity-and-youth/

Shildrick (2019). Retrieved from https//studentportalen.uu.se/uusp-filearea-tool/download.actionnodeId577490toolAttachmentId124710

Wilson (2019). Retrieved from http//journals.sfu.ca/cje/index.php/cje-rce/article/download/2900/2192

OReilly, K. (2009) Key Concepts in Ethnography, London Sage

Threadgold, Coffey, Farrugia (2019). Retrieved from https//www.newcastle.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/202287/Youth-Symposium-TheoriesAndConceptsInYouthStudies.pdf

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Subject: Geography

Pages: 8 Words: 2400

33 F

33 f

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

33 f

Introduction

The world has been divided into many types of living areas according to the population, economic conditions and the landscape of the region. Most of the times, the development and evolution of the population defines this division. These areas are commonly known as cities, villages, counties and suburban areas. These areas can also broadly be divided into two types of areas; urban areas and suburban areas. Canada has always been a prominent country in industrial, financial, economic, political and social aspects, among the important countries of the world. Just like every other major country, it has also undergone multiple changes in its social structure, with the passage of time. Richard Harris (2004), in his book, “Creeping Conformity: How Canada Became Suburban, 1900-1960”, explains the complete evolution process of the social structure of Canada. In the book, he throws light over various types of suburban colonies in Canada and how they contributed to changing the face of the country transformed during 1900 – 1960.

Discussion

Harris (2004) explains that Canada had never been a vastly populated country. It had a limited population and the resources were far more than the population. Most people living in the country were prosperous, they had good homes and could own their personal conveyance. He explains the major four types of suburbs that emerged or were formed in Canada during the era of 1800 till date. The suburban areas were formed majorly on the basis of social conditions and the industrial revolution. These suburban areas progressed and gradually became developed with the growth of industry in the country.

During the Second World War, the Canadian nation was gifted with the train system in the streets. These trains were also known as trams or mini trams. These were a great blessing for the Canadian working class as they could easily travel to their workplaces and fare was also very minimal. As the economy of Canada was booming at that time, a number of industries were popping up all over the country, which also produced a large population of working class.

The second phase or the second type of the suburban areas emerged during the 1890s and early 1900s when the streetcars became a common norm. Many urban became financially well and started owning their own cars. These cars were easy to handle and could conveniently fit the lifestyle of the newly rich population. The major names that were included in such types of suburbs were Mount Royal, Tuxedo Park, Shaganappi, Pleasant Heights, Killarney and Elbow Park.

The third type of suburban colonies emerged when these streetcars were declared harmful for health. Moreover, the transport system of the cities, especially Toronto was heavily governed by buses and jitneys. These modes of transportation significantly decreased the distances between urban and rural areas. It also made communication much convenient for the rural people with their urban fellows, which they craved a lot.

The fourth type of suburbs was formed as a result of annexations after 1912. The council took the matter of annexation very seriously and further annexations were stopped until the mid-1960s. The issue started when the county of Leaside petitioned for annexation but the council rejected it fiercely. All the requests that followed were immediately rejected, even the requests from York Township East York.

Conclusion

In short, it can be seen that the evolution and development of suburban areas in Canada not only contributed significantly in the industrial and economic growth of the country but also the social wellbeing of the Canadian nation. The suburban system still exists in Canada and is successfully paving ways for its progress and prosperity.

References

BIBLIOGRAPHY \l 1033 Harris, R. (2004). The Making of Suburban Diversity. In R. Harris, Creeping Conformity: How Canada Became Suburban, 1900-1960 (pp. 63-95). Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Subject: Geography

Pages: 2 Words: 600

33 Key Analysis

33 key analysis

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

33 key analysis

Introduction

Urban sprawl is mainly an additional expression for urbanization. Urban sprawl discusses the movement of a populace from heavily inhabited municipalities and cities to low-density suburban development over countryside land.  The outcome is the increasing of a metropolitan and its outskirts over more and more countryside property. In other words, it is defined as low-density housing development on a new property. Most of the times, publics will transfer from these regions to try to find improved regions to live their lives. Such has been the approach of the people since the creation. Metropolises and their outskirts are now becoming overloaded because of this phenomenon. The aim of this essay is to find out the root causes of urban sprawl and its effects before proposing some possible resolutions.

Discussion

Urban spread refers to the extension of ill-advised, auto-subordinate progression, which extends out over a lot of property, putting long separation amid work, stores and homes and making a great segregation among private properties and business uses with damaging effects on the general populace living in these terrains and the surroundings and wildlife life that have been displaced. Though many would argue that urban sprawl has its benefits, for instance, local economic development, urban sprawl has many harmful consequences for residents and the earth, for instance, higher air and water adulteration, increased road traffic fatalities and roadblocks, loss of farming capacity, increased automobile dependence, higher charges, increased overflow into lakes and waterways, hurtful impacts on human welfare and health, including greater proportions of obesity, chronic ailments, hypertension, expanded flooding, decline in social wealth and loss of natural inhabitations, wildlife and open space. Urban sprawl consumes vast sections of land of woods, wetlands, farmlands and traffic clogs, which can extend miles. The urban spread is presently observed as an imperative issue in terms of its effects on public wellbeing. Moreover, it is additionally viewed as a noteworthy contributing variable to the scope of ecological issues (Sheridan, 2007). Whenever left unabated, this development can prompt these little networks getting to be urbanized in their own right. For several years, the urban spread was thought to be entirely an American concern; nonetheless, this occurrence is happening in quite a lot of other nations.

The constant development of megacities is getting progressively more dysfunctional. More precisely, the struggles amongst different rules and systems that emphasize on the construction rights of countryside terrestrial have created a powerful struggle between related parties ( Yaping, Min, 2009). Researches recommend that cautious deliberation should be given to the corporeal and socioeconomic settings while considering sites for affordable accommodation projects (Ewing et al., 2016). Traveling cost and land costs are closely associated with urban scope. Traveling costs and land rates rises with city size, which can yield high pressure on the development of the cities, then the sprawl degree reduced. (Liu et al., 2018)

State-based development programs with strong consistency necessities and enforcement tools hold much potential for decreasing urban stretch, while programs that do not necessitate consistency may unintentionally add to the urban sprawl (Carruthers, 2002). Current sprawled urban sites have developed over 50 to 70 years of the period with substantial provision from several types of state and municipal policies. To anticipate an unexpected reversal of this tendency with current state growth administration regulations alone is wishful thinking. Well-designed national development management guidelines must be accompanied by state and local guidelines with alike objectives before we see noteworthy and prevalent consequences. (Anthony, 2004)

Causes of Urban Sprawl

There are numerous elements that back urban sprawl. Population growth alone is not the reason for the increase in a metropolitan region’s urban size. Economic progress and globalization are repeatedly mentioned as the major macro-economic forces of urban spread; nonetheless, improved prosperity, eye-catching land, and housing rates, and the longing for bigger homes with more comforts play noteworthy parts. Several researchers believe that feeble planning regulations and single-use zoning also add to urban spread.

Urban sprawl can be instigated by a range of different things, mainly:

Inferior land charges and houses cost in the outward suburbs of the cities because the centers of metropolitan development have made populaces want to stop settling down in these zones and want to venture further out.

Deficiency of urban planning results in congestion, air, water, and noise pollution. People, therefore; prefer to find spaces that are less congested and more serene, which leads them to stretch out to other fragments of the city. Unparalleled growth, chopping of trees, lots of greenery, long traffic queues, poor infrastructure force populaces to move out to new locations.

Upgraded infrastructure in cities results in increased spending and those people who cannot afford these luxuries tend to move out of the cities or somewhere nearby where the costs are less.

Rise in the standard of living and increased average family incomes is also a factor as more and more people having the capacity to pay extra to travel longer distances to work and back home

Intensification in population growth is another key factor that adds towards urban extension. A number of the public in a municipality grows beyond capacity, and the residents carry on spreading beyond from city hubs.

Consumer preferences are another reason for urban sprawl. People with high income have sturdier inclinations towards bigger homes, more rooms, bigger galleries, and larger lawns, etc. Such options are usually not available in congested cities. These people commonly look out for low-density suburban regions to live in accordance with their liking.

Lower tax tariffs encourage people to move out of cities. Cities typically have high property duties, which people frequently avoid by living in the outer suburbs because the taxes are lesser.

Costs of Urban Sprawl

Spreading partitions and commercial regions are financial blessings to local companies and metropolises. The building of residences, markets, stores, and other infrastructure generates occupational prospects. Home proprietors and commercial projects often make available supplementary revenues to local administrations in the form of property tariffs and sales duties. Yet, such progress frequently creates drains on local ecological assets, intensifies conveyance and energy expenses, and weakens overall municipal character (Ewing, 1997).

Urban sprawl causes numerous problems that disturb a lot of things from the environment through to community well-being.

Increased public spending: Urban sprawl can play a part in the increase of public spending, as these modifications in buildings and infrastructures actually have to be paid for by somebody and it is typically paid in the form of taxes by tax payer’s money.

The urban spread also contributes to growing public costs due to the enlarged number of housings that must be built to provide accommodations for it. In most of the cases, this cash is taken in the form of taxes from the inhabitants.

Augmented traffic: People have begun to use vehicles more often, this means that there is more road traffic, and there is also more air greenhouse gasses and more automobile accidents that one have to worry with.

Health matters: When publics use cars or automobiles as their transportation means, even to travel a very short distance, they are going to become obese and are also going to have to face a great deal of sicknesses, for instance, high blood pressure and other ailments that come about with obesity.

Environmental concerns: Urban spreads can also result in definite environmental problems.  In reality, when people go out to develop countryside or suburban areas, there is a great deal of worry concerning the wildlife that exists in these domains. Urban sprawl is most certainly displacing these inhabitants, and it can cause a ripple in the natural setting of the wildlife (Benfield, 1999).

The key issue that urban spread creates is the loss of natural habitations for several sorts of wildlife. As more land is used up by sprawl, animal species are enforced to and may even be driven to the edge of extermination that is one of the reasons why the world is witnessing mass extinction of animal species in this era, Black rhinos being the latest ones and cheetah's, etc. species are following swiftly.

Effect on social lives: When individuals move farther, they additionally affect their public lives. They do not have neighbors that live as close, which imply that they will not generally remain as social as they should. This is not generally the situation, yet it is something that ought to be observed. This issue is often an unnoticed consequence of and is miscalculated by most of the people in terms of its vulnerabilities, mainly in concerns to the psychological effects this can have on one’s social life.

Growing air pollution - Urban spread builds cars and other automobiles traffic by making commutes longer and increased, which prompts a noteworthy increment in air contamination and smog. Vehicles are the main source of air contamination in numerous urban territories with genuine consequences for public well-being, natural life, and biological wellbeing. Poor air quality boosts respiratory sicknesses like asthma and bronchitis; it also elevates the danger of perilous conditions like cancer, and even unanticipated pregnancy outcomes are all concerns associated to the air contamination that is partly the result of urban spread. Moreover, it drains our health care system with considerable medical expenses. In predominantly populated regions, these discharges are so rigorous that they lead to harms to the ozone layer.

Water pollution - Urban spread builds water contamination as rainwater mixes up with gas, synthetic compounds, substantial metals, paints spills, engine oil, pet squanders and different toxins in overflow from gardens, garages, streets and parking garages, which can in the long run travel in vast, concentrated sums, dirtying close-by water sources, for example, a stream, waterway or lake. Moreover, air contamination inevitably drops out to move toward becoming water contamination, for example, nitrogen and other compound contaminants, which hurt both the air and the water. Thus, wetland obliteration by sprawling new developments hints straight towards adulterated water.

Increased water consumption - Urban spread can make water circulation issues and lead to water over-utilization as more water is devoured for watering gardens and other activities, which can strain and drain local water supply system. Washing vehicles, keeping up of swimming pools, and cleaning walkways and garage are also consuming and wasting huge waters (Bourne, 1996).

On a positive note, urban sprawl might direct to less congestion in cities; however, it will not occur incidentally. Obviously, the urban spread is something that individuals will consider to be something worth being thankful for or an awful thing, contingent upon their own convictions. One may observe it be something that is perfect, while others might need to avoid it. It is without a doubt inescapable now, yet that does not imply that it must be hurried into as it should happen normally.

Increases risk of floods - Sprawling progression drain and put an end to wetlands, which absorb water overflows, and can be made in plains, which leads to a greater vulnerability to flooded waters. As it is almost certain that urban spreading is something that is going to continue to follow as long as we are here in this world.  It is not something that is expected to change overnight or change at all but with time when more and more countryside regions are going to become more inhabited as a consequence of development and transformation.  This can be deliberated as a beneficial progression at times, but many view it as a destructive development.

Alternatives to Urban Sprawl

Unrestrained spreading developments does not happen in all societies. Many societies in the North of America and Europe have been pre-emptive in fighting the impacts of urban spread. Some have created urban development limits past which development is disallowed or seriously confined, though others limit the impact of urban spread through inventive land-use arrangement systems or communal collaboration.

One of the serious issues with the urban spread is that it is hard to discover conceivable answers for the issue. A developing populace needs lodging and making existing urban territories all the more thickly populated to oblige the present issues. Nonetheless, there are associations that are committed to attempting to comprehend the issue and has thought of various potential arrangements. These advancements might be fixated by building a positive and constructive relationship among people and the natural atmospheres (Stover, 2006). Most of the investigators are working on sustainable solutions, and many have come up with brilliant ideas but, there is still a lot to look into an experiment.

Smart growth communities

In the midst of the several alternatives in comparison to urban spread, almost all of them can be put under the heading of smart expansion or “New Urbanism." Smart expansion or growth is an administration system that aims to harmonize the expansion of urban regions, while New Urbanism centers on the physical plan of societies to make decent and walkable localities. In their own specific manners, the two methodologies advance financial growth in urban communities and towns without a typical ecological, financial, and communal costs linked with urban sprawl. The standards of smart development, which normally incorporate components of the New Urbanism, are given beneath:

The expansion of societies that is unique and distinctive.

An increase in eco-friendly transport options.

The making of openings that is aiding to the private segment, since private-sector participation is critical to smart development.

The incorporation of a range of land-use types into the municipal.

An increment in residential prospects for all.

The construction of pedestrian-friendly societies.

The backing of inhabitant contribution in the municipal decision-making course.

The conservation of open space, farming areas, historic buildings and locations, and ecological resources that make available critical facilities to the region.

The plan and building of compact homes and industries that use energies proficiently (Gordon, Richardson, 1997).

One fundamental tool utilized by authorities of urban communities and cities utilizing smart development standards is municipal development limitations. Urban development borders include the illustration of mapped lines that different territories assigned for an urban extension from open space and, past that, agribusinesses. The limit is commonly kept set up for an extended stretch to energize improvement inside the city and hinder land speculations and constructions outside the boundaries.

Adversaries of smart development maintain that societies embracing its standards risks intensifying existing traffic clog issues, pointlessly troubling mass travel where it is already abused, and restrictively expanding the operating expenses for the private segment, which could incite business organizations and companies to move to zones represented by more development-friendly guidelines. A few rivals also state that smart development does not take care of the issue of spread since urban areas and rural areas should inevitably grow to serve rising neighborhood populaces. If it does something that is, slowing down the urban spread, yet it does not stop it where such arrangements are set up. Different adversaries of mart development keep up that the attention on medium-to high-thickness improvements will really diminish the biodiversity in these regions since all the property is offered over to rigorous human occupations.

Transit villages

Transit villages or towns, whose private and business zones are worked about and assisted by mass travel systems, may likewise be connected with the smart development. Prior to the across the board utilization of the vehicles in the U.S and many other different nations, mass travel, often as streetcars controlled by electric power, transported individuals inside urban regions. Transit villages restore this old thought by ascending on the back of existing mass travel lines. They are appealing to preservationists since they support the development of high-thickness improvements that decrease dependence on private cars.

Ecovillages

Ecovillages and transit villages are almost alike. They might or might not be possibly be served by mass travel or transit. Rather, occupants expecting to drive to close-by towns and rural areas take an interest in ride-share plans and carpool. Ecovillages are likewise described by politically involved inhabitants who participate with each other to keep up the environmental maintainability of the town. They are regularly provided with home or locally grown nourishments from adjacent homesteads and farmlands.

In addition, one is to really make the utilization of neglected land and structures in urban localities. Most urban territories have old structures that have entered a condition of decay or are simply not utilized for their unique purposes. With the correct venture, these could be revitalized, which would eliminate the need to manufacture new structures somewhere else. Concerning the impacts that urban spread has on the earth, the move can be made to ensure the protection of the natural environments. In outrageous cases, peaceful demonstrations have also been appeared to be fruitful in forestalling urbanization in green territories. The continued conservation and development of such regions can likewise be viewed as an approach to deter urban spread, especially if the individuals who care for such zones are incredibly enthusiastic and have communities and administrative forces behind them.

Conclusion

To conclude, likewise, with numerous natural issues, the urban spread is an unpredictable issue that does not have a simple solution. The demands for a developing populace, combined with advances in innovation, make it simpler for urban regions to spread out into wide open and regular territories. The resistance to these endeavors is often not sufficiently able to inhibit them. The issue is exacerbated by the numerous different problems that cause the urban spread in the first place. The resolution, if there is one, is considering and taking into account the need to cater to these populaces and to changing public and administration approaches. Unfortunately, while all of these are helpful ideas, they may struggle to confront the practical issues that lead to urban sprawl in the first place.

Nonetheless, the state, city administration, and the general public should work together to overcome the effects of urban spreading and find the most suitable ways to cope with modern-day concerns. Sustainable cities and eco-villages should be given importance, and more researches need to be done to enhance their capacities concerning providing sustainable solutions for augmented populations and natural habitats as well. More electric vehicles, less waste of resources, and smart development is a dire need of present times.

References

Anthony, J. (2004). Do state growth management regulations reduce sprawl?. Urban Affairs Review, 39(3), 376-397.

Benfield, F. K. (1999, October). Once there were green fields. In the Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy (Vol. 14, No. 3, p. 6). University of Tennessee, Energy, Environment and Resources Center.

Bourne, L. S. (1996). Reurbanization, uneven urban development, and the debate on new urban forms. Urban Geography, 17(8), 690-713.

Carruthers, J. I. (2002). The impacts of state growth management programmes: A comparative analysis. Urban studies, 39(11), 1959-1982.

Compactness, energy glut, policies for managing sprawl. (Gordon, Richardson, 1997)

Ewing, R. (1997). Is Los Angeles-style sprawl desirable?. Journal of the American planning association, 63(1), 107-126.

Ewing, R., Hamidi, S., Grace, J. B., & Wei, Y. D. (2016). Does urban sprawl hold down upward mobility?. Landscape and Urban Planning, 148, 80-88.

Gordon, P., & Richardson, H. W. (1997). Are compact cities a desirable planning goal?. Journal of the American planning association, 63(1), 95-106.

Liu, Z., Liu, S., Qi, W., & Jin, H. (2018). Urban sprawl among Chinese cities of different population sizes. Habitat International, 79, 89-98.

Stover, D. L. (2006). Oliver Gilham. The Limitless City A Primer on the Urban Sprawl Debate.

Yaping, W., & Min, Z. (2009). Urban spill over vs. local urban sprawl: Entangling land-use regulations in the urban growth of China's megacities. Land use policy, 26(4), 1031-1045.

Subject: Geography

Pages: 10 Words: 3000

33 Reflection

33 reflection

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Creeping Conformity: How Canada Became Suburban?

The study of book Creeping Conformity: How Canada Became Suburban? Brought me on the junction of history and social science; past and present urban planning and town planning in Canada. This book was very knowledgeable that is why I read it with mixed of emotions. The book was a mixture of storytelling and scholarly skepticism. Richard, the author of this book, is a prolific writer on the topics of historical geography who puts particular emphasis on social geography and social issues. This book has not left anyone disappointed. In his account writer has divided the history of suburban developing in three periods: first period starts from 1900s and ends on 1929, it is also known as early automobile period. Another period resulted after the formation of government policies which were the product of Great depression and second world war; it spanned between 1930 and 1945; third period which lasted between 1945 and 1960 saw the time when automobiles became pervasive. The book has elucidated all these periods elaborately. On the other hand, the book is also a travelogue which visits historic designs of the Canadian suburban areas. Some of the earliest designs which Harris discussed were the Shaughnessy Heights of Vancouver, Coldbrook Garden City in Saint John and the Uplands of Victoria.

The writer has also covered three major themes in his book Creeping Conformity: How Canada Became Suburban? He described that why Canadian suburban area formed themselves as a separate homogenous entity. His argument revolves around the regulations of mortgage and spread of Federal/ Municipal housing societies. His second theme tries to describe the relationship between the housing societies and the social life and the connection between them. Harris explains that the suburban areas are studied by two types of scholars; historical geographers whose primary focus was on geography and structure of the place while on the other hand urbanists and social historian who have tried to describe the nature of social life which existed in these areas. He is of the view that up till now little work is done to bridge the gap between these two fields. His third theme is to create a balance between advocacy for suburbs and its critic. Social theorists have tried to explain this phenomenon form extremist point of view, they are either advocating for it or criticizing it. This reason encouraged Harris to adapt a balanced approach to provide an opportunity to scholars to learn that why they have developed through the course of history, how they are valued by Canadian people and what they are?

Harris described that how modern-day suburbs which are mostly financed by corporate sector and dominated by automobile came into being. In early 1800s these suburbs existed in Montreal and Toronto/ modern widespread of these suburbs started in the 20th century. In 1910s and onwards urban population swelled and new ways of transportation discovered. One crucial element was the invention of street cars. These two factors encouraged maximum portion of population to move towards urban fringes by abandoning city centers are rural area. This movement of people gave rise to various communities namely: elite communities; wealthy, industrial suburban areas and shack towns. Shack towns mostly comprised of people that have owners who have built their own homes and are living in it. Most of the homeowners here belonged to working class who are living in suburbs from a long time.

The term of suburbs itself lack proper definition. Harris has described in the second chapter that Canadian suburban neighborhoods have not always been of low-density population. Harris main focus of discussion started by presenting various models of suburbs that existed during the entire history of Canada. Since the beginning of life on earth evolution remained an important phenomenon. He elaborated that how these suburbs evolved themselves into a conservative, high debt, well-structured and consumer-oriented landscapes. According to Harris, it was the second world war which gave rise to such communities in Canada. He further explained that by the passage of time these suburbs became standardized which were not promoted by the government. These were do-it-yourself projects which were introduced to bring home improvement. Home ownership was the main force behind the promotion of conservatism in the suburbs. If I look closely into the fabric of this issue, I found home ownership is the primary cause. Home ownership is an important investment which raises the concerns of the property owner in terms of price in the area. It was an important factor which encouraged the homeowners to resist any change in the area which could harm the price of property.

These newly formed landscapes now truly represent Canadian society of modern times. In order to properly analyze the situation, Harris fully utilized the information available in the form of geography, class, and ownership. Harris paid particular attention to the need of Canadian families as the main reason that encouraged them to acquire or build their homes on the fringes of North American metropolitan cities. He explains that biggest shopping malls are located in the centers of urban area while Coffee chains are located on city corners.

In the third chapter, the writer defined suburban areas in relation to the city. Harris argued in this chapter that city centers often lack the potential to form strong communities whereas suburban area offered space to form community. A good example is that anonymity in urban areas promotes alienation on other hands the residents of suburbs shares common values which encourages them to quest for forming a moral society. Expansion of industries during industrial revolution, deteriorating situation of urban areas due to population bloom and improved way of transport in the form of streetcars and then automobiles shaped the suburbs in their modern style. Employees used to drive their automobiles over a long distance to reach their workplaces.

Chapter four describes the emergence of variety of suburban patterns. When industries decided to move to suburban areas, its workers also followed the trend and moved to such vicinity. Living close to their workplace was convenient for them as they find houses at low prices. Social elite and middle class were never interested in Industrial suburban areas as they were always covered with smoke. Leaside a town planned by Canadian Northern railway in the year of 1912 was an exception. Various gardens, parks, and curvilinear streets were built. Homes were constructed with attractive architecture; in fact, this town was made beautiful. Later on, Canada Wire and Cable Company and Durant Automobile factory established themselves in this town. Leaside town was located outside the Toronto area.

Chapter five to seven comprise of government regulations that gave conformity to suburban areas. This includes regulations like codes for building, financial and health regulations. This shift in policies occurred between 1930s and 1940s. This regulatory policy saw some change in 1960s, but it was too little. Government regulations were significant for the establishment of suburban area in a disciplined and controlled way because it discouraged the construction of unplanned and un-regulated suburbs. Though these regulations were very effective at the same time, it hindered the natural growth of communities.

Chapter six brought corporate financed suburban areas into the light of discussion. These formed an integral part of suburban networks in Canada. They were wholly planned and well organized but still for some scholars they were considered unnecessary and without life.

The writer through book title intends to discuss whether an increase in the suburbanization means more conformity or not. He explains that it was 1945 which saw a population increase which opted for corporate suburbs that grew enormously around the fringes of largest metropolitan cities. By the passage of time, the suburbs of Canada became more standardized; there was the presence of standardized infrastructure involving street light system, sidewalks, schools, hospitals, parks, places of worship and shopping plazas in near vicinity. It was not only outside the house but inside was also standardized. Homes now had patterned ceilings, walls, rooms, and windows, bathrooms, drying rooms, kitchens, length and height. All this standardization created creeping conformity in the surrounding residential environment and in the experiences of people. Harris has also pointed out in his book that all residential areas were diverse in their development. While reading this book, I would like to appreciate that Harris did acknowledge this diversity in postwar Canadian Suburbs by concluding in the below-mentioned remark,

“the deeper conformity of the postwar suburbs was the way that they mandated a high level of consumption, encouraging people to define themselves through what they purchased by acquiring debt” (p. 173)

Harris mentioned the reason that how these post-war suburbs came into being but he did not describe why debts were required to remake Canada. I want to say that it is not yet clear that who is doing what and why are they doing it or whom they are dealing with. Why debt society was necessary, is it some kind of conspiracy and if it is then what the motives of conspirators are? As far as I see the book failed to answer this question. I can see that writer has explained his conformity hypothesis in an alternative way by presenting a behavioral interpretation. His interpretation reveals that families opted for debts by themselves under the influence of their desires. In fact, Harris took a different course which lies between critic and advocate; it's the middle path which meant to balance both sides. He has tried to balance intended and unintended consequences.

Creeping conformity is an exciting book to read for people who are interested in social history and geographical history. It has successfully elucidated the evolution of suburban communities in an exciting way. Reader will get a chance to learn why Canadian suburbs were socially conformist places till 1945. They will also get a chance to learn that by 1960 these suburbs drifted further away from parent cities not only physically but also culturally. This increasing gap brought unanticipated environmental and social consequences. The book is also a travelogue which will attract the attention of its reader. It explains the early designs of suburban Canadian societies which decided to live on the fringes of big cities.

Conclusions

Harris has well explained the history of urbanization in Canada but the relation between environmental and social issues; greater culture and suburbanization is still underdeveloped. While describing the social and geographical history of early Canadian suburbs, the writer adapted a middle path between critic and advocate. The book talks in a passive voice about the conspiracy of producing a debt society to remake Canada but did not talk about the people behind it and their motifs, book has failed to explain that. However, this book not only explain the social and geographical history of Canadian suburbs, but it is also a travelogue.

References

Harris, R. (2004). Creeping conformity: How Canada became suburban, 1900-1960 (Vol. 7). University of Toronto Press.

Subject: Geography

Pages: 6 Words: 1800

339 1 15

339 1 15

[Author’s name]

339 1 15

Introduction

Environmental racism is recognized as the critical concept relevant to the broad approach of the environmental justice movement. The particular term of environmental racism is used to focus on the issue of environmental injustice that prevails in the forms of practice and policy implementation. Both the research studies presented by Pulido and Laura Pulido; Steve Sidawi & Robert O. Vos indicate different perspectives linked with the concept of environmental racism. Here the focus is to critically analyze both the research studies to effectively understand the main arguments of the research studies conducted by researchers.

Discussion

Pulido, Sidawi, and Vos argued in their research work that implication of the qualitative research methods is essential to examine the issue of environmental racism in the context of historical procedures. Moreover, it is established by authors that race and class are two major categories closely linked with the perspective of social associations. The particular event of poisoning in Flint, Michigan was considered by Pulido to established the argument that it is one significant example of the concern of environmental racism and the domain of racial capitalism. The actual goal of the researchers in case of research study, “An Archaeology of Environmental Racism in Los Angeles” is focusing on various social relations and procedures in the overall history of environmental racism in Los Angeles to evaluate the adverse impacts of inappropriate resource distribution in the form of environmental racism ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"1nuLoAkX","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Pulido, Sidawi, & Vos, 1996)","plainCitation":"(Pulido, Sidawi, & Vos, 1996)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1192,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/7Hi3kAOD/items/PFAT6DT4"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/7Hi3kAOD/items/PFAT6DT4"],"itemData":{"id":1192,"type":"article-journal","title":"An archaeology of environmental racism in Los Angeles","container-title":"Urban Geography","page":"419-439","volume":"17","issue":"5","author":[{"family":"Pulido","given":"Laura"},{"family":"Sidawi","given":"Steve"},{"family":"Vos","given":"Robert O."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1996"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Pulido, Sidawi, & Vos, 1996). On the other hand, the main goal of Pulido for the research work is to reconsider the concept of capitalism in the form of racial capitalism to assess the actual cause of the poisoning in case of Flint.

The research work presented by other researchers on this specific issue was cited by Pulido, Sidawi, and Vos in their research study to make their argument strong and relevant. The particular research work, “It’s racism what dunnit” by Cohen is one significant example of the research work considered by researchers to develop a better perspective about the issue of environmental racism. On the other hand, Pulido also cited different former research studies relevant to the main concerns of environmental racism and racial capitalism ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"3zoLVEY6","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Pulido, 2016)","plainCitation":"(Pulido, 2016)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1193,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/7Hi3kAOD/items/BA4RIEDK"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/7Hi3kAOD/items/BA4RIEDK"],"itemData":{"id":1193,"type":"book","title":"Flint, environmental racism, and racial capitalism","publisher":"Taylor & Francis","ISBN":"1045-5752","author":[{"family":"Pulido","given":"Laura"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Pulido, 2016). The race is the basic aspect of consideration that is present in case of both the readings. The elements of racism and class are critically discussed by the researchers, particularly in the form of environmental racism. Exploration of certain research questions is essential that provides the roadmap to the researchers about the entire research process. The researchers catered the basic question is to identify as the exploration of priority between humans and hazards. The question about the driving forces of environmental injustice is used as the guideline by Pulido in his research work. Critical consideration of historical, political, and economic domains directs the author to find out the solution to the basic research question of the study.

The unique feature in case of the research study by Pulido, Sidawi, and Vos appeared as the critical comparison of the historical contexts of the early development of Torrance and East Los Angeles to attain better understanding about the evaluation of the concept of environmental racism. The unique perspective of the research work of Pulido is comprised of a critical understanding of different phases of evolution that further leads to poisoning of the city. Unitary concept of racism and positivist approach of research used as theoretical grounds by researchers to explain the perspective of environmental racial in the context of Los Angeles. Pulido utilized the perspective of racial capitalism to build the foundation for the main argument of the research work.

Conclusion

In final remarks, it is essential to indicate that qualitative research methods were used by the researchers to illustrate the growing concern of environmental racism in the case of Los Angeles. On the other hand, Pulido attempt the prospect of thorough consideration of the historical domains as the method to identify the actual causes of the problem of the contamination of Flint. Both the readings are case specific as researchers only focus to discuss the concern of environmental racism in the context of Los Angeles and Flint.

References

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Pulido, L. (2016). Flint, environmental racism, and racial capitalism. Taylor & Francis.

Pulido, L., Sidawi, S., & Vos, R. O. (1996). An archaeology of environmental racism in Los Angeles. Urban Geography, 17(5), 419–439.

Subject: Geography

Pages: 2 Words: 600

339 2 17

339 2 17

[Author’s name]

339 2 17

Introduction

The debatable topic of gentrification was discussed by Kate Shaw and Samuel Stein in their perspective research work. Both the researchers illustrated different perspectives relevant to this topic that eventually helps to enhance the overall understanding of the concern of urban construction. The main argument presented by Kate Shaw is that there is a need for considering the concept of gentrification on a broader perspective under the domains of social and economic geographic alterations. The idea of gentrification is discussed by Samuel Stein with the basic argument that the practice of gentrification now become the essential feature of urban planning that can never be ignored. Here, the focus is to critically analyze both the readings to enhance the basic understanding of the concept of gentrification.

Discussion

The main goal of the research paper presented by Kate Shaw comprehensively examines the perspective of gentrification considering the two basic domains of its variations and viability. Changing perspectives of the cities in the form of advancement of the market economies play an important role in case of gentrification. The main goal of the research reading presented by Samuel Stein is to evaluate the idea of gentrification considering the perspective of all the important shareholders such as the capitalist and the working people operating in the cities ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"58GX82sl","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Stein, 2019)","plainCitation":"(Stein, 2019)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1196,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/7Hi3kAOD/items/NBBH9VSU"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/7Hi3kAOD/items/NBBH9VSU"],"itemData":{"id":1196,"type":"webpage","title":"Gentrification is a Feature, Not a Bug, of Capitalist Urban Planning","container-title":"JacobIn","author":[{"family":"Stein","given":"Samuel"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Stein, 2019). Kate Shaw cited many other research studies to make his argument about the gentrification strong. The particular research work, “New-build gentrification and London’s riverside renaissance” by Davidson and Lees is one example of the former research work, which is considered by Kate Shaw to enhance the argument about the main topic of gentrification.

Class is the basic social perspective addressed by Kate Shaw in his research work. The impact of the growing trend of gentrification was established by the researcher through the analysis of different perspectives of capitalist and labor social class exist in cities ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"H8H7sf5O","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Shaw, 2008)","plainCitation":"(Shaw, 2008)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1195,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/7Hi3kAOD/items/TN6E75C5"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/7Hi3kAOD/items/TN6E75C5"],"itemData":{"id":1195,"type":"article-journal","title":"Gentrification: What it is, why it is, and what can be done about it","container-title":"Geography Compass","page":"1697-1728","volume":"2","issue":"5","author":[{"family":"Shaw","given":"Kate"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2008"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Shaw, 2008). The factor of displacement is used by the researcher to examine the existing variation in case of gentrification. This form of consideration eventually influences the lives of people lives in urban areas. The perspective of the class was also critically apprehended by Stein in his article about gentrification. The basic question that guides Kate Shaw to conduct research work on gratification is the contradicting perspectives delivered by former studies on this specific issue. The growing debate on the implications of gratification is the basic direction that is used by the researcher to comprehensively examine different relevant aspects. The particular concern of the contradicting perspective of the gentrification is answered by the author by considering this domain as the wider continuum of the geographic change on social and economic grounds.

The most unique perspective of Kate Shaw’s research work is that active consideration of gentrification researchers, activists, and academics are collectively focused by the researcher to determine about the actual implications of this growing practice in cities. Various theories of urban change were under consideration in case of this research study by the researcher to evaluate the actual implications of the practice of gentrification. The consideration of ecological urban ideologies allows the researcher to figure out the biological, social, or technological perspectives associated with the concern of gratification.

Conclusion

In concluding remarks, it is vital to indicate that the outcomes of different qualitative and quantitative methods from the former studies were addressed by the researcher to assess the implications of gratification in the context of urban areas. The information about the concept of gratification provided by Kate Shaw is generalized in nature because different forms of implications were discussed in the research study. Stein also discussed the topic of gratification in the general context of capitalist urban planning.

References

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Shaw, K. (2008). Gentrification: What it is, why it is, and what can be done about it. Geography Compass, 2(5), 1697–1728.

Stein, S. (2019). Gentrification is a Feature, Not a Bug, of Capitalist Urban Planning.

Subject: Geography

Pages: 2 Words: 600

339 3 22

339 3 22

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Introduction

The urbanization of information is an uprising concern in the modern world due to the involvement of tech companies. Various authors have shared their views on this hot issue of urbanization of information to illustrate whether it is effective or not. Joe Shaw & Mark Graham and Nicole M. Aschoff also demonstrate their understanding about this crucial aspect. The main arguments presented by Shaw and Graham about the high concern of urbanization of information emphasize on the domination of Google. To understand the power of an informational monopoly, it is highly important to understand the notion of informational right to the city. On the other hand, the main argument of research study, “Tech Billionaires Think SimCity Is Real Life” is to analyze the actual perspective of various tech companies to get into the business of making cities. Here, the focus is to determine different aspects of urbanization of information delivered by the author in form of research articles.

Discussion

It is important to explore the actual goal of the research work to figure out the actual implications of the findings in the future. The basic purpose of the study presented by Shaw and Graham is to illustrate the control of Google over a new universal form of digital abstract space. It is notable to mention that Shaw and Graham emphasize the control of urban space by Google. Google idealized itself as a technology, which serves the general interest of the city (Shaw & Graham, 2017). On the other hand, the main argument presented by Aschoff in his reading is that tech companies are making their way up in the business of making cities. The author illustrates the fact that these tech companies are working for their personal advantages, instead of making any real effort for common people (Aschoff, 2019). It is noteworthy to mention that tech companies are creating new future cities for providing a high technological environment for people. However, Ashcoff argued that these cities are more likely to be unaffordable. Highly serious concerns are highlighted by this author in his considered reading. He demonstrates the fact that residents of these high tech cities share their concerns over surveillance and privacy (Aschoff, 2019).

Researchers of the research study “An Informational Right to the City? Code, Content, Control, and the Urbanization of Information” have used multiple references to validate their viewpoint about this topic. They have critically discussed the concept of urbanization of information and the dominance of Google in case of urban space. In both articles, the authors critically discuss the role of tech companies under the perspective of urbanization of information. It is critically discussed in both readings that tech companies continue to make a profit on the basis of the growing dependence of humans over technological advancements.

Examination of specific research questions of both articles is useful to discover various perspectives of urbanization of information. Extensive research has been made by Shaw and Graham to illustrate the role of tech companies like Google in pursuing a pathway towards a more impartial flow of information (Shaw & Graham, 2017). The significant question has been answered by the researchers by evaluating the extent of Google’s power in the urbanization of information.

Conclusion

To conclude the above discussion, it is vital to mention that tech companies are marching their way up to the creation of smart cities. The researchers have significantly analyzed the impact of tech companies over urbanization of information. All the considered readings are characterized as specific case studies that managed to investigate the influence of tech companies in pursuing a pathway towards a more impartial flow of information.

References

Aschoff, Nicole M. "Tech Billionaires Think Simcity Is Real Life." Jacobinmag.com. N. p., 2019. Web. Retrieved from, https://jacobinmag.com/2019/05/future-cities-tech-giants-alphabet-toronto

Shaw, J., & Graham, M. (2017). An informational right to the city? Code, content, control, and the urbanization of information. Antipode, 49(4), 907-927.

Subject: Geography

Pages: 2 Words: 600

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