Home >> Free Essays >> All Subjects >> Environmental Science

Environmental Science Examples and Topics

Compares The Development Of Renewable Energy In At Least Two Countries Outside Of The U.S.

Comparison of the Development of Renewable Energy between Japan and Germany

Your Name (First M. Last)

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)

Comparison of the Development of Renewable Energy between Japan and Germany

For many years the world has been dependent on the fossil fuels to generate energy, however, in today's world, it is becoming problematic to use them for the energy needs. The reason is that fossil fuels take ages to be produced and the energy produced from them is not renewable, so depending upon them we cannot survive for a longer period of time. Another reason to not use this resource is that they produce heavy pollutants in the environment. This is the reason the world needs to shift towards the resources that are environmentally friendly, and also replenishable resources, such a solar, nuclear, and wind energy. This energy cannot be drained and is constantly renewed. In 1960s-1980s Germany and Japan have inspected a new energy strategy of viable hastened modification, they extended nuclear power, modernized productions, and stimulated efficacy to counter uncertainties of oil deliveries. However during 1990s Germany expanded in wind and solar, while Japan became the world's leading power in nuclear energy production. This divergence in their paths is much more than a theoretical problem and to understand that we need to look into the matter closely.

When It comes to consuming energy Japan is the fourth largest country in the world, though its population only occupies 2.1% of the world. Japan has been using fossil fuel energy for many years, the oil is imported from UAE, Saudi Arabia, Iran, and Kuwait. However, in recent years, people have become more concerned about environmental issues and climate change. Regarding climate change and environmental issues, Japan launched an energy project for the use of renewable energy sources that would reduce the release of carbon dioxide gas. One of the reactions to the 1970s oil calamity was a struggle to progress in other sources of energy (Moe, 2011). Today only 1.3 percent of the total energy usage of Japan is dependent on renewable energy resources. This current rate of renewable energy usage is still low, but the country is planning to increase the development of energy through renewable sources. Solar is one of the most promising sources of energy that can be renewed. It is used for the solar Thermal heating and the Photovoltaic (PV) for electricity. Japan is developing in the advancement of PV and is leading the world Photovoltaic market. There are a lot of benefits attached to the use of PV. It is environment-friendly, low operation cost, highly reliable, and lower cost of construction. In the world, a total of 45 percent of the PV cells are formed in Japan. For the purpose of promoting PV in the household, the Japanese government proposes subventions for fitting charges. The use of PV is prevalent for the houses, most of the solar-thermal systems are fitted in the hospitals and communal institutes. As Japan mends the charge and effectiveness of these solar equipment, the country can then ship these systems to the whole world for the advantage of all countries, and the Japanese budget. In contrast to Japan, Germany has gone through a turbulent time in solar power, since the country's renewable energy act in the year 2000. German corporations were prominent in the solar power technology, however, in 2012 there was a collapse and many of them had to shut down. Despite the fact that Germany is one of the countries that have the least sunlight hours, it is one of the major solar power manufacturers round the world. It has a mounted ability of 43 gigawatts in the year 2017. It had over 1.6 million installed solar collections that were 10 percent of the world's installed capacity in the year 2017. In the first half of the year 2018, these solar panels produced more than 7 percent of the total production of the country, an of the renewable shares it made about 39% according to BDEW. Its worldwide contribution to producing solar power was 2 percent. With a net production of 6.7 (TWh) in July 2017, solar power made a new monthly production record in the country and added about 15% to the German power mix. It was more than the production of nuclear energy. Solar panel s accounted for more than 40% o the production of the company at the peak hours of sunlight and the usage of energy. The government’s yearly development aim to inflexibly launch solar power as core support of Germany's power system is 2.5 GW.

The past of the nuclear projects in Japan and Germany can be traced back in 1960s when both the countries operated with American manufacturers and the local industries to build their first nuclear reactors. Major impacts in the history of German energy strategies have, on the nuclear side (Renn & Marshall, 2016).

Nuclear power required the deployment of the RD and D spending and the political support that they got during the 1970s oil crisis. However, for the new nuclear connections, this did not have many practical consequences. During the 1990s, Germany did not officially changed its nuclear power strategy and did not attach new NPPs to the network. It sustained dropping the public RD and D energy expenditure (Cherp, Vinichenko, Jewell, Suzuki & Antal, 2017). Without building new reactors the local nuclear tools makers hunted agreements overseas. Siemens that was involved in the manufacture of all German nuclear reactors traded its reactor corporate to French Framatome in 2011 proclaimed the termination of its nuclear accomplishments. However, in Japan, fifteen new nuclear reactors amplified national sustenance of nuclear power. The Japanese government overpowered the resistance of the locals to the new nuclear energy, by increasing monitoring support to the sitting NPPs. As a consequence of the German Red-green alliance government, the policies of the two countries diverged further. The stiffness between the agendas of these coal and nuclear reactor had already started during the 1970s, over the competition for base-load power. During that time the dropping electricity bills did not permit for the growth of the coal and the nuclear programs at the same time. About 2002, Greens and SPD assigned a law barring manufacture of new NPPs and restraining the lifespan of current reactors to Thirty-two years averagely.

In the year 2000, Japan manufactures five more factors, yet the portion of nuclear power in the electricity of the country was reduced to 26% by 2010. Japan also helped to build the factors in South Korea and the business is flourishing globally. The new national energy strategy of Japan aimed at a rise in the production of nuclear power.

Just like nuclear, wind technology developed exterior of Germany and Japan. Germany sustained study into wind power in the 1970s and 80s, but it unsuccessful to yield a profitablly feasible project and finished the task. During 1990, Germany approved a Feeding-law (StrEG). It was initially planned to profit a trivial hydropower plant owners, but unexpectedly it leads to the 100 times rise in the wind power. This increase in the growth of wind power was based on the Danish technology. Subsequently, many producers entered the market and in the initial 2000s, the wind turbine business of Germany had turned into the second highest in the domain. However, Japan did not back the study in wind energy. The reason is that the technical circumstances in Japan are more perplexing than in Germany. Nevertheless, in the 1990, Japan came up with the technology the fiscal measures that were supporting the wind power. However, the results were not similar to those in Germany. During the mid of the 1990s Danish Via,]stas mounted their main viable wind turbines in Japan but the growth in the arcade was no the same as in Germany. The difference in wind placement between Japan and Germany has sustained to increase. Japan's calculated wind power placement for 2030 is 4.5 times greater than in 2010 yet less than half of Germany's capability today.

Both countries worked with officials to raise domestic stream, restrain demand, or otherwise lessen the susceptibility of energy structures. Five mechanisms worked behind the differences between both the countries. The quest of the safe supply and demand of both countries resulted in the difference of the strategies regarding the renewable energy projects during 1970 and 1980s.

References

Moe, E. (2011). Vested interests, energy efficiency and renewables in Japan. Energy Policy. doi: 10.1016/j.enpol.2011.09.070

Cheap, A., Vinichenko, V., Jewell, J., Suzuki, M., & Antal, M. (2017). Comparing electricity transitions: A historical analysis of nuclear, wind and solar power in Germany and Japan. Energy Policy, 101, 612-628. doi: 10.1016/j.enpol.2016.10.044

Renn, O., & Marshall, J. (2016). Coal, nuclear and renewable energy policies in Germany: From the 1950s to the “Energiewende”. Energy Policy, 99, 224-232. doi: 10.1016/j.enpol.2016.05.004

Subject: Environmental Science

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

Mobility As A Service (MaaS)

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of Instructor]

[Subject]

[Date]

Mobility as a Service (MaaS)

Introduction

South Florida is facing traffic situations that are getting worse with every passing day. As real estate is booming, the crisis related to traffic are empowered. As South Florida is experiencing unprecedented levels of investment and growth, still their infrastructure of transportation continues to lag. Although several strides are incorporated to address it, still the issue is unresolved. It is asserted that South Florida is listed at 12th number of those regions that are adversely affected by traffic issues and have terrifying traffic congestions. It is more added that as South Florida is still growing continuously as a global region with new projects that are casting a direct impact on traffic, both in and around the Brickell Financial District, paving the way to think critically in terms of prevalent issues. One of the solutions to address issues that are faced by South Florida is MaaS, (Mass as a Service). Mass as a Service is defined as an integration or amalgamation of different forms of transport services into a single mobility service. This service is accessible on demand (Faisal, et al. 2019, pp. 45-72). A MaaS operator facilitates and addresses the diverse need of people by providing them with a menu of transport option, it can either be a diverse menu of transport option i.e. ride, a car, rental car, a public transport or a combination of all of these. There is a single payment method and a single application to access mobility rather than multiple channels and multiple payment options (Faisal, et al. 2019, pp. 45-72). In order to address the issues proposed by traffic along with a blockage to daily life activities, MaaS is one of the solutions and options that can help to address these issues at earliest along with the incorporation of future prospects that can prove positive in the long run.

Discussion

South Florida is facing serious traffic issues. According to a study it is found that the congestion of traffic is causing serious issues to the internal structure of South Florida. It is found that nearly 80% of the residents who are relying on cars for transportation are spending 105 hours each year in gridlock (Jiang, et al. 2019, pp. 146-151). Adhering to the notion that traffic issues are discouraging startups and disorganizing large corporation from shifting their business into South Florida, a great deal of attention is required to address traffic issue (Faisal, et al. 2019, pp. 45-72). MaaS is one of the solutions and an option that can be used to address traffic concerns. MaaS is capable of bringing new business ideas and ways to operate various transport options that can provide an improved and better version of transport accompanied by easy access to user and the opportunity to meet the unmet transport demands (Coconea, et al. 2019). MaaS can be used as a catalyst that can bring between information and data services together with an aim to enhance the experience to transport for the transporters' and exploit the indirect benefits. Taking into account the Mobility as a Service that explains the shift from personally owned modes of transportation towards general mobility options. It would not be wrong to say that there are some potential benefits associated with MaaS in reducing challenges to traffic (Faisal, et al. 2019, pp. 45-72).

MaaS can provide transportation facilities to travellers. Travelling becomes easy when the travellers are being given the one-stop-shop where they could get and access the services as per their need (Jiang, et al. 2019, pp. 146-151). It has been witnessed that one of the most reported hustles that travellers complain of is the unavailability of a proper stop where they could gather to get their mobility needs i.e. maybe there is a traveller who wanted to avail car and there is another traveller who wants to travel by bike. One-stop-shop also provides transportation facilities for the patient who may need special sort of commercial products i.e. wheelchair ramps, stairlifts, patients lifts, pool lifts and platform lifts, it helps the customers in the mobility by providing easy and safe ride (Coconea, et al. 2019).

MaaS will not only bring ease to transportation but it is one of the opportunities that can be productive and cost-saving by reducing the cost that an individual has to face because of having a vehicle. MaaS provides more flexibility and choice for mobility along with provisions of mobility level services that can help to mitigate the disruption in the infrastructure of traffic (Coconea, et al. 2019). MaaS is not only effective for facilitating transport but it also enhances the revenue of public transport, encouraging the economy of the country in the long run. It increases the ridership by facilitating the mobility users by addressing the challenges through integration with other modes of transportation (Jiang, et al. 2019, pp. 146-151). MaaS optimises the supply of public transport and improve its efficiency by incorporating a better understanding of the required demand through analysis of the data captured (Coconea, et al. 2019). MaaS can incorporate some environmental, economic and social benefits to South Florida as well because it will reduce the single-occupancy vehicle trips. It will also encourage the public and active transport through the understanding of the required demand. The reduction in vehicles will also reduce pollution by improving air quality. MaaS can bring potential improvement in terms of road safety along with empowering managing of the road space. If a long-term perspective is visualized, it is highlighted that MaaS is one of the opportunities for South Florida to reduce concerns regarding traffic and improve the global aspects of the environment as well (Coconea, et al. 2019). A philanthropist view highlights that MaaS can increase access to the different source by reducing the barriers in the way such as reaching to hospitals and workplaces would be facilitated. It will also improve the mobility and the transport of disabled or ageing people. Innovation is another option that would get promoted because of MaaS because it is one of those opportunities that can help to address technological aspects. It allows centralisation of transport by introducing some new and innovative modes and options that can help to reduce traffic issues. South Florida would be having a great deal of improvement in terms of delivery of services that are driven by data or internet by the integration of some multi-sourced data (Jiang, et al. 2019, pp. 146-151).

MaaS can also address the integration of mobility service with the other major apartments of life such as Real Health and Insurance, taking into account the idea that it will lead to ideate business models and innovative services of a business. MaaS is not only an option or a service that can help people save their lives and money but it will prove economical in the long run. It is highlighted that people in South Florida are facing numerous issues because they are becoming victim of accidents due to serious road blockage which can all be recovered by MaaS (Jiang, et al. 2019, pp. 146-151).

Conclusion

After an in-depth analysis of the traffic issues that are faced by residents of South Florida, and an understanding of the future prospects and positive approach associated with MaaS, it is asserted that MaaS can play a central role addressing issues related to traffic. MaaS will not only let people get themselves facilitated by a quick service but it will also help people to live a safe life and get themselves facilitated with better and comfortable rides. Moreover, MaaS is also an approach that can help the city to gain progress in the long run because it will be casting numerous social, ecological and economic benefits for both government and public.

Work Cited

Coconea, Laura, et al. "Insights on traffic management in the MaaS value chain." 13th ITS European Congress. 2019.

Faisal, Asif, et al. "Understanding autonomous vehicles: A systematic literature review on capability, impact, planning and policy." Journal of Transport and Land Use 12.1 (2019):45-72.

Jiang, Chenming, et al. "Miss-and-run: Factors contributing to two-vehicle phantom vehicle crashes in Florida." Traffic injury prevention 20.2 (2019): 146-151.

Subject: Environmental Science

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

603

Case Assignment

Author

Institutional Affiliations

Author’s Note

Case Assignment

Immunization and Religious Exemption

The refusal to school vaccination has been increasing in the United States while still majority of the parents are convinced of the advantages of vaccination for their children’s health. There are several political, geographical and religious factors for the refusal of vaccination. Schools have made it mandatory to admit children who have been vaccinated, nonetheless, all states offer medical exemptions while some states offer exemptions based on religion and philosophical beliefs. Three states California, Virginia and Mississippi have completely disallowed all non-medical exemptions ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"7hZbNG3E","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Shaw et al. 2018)","plainCitation":"(Shaw et al. 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":430,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/RGFFLB6N"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/RGFFLB6N"],"itemData":{"id":430,"type":"article-journal","title":"Immunization Mandates, Vaccination Coverage, and Exemption Rates in the United States","container-title":"Open Forum Infectious Diseases","volume":"5","issue":"6","source":"PubMed Central","abstract":"Background\nVaccination coverage among children entering kindergarten in the United States is high, but interstate variations exist. The relationship between state immunization laws and vaccination coverage has not been fully assessed. We evaluated associations of state laws on both measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) and diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTaP) vaccination coverage and exemptions to school immunization requirements.\n\nMethods\nWe conducted a retrospective, longitudinal analysis of the effect of state immunization laws on vaccination coverage and exemptions among US kindergarteners from SY 2008 to SY 2014. The primary outcome measures were state-level kindergarten entry vaccination coverage rates for 2-dose MMR and 4-dose DTaP vaccines. Secondary outcome measures included rates of state-level exemptions (ie, medical, religious, philosophical) to school immunization requirements.\n\nResults\nWe found that state policies that refer to Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendations were associated with 3.5% and 2.8% increases in MMR and DTaP vaccination rates. Health Department–led parental education was associated with 5.1% and 4.5% increases in vaccination rates. Permission of religious and philosophical exemptions was associated with 2.3% and 1.9% decreases in MMR and DTaP coverage, respectively, and a 1.5% increase in both total exemptions and nonmedical exemptions, respectively.\n\nConclusions\nWe found higher vaccination coverage and lower nonmedical exemption rates for MMR and DTaP vaccines in states adopting Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices guidelines for school entry. Adherence to these best practices was a successful strategy to increase vaccination coverage and reduce vaccination exemptions.","URL":"https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6016709/","DOI":"10.1093/ofid/ofy130","ISSN":"2328-8957","note":"PMID: 29977973\nPMCID: PMC6016709","journalAbbreviation":"Open Forum Infect Dis","author":[{"family":"Shaw","given":"Jana"},{"family":"Mader","given":"Emily M"},{"family":"Bennett","given":"Brittany E"},{"family":"Vernyi-Kellogg","given":"Olesya K"},{"family":"Yang","given":"Y Tony"},{"family":"Morley","given":"Christopher P"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018",6,2]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",11,15]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Shaw et al. 2018). However, with the introduction of first vaccination in the early 19th century, numerous people have refused to get their children vaccinated. The prominent group of people who object the vaccination belong to certain religious groups primarily Protestant Christian congregations. Their belief is that vaccination is an act of intervention with the divine providence. Protestantism gives parents the right to decide if they would like to vaccinate their children or not. Some people who vaccinated their children and there were some side effects of vaccination, consider it as God’s sign that they had disobeyed the God and that was their punishment for making wrong decision ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"BsVAKQCl","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Pel\\uc0\\u269{}i\\uc0\\u263{} et al. 2016)","plainCitation":"(Pelčić et al. 2016)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":433,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/W2UA9FL2"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/W2UA9FL2"],"itemData":{"id":433,"type":"article-journal","title":"Religious exception for vaccination or religious excuses for avoiding vaccination","container-title":"Croatian Medical Journal","page":"516-521","volume":"57","issue":"5","source":"PubMed Central","DOI":"10.3325/cmj.2016.57.516","ISSN":"0353-9504","note":"PMID: 27815943\nPMCID: PMC5141457","journalAbbreviation":"Croat Med J","author":[{"family":"Pelčić","given":"Gordana"},{"family":"Karačić","given":"Silvana"},{"family":"Mikirtichan","given":"Galina L."},{"family":"Kubar","given":"Olga I."},{"family":"Leavitt","given":"Frank J."},{"family":"Cheng-tek Tai","given":"Michael"},{"family":"Morishita","given":"Naoki"},{"family":"Vuletić","given":"Suzana"},{"family":"Tomašević","given":"Luka"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016",10]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Pelčić et al. 2016). Religion has a strong influence on making decisions related to vaccination and parents often use religious objection as a justification to avoid the vaccination.

Ethical Principles

The ethical implications of the pediatric vaccination revolve around the autonomy of parents for making decisions if their children should get vaccination and the total benefits of vaccination to the public health. The ethical dilemma involves the public health sectors including stakeholders, policymakers, health practitioners and other professionals. The issues of individual’s autonomy regarding vaccination decision, vaccine mandates and the process of vaccine exemptions are noted in the ethical myriad of the public health policy. The ethical approach that initiates the debate over vaccination include the benefits and burden based on who gets vaccination. Who should bear the burden of vaccination while who should receive the benefits of the herd immunity? Should people be allowed to continue having vaccinations when others are at some level of risk? Other concerns involve the autonomy of the children or individuals making decisions about their vaccination or seeking informed consent. There is a need to devise an ethical framework that characterizes the vaccine mandates particularly the importance of individual autonomy, principles of beneficence, non-maleficence, morality, justice and utilitarianism. Thus, the ethical debate over vaccination is quite similar to other social contracts as some actions and policies might provide benefit to the society while contradicting with the individual beliefs and interests. The responsibility of the utility and benefits of vaccination lie with the policy makers, health providers and researchers. It is also imperative to understand the difference of opinions and respect the practices of vaccine refusers ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"TcgvBAkB","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Hendrix et al. 2016)","plainCitation":"(Hendrix et al. 2016)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":436,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/MI22DFDY"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/MI22DFDY"],"itemData":{"id":436,"type":"article-journal","title":"Ethics and Childhood Vaccination Policy in the United States","container-title":"American Journal of Public Health","page":"273-278","volume":"106","issue":"2","source":"PubMed Central","abstract":"Childhood immunization involves a balance between parents’ autonomy in deciding whether to immunize their children and the benefits to public health from mandating vaccines. Ethical concerns about pediatric vaccination span several public health domains, including those of policymakers, clinicians, and other professionals., In light of ongoing developments and debates, we discuss several key ethical issues concerning childhood immunization in the United States and describe how they affect policy development and clinical practice. We focus on ethical considerations pertaining to herd immunity as a community good, vaccine communication, dismissal of vaccine-refusing families from practice, and vaccine mandates., Clinicians and policymakers need to consider the nature and timing of vaccine-related discussions and invoke deliberative approaches to policymaking.","DOI":"10.2105/AJPH.2015.302952","ISSN":"0090-0036","note":"PMID: 26691123\nPMCID: PMC4815604","journalAbbreviation":"Am J Public Health","author":[{"family":"Hendrix","given":"Kristin S."},{"family":"Sturm","given":"Lynne A."},{"family":"Zimet","given":"Gregory D."},{"family":"Meslin","given":"Eric M."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016",2]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Hendrix et al. 2016). In an effort to look for the greater good of the society, there is a need to reach out to individuals who cannot afford of lack awareness about vaccination. The principle of utilitarianism best applies in this case as the purpose of public health programs is to ensure greater health outcomes. There also ethical concerns related to family traditions and cultural values such as familial piety in some cultures makes it hard for an individual to have personal choices. There are some societies that do not rely on individualism rather they believe in the concept of collectivism. Such cultural diversity in health care settings also create ethical debates and make it hard for the policy makers to proceed with any decision that benefits all without any disagreements.

Individual rights vs Greater Societal good

In an ideal society, the individual rights and the societal good are interrelated and must be given due consideration to improve the combined effect of goodness in society. Individual rights are provided and guaranteed by the constitution and the government to its citizens. Individual rights have always been a key concern towards the revolution and foundation of the country. These rights emphasize the individuality and choices to ensure that the people can decide for themselves. If individuals are given the right to decide for their vaccination, they can make decisions without any societal, familial or religious pressure, rather they can get the opportunity to decide on the basis of their choice and wellbeing. It is also important to respect an individual’s beliefs and values as it is an integral part of public health ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"F8o105zQ","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Shestack 2017)","plainCitation":"(Shestack 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":439,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/RPNNVWZH"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/RPNNVWZH"],"itemData":{"id":439,"type":"chapter","title":"The philosophic foundations of human rights","container-title":"Human Rights","publisher":"Routledge","page":"3-36","author":[{"family":"Shestack","given":"Jerome J."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Shestack 2017). The greater societal good or the common good is a situation where the individual rights should be stepped down so that decisions can be made in favor of a collective good for a group of people or a whole society. However, as per the constitution, it is the responsibility of the government to ensure the societal good. It is thus important for the state to device and implement such policies and laws that offer greater benefits. Thus, the decisions related to the vaccination should be made on the basis of the need and by keeping in consideration the medical research, advances in the medication and prevention strategies and implications of the vaccinations. Therefore, all states have made it compulsory for students to be enrolled in the public school to get vaccinated first. Many religious and philosophical also support the ideology of the common good and promotes the usage of vaccination.

Medical Research

With the increased interest of the medical researchers to bring about reforms in the public health, it has become evident that the research should be evidence based and cover all ethical dilemmas. The empirical research is solely based on the observations, technology and the right methods used. People in the medical industry have different values and beliefs and it becomes extremely hard to resolve any value based differences on the basis of scientific evidence. The questions that are needed to be addressed, selection of methods and interpretation of results are all filtered through unacknowledged and subconscious values. Different kinds of values reinforce different priorities and thus ethical judgements differ accordingly ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"47cnojUJ","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Kelly et al. 2015)","plainCitation":"(Kelly et al. 2015)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":440,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/P48MRRRC"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/P48MRRRC"],"itemData":{"id":440,"type":"article-journal","title":"The importance of values in evidence-based medicine","container-title":"BMC Medical Ethics","page":"69","volume":"16","issue":"1","source":"BioMed Central","abstract":"Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has always required integration of patient values with ‘best’ clinical evidence. It is widely recognized that scientific practices and discoveries, including those of EBM, are value-laden. But to date, the science of EBM has focused primarily on methods for reducing bias in the evidence, while the role of values in the different aspects of the EBM process has been almost completely ignored.","DOI":"10.1186/s12910-015-0063-3","ISSN":"1472-6939","journalAbbreviation":"BMC Medical Ethics","author":[{"family":"Kelly","given":"Michael P."},{"family":"Heath","given":"Iona"},{"family":"Howick","given":"Jeremy"},{"family":"Greenhalgh","given":"Trisha"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015",10,12]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Kelly et al. 2015). It is evident that public health research and practice nurtures ethical concerns that are needed to be looked upon by novel approaches as compared to traditional biomedical ethics. The two most important components of the public health research are the normative criteria depending on the ethical justifications and a structural methodological style for the implementation of research results on to public health issues. The normative foundation consists of five substantial criteria and seven procedural steps that allow to make an ethically right decision. The methodological style consist of six steps that are applied for practicing public health policies.

The normative criteria include five steps including expected health benefits in regards of the target population. It includes the potential harm or burden in order to identify any negative effects and adopt for alternative intervention measures. Next criteria is the impact on autonomy that includes health empowerment, individuals’ autonomy and privacy. The remaining criterion are the impact on equity and expected efficiency. However, the conditions for making a fair decision include transparency, consistency, reasoning, participation, management of conflicts of interest, readiness for revisions and regulation. The six important steps in conducting any medical research with a systematic methodology are description of goals, methods and population; specification of normative criteria; evaluation of public health intervention; synthesis of evaluation; recommendations for the study design and implementation; and monitoring the ethical implications ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"GNVJGN7U","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Marckmann et al. 2015)","plainCitation":"(Marckmann et al. 2015)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":443,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/7HJMTJ7D"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/7HJMTJ7D"],"itemData":{"id":443,"type":"article-journal","title":"Putting Public Health Ethics into Practice: A Systematic Framework","container-title":"Frontiers in Public Health","volume":"3","source":"Frontiers","abstract":"It is widely acknowledged that public health practice raises ethical issues that require a different approach than traditional biomedical ethics. Several frameworks for public health ethics have been proposed, however, none of them provides a practice-oriented combination of the two necessary components: (1) A set of normative criteria based on an explicit ethical justification and (2) a structured methodological approach for applying the resulting normative criteria to concrete public health issues. Building on prior work in the field and integrating valuable elements of other approaches to public health ethics, we present a systematic ethical framework that shall guide professionals in planning, conducting, and evaluating public health interventions. Based on a coherentist model of ethical justification, the proposed framework contains (1) an explicit normative foundation with five substantive criteria and seven procedural conditions to guarantee a fair decision process, and (2) a six-step methodological approach for applying the criteria and conditions to the practice of public health and health policy. The framework explicitly ties together ethical analysis and empirical evidence, thus striving for evidence-based public health ethics. It shall provide normative guidance to those who analyze the ethical implications of public health practice including academic ethicists, health policy makers, health technology assessment bodies, and public health professionals. It will enable those who implement a public health intervention and those affected by it (i.e. the target population) to critically assess whether and how the required ethical considerations have been taken into account. Thereby, the framework can contribute to assuring the quality of ethical analysis in public health. Whether the presented framework will be able to achieve its goals has to be determined by evaluating its practical application.","URL":"https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpubh.2015.00023/full","DOI":"10.3389/fpubh.2015.00023","ISSN":"2296-2565","title-short":"Putting Public Health Ethics into Practice","journalAbbreviation":"Front. Public Health","language":"English","author":[{"family":"Marckmann","given":"Georg"},{"family":"Schmidt","given":"Harald"},{"family":"Sofaer","given":"Neema"},{"family":"Strech","given":"Daniel"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015"]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",11,15]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Marckmann et al. 2015). Such a refined research methodology provides results that can be applied over wider populations with sound evidence. These factors help identify the ethical implications of any medical issue and helps the policy makers and public health providers with data that can be used for making important decisions.

Recommendations

It is recommended to focus on evidence based research for the implementation of ethical regulations and policies in order to avoid any public disagreements. The governments should maintain such policies that promote the public health and look for the greater societal good along with respecting individuals’ beliefs and values. Vaccination is a critical topic but it needs to be solved and all institutions should come over the same page. The not so old measles outbreak is an example that should be considered and used to spread awareness among people who oppose the vaccination in their children. The vaccination exemptions laws should be strict and solely based on medical conditions. States should make it mandatory for all children to get vaccinated before taking admission in the public schools. The vaccination laws should be similar for all to avoid any unexpected epidemics. This might hurt religious sentiments of few groups of people, however, the states should focus on the greater benefit. The biomedical and ethical research should follow a refined methodology in order to avoid any complications and present quality results.

References

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Hendrix, Kristin S., Lynne A. Sturm, Gregory D. Zimet, and Eric M. Meslin. 2016. “Ethics and Childhood Vaccination Policy in the United States.” American Journal of Public Health 106(2): 273–78.

Kelly, Michael P., Iona Heath, Jeremy Howick, and Trisha Greenhalgh. 2015. “The Importance of Values in Evidence-Based Medicine.” BMC Medical Ethics 16(1): 69.

Marckmann, Georg, Harald Schmidt, Neema Sofaer, and Daniel Strech. 2015. “Putting Public Health Ethics into Practice: A Systematic Framework.” Frontiers in Public Health 3. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpubh.2015.00023/full (November 15, 2019).

Pelčić, Gordana et al. 2016. “Religious Exception for Vaccination or Religious Excuses for Avoiding Vaccination.” Croatian Medical Journal 57(5): 516–21.

Shaw, Jana et al. 2018. “Immunization Mandates, Vaccination Coverage, and Exemption Rates in the United States.” Open Forum Infectious Diseases 5(6). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6016709/ (November 15, 2019).

Shestack, Jerome J. 2017. “The Philosophic Foundations of Human Rights.” In Human Rights, Routledge, 3–36.

Subject: Environmental Science

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

607

Mental Health Issues

[Author’s name]

[Institute’s name]

Mental Health Issues

Introduction

Today, the world is facing the calamity of mental illness in the form of different psychological issues. It is important to appropriately address this concern to save as many people as possible. This form of consideration is critical because mental wellness ultimately guarantees t proper functioning in life. Proper mental health fosters people’s capacity to perform their routine tasks effectively and efficiently. The association between mental health issues and society can never be ignored because overall, social perception plays a critical role in this context. It is important to examine how mental health disorders are perceived by society. The perception of society matters because it impacts people who suffer from any mental health issue. Mental illness is as important as physical health because it eventually disturbs the person’s ability to perform daily tasks. This research work focuses on critically analyzing the perception of society about the concern of mental health disorders. 

Discussion

Mental Health Disorders Perceived by Society

 It is vital to consider how people as members of society behave with individuals who suffer from any form of mental instability. Unfortunately, discrimination and stigma are two significant factors that exist in society when it comes to the issue of mental health disorders. The disturbing reality of discrimination against victims of mental health disorders can never be ignored as it ultimately influences their social position. Mental health is associated with the stigma in different societies that negatively influences the equilibrium of society. Currently, the phenomenon of mental illness is common but on the other hand, social acceptance of this reality is extremely low. This specific issue exists because society, in general, has typical views about mental health issues. The stereotypical approach of society about mental illness affects people in different chronic forms. It is noteworthy to indicate that the aspects of stigma and discrimination further lead to the issue of mental instability for the victims. 

Social stigma is attached to the issue of mental health disorders and eventually create an extensive gap between victims of mental disorders and other individuals. Discrimination with regard to mental health ultimately makes the situation worse for the people who are going through any form of mental disorder (Zolnierek, 2009). Identification of public attitudes towards mental illness is an essential practical measure to evaluate the overall perception of society in this manner. The perceptions of different societies about the stigma of mental illness problems are changing but this problem at an extensive level still persists. Attitudes towards mental health issues extensively changed over time but this scenario varies in different societies. 

Lack of appropriate information about mental health issues is recognized as one major factor of negative perception set by the people. Social isolation, unemployment, and poverty are some major problems that exist in society for people who experience a mental health disorder. In general, people are not willing to develop social associations with the ones who are struggling with any form of mental imbalance. Lack of public awareness about mental health disorders eventually creates the issue of negative perceptions of society. Society plays its role as an important stakeholder when it comes to mental health stigma. It is observed that there are specific beliefs or perceptions of the society associated with the concern of mental health disorders. Different forms of rejection for mentally ill individuals is a common phenomenon that prevails in society. The stereotypical perception by society as a whole plays its role as the prevalent barrier in the prevention of different mental health issues. This specific hurdle is alarming and requires the necessary attention to ensure proper treatment and social assistance for mentally ill individuals. 

Mental Health Disorders Perceived by Different Ethnic Groups

 Racial or ethnic differences play a critical role in the perceptions of different mental health disorders. The difference in cultures plays a critical role in what judgment is made about the people who suffer from mental health issues. A detailed assessment of different ethnic groups of society indicates that mental health care is mostly neglected by people of ethnic minorities. It is important to identify the main reasons for this specific development concerning the overall approach towards mental health disorders. African American is recognized as one major ethnic group that is associated with the broader form of American society. A comprehensive understanding of the specific ethnic group of African Americans, reveals that every individual is at the risk of having some form of mental health disorder. 

The community of African American is at high risk of mental health disorder that influences people in different forms. This ethnic community faces different forms of challenges when it comes to formed perceptions about mental health concerns. Race-based exclusion from health services is another major factor that influences the perception of African Americans about mental health disorders. Racism is one continuous prospect of concern for African Americans when it comes to mental health disorders. With time, the issues of negative stereotypes and discriminated behaviors about mental health disorders are decreased in the ethnic community of African Americans, but it requires improvement (Reupert & Maybery, 2007). Adverse consequences of negative perception still prevail and ultimately affect the proper diagnosis and treatment of mental health disorders. National statistics of the country explicitly indicate that people belonging to the African American community are 20 percent more likely to face serious mental health issues as compared to other groups of society. These numbers are alarming and show that the issue of mental health disorders is poorly handled, specifically, in the case of this ethnic group. Prejudice against different mental disorders ultimately makes it difficult for young African Americans to successfully deal with their mental health concerns. 

The ethnic group of Asian Americans is also greatly facing the issue of the wrong perception of different forms of mental health disorders. The existence of mental health stressors is high in the Asian community due to the implications of specific cultural values. Facing any form of mental health disorder is generally established as a great taboo in the Asian community. It is observed that Asian people mostly never avail the options of treatment or medical assistance to deal with their mental health disorders (Tosh, Clifton, Xia, & White, 2014). Generally, the issues of mental disorders are unnoticed for the Asian American community that ultimately increases the negative perceptions about mental health. It is observed that most Asian people are not willing to give required importance to mental health disorders due to their specific cultural values and standards. Discussing mental concerns is considered as something unmentionable in Asian culture leading to increased risk of serious complications of mental health disorders. Social shaming about mental health concerns causes many other psychological imbalances. The issue of suicide attempts is critical for Asian young individuals who find it difficult to consult any professional about their mental health concerns. Detailed consideration of two important ethnic groups of the country indicates that cultural restrictions play a critical role in developing negative perceptions about mental health issues. 

 Treatment Approaches in case of Severe and Moderate Mental Illnesses

 The adoption of a suitable treatment approach is necessary to successfully address the issues of mental illness. The provision of timely treatment eliminates further psychological complications for the victims who face different mental issues. The occurrence of mental health issues can be categorized into two major forms; severe and moderate mental illnesses. The role of healthcare professionals is important in ensuring the provision of different treatment approaches according to the actual intensity of mental health disorders. Appropriate diagnosis is a crucial stage to propose suitable treatment approaches according to the needs of different individuals. Evidence-based psychological treatment is an essential measure to align treatment approaches with the magnitude of mental illness (Neupane, Dhakal, Thapa, Bhandari, & Mishra, 2016). It is noteworthy to consider that the treatment of mental illnesses can be established in a variety of settings with the involvement of different services providers such as counselors, psychiatrists, psychologists, nurses, and support professionals. It is essential to consider that there is no standard pattern when it comes to providing treatment for different mental health problems. It is the responsibility of healthcare providers to adopt the most suitable approach according to the needs of each patient as an individual. 

Psychiatric hospitalization is recognized as a suitable treatment option when the patient is suffering from severe mental illness. This specific approach occurs when a person is admitted to a medical or private psychiatric hospital to attain immediate professional medical assistance. This method of treatment is usually comprised of the medical domains of stabilization, close assessment, medication, active administration of fluids and nutrition and other forms of emergency (Bahorik, Newhill, & Eack, 2013). The option of psychiatric hospitalization is viable when there is the existence of extreme mental health symptoms. The severe mental illness factors can be established in the form of hallucinations, suicidal attempts, issues with sleeping and eating and inability to care for themselves due to improper mental health. Inpatient or residential mental health treatment is another suitable option for severe mental health illnesses. This form of treatment is defined as the residential facility on a 24/7 basis. This type of treatment is most suitable when there is a need for constant supervision for the patient who is dealing with severe mental health concerns. Observation of severe symptoms leads to the approach of outpatient mental health intervention for the patients. This form of treatment can be adopted in many different forms such as the practical domains of counseling, medication, medical supervision, group therapy, etc. The main aim of this type of treatment program is to ensure consistent medical treatment for individuals who are not able to effectively perform their daily tasks due to the occurrence of severe signs of mental illness. 

           On the other hand, outpatient mental health treatment is an option for individuals who are struggling with moderate signs of mental illness. This form of treatment never expects participants to live at the hospital for the continuous treatment and supervision from the healthcare professionals. In this particular approach, participants visit the treatment area on certain time frames to attain a better form of counseling. The prospect of outpatient mental illness treatment is recognized as a preferable approach for individuals who are dealing with moderate mental health concerns. The existence of moderate mental health illness demands a strong support system for the patients to successfully handle their complex and difficult situations. When it comes to outpatient mental health treatment, there are significant options for healthcare providers. These practical measures include domains of individual therapy, group therapy, family therapy, the existence of various support groups, etc. 

 Impact of Poverty and Socioeconomic Status on Mental Health Treatment

           Poverty and socioeconomic status are recognized as two important factors when it comes to addressing the approach of mental health treatment. The practical idea of mental health treatment can never be separated from the financial positioning of individuals who are suffering from psychological concerns. The aspects of poverty and socioeconomic status can be defined as the low-income level that ultimately influences the approach of proper mental health treatment. The issues of poverty and low socioeconomic status eventually increase the intensity of mental health illness for the patients. On practical grounds, it becomes difficult for economically deprived patients to attain suitable medical assistance in order to deal with their psychological concerns. In some areas, people are struggling with different mental health illnesses due to their inability to get costly mental health assistance from professionals. This is one chronic phenomenon that requires the immediate and necessary attention of the healthcare providers and policymakers. There is a need for initiating and implementing better intervention programs to ensure proper medical support for economically deprived individuals (Ma, 2017). It is also vital to consider that the risk of mental health problems is high for people who live in poverty.

The adverse socioeconomic conditions eventually cause the development of many other psychological concerns. Identification of this approach requires the necessary attention to deliver better mental health treatment to poor individuals on priority. Adoption of proper public policy measures can be feasible in this regard to offer better solutions when it comes to consideration of poverty in case of mental health treatment. Active involvement of all the shareholders is essential to successfully handle the prevailing association between poverty and concerns of mental health treatment. 

 Contemporary Issues Concerning Mental Health and Society

           Proper exploration of contemporary issues in case of mental health concerns and society is an essential approach to successfully address this phenomenon. Social isolation and risk to substance abuse are the two major issues concerning the approach of mental health and society. The stigma of mental health ultimately turned into social segregation for the victims who suffer from any form of mental illness. Feeling of loneliness is one common and serious issue in society that makes it difficult for the patient of mental illness to sustain in society. Lack of consistent contact with other members of the society ultimately enhances social pressure for the ones who are dealing with any form of mental health issue. 

           The inappropriate conduct of society towards mental health issues also increases the risk of substance abuse in society. The statistics of the country clearly indicate that mental health concerns significantly in the forms of depression and anxiety increase the risk of involving in the calamity of drug abuse. Substance-related disorders are closely linked with the prospect of mental health issues. The existence of this connection ultimately causes severe outcomes when it comes to assessing the mental health approach of society. The improper attitude of society towards the genuine concerns of mental health also becomes the reason for the increasing rate of crimes in society (Swanson & Felthous, 2015). People who are suffering from the issues of social isolation and drug abuse eventually instigates them to involve in different illegitimate activities. 

Conclusion

           To conclude the discussion about the role of society in case of mental health issues, it is important to mention that active response from the society members is essential to deal with this concern. Inadequate awareness about mental health illnesses increases the gap that persists in case of the prevailing connection between the patients of mental health illness and the other members of the society. The role of healthcare professionals is critical for the implementation of suitable treatment approaches to successfully address the issues of mental illness. The active intervention of all the shareholders is crucial to change the negative perception of society about mental health issues.

References

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Bahorik, A. L., Newhill, C. E., & Eack, S. M. (2013). Characterizing the longitudinal patterns of substance use among individuals diagnosed with serious mental illness after psychiatric hospitalization. Addiction, 108(7), 1259–1269.

Ma, Z. (2017). How the media cover mental illnesses: A review. Health Education, 117(1), 90–109.

Neupane, D., Dhakal, S., Thapa, S., Bhandari, P. M., & Mishra, S. R. (2016). Caregivers’ attitude towards people with mental illness and perceived stigma: A cross-sectional study in a tertiary hospital in Nepal. PloS One, 11(6), e0158113.

Reupert, A., & Maybery, D. (2007). Families affected by parental mental illness: A multiperspective account of issues and interventions. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 77(3), 362–369.

Swanson, J. W., & Felthous, A. R. (2015). Guns, mental illness, and the law: Introduction to this issue. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 33(2–3), 167–177.

Tosh, G., Clifton, A. V., Xia, J., & White, M. M. (2014). Physical health care monitoring for people with serious mental illness. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (1).

Zolnierek, C. D. (2009). Non‐psychiatric hospitalization of people with mental illness: Systematic review. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 65(8), 1570–1583.

 

Subject: Environmental Science

Pages: 8 Words: 2400

607

The Issue of Mental Health

[Author’s name]

[Institute’s name]

The Issue of Mental Health

Issues of Mental Health and Mental Illness in the United States

           It is one harsh reality of the society that the issues of mental health and mental illness involve different forms of stigmas and biasedness. People suffering from any form of mental concern deals differently as compared to normal individuals. People have different forms of negative perception about the patients of mental illness. Undoubtedly, it is a great challenge for the society to provide the necessary comfort to others without any biasedness towards their mental issues. The approach of critical comparison of American society with other nations better helps to observe American people perception about mental issues. It is established that the nation of the United States deals with different forms of evolution and transformations. These aspects eventually influence Americans’ approach when it comes to issues of mental health and mental illness. The diversity of society also presents in case of perception about the concern of mental illness. The cultural difference is one prominent indicator that influences people’s approach towards the phenomenon of mental health and mental illness. 

           The existence of negative perception about mental concerns can also never be ignored. It is one critical social concern because the limitation of public stigma restricts many individuals to regularly and timely attain proper healthcare services for any mental issue. Attainment of mental healthcare services is still a taboo for many Americans. Identification of these concerns makes it essential to openly talk about this issue and explore some suitable consensus level. Awareness about different types of mental issues is an essential step to change the conventional and discriminatory perception of people about the issue of mental illness (Meyer, Saw, Cho, & Fancher, 2015). Consideration of improved knowledge about mental disorders can be a helpful approach to minimize the gap that exists between healthy people and the ones who are suffering from mental instabilities. Lack of engagement in mental healthcare process is one primary cause of negative attitude and beliefs for the people who are facing the issues of mental illness. 

Different Types of Mental Disorders

Anxiety Disorder

           Anxiety disorder is recognized as one of the common forms of mental illness. It is established that people who suffer from mental instability poorly respond to specific objects or situation. Individuals with anxiety disorder have an immense form of fear or anxiety in case of specific things, persons, or situations. 

           Symptoms:

Trembling

Feelings of nervousness

Having the feeling of extreme danger

Panic Attacks

Increased Heart Rate

Sweating

Weakness

Facing troubles in sleeping

Impact on the Individual

           Anxiety disorder can be immensely detrimental for the individual as it negatively influences the daily routine functioning of the person. The individual’s well-being is also impacted by regular panic and anxiety attacks. Headaches and dizziness are the common characteristics of anxiety disorder that impact the individual in a great manner.  

           

Impact on Person’s Ability to Function

           The mental issue of anxiety disorder immensely impacts the functioning of the victim. This specific issue affects different physical and psychological abilities of the individual that ultimately cause improper functioning (Mander et al., 2017). The long-term issue of anxiety disorder causes the development of stressful hormones in a victim’s brain regularly that ultimately reduces a person’s ability to function appropriately. 

Mood Disorder

           This specific disorder is also identified as an affective disorder concerning improper moods of the individuals. The issue of mood disorder involves persistent feelings of different emotions such as extreme sadness or overly happiness. Improper fluctuations in the form of mood swings are the basic prospect of this mental disorder. The issue of mood disorders can further explain as depression, bipolar disorder, etc.  

           Symptoms:

Distractibility

An abnormal pattern of sleep

Impulsivity

Feeling empty

Impact on the Individual

           The issue of mood disorder impacts the individual in many different forms. Irrelevance of people restricts them from their proper functioning in life. The inconsistent pattern of feelings or moods eventually makes it difficult for an individual to concentrate on normal work. Extreme sadness limits opportunities for the victim to involve different activities of life. On the other hand, the mood of extreme happiness makes the individual unable to make wise decisions about different matters. 

Impact on Person’s Ability to Function

           The person’s ability to greatly functions in life is immensely restricted by the mental issue of mood disorders. The concern in the form of depression hinders an individual’s approach to successfully respond to various everyday matters. 

Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

           This disorder is associated with some specific terrifying event in someone’s life that ultimately cause great fear. Any petrifying incident such as the death of a loved one triggered the mental concern appears as the issue of PTSD. This disorder can develop in both forms of experiencing or witnessing an extremely unpleasant event in someone’s life.  

           Symptoms:

Extreme emotional distress

Nightmares

Flashbacks

Avoiding specific places or activities

The feeling of hopelessness about future

Unable to develop a friendly relationship with others

Emotionally numb

Impact on the Individual

           Different chronic reactions to the issue of trauma make it almost impossible for individuals to greatly survive in life. The victim of PTSD ultimately accepts failure to manage different aspects of life. Different forms of emotional incompetence such as fear, anxiety, or depression cause extreme isolation for the individual.  

 Impact on Person’s Ability to Function

           The extreme suffering of PTSD causes different forms of disruptions for the individuals that negatively impact their functioning in life in a great manner (Fishbain, Pulikal, Lewis, & Gao, 2017). The extreme degree of fear or depression makes it impossible for them to trust others and develop a normal social association with others. 

Personality Disorder

           Inflexible personality traits or characteristics are the basic aspects associated with the issue of personality disorder. The extreme distortions in personality ultimately affect people’s approach in case of their daily working and association with other individuals. 

           Symptoms:

Unstable relationship with others

Fear of being abandoned

Extreme emotional fluctuations

The feeling of immense anger

Impact on the Individual

           The mental issue of personality disorder negatively influences the thought process of the individual. The behavioral domain of individual is greatly differing from others that cause various forms of relationship gaps and inconsistencies. 

           

 

 

Impact on Person’s Ability to Function

           The daily functioning of an individual at work, home, or other social setting is immensely disturbed by personality disorder. The improper approach of someone’s personality makes it complex for others to establish proper functioning with them. 

Non-Directive Treatment Approach

           The non-directive treatment approach is recognized as one significant form of psychotherapy. The main aim of this specific approach is to provide necessary treatment to different mental disorders by focusing on the clients’ perspectives. In other words, this approach is also characterized as a customer-centered approach that considers the client’s feelings and emotions during the treatment. Person-centered therapy makes it essential for the counselor to give necessary value to the views and feelings of clients and encourage them in case of their strengths. Enhancement of personality development of the client is the basic purpose of this approach that ensures by assisting them in case of their feelings, emotions, thoughts, and actions. The phenomenon of the non-directive approach can be observed through the example when the counselor is not interested to impose their opinions on the clients. Therapists are not inclined to provide directions to the clients by providing them specific advises about their lives. 

           The practical implications of this approach can be observed in the case of treating the issue of PTSD. The counselor or therapist can adapt the prospect of nor-directive therapy or counseling session with the patient of PTSD to provide the necessary support. The counselor must give the necessary confidence to patients, so they become able to share their thoughts without any hesitation or fear. 

                                                                             

 

Directive Treatment Approach

The directive treatment approach is opposite to the counseling perspective of non-directive approach. The procedure of directive therapy appears when counselor directs all the activities of the counseling session. It is noteworthy to indicate that the process of therapy is led by therapists to provide necessary assistance to patients. There is no significant option for the patient to lead the overall process of counseling or therapy in case of this approach. The role of the counselor is immensely crucial and central in case of this approach of counseling for patients who require therapy. The implications of directive therapy can be considered through the example of cognitive-behavioral therapy (Zalaznik, Weiss, & Huppert, 2019). In this scenario, the therapists deliver all the instructions to the clients and help them in case of particular practice categories and techniques. The main aim of this approach is to provide necessary guidelines or roadmap to the clients in case of coping with different problems. 

The application of directive treatment approach can be examined in case of treating anxiety disorder. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is ranked as one significant directive treatment approach to help clients in case of different anxieties and fears faced by them. This specific approach is used by therapists to directs different strategies and techniques to the clients to address their anxiety disorders effectively and efficiently. The conditions and solutions are illustrated by counselors during the counseling sessions to provide necessary guidance to the clients. 

References

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Fishbain, D. A., Pulikal, A., Lewis, J. E., & Gao, J. (2017). Chronic pain types differ in their reported prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and there is consistent evidence that chronic pain is associated with PTSD: an evidence-based structured systematic review. Pain Medicine, 18(4), 711–735.

Mander, J., Neubauer, A. B., Schlarb, A., Teufel, M., Bents, H., Hautzinger, M., … Sammet, I. (2017). The therapeutic alliance in different mental disorders: A comparison of patients with depression, somatoform, and eating disorders. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 90(4), 649–667.

Meyer, O. L., Saw, A., Cho, Y. I., & Fancher, T. L. (2015). Disparities in assessment, treatment, and recommendations for specialty mental health care: Patient reports of medical provider behavior. Health Services Research, 50(3), 750–767.

Zalaznik, D., Weiss, M., & Huppert, J. D. (2019). Improvement in adult anxious and avoidant attachment during cognitive behavioral therapy for panic disorder. Psychotherapy Research, 29(3), 337–353.

Subject: Environmental Science

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

608

608

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

608

Introduction

Bioethical issue is defined as "the philosophical approach and study of the ethical controversies that are brought by the evolution and progression in medicine and biology” (Macer, et al. 2019). . There are a lot of bioethical issues that are present in the current time. The type of care delivery and the healthcare system refers to the society that is healthy with an equal approach of health facilities to everyone who is living in society. The bioethical issue discussed in the paper is, “the lack of access to healthcare in African American women due to poverty”.

Bioethical issue

It is highlighted that the African American women in the United States has always been a victim of different types of discrimination. One of the types of discrimination of the disparity in terms of the provision of the health resources that can keep this set of the population healthy (Macer, et al. 2019). The context of more compact and a narrowed down study highlighted that the provision of equal health opportunities is also one of the bioethical issues when studied in the context of the marginalized population such as African American families. It is highlighted that the “Take Force” defines health disparities as an excess of mortality of the minority groups as compared to the white population. According to the data collected from the National Institute of Health, disparities are defined in terms of difference in the prevalence, burden of disease, mortality and the incidence of disease. The information from the Centre of Disease Control asserts that African Americans are found to have a higher rate of deaths as compared to the White population due to health concerns such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, cirrhosis, AIDS and homicide. White women have a ratio of patients of breast cancer but the ratio of deaths is far more in the black women, highlighting a single cause “poverty” (Macer, et al. 2019).

Marginalized group

African American women are the marginalized group, taking into account they suffer from social exclusion. Whenever marginalized is exemplified, African American women are one of the most quoted examples. African American women are marginalized in terms of all spectrums of life ranging from options of employment and the areas of improvement and self-growth (Noll, et al 2019).

The history of marginalization can be traced back to slavery and the “sold population” ideology associated with Africans. It is highlighted that Africans either immigrants or America born African are termed or treated as marginalized because of the dark history of slavery that is associated with women. Also, the color of African women is one of the sound justification that is given for their marginalization. Many of the racist people, consider their appearance as well as their dark past as a root of degraded and lowered life status because they consider rich cultural and identify history as the precursor of a respectable place in the society. Although this ideology is now general old, still African American women are still counted as marginalized women. Women are not treated alike, they are no allowed to take part in the fields of life, by associating different futile and meaningless associations such as their curled hair and dark complexion. Also, women are to allow to study, they are not given jobs and also, they are not provided by the healthcare necessities required by them. Also, women are marginalized in the form of different movements and activism that assert that Africans are equal to savages, they are dark shadows who are made to be slaves and surrender. In terms of access to healthcare, poverty is the main reason and poverty prevails because women are not allowed to develop and grow, they are not allowed to take part in the activities of life. If there are some volunteer women, they are suppressed but the overwhelming impression of bullying, racism, and personal hatred so they are unable to get in touch with basic life necessities such as health (Noll, et al 2019).

Resource Allocation Issue

Resource allocation is defined as the assignment of the available resources as required and as desired. In the context of a marginalized population, resource allocation is the major gap or issue because it is something that has made the population marginalized. In the context of African America women, they are pushed to live the life of poverty, because education is one of the major requirement for jobs and when these women as girls are not allowed to get education and continue studies, they don’t study and hence they have no option of employment. If the case of their living standards is addressed, then racism is void of any gender, the same happened with men. If some of them have got the required education, such population is not given equal resources to work because of the lack of diverse approach in the organization. Also, in case of public health resources, people either live in far off place, either medical treatments are too expensive or they have to travel a lot of distance to reach the healthcare Centre. There is no healthcare platform with strict requirements of positive treatment for the African American population. There is no specific healthcare company driven by a government that can educate to cater to the needs of the marginalized population (Fletcher, et al.2019).

Ethical principles

Ethical principles serve as the code of conduct used to incorporate security and define the reformation that is needed. Following are the major ethical principles that are associated with the bioethical issues

Non-discrimination

Nondiscrimination is an ethical principle that is applied to the selected population because discrimination is one of the major reasons that the women are left behind in the walk of life, where health is an important department. It is important to note that the stance of non-discrimination is a multi-dimensional aspect. It is asserted that firstly, women are not given any kind of awareness that can add to the conscious or preservative measures of health. Then, women are not allowed to get in touch with the available healthcare opportunities and the resources of health. Also, there are a lot of cases in which bullying and being physical is a dilemma that keeps women away from the population who has access to all the health care resources and opportunities (Fletcher, et al.2019).

Respect for Human dignity and social justice

Human dignity and social justice is another major aspect to consider because African American women are doomed to become a victim of the stereotype population who is not given approach to healthcare resources. Humiliation is one of the major points to be discussed because there are hundreds and thousands of cases in which African American women are humiliated as the population who suffers from HIV and AIDS (Noll, et al 2019). Also, it is highlighted that African Americans are always given the option of abortion with the ideology that they don’t have the economic resources and the capabilities to bore a child. Also, force medication and forced testing is also something that is very common in African American which needs to be considered.

Social justice is a part of that humiliation because it is the response that is expected from the African American women but it is never supported or given. Also, it is important to note that most, African American women are not allowed to seek and they are not given the resources that can help them live in the city areas with good health options and opportunities. It is asserted that African American women are not given the opportunity to live in a society in which they can learn and groom. Also, women are pushed to live in the suburbs as well as the backward areas that have rare healthcare opportunities fact it is forced decisions. It is also highlighted that the women are always considered secondary to the White Women and it asserts the significance of the lack of social justice because when a specific group is not given the option to come up to the social standards, they have to stay back and side in which they have. Also, there are some communities particular of the African America money and it is the lack of social justice and it is the form of sheer injustice that contributes to poverty as well as lack of health resources (Noll, et al 2019).

Transparency

Transparency refers to the measure of check and balance that is used to maintain the social spectrum and let the other members of the society become a prominent part of society. It is more like a dilemma because Africa American women are completely excluded from the set proportion of people who are living in the society. There are no rules, regulations, and policies that can check if the women are given the economic resources. There are no departments that are designed to ensure that African American women are given the economic and social resources that can either support them economically or incorporated social justice along with an equal approach to health (Fletcher, et al.2019)

All these principles not only reflect the basic loopholes but also invites attention to the major cause of the fall of the chosen population and the reason who they are pushed to the backstage of society and life and termed marginalized.

Medical Research issues

There are several medical research issues that are associated with this marginalized group. It is highlighted that African American women suffer from a lot of diseases ranging from cancer to HIV. In many cases, the disease is the product of delayed treatment and the lack of adequate treatment that could have cured the disease in the beginning. It is also important to note that there are significant issues that arise due to the problem in the health system that is proposed to them for treatment. This statement refers to the lack of an updated and homogenous system that can help the population to get in touch with positive and adequate health services at a low cost. The major concern is poverty and availability of health resources on minor finances could have done major well to this marginalized population (Cheema, et al.2019).

End of life issues

There are different end of life issues that are associated with the selected issues. One of these issues is chronic emotional fatigue. It would be better if this issue is called the central issue became the African American population always suffer from the emotional fatigue that is driven from discrimination. Here, it is highlighted that chronic emotional fatigue is a major issue because the population already feels deprived and ignored. Guilt is another end of life issues because such women suffer from the guilt of not living a healthy life that can support their children and families as well as the guilt of leaving family at the edge of destruction in the hands of society and the system that is driven by discrimination. Anxiety and grief over unexpected and increasing finical burdens is also major issues because when they don’t have enough money that could help with the life resources, then getting benefitted from the expensive healthcare is nothing more than a burden. It is observed that this population already lives in the burdens of responsibilities that are not evenly fulfilled so, anxiety is evident that automatically adds to their illness and the issue that they are facing. Stress in relationships are another major issue. It is evident that the African American women only have their families as someone who can bear and then overcome the burden that the families are facing. Women being the central character of driving the family express their stress on their children and husband which automatically cast an effect on the relationship as well as the mental state of the children. Confusion in dealing with complex issues is also one of the major element to treat and address because financial disparities and poverty is something that is worst of all the issues that someone can face. Today, there is a lot of things that can be bought with money, as few of the resource of happiness. So, this lack of stability and inability to address situation hampers the ability of the patient to address her family with positivity, in fact, it affects the health of the individual (Cheema, et al.2019).

Individual right Vs. Greater good to specific to the issue

It is highlighted that access to health is one of the basic and national rights of all the people who are living in the country and the same scenario goes with African American women. Also the issues of “lack of access to health care because of poverty” is not individual but it’s a general issue that is common in all the marginalized groups’ especially African American women. (Fletcher, et al.2019). Here, the issues with individual are the complex though procedure, stereotypes, biases and personal hatred that if resolved can play a central role in promoting general good. The issues that are the chunks of fear that need to be addressed for the health and welfare society.

Role of scientific innovation

A central role can be played by scientific innovation and technology taking into account telehealth and the resources that can be used to educate and treat people. Also, if it is about free health, there are a lot of public service campaigns started off and on, they can be used and even concentrate on the marginalized population to address the health need. Also, social media and other electronic resources can also be used to address health issues in the form of symptoms, care and the online health that are being conveyed to the African American Women while staying at home and free of cost. All these resources will not only help the patient to recover at low cost but it will be one of the effective sources of education because treatment is required after the occurrence of disease which can be addressed by innovation and technological involvement(Cheema, et al.2019).

Summary

In this paper, a marginalized group "African American Women” is selected who is facing an issue “lack of access to care due to poverty”, in the form of bioethical issues. After that, there is a brief account of the allocation of resources due to which these issues occur. Also, there is a critical approach to the ethical principles that are common and observed in this issue. There are some medical health issues as well such as attitude behavior and psychological issues that are common and adhered to the current issues. Also, there are some “end of life care” issues that are common to this population, taking into account the inverse impact these issues can have on them. This paper has also summarized some individual rights issues that are again behavioral and psychological which when resolved can promote social good. In the end, this paper reflects the positive role that can be played by scientific innovations to resolve this issue.

References

Cheema, A. W., Meagher, K. M., & Sharp, R. R. (2019). Multiple Marginalizations: What Bioethics Can Learn From Black Feminism.

Fletcher, F. E., Rice, W. S., Ingram, L. A., & Fisher, C. B. (2019). Ethical Challenges and Lessons Learned from Qualitative Research with Low-Income African American Women Living with HIV in the South. Journal of health care for the poor and underserved, 30(5), 116-129.

Noll, S. E., & Hubbard-Mattix, L. N. (2019). Health Justice in the City: Why an Intersectional Analysis of Transportation Matters for Bioethics. Essays in Philosophy, 20(2), 2.

Macer, D. R. (2019). Is There Cross-Cultural Evidence for an Association Between Intersectionality and Bioethical Decision Making? Not Yet, but Awaiting Advances in Mental Mapping. The American Journal of Bioethics, 19(2), 34-36.

Subject: Environmental Science

Pages: 8 Words: 2400

612

Geogenic Arsenic Contamination of Drinking Water and

Its Reproductive Health Related Complications

[Name]

[Institute]

Author Note

Geogenic Arsenic Contamination of Drinking Water and its Reproductive Health Related Complications

Abstract

Heavy metals and their salts are a vital nutrient for the nourishment of human body when taken in appropriate amount. However, they may pose a serious threat and add to the environmental pollution. Heavy metals accumulation in body to extreme levels has been documented as detrimental to human health. They have serious reproductive health related complications in both males and females. Here, arsenic has proven to be one of the toxic heavy metal that has the ability to affect reproductive health in both pregnant and non-pregnant women. Increased arsenic concentration in drinking water due to geogenic contamination can cause implications for fetus as well as mother. Such environmental concerns deter the overall public health outcomes. Water regulatory bodies have been implementing policies for providing safe and clean drinking water. This paper will discuss the effects of arsenic on human reproductive health and efforts to address the issue in terms of policy making and the efforts being made to curb it.

Introduction

Heavy metals contain extreme high levels of highly concentrated metals that can prove to be toxic even in small concentrations. The most important and well-studied heavy metals with adverse effects on human reproductive health are arsenic, copper, lead and mercury. These metals primarily affect the fetus and the female reproductive system. The main reason for these complications is that these metals are directly accumulated in the fetal tissue via the transportation passage of placenta which is unable to filter these metals. Thus, an affected mother with arsenic toxicity can transfer these metals to her unborn child. Other implications of arsenic toxicity is infertility and imbalanced hormonal system ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"QrVVy54f","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Neeti & Prakash, 2013)","plainCitation":"(Neeti & Prakash, 2013)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":"y4slK2Dk/z47iKCOR","uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/N5zMsyXd/items/JSSX8N24"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/N5zMsyXd/items/JSSX8N24"],"itemData":{"id":5,"type":"article-journal","title":"Effects of heavy metal poisoning during pregnancy","container-title":"Int Res J Environment Sci","page":"88-92","volume":"2","author":[{"family":"Neeti","given":"Kapoor"},{"family":"Prakash","given":"Tiwari"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2013"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Neeti & Prakash, 2013).

The toxic effects from heavy metal infiltration in the drinking water cause brain fogging, chronic malaise, fatigue, illness, severe pain in muscles and tendons, chronic and gastrointestinal infections, allergies, depression, anxiety, visual and neurological problems and post menstrual stress and other hormonal disturbances ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"iTDC9gWs","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Neeti & Prakash, 2013)","plainCitation":"(Neeti & Prakash, 2013)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":"y4slK2Dk/z47iKCOR","uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/N5zMsyXd/items/JSSX8N24"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/N5zMsyXd/items/JSSX8N24"],"itemData":{"id":5,"type":"article-journal","title":"Effects of heavy metal poisoning during pregnancy","container-title":"Int Res J Environment Sci","page":"88-92","volume":"2","author":[{"family":"Neeti","given":"Kapoor"},{"family":"Prakash","given":"Tiwari"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2013"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Neeti & Prakash, 2013).

Arsenic is a natural compound that is not toxic in its properties but increased levels of inorganic arsenic concentration in drinking water has been stated as a serious public health issue in many countries around the globe especially in the regions where people rely on the groundwater ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"wgqQ0WXG","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Shih et al., 2017)","plainCitation":"(Shih et al., 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":"y4slK2Dk/crmcjkq7","uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/N5zMsyXd/items/JEWUIDDI"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/N5zMsyXd/items/JEWUIDDI"],"itemData":{"id":7,"type":"article-journal","title":"Associations between prenatal arsenic exposure with adverse pregnancy outcome and child mortality","container-title":"Environmental research","page":"456-461","volume":"158","author":[{"family":"Shih","given":"Yu-Hsuan"},{"family":"Islam","given":"Tariqul"},{"family":"Hore","given":"Samar Kumar"},{"family":"Sarwar","given":"Golam"},{"family":"Shahriar","given":"Mohammad Hasan"},{"family":"Yunus","given":"Mohammad"},{"family":"Graziano","given":"Joseph H."},{"family":"Harjes","given":"Judith"},{"family":"Baron","given":"John A."},{"family":"Parvez","given":"Faruque"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Shih et al., 2017). According to World Health Organization recommendations, the maximum amount that can be ingested through drinking water is 0.01mg/L which is 10 parts per billion. Arsenic enters into the body via the routes of ingestion, inhalation or absorption. However, the primary route of entry of arsenic metalloids in the human body is through food and drinking water ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"5H1zyBqp","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Rahman et al., 2018)","plainCitation":"(Rahman et al., 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":"y4slK2Dk/bBgemfdc","uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/N5zMsyXd/items/CVDF77CE"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/N5zMsyXd/items/CVDF77CE"],"itemData":{"id":8,"type":"article-journal","title":"Prenatal arsenic exposure, child marriage, and pregnancy weight gain: associations with preterm birth in Bangladesh","container-title":"Environment international","page":"23-32","volume":"112","author":[{"family":"Rahman","given":"Mohammad L."},{"family":"Kile","given":"Molly L."},{"family":"Rodrigues","given":"Ema G."},{"family":"Valeri","given":"Linda"},{"family":"Raj","given":"Anita"},{"family":"Mazumdar","given":"Maitreyi"},{"family":"Mostofa","given":"Golam"},{"family":"Quamruzzaman","given":"Quazi"},{"family":"Rahman","given":"Mahmudur"},{"family":"Hauser","given":"Russ"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Rahman et al., 2018). When this element enters inside the body, it promptly distributes in all the body organs but is mainly absorbed in intestines and stomach and the rest is released in the bloodstream.

Nevertheless, the symptoms of arsenic toxicity in the body are extremely vague and can easily be confused with chronic disorders like depression, autism, chronic fatigue syndrome etc. thus, it is of greater concern that pregnant women must look after themselves and understand the effect of arsenic toxicity. The medical examiners should also conduct important diagnostics and related therapies.

Historical Context

Arsenic poisoning at chronic level converts the element into lesser toxic components by the liver and then they are excreted via urine. However, the higher levels of toxic arsenic concentration in body can lead into excessive accumulation into the body and ultimately can cause arsenicosis. In its early stages, it is difficult to diagnose its symptoms as they are highly non-specific in nature ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"yelBdqgQ","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Rahman et al., 2018)","plainCitation":"(Rahman et al., 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":"y4slK2Dk/bBgemfdc","uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/N5zMsyXd/items/CVDF77CE"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/N5zMsyXd/items/CVDF77CE"],"itemData":{"id":8,"type":"article-journal","title":"Prenatal arsenic exposure, child marriage, and pregnancy weight gain: associations with preterm birth in Bangladesh","container-title":"Environment international","page":"23-32","volume":"112","author":[{"family":"Rahman","given":"Mohammad L."},{"family":"Kile","given":"Molly L."},{"family":"Rodrigues","given":"Ema G."},{"family":"Valeri","given":"Linda"},{"family":"Raj","given":"Anita"},{"family":"Mazumdar","given":"Maitreyi"},{"family":"Mostofa","given":"Golam"},{"family":"Quamruzzaman","given":"Quazi"},{"family":"Rahman","given":"Mahmudur"},{"family":"Hauser","given":"Russ"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Rahman et al., 2018). The extreme antagonistic effects of arsenic poisoning are dependent on the period of exposure and the dietary stuff of the population exposed to it. The chronic arsenic exposure due to drinking water causes multiple health related issues including cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductory, obstetric and neurological issues ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"lbDpsZBl","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Lennon, Whelton, O\\uc0\\u8217{}Mullane, & Ekstrand, 2004)","plainCitation":"(Lennon, Whelton, O’Mullane, & Ekstrand, 2004)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":"y4slK2Dk/OW0682pD","uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/N5zMsyXd/items/E9ZCCIJE"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/N5zMsyXd/items/E9ZCCIJE"],"itemData":{"id":9,"type":"article-journal","title":"Rolling Revision of the WHO Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality","container-title":"World Health Organization","author":[{"family":"Lennon","given":"M. A."},{"family":"Whelton","given":"H."},{"family":"O’Mullane","given":"D."},{"family":"Ekstrand","given":"J."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2004"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Lennon, Whelton, O’Mullane, & Ekstrand, 2004). However, the main effects of arsenic poisoning are the complicated pregnancy outcomes. The risks of women expecting pregnancies had significant mortality rate due to cancer and the root cause was arsenic poisoning in tap water. The following table shows the data collected by National Academy of Sciences from 1999.

Table: Arsenic concentration in tap water and its association with cancer risk among pregnant women

Arsenic Concentration in Tap Water(parts per billion)

Approximate Cancer Risk Among pregnant women (assuming 2 liters consumed/day)

0.5 ppb

1 per 10,000

1 ppb

1 per 5,000

5 ppb

1 per 1,000

10 ppb

1 per 500

50 ppb

1 per 100

Figure SEQ Figure \* ARABIC 1: Estimated Risk of Arsenic in Drinking Water Globally (Schwarzenbach et al., 2010).

Several studies have conducted the assessment of the concentration of arsenic in drinking water and its adversarial effects on pregnant women. The main risks that women face due to chronic arsenic exposure are unplanned abortions, stillbirths and preterm births. Children born to women who have been exposed to arsenic toxicity while their pregnancy have a significantly higher incidence rate of congenital malformations ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"7IZWM7Pi","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Sankhla, Kumari, Nandan, Kumar, & Agrawal, 2016)","plainCitation":"(Sankhla, Kumari, Nandan, Kumar, & Agrawal, 2016)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":"y4slK2Dk/hRHFzNJd","uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/N5zMsyXd/items/QYRAKEYR"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/N5zMsyXd/items/QYRAKEYR"],"itemData":{"id":10,"type":"article-journal","title":"Heavy metals contamination in water and their hazardous effect on human health—a review","container-title":"International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences","page":"759-766","volume":"5","issue":"10","author":[{"family":"Sankhla","given":"Mahipal Singh"},{"family":"Kumari","given":"Mayuri"},{"family":"Nandan","given":"Manisha"},{"family":"Kumar","given":"Rajeev"},{"family":"Agrawal","given":"Prashant"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Sankhla, Kumari, Nandan, Kumar, & Agrawal, 2016). Their average weight at the time of birth is also less than normal babies. Several literature studies have proposed after conducting studies on the women who had been working in the semiconductor industries. Their industrial wastes have large concentrations of arsine which have led to cause an increased number of miscarriages. There is also a strong association between neonatal death and exposure to arsenic just like it is in case of other adverse pregnancy outcomes ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"TKx7cIok","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Amitai & Koren, 2018)","plainCitation":"(Amitai & Koren, 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":"y4slK2Dk/Ja1aVf6e","uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/N5zMsyXd/items/GKWTPMXL"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/N5zMsyXd/items/GKWTPMXL"],"itemData":{"id":11,"type":"article-journal","title":"High risk for neural tube defects; the role of arsenic in drinking water and rice in Asia","container-title":"Medical hypotheses","page":"88-90","volume":"119","author":[{"family":"Amitai","given":"Yona"},{"family":"Koren","given":"Gideon"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Amitai & Koren, 2018).

The prolonged exposure to arsenic from drinking water can be detrimental and cause to increase the risk of both fetal as well as infant deaths among pregnant women. These children can also suffer from developmental disability and mental retardation in new born babies ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"W3WHAL37","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Maji, Pal, & Pal, 2007)","plainCitation":"(Maji, Pal, & Pal, 2007)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":471,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/OnfrXiA2/items/F6DFCPDR"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/OnfrXiA2/items/F6DFCPDR"],"itemData":{"id":471,"type":"article-journal","title":"Arsenic removal from aqueous solutions by adsorption on laterite soil","container-title":"Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A","page":"453-462","volume":"42","issue":"4","author":[{"family":"Maji","given":"Sanjoy K."},{"family":"Pal","given":"Anjali"},{"family":"Pal","given":"Tarasankar"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2007"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Maji, Pal, & Pal, 2007). Furthermore, it was also reported that the men working in arsenic-contaminated community, especially those that work in a smelter or live in close vicinity of the area had a much lower sperm count. They also suffered from a change in sperm head, affects the sperm motility, semen value as well as the production of luteinizing hormones ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"gSp7CdTe","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Milton et al., 2005)","plainCitation":"(Milton et al., 2005)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":470,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/OnfrXiA2/items/3938YVA5"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/OnfrXiA2/items/3938YVA5"],"itemData":{"id":470,"type":"article-journal","title":"Chronic arsenic exposure and adverse pregnancy outcomes in Bangladesh","container-title":"Epidemiology","page":"82-86","author":[{"family":"Milton","given":"Abul Hasnat"},{"family":"Smith","given":"Wayne"},{"family":"Rahman","given":"Bayzidur"},{"family":"Hasan","given":"Ziaul"},{"family":"Kulsum","given":"Umme"},{"family":"Dear","given":"Keith"},{"family":"Rakibuddin","given":"M."},{"family":"Ali","given":"Azahar"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2005"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Milton et al., 2005).

Metals like arsenic can have a deleterious impact on fetus as a result of direct deposition of metals into the fetus. Thus, if the mother continues to have a proper diet, she can certainly save her child from abnormalities. Additionally, it also reduces pregnancy related complications among the newly born adults. By proper diet, a mother can save her child which are most probably caused by inhalation or ingestion of these metals. If consumption of heavy metals is prohibited, we can save lives of mother and her child by avoiding complications in pregnancy and abnormalities of newly borne infants.

Current Policies and Role of Regulatory Bodies

In United States, the federal law that includes Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) guarantees the best quality of Americans' drinking water. In the supervision of SDWA, EPA has set specific standards for maintaining quality of drinking and overseeing the states, regulatory bodies, and water suppliers that are involved in implementing those standards. It identifies the contaminants in the drinking water and regulates them in an effort to protect public health and wellbeing. The agency aims to set regulatory limits with regard to the amount of contaminants being consumed by the public water systems ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"LfwIdGZG","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Kallis & Butler, 2001)","plainCitation":"(Kallis & Butler, 2001)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":"y4slK2Dk/yrOcu6nG","uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/N5zMsyXd/items/C96LXNVM"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/N5zMsyXd/items/C96LXNVM"],"itemData":{"id":12,"type":"article-journal","title":"The EU water framework directive: measures and implications","container-title":"Water policy","page":"125-142","volume":"3","issue":"2","author":[{"family":"Kallis","given":"Giorgos"},{"family":"Butler","given":"David"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2001"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Kallis & Butler, 2001).

A National Primary Drinking Water Regulations has been established by the EPA for legally enforcing the standards that are applicable to the public water systems at present. The prime purpose of these standards is to ensure that the quality of water is maintained to a standard and protected by keeping the number of contaminants that can adversely impact public health standards and frequently occur in water bodies. Additionally, EPA has also put into place the National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations (NSDWRs), that operates as the non-mandatory standard testing water quality against 15 different contaminants ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"3VX612et","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(EPA, 2002)","plainCitation":"(EPA, 2002)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":"y4slK2Dk/E1kZb9bh","uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/N5zMsyXd/items/EDWDUETW"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/N5zMsyXd/items/EDWDUETW"],"itemData":{"id":13,"type":"article-journal","title":"National primary drinking water regulations: Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule. Final rule.","container-title":"Federal register","page":"1811","volume":"67","issue":"9","author":[{"family":"EPA","given":"Environmental Protection Agency"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2002"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (EPA, 2002). These guidelines have been put into place to support the public water system in an effort to manage drinking water for aesthetic contemplations. These considerations included a debate on the taste, the odor, and the color of the contaminant at hand and can be considered a threat to the general public health.

The exposure to arsenic from drinking water has greatly reduced in the fresh water bodies through the regulations imposed by the EPA. These regulations have led to an almost 17% decline in the level of urinary arsenic and has provided us with an estimated 200 cases of lung and bladder cancer annually. However, the levels of arsenic in private wells used by individuals did not change in any respect. This shows that at the end of the day, it is important that the role played by regulations be brought to the forefront and how this could result in protecting human health by reducing any form of exposure. Considering that arsenic is a carcinogen, these measures are rather important ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Fmg0undQ","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(The Lancet, 2017)","plainCitation":"(The Lancet, 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":"y4slK2Dk/jeJKJdwc","uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/5VyEEXyp/items/AKGQK8M6"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/5VyEEXyp/items/AKGQK8M6"],"itemData":{"id":1131,"type":"webpage","title":"EPA regulation on arsenic in US public water systems likely prevented over 200 cancer cases per year","container-title":"ScienceDaily","abstract":"A new study highlights the critical role of federal drinking water regulations in reducing toxic exposure and protecting human health.","URL":"https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/10/171023180516.htm","language":"en","author":[{"family":"The Lancet","given":""}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017",10,17]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",10,15]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (The Lancet, 2017).

Comparison of Current Policies

According to EPA, every single water body contains these contaminants to some extent. If these contaminants are present in any water body, the water appears cloudy, colored and even smells and tastes weird. While EPA has been key to improving the system as a whole at present, in 1972, the federal government in United States ratified the modern arrangement of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. About three decades later, the European Union implemented the directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council inaugurating a charter for the Community actions in water policies, which is famous as EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"2bgDiBYv","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Kaika, 2003)","plainCitation":"(Kaika, 2003)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":"y4slK2Dk/sBfzxCJq","uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/N5zMsyXd/items/WS2HWDI5"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/N5zMsyXd/items/WS2HWDI5"],"itemData":{"id":2,"type":"article-journal","title":"The Water Framework Directive: a new directive for a changing social, political and economic European framework","container-title":"European Planning Studies","page":"299-316","volume":"11","issue":"3","author":[{"family":"Kaika","given":"Maria"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2003"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Kaika, 2003). This present framework replaced the earlier practices and replaced the former and much inadequate policies that concentrated on protecting the various drinking water sources.

The laws of both EU WFD and Clean Water Act (CWA) seek to enhance the water management strategies and the condition of waterbodies but they have three differences in their laws. The WFD is much more inclusive in its methodology for water management as compared to CWA. CWA considers the federalism system of United States worthy and leaves several branches of water regulation up to respective states. Moreover, both laws have different focal of regulations. The CWA seeks to reduce the surface water pollution that comes from various sources while WFD concentrates on improving the general status of waterbodies. Furthermore, CWA laws are comparatively easier to enforce ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"BKgv5ilv","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Kallis & Butler, 2001)","plainCitation":"(Kallis & Butler, 2001)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":"y4slK2Dk/yrOcu6nG","uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/N5zMsyXd/items/C96LXNVM"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/N5zMsyXd/items/C96LXNVM"],"itemData":{"id":12,"type":"article-journal","title":"The EU water framework directive: measures and implications","container-title":"Water policy","page":"125-142","volume":"3","issue":"2","author":[{"family":"Kallis","given":"Giorgos"},{"family":"Butler","given":"David"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2001"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Kallis & Butler, 2001).

The water framework directive of EU is much comprehensive in contrast to CWA’s water management system and governmental activities. It includes the distribution of surface and ground water and reduction laws, control of surface and ground water pollution, preservation of aquatic habitat, development of waterbodies and demolition of wetlands and mangroves. Many countries divide the different aspects of managing the water bodies among several organizations and public regulatory bodies. This distribution of authorities sometimes results in hampering the development of extensive and general water policies with distinctive priorities regarding to a specific water resource ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"o44ygH0K","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Kaika, 2003)","plainCitation":"(Kaika, 2003)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":"y4slK2Dk/sBfzxCJq","uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/N5zMsyXd/items/WS2HWDI5"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/N5zMsyXd/items/WS2HWDI5"],"itemData":{"id":2,"type":"article-journal","title":"The Water Framework Directive: a new directive for a changing social, political and economic European framework","container-title":"European Planning Studies","page":"299-316","volume":"11","issue":"3","author":[{"family":"Kaika","given":"Maria"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2003"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Kaika, 2003).

US legislations on water management divide the water allocation which is governed by state laws from the water quality laws that are implemented by CWA. Thus, CWA unequivocally stresses twice on the management process, once at the initial stages and then once at the end and it is does not interfere in the water allocation matters of the state and water rights.

The applications of CWA on the groundwater contamination are much more tenuous as compared to WFD. CWA implements directly on the navigable waters that include two federal agencies for implementing the Act, US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) that only address the issues of surface water. Industrial, commercial or household activities that contaminate the ground water do not generally violate the Act though current litigation has shed light on the issue and led it to the US Courts of Appeals. It addressed the matter of CWA implementation on facilities when they discharge contaminants in to the groundwater which is hydrologically connected with the sources of surface water.

However, both WFD and CWA laws provide additional protective measures to the coastal waters. In the preamble of WFD, it has been noted the certain susceptibilities of coastal waters and seas and though its primary goal is to look over the concern of pollution in freshwaters and removing the hazardous contaminants, it also focuses on the marine waters and its concentrations of naturally occurring substances. Thus, CWA is applied on both ocean waters to implement special criteria for ocean discharge activities as well as efforts to regulate the facilities that discharge contaminants in coastal waters.

Recommended Policy

In a number of developed countries, such as the United States, the average volume of arsenic in drinking water is 22.3 μg/l. These reported levels are drastically higher in ratio and can become one of the primary reasons for ischemic stroke and related hospitalization ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"iwW6MDz5","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Lisabeth et al., 2010)","plainCitation":"(Lisabeth et al., 2010)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":"y4slK2Dk/9CZSK0wg","uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/N5zMsyXd/items/C56WLH6K"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/N5zMsyXd/items/C56WLH6K"],"itemData":{"id":4,"type":"article-journal","title":"Arsenic in drinking water and stroke hospitalizations in Michigan","container-title":"Stroke","page":"2499-2504","volume":"41","issue":"11","author":[{"family":"Lisabeth","given":"Lynda D."},{"family":"Ahn","given":"Hyeong Jun"},{"family":"Chen","given":"John J."},{"family":"Sealy-Jefferson","given":"Shawnita"},{"family":"Burke","given":"James F."},{"family":"Meliker","given":"Jaymie R."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2010"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Lisabeth et al., 2010). A huge number of individuals exposed to these high concentrations of arsenic globally make this issue a public health consequence, especially with regard to drinking water.

The emerging international data in the field establishes that the chronic arsenic exposure to arsenic at any level below 10 μg/l found in drinking water can prove to be harmful for health. The studies carried out on the subject have shown an increase in the risk associated with these increased levels of arsenic in drinking water, which in turn has increased the risk associated with coronary heart disease as well as stroke in the country. Thus, the country must commit to improving the translation of scientific research and turn the data collected and the recommendations made into those policies in an effort to strengthen the conversation among the policy-makers and scientific community as a whole. Together, both segments are essential for the policy making process.

Despite considerable advances in the field, both locally and otherwise, the scientific evidence obtained in terms of chronic arsenic exposure has not been translated into policy. Therefore, it is vital that policy makers are made aware of the present data available, so they devise a good program in order to deal with the issue at hand. One such means is to look into the abundance of private wells in the country and estimate the levels of arsenic in those wells and compare it to the level of arsenic that can be found in public wells. This provides the masses with a source for cleaner water while the government works towards reducing the level of arsenic in the water system ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"f8LfG7On","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Greco, Belova, Haskell, & Backer, n.d.)","plainCitation":"(Greco, Belova, Haskell, & Backer, n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":"y4slK2Dk/OAMi37Bb","uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/N5zMsyXd/items/LSICBF83"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/N5zMsyXd/items/LSICBF83"],"itemData":{"id":3,"type":"article-journal","title":"Estimated burden of disease from arsenic in drinking water supplied by domestic wells in the United States","container-title":"Journal of Water and Health","author":[{"family":"Greco","given":"Susan Lavinia"},{"family":"Belova","given":"Anna"},{"family":"Haskell","given":"Jacqueline"},{"family":"Backer","given":"Lorraine"}]}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Greco, Belova, Haskell, & Backer, n.d.).

Conclusion

At the end of the day, USA is in dire need of better risk communication, as well as public education. Here, the various mistaken perceptions with regard to the belief that the situation is not as grave as the science behind it makes it out to be, shows that the population still has enough to demand for better quality of water or accept personal risks in efforts to reduce the amount of arsenic in water. The authorities can do a lot to increase the public awareness in an effort to not only reduce institutional barriers that limit the public access to information while also making an effort to improve scientific knowledge in the area by supporting information. For instance, the government has to go through a long, unnecessary and tiresome process when someone seeks any access to information.

References

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Amitai, Y., & Koren, G. (2018). High risk for neural tube defects; the role of arsenic in drinking water and rice in Asia. Medical Hypotheses, 119, 88–90.

EPA, E. P. A. (2002). National primary drinking water regulations: Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule. Final rule. Federal Register, 67(9), 1811.

Greco, S. L., Belova, A., Haskell, J., & Backer, L. (n.d.). Estimated burden of disease from arsenic in drinking water supplied by domestic wells in the United States. Journal of Water and Health.

Kaika, M. (2003). The Water Framework Directive: A new directive for a changing social, political and economic European framework. European Planning Studies, 11(3), 299–316.

Kallis, G., & Butler, D. (2001). The EU water framework directive: Measures and implications. Water Policy, 3(2), 125–142.

Lennon, M. A., Whelton, H., O’Mullane, D., & Ekstrand, J. (2004). Rolling Revision of the WHO Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality. World Health Organization.

Lisabeth, L. D., Ahn, H. J., Chen, J. J., Sealy-Jefferson, S., Burke, J. F., & Meliker, J. R. (2010). Arsenic in drinking water and stroke hospitalizations in Michigan. Stroke, 41(11), 2499–2504.

Maji, S. K., Pal, A., & Pal, T. (2007). Arsenic removal from aqueous solutions by adsorption on laterite soil. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, 42(4), 453–462.

Milton, A. H., Smith, W., Rahman, B., Hasan, Z., Kulsum, U., Dear, K., … Ali, A. (2005). Chronic arsenic exposure and adverse pregnancy outcomes in Bangladesh. Epidemiology, 82–86.

Neeti, K., & Prakash, T. (2013). Effects of heavy metal poisoning during pregnancy. Int Res J Environment Sci, 2, 88–92.

Rahman, M. L., Kile, M. L., Rodrigues, E. G., Valeri, L., Raj, A., Mazumdar, M., … Hauser, R. (2018). Prenatal arsenic exposure, child marriage, and pregnancy weight gain: Associations with preterm birth in Bangladesh. Environment International, 112, 23–32.

Sankhla, M. S., Kumari, M., Nandan, M., Kumar, R., & Agrawal, P. (2016). Heavy metals contamination in water and their hazardous effect on human health—A review. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 5(10), 759–766.

Schwarzenbach, R., Egli, T., Hofstetter, T., Gunten, U. and Wehrli, B. (2010). Estimated risks for arsenic contamination in drinking water based on hydrogeological conditions. [image] Available at: https://sci-hub.tw/https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-environ-100809-125342 [Accessed 17 Oct. 2019].

Shih, Y.-H., Islam, T., Hore, S. K., Sarwar, G., Shahriar, M. H., Yunus, M., … Parvez, F. (2017). Associations between prenatal arsenic exposure with adverse pregnancy outcome and child mortality. Environmental Research, 158, 456–461.

The Lancet. (2017, October 17). EPA regulation on arsenic in US public water systems likely prevented over 200 cancer cases per year. Retrieved October 15, 2019, from ScienceDaily website: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/10/171023180516.htm

Subject: Environmental Science

Pages: 8 Words: 2400

612

Health Policy Brief

[Author’s name]

[Institute’s name]

Health Policy Brief

Description of the Health Policy Issue

           Today, there are many chronic health concerns prevails in the country that requires necessary attention. There is a need for a detailed examination of health issues to propose better health policy measures in the end. The growing consumption opioids are an alarming concern for the country because it adversely influenced a great range of the population. In recent times, it is estimated by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) that over 91 citizens lost their lives due to the issue of an opioid overdose. This situation is getting adverse with each day and requires the necessary and immediate attention of legislative authorities. The role of federal and state government is essentially crucial to saving the country from the calamity of the opioid epidemic and effectively deals with this health policy concern. There is a need for appropriate assessment of facts and propose necessary policy measures. The growing opioid crisis demands suitable health policy and practical strategies to restrict inappropriate use of drugs specifically in case of young individuals. The increasing threat of opioid misuse demands government authorities to propose and apply the most accurate health policy according to the actual need of the current situation. 

           It is critical for policymakers to critically examine the impact of the opioid crisis as a health policy issue on the specific domains of access, cost, and quality. It is critical to establish how the problem of incongruous consumption of opioid can negatively influence the domains of healthcare services access, cost, and quality. Statistics of the country explicitly indicates that in 2017, there are almost 70,000 people who died due to overdose of drugs. This situation is getting lethal every day as it leads to injury-related deaths in the country (Hagemeier, 2018). The issue of opioid misuse the ultimate cause of other critical health issues that eventually increase the overall cost of health policy domain prevails in the country. The risks of the appearance of drug disorder, hepatitis, and HIV infections are increasing due to health concern of opioids. The overall quality of healthcare services at a national level is greatly damaged by the enhancing rate of opioid misuse. The issue of Opioid is characterized as an economic burden on the overall healthcare approach set for the country. This specific issue increases the economic and health risk factors for victims and their families. The growing danger of this health issue requires the development and practical application of suitable and efficient health policy. 

Summary of Intended Outcomes of Policy

           There are plenty of practical measures that can be considered to successfully address the issue of opioid hazard. Policymakers must select the most suitable and economic health policy to deal with the concern of a high range of opioid use. Policymakers need to consider this particular issue as a national emergency and take immediate measures as soon as possible. Nation’s addiction crisis can only be successfully deal by ensuring proper collaboration of different stakeholders and policymakers share huge responsibility in this regard. There is a need for adopting a comprehensive health policy to guarantee the proper consideration of opioid abuse prevention and treatment activities. Legislative authorities to authorized specific amount of federal grants and funding need to assist different healthcare services organizations around the country (Stoicea et al., 2019). Implementation of aligned approach is an essential step to identify actual areas of healthcare services that require necessary attention to eradicate actual concern of opioid rampant exist in the country. 

           The success of the health policy can only determine by measuring the actual intended results of the proposed line of action on a prior basis. Assessment of actual feasibility of the policy is a mandatory step to meet actual objectives in case of health concern of opioid epidemic. The increasing grant for prevention and treatment in case of issue of opioids misuse is one vital approach to address this specific problem. The intended outcomes of this proposed policy can be critically observed in the forms of the establishment of different opioid abuse prevention and treatment activities. This broad program also includes implications of improved prescription drug monitoring. Moreover, there is a need of offering federal funding to ensure proper training of healthcare providers. It is critical for the federal and local legislative authorities to ensure the development of different training programs for healthcare providers involving the aspects of risks and treatment for drug users. The specific goal of increasing access to the opioid treatment program is also possible through the application of a specific legal act of drug cure. The main focus of the proposed funding health policy is to allocate suitable grants to health sector at federal and local levels to provide healthcare services to drug abusers.  

Summary of Potential Unintended Outcomes

           The main objective of proposed healthcare policy against opioid misuse can only successfully be achieved through the active application of related outcomes. The multi-facet approach of the policy requires consideration of different associated aspects. The role of the drug monitoring program is critical to assess the actual degree of risk prevails in a country in the form of an opioid emergency. There is a requirement of additional funding to ensure rapid functioning of drug control department. The revised health policy in the context of drug issue is need of time to consider drug control as one basic healthcare priority. Proper consideration of drug assessment programs can be helpful to achieve anticipated objectives for the health issue of opioid misuse. Establishment of proper health policy in case of issue of opioid concern can be helpful to adopt evidence-based prevention strategies. It is advised for policymakers to consider the option of development of various information campaigns for both healthcare providers and the general public. 

           Application of different knowledge-based campaigns can be one significant option to identify actual causes of this growing concern. Identification of root-cause of this growing concern is first to step to propose necessary practical measures suitably. The general public needs to have a clear understanding about the health issue of opioid use and how it can negatively influence the overall healthcare domain. The knowledge-based programs can also be helpful to attain the outcomes in case of necessary treatment and prevention. The unintended outcome of policy can also be observed in the case of framing opioid use as one chronic medical disease that requires timely and appropriate healthcare treatment. Medication and behavioral therapies are also in account to meet the actual standards of treatment against drug abuse. Development of targeted campaigns and practical strategies is one vital approach to ensure proper execution of health policy for the issue of the opioid epidemic. Critical evaluation of the practical strategies is also a necessary step of health policy approach to assessing the actual effectiveness and suitability of proposed policy measures. Desired application of health policy requires the development of different relevant entities. The unintended outcomes for this policy can also be observed in case of growing awareness of healthcare providers and overall health systems (Saloner et al., 2018). It can be a suitable source of information for healthcare professionals to develop a necessary connection with patients and the whole communities to successfully deals with the concern of opioid use. Identification of all the risks and the alternatives is mandatory to measure the intensity of the issue and proper suitable solutions according to the actual condition. 

Summary of Potential Stakeholders

           Identification of actual potential stakeholders in case of the opioid epidemic is an integral aspect to effectively deal with different stages of policy formation and policy acquisition. This form of consideration is also helpful to determine the responsible authorities in this manner. The objective of additional legislative strategies can only be achieved through the assurance of the active role of all the main stakeholders. The medical community in the forms of healthcare professionals, nursing staff, and drug distributors are established as critical shareholders in the entire scenario of the health issue of opioid misuse. The legislative authorities are also closely concerned with the healthcare domain to exist in the country. Their role is vital to estimate the actual intensity of this problem in the country and propose suitable preventive measures. 

           The role of accountable care organizations is also imperative when it comes to the assessment of proper healthcare services for all citizens. It is essential to ensure proper check and balance to the practical measures adopted by these agencies. The healthcare agencies are primary stakeholders in this context. Pharmacists have also involved the drastic issue of opioid misuse (Penm et al., 2017). The suppliers of opioid in the country are also major shareholders when authorities are interested to implement proper health policy for the crisis of opioid. Undoubtedly, different economic benefits of the suppliers involved in the whole scenario and they surely interested to vote against the policy of increased funding for an opioid issue. 

           In concluding remarks, it is necessary to indicate that the opioid epidemic is one serious and complex concern that requires the necessary attention of different authorities. The role of different stakeholders is critical to identify the actual issue and propose practical measures accordingly. Application of multi-faceted strategy is proposed to successfully deal with this issue and provide better healthcare services to the victims. On the other hand, the restriction in the form of drug supply is also essential to measure to minimize the risk of the health issue of inappropriate opioid use. 

References

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Hagemeier, N. E. (2018). Introduction to the opioid epidemic: The economic burden on the healthcare system and impact on quality of life. Am J Manag Care, 24(10, suppl), S200–S206.

Penm, J., MacKinnon, N. J., Boone, J. M., Ciaccia, A., McNamee, C., & Winstanley, E. L. (2017). Strategies and policies to address the opioid epidemic: A case study of Ohio. Journal of the American Pharmacists Association, 57(2), S148–S153.

Saloner, B., McGinty, E. E., Beletsky, L., Bluthenthal, R., Beyrer, C., Botticelli, M., & Sherman, S. G. (2018). A public health strategy for the opioid crisis. Public Health Reports, 133(1_suppl), 24S-34S.

Stoicea, N., Costa, A., Periel, L., Uribe, A., Weaver, T., & Bergese, S. D. (2019). Current perspectives on the opioid crisis in the US healthcare system: A comprehensive literature review. Medicine, 98(20).

Subject: Environmental Science

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

615

African American women and diabetes

Your Name (First M. Last)

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)

African American women population and diabetes

It has been witnessed that dietary practice is closely linked with history and culture. According to the American diabetes association, mode of living (including eating habits) and food choices reflect many symbolic, familial, ethnic and gender-specific associations. There are numbers of the diseases that African American women become a victim of, as per the research of many experts. One of the most common health conditions found in African American women is diabetes. There are two main types of diabetes and researches show that most of the African American women have a high percentage of type 2 diabetes. According to a researcher, M.C Marshall Jr, there are various elements like genetic traits, insulin resistance and prevalence of obesity that increases the risk of diabetes (especially of type 2 diabetes) in African American women.

Human consumption, the standard of living and personal health practices

Many studies have been done to find out the causes that influence African American women. It has been found that human consumption (food choice); ways of living, and personal health practices are the components that mainly influence the health conditions of African American women. Taking a look at the study conducted by Leandris, it could be said that one of the prominent factors why African American women struggle with diabetes is that it is their ritual to use food that they grow in their gardens. Sharing and offering food to their guests is one of the best forms of showing their compassion and love to their hosts (Allen, et, al,2019,225-235). In most of the case, the selected population's life has been shaped by their past experienced. African American women along with men used to be the slaves and used to require a great amount of energy for performing various tasks, so they are culturally trained to utilize more carbonated food that would keep them energetic for long. Personal health practices of African American women are not much appreciable and that contributes to making the diabetic conditions worst.

Chronic conditions and their impacts

From the researches, it has been analyzed that various elements became the causes of the high prevalence of diabetes in African American women. Some conditions occurred together and stroke black American women harder than the rest of the population. Reports have shown that 5.4 percent white American females are diagnosed with diabetes, but this number is higher when African American women were diagnosed. As per the reports, 9.9 percent black women were found the victim of diabetes.

Chronic conditions because of which most of the African American women became patients of diabetes include improper functioning of the pancreas. Pancreas's failure to produce enough insulin or body's failure to use insulin proper both may result in diabetes. In African American women, diabetes has been recognized as one of the most serious chronic diseases because of economic and social factors, its prevalence and negative impacts on life quality of this selected population.

Behavioral factors

Both eating behavior and physical activity play a significant role in influencing the number of African American women with diabetes. Experts claim that in the past few years it has been noticed that progress in the development of the behavioral strategies modifies lifestyle behavior of selected population that suffers from diabetes. One of the most behaviors that have been adopted by African American women is that they avoid participating in recreational activities. 55% of the Black American women are reported to be physically inactive that points towards that cause why there is a high number of African American women with diabetes.

Experts have found that the majority lifestyle matters a lot when one has to found why a certain population gets a high percentage of a particular disease. The lifestyle of African American women comes under the category of behavior as it greatly defines how one is going to behave. According to the research conducted by Dr. Mercedes R. Carnethon socioeconomic and behavior risks contributes to high rates of diabetes.

Environmental factors

Environmental factors greatly affect the ratio of African American women who suffer from diabetes. Low income is also an environmental factor and reports show that African American women belonging to low-income families are more in number diagnosed with diabetes. Being a minority group, African American women live in low-income areas where they are forced to choose an unhealthy lifestyle.

Genetics factors

Certain types of genes are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes. As per the medical observations, diabetes tends to run in certain family and racial/ethnic groups. African American women are among those racial groups that are at more risk of developing diabetes. Mutation in genes also becomes a cause of diabetes (Macaulay, et, al,2018,278-287). Dr. Kwame Osei had uncovered the symptoms of genetic predisposition to diabetes. Many experts claim that African American women produce double sugar than white genetically but utilize half of this sugar which puts them at more risk of developing diabetes. Genetic obesity is another cause of diabetes, so 50% of African American women are overweight that also drags them towards diabetes.

Influence of Environmental factors

The environment is one of the most obvious factors that affect the selected population and the health conditions after being diagnosed with diabetes. As per the pieces of evidence, environmental factors play a vital role in the etiopathogenesis of diabetes. This fact cannot be denied that fluctuation in the environment could have both negative and positive impacts on the health of the selected population. It has been seen that the deterioration of the environment greatly affects African American women.

The environment is the main factor that would define the health conditions of the selected population. Researchers have done for knowing the causes of why more African American women are diagnosed with diabetes supported the fact that the environment has a direct relationship with the prevalence of diabetes in Black American women in the USA. If the environment suits the selected population and are exposed to the ideal environment, the health of the selected population could be enhanced (Coogan et al, 2012, 767-772). The research was done in New York, North California and Maryland show that environment and physical activity both help in combating the diabetes risk. Shreds of evidence claim that physical environment greatly impacts risk and diagnose of diabetes. A stronger relation has been found between the environment (air pollution, water, temperature, rainfall, soil, etc.)

Research that was done at the Washington University School of Medicine found a close link between diabetes and air pollution. African American women being from a minority and low-class category mainly faces the issues of the environmental factors. Continual inhalation of polluted air is mainly responsible for the uncontrolled loss of weight in African American women suffering from diabetes.

Food production

In this category, both the amount and the quality of the food matters. It has been witnessed that African American women are not having access to the quality food because of their limited economic resources (Stojek,et,al,2019). The selected population would be influenced greatly by the quality and the amount of food produced. Quality food would help in recovering diabetes conditions. If the African American women are going to meet the required amount of the food then the health condition of this group would improve.

Water use

Water use by this selected group is not pure and this adds a lot in the deteriorating the health conditions of this Black American women. Shreds of evidence show that African American women usually live in low-income areas where they are using low-quality water that is enhancing the diabetes risk.

Climate change

There is a close link between climate and the diabetes conditions of African American women. Researches revealed that rising of the global temperature affects the health condition of African American women. Climate change is directly linked with threats to fresh food supply which cast negative impacts of the diet of diabetes.

Population growth

According to the reports, the growing population of the selected group and the diabetes are interrelated. Researchers have found that minorities i.e. African American women are being diagnosed with diabetes who are struggling to fulfill their nutritional needs for making the worst health conditions of diabetes a little better. According to ten recent reports, 12 % of the African American women are diagnosed with diabetes; if their population would increase, it will boost the number of the female Black diabetic patients automatically, as 9.9 out of 100 African American women struggle with diabetes.

Energy resources

Availability of the energy resources and diabetes could be inter-related as it has been observed that the more energy resources owned by the selected population, the better lifestyle they would be having. If the selected population would have improved lifestyle they would make a better life choice that would limit or mitigate the risk of diabetes.

References

Allen, A. M., Thomas, M. D., Michaels, E. K., Reeves, A. N., Okoye, U., Price, M. M., ... &Chae, D. H. (2019). Racial discrimination, educational attainment, and biological dysregulation among midlife African American women. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 99, 225-235.

Coogan, P. F., White, L. F., Jerrett, M., Brook, R. D., Su, J. G., Seto, E., ...& Rosenberg, L. (2012). Air pollution and incidence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus in black women living in Los Angeles. Circulation, 125(6), 767-772.

Macaulay, S., Ngobeni, M., Dunger, D. B., & Norris, S. A. (2018). The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus amongst black South African women is a public health concern. Diabetes research and clinical practice, 139, 278-287.

Stojek, M. M., Maples-Keller, J., Dixon, H. D., Umpierrez, G. E., Gillespie, C. F., &Michopoulos, V. (2019). Associations of childhood trauma with food addiction and insulin resistance in African-American women with diabetes mellitus. Appetite, 104317.

Subject: Environmental Science

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

615

615

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Get a vaccination/ vaccine hesitancy

Introduction

Vaccine is defined as a substance that is used for the stimulation of antibodies and provision of immunity against one or many diseases (Nedell, et, al. 2018). It is prepared with the help of causative agents of a disease, taking into account that its products, substitutes, and other synthetic residues are used to act as an antigen without inducing disease. Vaccines are one of the most successful and cost-effective methods of disease prevention, that is practiced throughout the world. Every year, the World Health Organization prepares a list of major health issues and threats that can impact global health (Nedell, et, al. 2018). This year, several new additions are made because of gaps in both primary and secondary healthcare, one of the additions is, “Weak primary healthcare” it is also called “vaccine hesitancy” or the “refusal and reluctance to a vaccine despite the availability of vaccine”. It is obvious that inclusion of vaccines hesitation or get a vaccination as a global health issue must be justified with some serious complications and threats that are foreseen in the global health perspective. Vaccination has made massive and effective contributions to global health (Nedell, et, al. 2018).

There are two major historical infections that were completely eradicated by using vaccines, named as rinderpest and smallpox. The goal coverage of vaccination against several major and disastrous infectious disease includes the creation of WHO’s Expanded Programmed of Immunization in 1974, as well as Global Alliance and Immunization in 2000 (Lee, et al, 2017, pp. 645-653). Other diseases such as polio have been eradicated with the help of vaccination, similarly, measles has been completely recovered with the help of vaccinations. Despite these successes, there are approximately 6.6 million children who are dying and half of them are a victim of deaths that are caused by infections such as diarrhea and pneumonia, taking into account that these can be prevented by vaccination. The significance of vaccination can be traced by the fact that report from One Health Initiatives has highlighted that getting vaccination can help an individual to overcome numerous diseases such as Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human papilloma virus (HPV), taking into account that these vaccines have already been used in the prevention of liver and cervical cancer (Lee, et al, 2017, pp. 645-653). Moreover, the management of noncommunal diseases such as diabetes, addiction, and hypertension are also possible with the help of vaccination. Today, vaccination has become a global issue because there is a great denial of vaccinations in the present time without knowing that there are several advantages of vaccination over therapeutic interventions.

According to the World Health Organization, there are less than 5% children who have never been exposed to vaccinations and there are about 22 million children who are not fully immunized with the basic vaccination (Lee, et al, 2017, pp. 645-653). The basic vaccinations are six in number and they are recommended by the Expanded Program on Immunization, a program of World Health Organization that has the goal to make all relevant vaccines to be universally available because of their reliability and significance (Lee, et al, 2017, pp. 645-653). According to another report, it is asserted that there are about 6.8 million under-immunized children in India alone and these disparities are found worldwide. It is found that there is a dire need for a full suite of existing childhood vaccines that need to be implemented globally (Lee, et al, 2017, pp. 645-653). According to Tarik Jasarevic, who added get a vaccine in the list of global threats, shared that when one talks about disease, there are significant and numerous justification and understanding (Lee, et al, 2017, pp. 645-653). He gave the example of influenza saying, everyone knows that there would be a new pandemic for its treatment, but the point of controversy is no one knows how severe it would be because the influenzas virus is changing and there are new astrain with the passage of time, taking into account that intensity and severity is still unknown. He asserted that keeping influenzas aside, there are several other diseases with which medical specialist are fighting such as HIV. Despite massive progress, there are about 1 million people who are dying each year because of HIV/AIDS, taking into account that the progress that is made on people is antiretroviral (Lee, et al, 2017, pp. 645-653).

Thesis statement

Get a vaccination or vaccination hesitancy is a global issue because it has brought a major population to the verge of serious diseases because vaccination had been a long term and effective cure of both noncommunal and critical diseases.

Goals

The goals of this research are to get a deep insight into vaccination, the changes in the trends of vaccination. It also includes a critical analysis of the facts and figures that are associated with vaccination because there is a great shift in the trend of vaccination over the course of time. The primary goal of “getting vaccinated” is to increase the immunization and reduce the preventable infectious diseases (Lee, et al, 2017, pp. 645-653). Moreover, immunization is meant to provide science-based approach for the improvement of health of people. It refers to the development of improved vaccines so as to ensure optimal safety and analyze the effectiveness of vaccines and immunization. Moreover, it also includes the education of the general public and other members of health profession in terms of risks and benefits of immunization. Another significant goal is to make better use of existing vaccines for the prevention of disabilities, diseases and other major issues. There are some other major goals of research on this public issue such as create awareness for vaccination and determine ways and means that can help to empower vaccination (Lee, et al, 2017, pp. 645-653).

Objectives

There are some prime objectives of this research, taking into account the evaluation of trends and other major actions that have mitigated the approach towards the utilization of vaccination (Lee, et al, 2017, pp. 645-653). It also includes providing justification for the formation of any framework that could help to evaluate changing concerns and perception towards vaccination. It also includes the evaluation of research and content published in

subject matter so as to know public perspective and make decisions regarding the current impact.

Overview

Although vaccination and getting vaccination is termed as one of the most successful public health measures, still vaccination is termed and treated as an unsafe and unnecessary practice because of the growing number of medical technologies. It is observed that a lack of confidence in vaccine is termed as one of the major and primary threats to the success of vaccination programs (Gunther, 2019). It is found that carelessness towards vaccination is believed to be responsible for a decrease and minimization in the coverage of vaccines, similarly, it results in ignorant evaluation of disease that is preventable with the help of vaccines, along with increase in outbreak of disease and epidemics (Gunther, 2019). There are three major areas to understand in order to gain a complete understanding of vaccination such as fundamental science, the transition of discoveries and mechanism that is required to be developed in terms of vaccines (Gunther, 2019).

Fundamental science

It refers to the major baseline under which vaccinations are produced and new ways of designing and making vaccines are formulated. It also includes the stance of delivering vaccines in a more effective way. The overall and global understanding of vaccines is highly concerned with its significance in the current framework of health and sciences because only that framework is promoted that is prevalent or part of any current understanding. Although vaccination is used to treat a lot of critical and severe diseases still, there is no evaluation or any staunch research paper that can help the general public to know about the significance of disease and its treatment by vaccination (Gunther, 2019).

Availability of vaccines

The availability of vaccines is one of the major issues that make it a global point of consideration because the trends towards something is highly dependent on the availability of the product (Gunther, 2019). If vaccines would be easily available and people are encouraged to get themselves vaccinated only then the trend of get a vaccination can be promoted. It is observed that there are numerous researches and studies highlighting the significance of vaccination but there is a very little information available regarding vaccination on public platforms because therapeutic medicines and increasing discoveries and inventions in therapeutic medicines have brought a complete shift in preferences of public (Gunther, 2019).

The transition of discoveries

New discoveries and evolution also play a central role in the understanding of vaccination hesitancy as a global issue because people and the general public belongs to secondary level at which a product is utilized whereas primary level is production (Gunther, 2019). It is asserted that the lack of understanding of vaccination is somewhere dependent on the current laboratory techniques that are not giving due importance to vaccination. There is a dire need of incorporation of practical approach towards vaccination because the more a vaccination would be added to healthcare department, there would be greater stress on the use of vaccination in the public sector (Gunther, 2019). Here two dimensions are found, at one side, there is a preference of other innovative therapeutic treatments and on other platform, people are not made aware of the significance of the vaccination.

Risks

There are some prominent risks that are associated with getting a vaccination. It is found that there are a number of vaccines that may have some counter-reaction in children such as temporary headaches, fatigues, and loss of appetite. It is observed that the individual who is getting vaccinated might experience any kind of allergic reaction or other neurological side effects such as seizure. Moreover, some vaccinations are not done in time and it may result in any kind of complication. Today, there has been a major trend in which an individual is brought to be vaccinated without any significance of stress on safety (Dikmen, et al. 2019). One of the prominent risks is the manipulation in the use of vaccination because research has proven that there are a lot of platforms on which vaccination is used as drugs (Dikmen, et al. 2019). As negative approach gets more highlighted as compared to the positive approach, people try to make use of vaccines in a more negative way. There have been a lot of cases in which vaccines are misused, or there is a lack of prevention measure and other techniques that can help to overcome the flux of disasters caused by the misuse of vaccination. Due to lack of approach towards the significance and understanding of vaccination, many of the healthcare centers use vaccines without any attention to safety and cleanliness and it plays a significant role in diverting the attention of people towards other sources of medical services and health such as therapeutic medicines (Dikmen, et al. 2019).

Preventive measures

There are a lot of preventive measures that can be used to overcome the risk factors that are associated with the use of vaccinations, taking into account the role of both public and private sectors (Abbas, et al. 2018).

Role of Healthcare centers

Research has proven that healthcare centers play a significant role in the analysis and examination of getting vaccinated because if healthcare centers would prefer therapeutic medicine than there would be less approach of people towards the preference for vaccination. It is found that healthcare centers have to build trust in people so that people can feel safe while getting vaccinated (Dikmen, et al. 2019).

Attitude towards the general public

There is a dire need of creating public awareness towards getting vaccinated because it will make people think about vaccination as something that is more productive, beneficial and cost-effective (Abbas, et al. 2018). A comparative study has revealed that therapeutic medicines are more expensive than vaccination, moreover vaccination is having more long-term goals as compared to the therapeutic medicines that require re-purchasing and revisiting the hospitals. If vaccination would be treated as something that can impart long term health goals than more people would be preferring it (Abbas, et al. 2018).

Reinforcement, Innovation, and discoveries

According to research, it is proved that today, people are more towards the methodologies that are highlighted on social media platforms or they are the part of the latest research. It asserted that there is a dire need to reinforce importance of vaccination because lack of understanding and ignorant attitude has brought a shift in understanding. Moreover, research should be conducted in terms of positive effects and the treatment of disease by using vaccination so that people can understand both long term and short-term goals and objectives associated with vaccination. It will help people to compare and contrast the effect of two methodologies and chose for better option (Dikmen, et al. 2019).

Audience

The audience for this research is adolescents and elder people. The subject audience is chosen because adolescents would be the future generation who would be bearing children and vaccination plays a significant tool in child health. Moreover, elders are the target audience because there are numerous diseases that can be treated effectively by using vaccination and lack of awareness drive them to therapeutic medicines such as diabetes, cancer, and hypertension. Moreover, it will cover the generation who is facing those health issues which are effectively treated by vaccination.

Modalities

In order to carry out this research, flip charts and research papers are used so that authentic and well-researched information can be quoted to evaluate the subject under study.

Conclusion

Getting vaccination is a global issue because research has found significant gaps in getting vaccination due to certain factors that are both humanly as well as automatic. Research has highlighted that vaccinations are a way better approach for the treatment of diseases and addressing health concerns taking into account that lack of understanding has directed people to use medicines that are much expensive and less effective (Abbas, et al. 2018). Moreover, there is a decreased trend in research as well that can redirect human thoughts for the understanding of vaccination because research in medicine to treat critical and noncommunal disease is more highlighted as compared to vaccination, provided both are equally significant in treating diseases. Moreover, there is a dire need to re-build public understanding of vaccination in terms of its attributes and productivity because it is a more positive and effective tool to treat disease. Inadequate or less understanding towards vaccination has made children become a victim of diseases that can easily be cured with vaccination and it has threatened a great ratio of children world. According to the World Health Organization, there is a less developed approach and major ignorance to six major vaccination that is mandatory for normal growth of children (Abbas, et al. 2018). In conclusion, it is asserted that there is a dire need of program, institutions, school of thought and strategies that can redirect people to the understanding of effectiveness and significance of vaccination because it is a more effective and critical way of dealing with the major and serious disease on a lighter note.

References

Abbas, K. M., Kang, G. J., Chen, D., Werre, S. R., & Marathe, A. (2018). Demographics, perceptions, and socioeconomic factors affecting influenza vaccination among adults in the United States. PeerJ, 6, e5171.

Dikmen, A. U., Aksakal, F. N. B., Aycan, Z., & Aycan, S. (2019). Prevalence of influenza vaccination among health care workers and adverse effects after vaccination: A cross-sectional study. Journal of Surgery and Medicine, 1-1.

Gunther, R. (2019). How A Lack Of Vaccination Can Induce An Epidemic.

Lee, M. J., & Cho, J. (2017). Promoting HPV vaccination online: message design and media choice. Health promotion practice, 18(5), 645-653.

Nedell, E. R., Garnier, R., Omer, S. B., & Bansal, S. (2018). Getting personal: how vaccination exemptions shape herd immunity. bioRxiv, 500553.

Subject: Environmental Science

Pages: 8 Words: 2400

619

Research Paper

You’re Name (First M. Last)

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)

Research Paper

Introduction

Profession in epidemiology is recruitment in basic medical sciences that is similar to biochemistry, anatomy, and physiology, studied by almost all medical students. Epidemiology is associated explicitly with finding causes to sickness and the reason why a specific population is healthier than other. Epidemiologists have to take into account a particular population where they would be describing the occurrence of a particular disease. (Rothman, 2008).

Goals of the field of Epidemiology

Epidemiology is one of the broader field of specialization in healthcare, taking into account that it will cover core competencies of public health that would be used to collect medical data accompanied by detailed research and analysis. This evaluation could determine the application of an observation in real-life context. Climate, health, biostatistics, and social determinants of health are some prime goals of the field of epidemiology that can help to paint an accurate picture of any health problem. (Rees et al., 2016). Epidemiological studies are used to determine the frequency of particular health problem, along with the identification of potential causes and the risk factors associated with a particular health issue along with the evaluation of efficacy in the preventative measures and the treatments. After the collection of this information, epidemiology is used to create certain strategies that could prevent a particular health condition and implement better policies so as to preserve public health. It is significant to note that epidemiology has a prime goal to influence public health agencies, medical organizations, and other government institutes so as to promote positive health outcomes. (Senkomago, et al., 2018). The goal of epidemiology is not confined to collection of information; in fact, it is also concerned with the practical implication of the found strategies in order to bring positive changes in the healthcare system. Moreover, another significant goal is to improve research methodologies so that better research could be conducted to ensure healthy lives. (Rees, et al., 2016).

Approaches used by epidemiologists

There are a number of approaches that are used by epidemiologists in order to carry out observation and bring about required changes. It is important to note that the modern term approaches have been chosen to describe different methods that can then be utilized by epidemiologist to study the epidemiology of healthcare.

Measurement of performance

Measurement of performance is also termed as an experiential study that can be used to determine causal relation between the variables of an experiment. It would not be wrong to say that the measurement of performance is used to know the workability of findings and determine the difference between manual and non-manual readings so as to achieve a conclusion. (Dankner, et al., 2018)

Capacity of performance

It refers to the analysis of efficiency of performance. Studies that are based on potential or the capacity of performance are further divided into two major types. One of the types is involved and included in the physical fitness while other is concerned with the analysis of intelligence. It is important to note that the study associated with intelligence is few steps moved from the actual performance. In contrast to the intelligence and physical test is the study that is meant for the analysis of growth and development that provides a relatively indirect indication of the potential of performance (Dankner, et al., 2018).

Measurement of impediments of performance

It refers to the analysis of the facts and figures that can help to sort out the impediments that may affect the performance of observation or other hindrances.

However, in general, there are two basic approaches that are used by epidemiologist such as, asking questions and making compassion. Asking questions is related to the descriptive analysis that is further used to determine, who what and when relationships (Senkomago, et al., 2018). However making comparison can be used to define any comparison between two different populations such as rural and urban, male and female and seasons. Different tools are used in order to implement these approaches, such as case counts rates, ratios, and proportions. These approaches are used to undergo epidemiology that involves an implication of systematic procedures that can be used to collect data about something and implement changes that can bring positive health results (Dankner, et al., 2018).

Epidemiological surveillance

Epidemiological surveillance is a systematic procedure that involves the collection, analysis, and the interpretation of data that is related to health. The collected data is then used for the planning, sequential implementation, and evaluation of any public health practice. Surveillance is a basic code that shares information regarding descriptive epidemiology. (Senkomago, et al., 2018). It includes the description of a person, defining identity, place, and whereabouts. Time deals with days, months, hours, and minutes. Epidemiologists get surveillance data from different sources such as, vital past records, certain environment monitoring system, surveys, and other animal health data.

Descriptive and analytical epidemiology

Descriptive Epidemiology

Descriptive epidemiology deals with the characterization of who when where or when questions. Here a person is characterized in terms of age, occupation, and sex, and how these characteristics are affected by a particular outcome. Place refers to the description of geography involving the description of work, residence, and hospital of the individual who is affected. Time deals with the occurrence of different events, taking into account the time of diagnosis, reporting, and testing (Dankner, et al., 2018).

There are two different types of descriptive studies; it can either be aggregate or individual. Aggregate studies are concerned with ecological studies, while individual studies deal with three different studies. They are named as, case report, case series, and cross-sectional studies.

Analytical Epidemiology

Analytical epidemiology deal with the testing of hypothesis about the relationship between exposure and outcome. It refers to the measurement of association between exposure and outcomes. This study is facilitated by a comparison group. There are two different types of analytical studies, experimental studies, and observational studies. Experimental studies are carried out by randomized control. Observational studies are further divided into the cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies (Dankner, et al., 2018).

Examples of epidemiology in promoting public health

Epidemiology can also be used to enhance public health, taking into account the use of certain techniques. It is found that epidemiologists use different methods of disease surveillance, outbreak investigation, and other observational studies to identify certain risk factors of zoonotic disease in both animals as well as the human population. The knowledge and information collected about risk factors are then utilized to carry out detailed investigation and implementation of disease control measures. In this case, epidemiological methods are used for the analysis and identification of major hazards so that critical control points can be incorporated in the food production system (Senkomago, et al., 2018).

Epidemiological studies can be used to find out the relationship between lung cancer and smoking on the basis of comparison between smokers and nonsmokers. The study would not be meant to determine the simple relationship that smoking cause’s lung cancer, in fact, epidemiology would be used to expose animals to smoke and tobacco. Then a comparison would be made between the smoking and the increased risk of cancer (Senkomago, et al., 2018).

Epidemiology is also used for the collection of relevant data. For example, if lung cancer is a common disease, epidemiologist would use tools that could help them collect statistical data that can be used to elucidate the relevancy and relationship of exposure to a health outcome. In a nutshell, epidemiology would be used to discover a causal relationship between exposure to the risk factors and the actual outcome. Moreover, epidemiology could be used to gather data at a broad range of psychosocial and biomedical ways that could be used for testing theoretical hypothesis and make meaningful assertions (Senkomago et al., 2018).

Educational preparations required for a career in epidemiology

In order to become a proper and practicing epidemiologist, individuals have to go through intense years of studying and educational preparation. This educational preparation helps them in performing their duties for the public and also private institutions that provide health services. Furthermore, their expertise is also required in pharmaceutical businesses, government agencies, universities, and laboratories. For the most advanced level of jobs in this requires a higher level of education and multiple years of working in the field (Senkomago, et al., 2018). Most individuals that are working as epidemiologists hold a master's degree in either public health or epidemiology. Research associated or senior-level jobs require a Doctor of Philosophy in epidemiology or a Ph.D. All in all, there are three levels that an individual needs to pass in order to have the full educational preparation for a career in epidemiology.

The primary level is the Bachelor's Degree, which candidates aspiring to be epidemiologists need to conquer first. In this degree, it is not specified to choose a major, but undergraduate course providers should give classes to students in subjects such as biology, calculus, chemistry, health science, behavioral science, and social science. The second level of educational preparation is the Master's Degree. For a career in epidemiology, the minimum education requirement is a master's degree in either epidemiology or public health. In this level of education, topics such as epidemiological research biostatistics and clinical trial design are covered (Dankner, et al., 2018). In order to pass and attain a Master's degree, a thesis is required, which can be focused on either neuroepidemiology, cardiovascular, genetic epidemiology, or cancer. Other epidemiological programs focus more on options, including clinical research, for example, on pharmacy, dentistry, or medicine. Whereas, some of the courses offered are only offered to medical doctors or students.

The last level is the Doctoral Degree, which is mostly required when epidemiologists want to further their careers to reach research positions at a higher level or even for teaching jobs at universities (Rees et al., 2016). Graduation requires independent research which has to be original, and a dissertation is also required. Some of these doctoral programs are flexible enough that they are even able to meet the interests of their students.

References

Dankner, R., Gabbay, U., Leibovici, L., Sadeh, M., & Sadetzki, S. (2018). Implementation of a competency-based medical education approach in public health and epidemiology training of medical students. Israel Journal of health policy research, 7(1), 13.

Rees, E. L., Gay, S. P., & McKinley, R. K. (2016). The epidemiology of teaching and training general practices in England. Education for Primary Care, 27(6), 462-470.

Rothman, K. J., Greenland, S., & Lash, T. L. (2008). Modern epidemiology (Vol. 3). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Senkomago, V., Joseph, R., Sierra, M., Van Dyne, E., Endeshaw, M., Duran, D., ... & Saraiya, M. (2018). CDC activities to enhance training in cancer prevention and control in field epidemiology training programs in low-and middle-income countries. Journal of global oncology, 4, 1-9.

Subject: Environmental Science

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

619

619

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Case Assignment

Executive Summary

Epidemiology is defined as the study of disease occurrence. Taking into account the case study of people who are suffering from coccidioidomycosis, epidemiologist would use certain epidemiological approaches to understand the outbreak of disease. Surveillance methods would be used to collect relevant information regarding the occurrence of disease, taking into account the reference of any well-suited method. After that, adequate data system would be used to calculate information regarding facts and figures of the outbreak. The comparison of different determinants would be made to know the occurrence of disease. In the end, a comprehensive response plan of outbreak is also made that could help to know and calculate the information about the outbreak.

Introduction

Epidemiology is the study of the occurrence of disease in different groups of people, taking into account that an epidemiologist studies the cause of disease. The field of epidemiology deals with the study and analysis of distribution that deals with who, where and when aspects of a particular subject along with an exegetical analysis of the determinants and patterns of health and disease condition in a particular population (Weng, et al., 2019). Coccidioidomycosis is an epidemiological disease because it occurred in a particular population, the people residing in a village. Moreover, there is a sudden outbreak of coccidioidomycosis and there are a lot of people, provided belonging to the same village complaining about the symptoms of the disease. There is no prior understanding and assessment plan of the treatment of this disease so it is a problem of epidemiology (Weng, et al., 2019).

Epidemiological approach

The epidemiologist would be using ecological analysis to search about Coccidioidomycosis. This approach involves the assembling of ecological models that can support a reason regarding decision-making for the study of Coccidioidomycosis (Schmidt, et al.,2019). This model would facilitate understanding of ecosystem to determine if and how ecology has played a role in causing disease or health issue. It refers to the understanding of a particular issue by using a special approach that considers the feasibility of field, aspects of public health in management of the disease, modeling and analysis of the economic consequences. It is asserted that this model relies on a political and practical solution that is compatible in nature and directly related to the health issue (Schmidt, et al.,2019).

The simulation model aims at the provision of testbeds that are meant for contingency planning and the control of optimization (Schmidt, et al.,2019). This model is facilitated with the linkage of detailed expert knowledge that would be hosting landscape or population to control policies and the management of disease in targeted population and introduction of policies that can control the disease (Schmidt, et al.,2019). EcoEpi modeling studies facilitate the investigation of large sale epidemic spread that is based on the ecological fate of an individual (Schmidt, et al.,2019). It is asserted that epidemiologist would also consider the scenario-based evaluation of computer simulation in order to provide a mechanistic understanding of the fact such as habitat, behavior of dispersal, pattern of production and the constructor structure in the context of disease transmission. It would also include consideration of other factors such as human scale and infectivity along with the human intervention efforts. This model will help to understand risk assessment and impart effective decision-making strategies along with the evaluation of management options with a policy that could support the understanding of disease (Schmidt, et al.,2019).

Surveillance Models

Surveillance is defined as a close observation of the facts and figures that are associated with a particular disease or health issue. There are three major surveillance methods that can be used in epidemiology, named as passive surveillance, active surveillance, and syndromic surveillance. In order to study the epidemiology of Coccidioidomycosis, active surveillance and syndromic surveillance can be used.

Active surveillance

It is defined as a treatment plan that refers to a close observation of patient’s condition taking into account that a justified platform of treatment is not given until there are changes in recorded tests, that show that the tests are getting worst (Oosterhaven, et al., 2019, pp. 263-272). It is used to embed, delay or avoid the need of treatments such as surgeries and radiation therapies because these actions or treatment methodologies may be risky, having side effects or they might not be able to address the health concern of such a large population (Oosterhaven, et al., 2019, pp. 263-272). This treatment plan is added in case study because active surveillance is done by using certain test and exams on regular schedules. It is suggested in the treatment of Coccidioidomycosis because it is satisfying to the terms and conditions of ideal surveillance system such as time effective flexible, sensitive, it is acceptable by both health care providers and the public, side by side it is cost-effective.

Syndromic Surveillance

It is defined as the analysis of medical data that could be used to detect or anticipate the outbreak of a disease. In a simplified form, this surveillance method is used for the collection of ongoing and systematic data that is used for the critical analysis of real time indicators (Oosterhaven, et al., 2019, pp. 263-272). Syndromic Surveillances is used for the interpretation and application of the real-time indicators for coccidioidomycosis that would be used for analyzing the causative agents and propose effective control management (Oosterhaven, et al., 2019, pp. 263-272). It includes hospital admittance record or the number of people complaining or suffering from subject disease (Oosterhaven, et al., 2019, pp. 263-272). This method is facilitated by the information that is collected from internet recent reports and the information from the health department as well.

Concept of descriptive and analytic epidemiology

In order to develop an in-depth analysis of coccidioidomycosis, both descriptive and analytical epidemiology can be used.

Descriptive epidemiology

In order to understand coccidioidomycosis, descriptive epidemiology is applicable because it helps to describe the distribution of determinants of disease. As descriptive epidemiology ensures and facilitates the way of organizing and analyzing data to define and describe variations in the frequency of disease among the population, it will agree to the major relevant aspects in the case study such as geographical areas and the determinant such as time, person and place that may play a role in defining the spreading of disease (McCotter, et al., 2019). All these aspects and facts can then be used to generate a hypothesis, so as to carry out etiologic research.

Analytical epidemiology

Analytical epidemiology is another research guide that can be used to analyze this issue. Analytical epidemiology deals with the study and identification of patterns among the cases that are being reported and recorded in population with respect to time person and place (Oosterhaven, et al., 2019, pp. 263-272). As a result of these observations, epidemiologists would be able to develop a hypothesis about the causes of subject health pattern as well as the factors that can increase the risk of disease.

Moreover, epidemiologists usually prefer analytical epidemiology over descriptive epidemiology because it helps to generate a hypothesis, along with adequate testing because analytical epidemiology uses a comparison group (Oosterhaven, et al., 2019, pp. 263-272).

Data systems to collect information

The system that can be used in the identification of epidemiology of coccidioidomycosis is “computerized system”. It is asserted that computer is one of the valuable tools that can help in the analysis of surveillance system that is used to collect relevant data. Computerized data system can be used for quick assimilation, dissemination, as well as computation of the information related to the disease which is a far better and productive way (McCotter, et al., 2019). It would help to know the epidemics and overall observation of disease by using input data and formulate output data that could help to gain critical insight into the problem. One of the major advantage and successes of using this kind of data is, the computer will automatically define and locate the invalid input data by creating erroneous output. It would be a major aspect to adhere to validity. Computerized data system would also help to get relevant databases that could share more and in-depth analyzed information about the disease (McCotter, et al., 2019).

Comparisons

The computerized data system would facilitate comparison in terms of characteristics such as who when and where, in a relation to what (McCotter, et al., 2019). The context of who, when and where refers to the characterization in person. Who deals with the characterization of a person in terms of sex, occupation, and age of individual that is affected by the outcome (McCotter, et al., 2019). Place refers to the geography that includes work, hospitals and other residence places where the affected individual lives. The factor of time refers to events such as reporting, testing and the diagnosis of disease. A comparative analysis of these factors would be used for getting an insight into the disease by knowing difference and similarities (McCotter, et al., 2019).

Secondary Surveillance Data

There are numerous sources of secondary surveillance data that can be used in this epidemiological study. Such sources of data are, county health departments, clinics, vital statistics, school nurse records, city and country government departments that are directly or indirectly related to health, census, and NIH (McCotter, et al., 2019). The mentioned source of data is helpful because it gives an insight into the understanding of health issue. It is more cost-effective and, easy to understand. Secondary data of surveillance is one of the best tools to understand the validity and authenticity of data by comparison (McCotter, et al., 2019).

Identification of Outbreak

The term outbreak is used interchangeably with epidemic taking into account that both of them reflects the same underlying context and meaning. There are a number of ways under which this health issue can be defined and declared as an outbreak. One of the major steps is establishment of case definition and defining cases (Goodman, 2019, pp. 3-20). An epidemiologist has to conduct descriptive epidemiology in order to determine the personal characteristics of the cases who are found to be suffering from disease over time and the identification of difference in disease frequency-based location. After that, a hypothesis is to be developed in terms of the cause or source. This step is followed by the evaluation of hypothesis and the refining of hypothesis by conducting additional studies (Goodman, 2019, pp. 3-20). The epidemiologist would be implementing control and preventative measures, accompanied by the communication of findings. It would not be wrong to say that outbreak surveillance investigation is one of the major components of detection system and surveillance. Sensitive surveillance system can help to detect abnormal health events that are occurring at a place and guide the healthcare authorities such as the World Health Organization and local health departments to know the necessity of investigation and intervention (Goodman, 2019, pp. 3-20). As a result, the World Health Organization and other concerned departments provide aid to the foreign minister of health to support the investigation of epidemics.

Steps to develop an outbreak response plan

Following are the steps to be taken in order to develop an outbreak response plan

Background

This step would include the current situation of outbreak in the form of case details. It would include sources of information regarding the disease, date of onset, data in which disease is reported and the location of the onset of case. It would also include the age of patient, type of treatment given and the information regarding the impact and severity of disease (Goodman, 2019, pp. 3-20).

Outbreak risk for further spread

This is the second step of creating an outbreak response plan in which the risk of spreading disease is included. It includes population immunity of the surrounding areas and the infected areas. Information regarding vulnerable population is added such as either they are nomadic groups, refugees or access compromised groups. The population movement would be recorded along with routine immunization coverage and the risk of spreading of the disease to other beings (Goodman, 2019, pp. 3-20).

Objectives of the outbreak response

In this step, the objective of the outbreak response is quoted in terms of specific outcome to be achieved (Goodman, 2019, pp. 3-20).

Duration of the outbreak response plan

In this step, the duration of the outbreak response is mentioned, usually, the out-break response duration is six months to seven months (Goodman, 2019, pp. 3-20).

Supplement immunization activities

In this step, a complete record of the immunization activities is recorded, taking into account a grid that is used for collecting relevant information. A sample is attached,

Round

NID or SNID

Type of vaccine

Date vaccine ordered

Expected delivery date

Target age group

Target population

Geographic area

SIA strategy (house to house, fixed post, transit point, mobile vaccination)

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

etc.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Micro Plan

The micro-planning process includes the summary of human resources for major actions such as supervision, vaccination, monitoring, logistics, timelines, supplies, and transportation. It is based on the needs of major micro plan goals from the sub-district or district (Goodman, 2019, pp. 3-20).

Advocacy, communication and social mobilization

In this step, social mobilization, communicating tools and strategies along with advocacy and media activities are included. It would not be wrong to say that it aims at the communication of prevention tools and create awareness in general public (Goodman, 2019, pp. 3-20).

Coordination and participation

In this step, activities are recorded in order to overcome the outbreak. It is important to note that the status of activities is counted at a national level along with the coordination of partners and other NGOs along with the coordination of cross borders and other sources with timelines (Goodman, 2019, pp. 3-20).

AFP Surveillance

In this step, the surveillance system is described that is already in action in a particular area, taking into account number and priorities of sites that are providing information regarding the reporting of surveillance information (Goodman, 2019, pp. 3-20). It also includes the description of activities that are meant for enhancing AFP Surveillance with timelines. Other information sources are Pending results, maps, contact sampling and the status of core indicators (Goodman, 2019, pp. 3-20).

Outbreak response Assessment

It includes the analysis of initial OBRA, along with a report on the status of implementation of sources and making recommendations for the future procedures that could prove effective (Goodman, 2019, pp. 3-20).

Human Resources

Human Resources include the description of already available human resources that can help to deal with the outbreak (Goodman, 2019, pp. 3-20). A detail of this step is found in the table below

Expertise

International or national

Number

Contract start date

Contract end date

Estimated cost /month

Comments

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Budget

This step includes the analysis and description of estimated budget that is required to collect information and proceed with the planned actions (Goodman, 2019, pp. 3-20). A summary of the budget plan is as follows

Budget Summary

Outbreak Response Surge Budget

Cost (USD)

1

HR

2

Travel and Transportation

3

Establishment of Polio Outbreak Cell

4

Training and Meetings

6

Surveillance Strengthening Costs

7

Other Operational Costs

Total

0

SIA Budget

1

OPV / Vit A / finger markers

2

Human resources and incentives

3

Training and Meetings

4

Supplies and Equipment

5

Transportation

6

Social mobilization and communication

7

Other Operational Costs

Total

0

Total Outbreak Response Surge Budget

0

Total SIA Budget

0

Grand Total

0

References

Goodman, R. A., Buehler, J. W., & Mott, J. A. (2019). Defining field epidemiology. The CDC Field Epidemiology Manual, 3-20.

McCotter, O. Z., Benedict, K., Engelthaler, D. M., Komatsu, K., Lucas, K. D., Mohle-Boetani, J. C., ... & Nguyen, A. (2019). Update on the epidemiology of coccidioidomycosis in the United States. Medical mycology, 57(Supplement_1), S30-S40.

Oosterhaven, J. A., Uter, W., Aberer, W., Armario‐Hita, J. C., Ballmer‐Weber, B. K., Bauer, A., ... & John, S. M. (2019). European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA): Contact allergies in relation to body sites in patients with allergic contact dermatitis. Contact dermatitis, 80(5), 263-272.

Schmidt, S., Kim, S., Vozmediano, V., Cristofoletti, R., Winterstein, A. G., & Brown, J. D. (2019). Pharmacometrics, Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetics, Quantitative Systems Pharmacology—What's Next?—Joining Mechanistic and Epidemiological Approaches. CPT: pharmacometrics & systems pharmacology.

Weng, S. F., Vaz, L., Qureshi, N., & Kai, J. (2019). Prediction of premature all-cause mortality: A prospective general population cohort study comparing machine-learning and standard epidemiological approaches. PloS one, 14(3), e0214365.

Subject: Environmental Science

Pages: 8 Words: 2400

699

699

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

699

Introduction

Diabetes in African American women is one of the health concerns that are posed as a serious issue. African American women have 1-6 folds high diabetic rate as compared to other Americans and this proportion suffers from type 2 diabetes. In contrast, the risk of type 2 diabetes is 1-4 folds high in white Americans. African Americans bear the burden and threats of morbidity and mortality that are associated with diabetes.

Healthcare Policies

There are a lot of governmental efforts that are being made to address the health concern taking into account that the American Diabetes Association (ADA) has taken some radical steps to address the impact of diabetes on the minority population. This authority worked in collaboration with the African American Diabetes Action Council (AADAC) (Osei, et al.2019). Other correspondence to enforce and add to the efforts of ADA is the Latino Diabetes Action Council and Asian Pacific American Diabetes Action. All these councils are trying to increase awareness and treatment options for type II diabetes. These councils are made effective by the inclusion of diverse people and populations within councils such as certified diabetes educators, nurses, physicians and the dietitians who are all working on the front lines so that diabetes can be removed from the legacy of this minority population. These councils are also called Tri-councils that have provided leadership opportunities in different legislative efforts along with the development of strategic partners such as including minorities in making a strong voice for the focus on health disparities in the yearly strategic plan. There are a lot of other legislative steps as well, taken with an aim to eliminate disparities in the diabetes prevention, access and care act (EDDPAC). This bill also includes some additional human health resources and the services administrations that can be used to provide grants for the diabetic education and the availability of the care camps that highlight cultural sensitivity and assert patient care within the minority population. Another legislative opportunity called Patent Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 is also meant to achieve health equality in people. One of the prime concerns of this legalization is to curb and mitigate the ratio of diabetic patients in the United States of America. Under the impact of CAA, there are different organizations and movements that are designed to address the issue and the increased ratio of diabetes among the African American population, taking into account that the screening for type II diabetes is ensured and considered compulsory (Osei, et al.2019).

All these councils and the legislation are designed primarily and specifically with the aim to reduce the ratio of Diabetes within African American women Also, it is asserted that under these programs, different trainings, campaigns, and teaching centers are formulated that can help to educate people about type 11 diabetes. The inclusion of nurses and dieticians is necessary to ensure that women can be taught about overcoming diabetes. Also, these women can be taught and trained to take care of their health so that the chances of diabetes can be reduced. There are hardly any gaps in these steps because different advocacies and legislations are acting parallel to each other so the gap of one of the legislation is automatically filled by the other.

Health advocacy Group advocating health issues

Among many of the advocacy groups that are working to overcome and mitigate the prevalence of type II diabetes among the Africa American Women, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) is one of the groups that are attempting to advocate effort that can lower the rate of diabetes in the African American Women. There are different ways of collaborating with the organization, taking into account the research strategies and the co-support applications that allow externalities to become part of the advocacy council and undergo activities in the form of funding or the camps that can be used to address the growing rate or type II diabetes in the African American women. One of the possibility of collaboration with the advocacy group is the option to get enrolled in the council and take part in the research and awareness activities that can help to teach women about the increasing rate of diabetes and the teaching of lifestyles and activities that can help to create awareness among the women and teach women about the diet plans and other activities that can help them maintain a healthy lifestyle. This collaboration can prove effective in the long run as well as in the short term because it can help to teach women how to live in far off areas or the areas of the participants to teach and train women about the activities that can prove effective in spreading awareness about diabetes, risky lifestyles and the activities that can save women (Brown, et al. 2019)

Public health theory or model

The public health model that can be used in the prevention and awareness of type II diabetes in African American women is the "ecological model”. This model is also called an ecological approach or perspective that focuses on both population levels as well as on the individual level so that the determinants of health and its interventions can be defined and determined. In accordance with this model, health is the product of different level determinants, these levels are public policy, intrapersonal factors, interpersonal factors, and the community propositions that are meant to achieve some particular goals.

In the program "Awareness of type II diabetes in African American Women", this model will be used to teach and inform African American women about different determinants, statements and the factors that are playing a central role as the causative agents of diabetes. What are the influencing and other attractive factors that can help to reduce the prevalence of diabetes? Also, this model will be used to analyze the factors that are different in rural areas and changed in rural areas. Collectively, this model can be used to incorporate an in-depth and critical analysis of the causative and suppressive agents and different levels. It is evident that there are different researchers have sued different information sources as the causative agents of the disease. For many researchers, it is the ethnicity that is the cause of diabetes, for other, it is the lifestyle that causes diabetes in the African American women., while there are a lot of researchers for whom, diabetes is caused as a result of some biological factor such as secretion that are the parts of the body. In a nutshell, it can be said that there are different factors and levels that are involved and termed as the causative agents of diabetes. Studying all these levels will help to get a clear idea of what needs to be taught and how. Using an ecological model will help to understand and get information from all the factors that are directly or indirectly associated with causing diabetes. Also, ecological models will be used because of the diversity associated with it and the diverse means of collecting and using information that can prove effective in the long run. (Brown, et al. 2019)

Proposed intervention

There are different interventions that can be used to address public health issues. One of the proposed and possible interventions is the teaching campaign and awareness camp. It is one of the interventions that would be effective easy-going and easy to manage. Under this intervention, a training session will be conducted that will comprise of the volunteers who will be trained. These volunteers would be given tasks in a systematical way, ranging from the identification of the areas and knowing the ratio and the total number of women to the total number of resources that are required to address the health concerns of the women living in that particular area. This procedure will begin by training, this training comprises of the ethical and social communication so that language barriers and the cultural barriers in terms of diseases and response to the unexpected responses and questions of the women can be addressed. Also, it will include the teaching of the participants in terms of the material that they would be teaching to the other women. After their training, each of the groups will be sent to the areas where there is a greater population belonging to African American women. Under the intervention plan, the women would be taught in the form of flyers and the oral information along with the distribution of the different diet charts that can help these women to take better care of them and become conscious of them. It is important to note that this intervention would be a set of complete instructions that are required by the women in order to overcome the threat as well as the existing dilemma of type II diabetes. Also, there would be different modes and means of communication that will be considered and used because it is not justified that all the women will be educated so different languages, as well as both written and oral communication strategies, would be used to teach the women. In addition, the diet plans in the forms of flyers will be distributed along with the camps where women can come and share their particular cancers about their health which they think are contributing or the causative agents of diabetes.

Human resources

As the plan would be initiated in coordination with ADA so the funding would be supported by the department itself and if not, the Public Health Fund would be used for carrying out the intervention. It is highlighted that public health funds are merely used for this purpose because the data collected and information is used to carry out different researches and analyze this information in terms of policymaking. In addition, Aetna funding is another major option that can be used for funding for this public health intervention, this platform is designed to address the funding and the economic needs of the researchers so that they can play their role in addressing health challenges and cater to the health needs. In addition, some human resources would be needed such as dietetics, nutritionists, psychics, and nurses. There would be some additional partners and companions who will teach what they would have learned from the medical specialists so they are also included in the human resources. Also, in addition, some compensation would be required for the services that the human resource determinants would be provided. The publications, transportation, and audiovisual aids will also be addressed and fulfilled with the help of education. (Beckles, et al. 2019).

Evaluation

There are a lot of facts and figures along with evidence that can be used to know the efficiency and the effectiveness of the intervention plan. One of the evaluation options is the analysis of the health data that would be collected from particular places after a few months of training. This data will infer if there is an improvement in the symptoms or the actual cases of diabetes. Another method of evaluation would be the approach of the people to get themselves diagnosed and an improvement in their lifestyle that can be empowered there is an improvement in the health conditions or not. There are several other evaluation options such as getting in touch with the people and getting random feedback about their health. It will also include an analysis of the current situation of the people, asking people about what are the changes that they are feeling in their lives and lifestyles as a result of training. Also, the result of the intervention can be calculated by having a look at the stance of people following the diet plan and the schedule that they have been given by the healthcare professionals.

Long term sustainability of the public health program

There is a lot of evidence that can support longer sustainability such as a change in attitude, behavior and the less number of cases that are being reported in the healthcare department. Also, long term suitability the public health program can also be traced in the form of the initiatives that are taken by the other areas connected to the communities because if a particular population is aware of some facts figures such facts are evidently spread and it affirms either there is long term sustainability or not. Also, another framework of the long term sustainability is the number of people who are approaching the healthcare representatives and the healthcare centers for getting information or sharing something that they found is threatening or causing some long term or short term hampering to the set framework of health.

Health specific communication needs

None of the healthcare intervention is complete without health-specific communication needs such as choice of language that is understood by the people of the area, as well as the instructions explained in simple language so that people can work on it. Attitude is also a type of communication that is used to instruct and train people. (Tan, et al. 2019). Social marketing and mass media can also play a central role in the communication of health intervention because these set of instruction, precaution and diet charts can also be circulated on the social media mad television because more the people will see it the more would be the options of impermanent in the health of women. Also, it is one of the best options because a lot of women stay at home and watching TV or using social media is one of the leisure activities so women can educate indirectly. (Tan, et al. 2019).

Summary

This paper aims at the identification of the issues, i.e., “Type II diabetes in the African American women” along with the analysis of any advocacy or legislation that is meant to discuss or support the issue or help the women with these issues. Concluding with ADA as advocacy that is currently working to mitigate the ratio of diabetes and the option of collaboration an intervention plan is designed. The facts, figures and the initiation of the intervention plan are given along with the human resources that would be required. The ecological model will be used for the intervention plan taking into a cooperation that diversity of the application of the model. Also, there are some tools and techniques that will be used for the analysis of the long term and short efficiency and sustainability of the intervention. There is a brief introduction to working on the intervention plan along with the communication tools that can be used for training women. In a nutshell, this paper is a complete code of “public health intervention” along with all the basic requirements ranging from planning to the working of the plan so that African American women can be educated and trained about type II diabetes.

References

Beckles, G. L., McKeever, K. B., Saydah, S., Imperatore, G., Loustalot, F., & Correa, A. (2019). Life Course Socioeconomic Position, Allostatic Load, and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes among African American Adults: The Jackson Heart Study, 2000-04 to 2012. Ethnicity & disease, 29(1), 39-46.

Brown, C. W., Alexander, D. S., Ellis, S. D., Roberts, D., & Booker, M. A. (2019). Perceptions and Practices of Diabetes Prevention Among African Americans Participating in a Faith-Based Community Health Program. Journal of community health, 1-10.

Osei, K., & Gaillard, T. (2019). Pathogenic mechanisms of prediabetes in obese vs. very obese African American women: Implications for diabetes prevention. Journal of the National Medical Association, 111(1), 76-82.

Tan, M., Mamun, A., Kitzman, H., & Dodgen, L. (2019). Longitudinal Changes in Allostatic Load during a Randomized Church-based, Lifestyle Intervention in African American Women. Ethnicity & disease, 29(2), 297.

Subject: Environmental Science

Pages: 8 Words: 2400

699

699

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

699

Introduction

Diabetes is a disease that occurs when the level of blood glucose is high than normal. It is one of the most common diseases in different parts of the world. According to the American diabetes association, mode of living (including eating habits) and food choices reflect many symbolic, familial, ethnic and gender-specific associations. There are a number of diseases that African American women become a victim of, as per the research of many experts (Williams et al. 2019). One of the most common health conditions found in African American women is diabetes. There are two main types of diabetes and researches show that most African American women have a high percentage of type 2 diabetes (Williams et al. 2019). According to a researcher, M.C Marshall Jr, there are various elements like genetic traits, insulin resistance and prevalence of obesity that increase the risk of diabetes (especially of type 2 diabetes) in African American women. The estimated prevalence of diabetes in the United States of America is about 16 million people. About ninety percent of the people suffering from diabetes suffer from type 2 diabetes and it comprises the population more than 45 years. African American has 1-6-fold high diabetic rate as compared to other Americans and this proportion suffers from type 2 diabetes. In contrast, the risk of type 2 diabetes is 1-4 folds high in white Americans. African Americans bear the burden and threats of morbidity and mortality that is associated with diabetes (Williams et al. 2019).

Biological nature of Diabetes

There are a lot of dimensions and aspects narrated and quoted to assert and clarify the biological nature of diabetes type II. According to one of the reports by Shiyanbola, (2018) type 2 diabetes is caused by a chain reaction that results in the destruction of vital insulin-producing cells. In the same report, it is affirmed that a malfunctioning protein that is also called, "amyloid" is responsible for triggering the condition that may cause the body to lose its control on the blood sugar level (Shiyanbola et al. 2018). Some deposits from the cells of the pancreas are also considered responsible for damaging the cells that are responsible for producing insulin which is in return responsible for regulating blood sugar. Any interruption to these processes can help to control and stop the occurrence of insulin (Macaulay et al. 2018). In the medical journal, “Nature immunology” there is no prominent cause of type 2 diabetes except the increasing production of glucose in the blood. This condition is followed by less production of insulin or the inability of the body cells to react to the insulin. The role of IL-1Beta is also found in the occurrence of diabetes because this chemical is involved in the inflammatory reactions and this chemical is a major driver of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes (Robins et al. 2019). In one of the laboratory studies, it is asserted that there is a chemical that could activate the inflammation proteins in the people who suffer from type 2 diabetes. This reaction is followed by the loss of pancreatic insulin-producing cells also called islet or beta cells (Robins et al. 2019).

Environment Influence on type II Diabetes

There are a lot of environmental factors that are directly linked with the cause of Type II Diabetes. One of these factors is the lifestyle. According to Macaulay, (2018) African American women have a more sedentary lifestyle because either they are left to stay in houses doing nothing except for TV or they are employed somewhere, where they are doing some sedentary jobs (Macaulay et al. 2018).). It is asserted that African American women are the product of exposures that are inhaled from the familial role and social status which results in a comparative high blood pressure rate and, more chances of mental disease in African American Women. Also, about 80% of the women, as calculated by the records are obese and obesity is one of the most significant causes of Type II diabetes (Robins et al. 2019). Socioeconomic status is one of the most powerful and dominant environmental factors that can cause type II diabetes. It is highlighted that African American women are usually counted or positioned at or below the poverty line. The limited availability of resources paves the way for narrowed approach to life and inferiority complex that ultimately affects mental capabilities. So socioeconomic features are the drivers of Type II diabetes (Denis et al. 2018). Also, African American women are confined to the realms of sick societies where there is no exposure of women to the world where they could work to manage their lifestyle. Obesity is the product of such lifestyle which can direct to diabetes. Obesity runs into families and African American families have rare exercise and healthy eating habits (Macaulay et al. 2018). Other lifestyle features include exposure to the housing environment, sleep duration or the quality of sleep that those women are having. Consumption of tea, alcohol, and smoking is also included in the environmental factors that can influence Type II diabetes (Williams et al. 2019)

Incidence and Prevalence rate

Qualitative research method was used to collect the data on Type II diabetes in African American women. Out of 15 articles, 4 most relevant articles were chosen, the article was collected from MEDLINE by using keyword, "diabetes type II" and, "African American Women”. Google Scholar was also used to collect some peer-reviewed articles so that the required information can be collected (Macaulay et al. 2018). Generally, it is asserted that diabetes is 60% more common in black women as compared to white women. In the same report, it is highlighted that African American women are 2.5 times more likely to suffer from the amputation of a limb and in the same way, there are 5 to 6 times more chances of the women to suffer from diabetes. Reports have shown that 5.4 percent of white American females are diagnosed with diabetes and 9.9 percent of black women were found the victim of diabetes (Shiyanbola et al. 2018). By May 2, 2022, the middle-aged African would be developing diabetes as compared to White middle-aged Americans where women are more likely to be diagnosed with diabetes as compared to men (Macaulay et al. 2018). It is more important to note that diabetes further causes stroke, the problem of blood vessels, foot, nerves, heart, eye, and kidney. It is found that 1 in 4 Black women are affected with Type II Diabetes. It affects almost 12% of all Black women who are 20 years or older. In one of the researches, it was concluded that 1646 African American Women were suffering from Type II diabetes from the sample that was collected from four different parts of America. As per the database, it was found that African American women have high blood pressure even without diabetes so it ensures that in the future they will be suffering from diabetes (Shiyanbola et al. 2018).

Other Factors

There are factors such as cultural, behavioral and other human factors that can affect this disorder. The factors can cast both positive and negative effects on life. According to Shiyanbola (2018), both physical activity as well as eating behavior can cast an impact on type II diabetes, in the same way, positive modification of lifestyle can help to mitigate the impact of diabetes. Energetic lifestyle and physical activity can help to overcome the deterioration of health caused by diabetes (Denis et al. 2018). Culture is also one of the factors because many of the behaviors are actually promoted by culture. Moreover, exposure to different resources is also significant to note such as the availability of clean water, climatic changes such as rising global temperature affects the health condition of African American women, along with the supply of food. The prevalence and occurrence of diabetes in African American women is also influenced by the social factors such as familial relationships that are most disrupted and economic depression that eradicates and distort bodily functions (Williams et al. 2019).

Disparities associated with Diabetes

There are a lot of social, moral and ethical disparities associated with African American women having type II diabetes. It is asserted that Body Mass Index, the distribution of body mass, racial and ethnic groups are all differing widely along with the type of adipose tissue. It is highlighted that African American women are more towards dietary fibers, more sugar consumption and large consumption of carbohydrates that made them more vulnerable to type II diabetes. African American women are more obese, less physical active, and reluctant towards opportunities of awareness (Robins et al. 2019).

Ethical issues in diabetes

Ethical issues are one of the major factors that can influence Type II Diabetes. As African American women belong to minority groups, it is found that they face a lot of issues in terms of treatment, opportunities of awareness and then they are neglected in a number of opportunities that can impart and ensure a better lifestyle. It’s been several years, (since 2000) that the maximum people suffering from type II Diabetes in America majorly belonging to African American women. According to research by Robins (2019) gene mutation is a critical factor to consider and it is promoted by continuous exposure to the same environmental and lifestyle, along with the same societal treatment. Along with minority ignorance, African American women are not given quality health as compared to white people, driven by various factors such as race, and low socioeconomic status (Robins et al. 2019).

References

Denis, G. V., Sebastiani, P., Bertrand, K. A., Strissel, K. J., Tran, A. H., Slama, J., ... & Palmer, J. R. (2018). Inflammatory signatures distinguish metabolic health in African American women with obesity. PloS one, 13(5), e0196755.

Macaulay, S., Ngobeni, M., Dunger, D. B., & Norris, S. A. (2018). The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus amongst black South African women is a public health concern. Diabetes research and clinical practice, 139, 278-287.

Robins, J. L., & Kliewer, W. (2019). Stress and Coping Profiles and Cardiometabolic Risk in Low-Income African American Women. Journal of Women's Health, 28(5), 636-645.

Shiyanbola, O. O., Ward, E., & Brown, C. (2018). Sociocultural influences on African Americans’ representations of type 2 diabetes: a qualitative study. Ethnicity & disease, 28(1), 25.

Williams, A., Mc Dougal, D., Jenkins, W., Greene, N., Williams-DeVane, C., & Kimbro, K. S. (2019). Serum miR-17 levels are downregulated in obese, African American women with elevated HbA1c. Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders, 1-7.

Subject: Environmental Science

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

Acid Rain Lab Report

Lab Report

Student’s Name

Institution

Date

Introduction

The wet acid deposits known as acid rain in meteorology is regarded as the fallout from the soil particles. The rain is regarded as acidic when the pH content is less than 5.1. In a normal situation, the pH value normally consists of distilled water, and dust and therefore, pH value range between 5.1 and 6.5. Under this condition, the water will be declared acidic. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the acidity of the environment using the rain gathered from the environment. This study focus on the rain gathered from Sarasota County to investigate the presence or absence of acid rain within Sarasota County. The report, therefore, contains the materials and methods applied, result and raw data obtained from the study, graph and the data summary.

Materials and methods

The experiment was conducted using gathered water from Sarasota County. The data used for the experiment was obtained through sarasota.wateratlas. The components were selected, and the data generated in excel which was then analyzed to determine the acidity content of the water. The selection and analysis of the data were based on Near Real-Time Data, Water Atlas, Water Body Type, and Parameter. The water body used was Stream, and parameter pH and the Sarasota County Water Atlas.

Result and Raw Data

The result of the study indicates a unique trend. Based on the analysis of the data, the result shows that the pH value of water changes based on the time, Actual Latitude, Actual Longitude, Date, and Time. It is established that when the time changes the pH value of water also changes as well. As illustrated in Table 1 below, the pH of the stream water used changes based on the time which the sample was take\n. It also indicates that the pH increases as time goes.

Actual Latitude

Actual Longitude

Sample Date

Parameter

Result Value

27.04512

-82.4193

3/3/2005 10:45

pH

7.43

27.04512

-82.4193

3/3/2005 11:00

pH

7.45

27.04512

-82.4193

3/3/2005 11:15

pH

7.47

27.04512

-82.4193

3/3/2005 11:30

pH

7.48

27.04512

-82.4193

3/3/2005 11:45

pH

7.49

27.04512

-82.4193

3/3/2005 12:00

pH

7.53

27.04512

-82.4193

3/3/2005 12:15

pH

7.57

27.04512

-82.4193

3/3/2005 12:30

pH

7.57

27.04512

-82.4193

3/3/2005 12:45

pH

7.53

27.04512

-82.4193

3/3/2005 13:00

pH

7.55

27.04512

-82.4193

3/3/2005 13:15

pH

7.61

27.04512

-82.4193

3/3/2005 13:30

pH

7.63

27.04512

-82.4193

3/3/2005 13:45

pH

7.65

27.04512

-82.4193

3/3/2005 14:00

pH

7.6

27.04512

-82.4193

3/3/2005 14:15

pH

7.69

27.04512

-82.4193

3/3/2005 14:30

pH

7.59

27.04512

-82.4193

3/3/2005 14:45

pH

7.71

27.04512

-82.4193

3/3/2005 15:00

pH

7.74

27.04512

-82.4193

3/3/2005 15:15

pH

7.75

27.04512

-82.4193

3/3/2005 15:30

pH

7.75

27.04512

-82.4193

3/3/2005 15:45

pH

7.77

27.04512

-82.4193

3/3/2005 16:00

pH

7.78

27.04512

-82.4193

3/3/2005 16:15

pH

7.78

Table 1: the result of the experiment (ph Value)

Graph

In the graph1 below, it is illustrated that the pH value of the Alligator Creek decreases day by day and hour to hour. It can be concluded that as the day goes the water gets polluted and therefore, the ph level of water increases as well. The pH level of Alligator Creek on 4/1/2005 is different from the pH value of the Alligator Creek on 10/1/2005, which is a clear indication of the change of pH level water on a daily basis.

Graph 1: pH value

Summary

The data collected from the Sarasota Country Water Atlas indicates that the pH level of the Alligator Creek has decreased over a period of time. The analysis of the trend line of the data from 2005 to 2006 indicates a clear decline in the pH value which means that there is acidification of the water body. However, a deep analysis of the day by day pH value indicates that the data does not seem too different day to day or hour to an hour and therefore, it shows that there is a fall after a long term of pH concentration. It is also established that the acidity of the water bodies in Sarasota County decreases as the time goes in a day. It means that in the early days, the water is more acidic and the acidity decline towards the end of the day. This could be as a result of several factors such as human activities such as pollution and other activities.

In the early days, there are little human activities such as air pollution, erosion of soil from the agricultural industry, fossil gas and other gases produced as a result of human activities. This means that human plays a major impact on the change of pH level of the water body as the day goes and hour to hour. The change of pH value hour to an hour could be a result of industrial activities in the region. Industries produce gases such as nitrogen which mixed with water to increase the acidity of water. With the high increase of production the pH level of water increases and therefore, the water becomes more acidic.

However, there are government regulations which are required to be complied with to help in reducing the number of gases produced. First, people are required to use green energy which does not produce gases. Industries are also required to reduce the dependency on fossil and other nonrenewable energies to help in reducing the producing of gases such as nitrogen to the atmosphere, which in return pollute the water bodies, hence increase the acidic content of the water.

Subject: Environmental Science

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Admission Essay

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of Instructor]

[ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE]

[Date]

Admission Essay

My name is (XYZ), and I consider myself an honest, caring, and forthright individual with immense affection towards the natural environment. I have always felt and so considered myself a person who loves nature whether it be mountains, green plains, forests, animals, or rivers. This admiration and attachment for nature is natural to me, also watching series and programs on national geographic, animal planet, etc. have intensified my appreciation and love for it. When I observe the environment around in comparison to what I imagine and see on national geographic; it makes me extremely sad and sometimes even hopeless. Rapid urbanization has transformed most of the world into an industrialized place where almost all the businesses, industries, and human beings are exerting the natural resources relentlessly for profits causing inexpressible strain on natural environments without taking into account its sustainability issue.

With the growth of environmental concerns in the mass media, a lot of people are beginning to see resolving these problems as a bystander sport. A sport in which civilization count on scientists, policymakers, and others to make things right for everyone. In my opinion, climate change is not a consequence of growth at all, but in reality the outcome of regression. It is the outcome of our growing incompetence to exist in harmony with nature rather than in relentless conflict and we may likely past the point of no return.

The current global environmental concerns revealed in the mainstream media have profoundly captivated my concentration in studying an environmental science subject. I believe that the significance of the natural environment is critical for the existence and survival of our planet. All these facts fascinates me to study an environmental sciences in hopes of making a change in the attitudes of public, businesses and governments towards environment in the coming future. The implication of the natural environment persistently astounds me as it is an enormously influential force that moves our civilization in all facets, whether it is economically, socially or politicall. The poor recycling attitude has forged monumental waste mountains. The real day to day experiences of such issues and reading about extinctions of animals, deforestation, and other environmental catastrophes shrugs me to do something about it or at least covey the message of love and care towards our environment with scientific knowledge and offer or teach sustainable solutions.

This is what I seek out to emphasize in my future studies and career and the responsibility we have to act upon the expertise we have developed. As many scholars stress, I also support the idea that s sustainable way of life must emerge; the earth is disfigured by conditions such as disappearing glaciers, climate change, and water exploitations. Movements must aid to amend the wrecks and realize balance.To conclude, making my course selection of environmental science will support me to bind my energy and my time to environmental sustainability and develop my knowledge and skills to work on saving the environment in the future. Attending this course will allow me valuable insight into the wealth of knowledge concerning the environment. As I have serious interest in nature and environment, I will be spending most of my spare time proactively to excel in this subject not just meet but surpass any expectations of the institute. Being part of a prospective community or class with shared enthusiasm towards nature and environment will fill any gaps in my understandings and enthusiasm towards the environment. Most importantly, the chance to work with experts who possess the knowledge and resources will enable me to reach my full potential and truly flourish.

I am genuinely looking forward to starting my course in your respected institute, and I will be forever grateful for this opportunity. Thank you for your time and consideration.

Subject: Environmental Science

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Air Quality And Pollution Lab

Air Quality and Pollution Lab

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Air Quality and Pollution Lab

Introduction

Air pollution refers to the harmful substances like gases, biological molecules or particles that are introduced into Earth’s atmosphere in excessive amount. Air pollution is one of the leading causes of diseases (Di et.al, 2017). It damages the environment as well as the natural habitat of many creatures in echo systems. In my report, I will be discussing how the quality of air is measured, what AQI actually is and different types of pollutants. Furthermore, I will be comparing three different countries’ monthly average unhealthy days by focusing on the disease that is lung cancer/asthma followed by graphs and drawing a conclusion from the comparison.

Discussion

Air Quality Index (AQI)

The air quality index (AQI) determines the quality of air around us. It tells us about the air whether it is polluted or clean. Additionally, it gives complete information about the health effects that may be a point of concern in that specific area.

The air quality index is used by different government agencies in order to give information regarding air pollution to the public. Some of these are Air pollution index (Malaysia), quality health index (Canada) and Air now (USA). In the US the environmental protection agency, National park services, and national oceanic and atmospheric administration are responsible for creating this website making it accessible for people worldwide. This data provides an insight into the air conditions and how to protect from the potential diseases that have a high chance of occurrence due to pollution.

In the US all the details regarding air pollution in any state are easily accessed by using the Air now website. The site can be accessed worldwide so that every person can avail this facility. It provides an insight into the air condition and the potential diseases caused by pollution. To make it easier to understand the website uses different colors that represent air quality so that people can start taking necessary precautions. As the data displayed on the website is real-time data, it changes after every hour.

Air quality is measured by specialized monitors that record the concentration of pollutants for different locations each day. These measurements are converted into AQI values by using the formula given by EPA. In the US large cities have severe air pollution due to which the AQI may exceed 100 while in smaller cities the AQI is considerably less. AQI factor depends upon certain factors like seasons and time of the day. For instance in winter carbon monoxide level is high as car emission control systems cannot operate smoothly when the temperature drops.

Types of Pollutants

In air now website various types of air pollutants and their effects on humans and the environment are analyzed. The table below shows different types of pollutants their origin, characteristics, potential health risks and the problems they cause in the environment.

Table 1:Types of pollutants

Types of air particulates

characteristics

Origin

Health risks

Environmental problems

Ozone O3

Pure ozone is blue gas with strong irritating smell

Pollutant in lower atmosphere

Cause cancer,

Damage crops and natural vegetation, greenhouse effect

Carbon Monoxide CO

Color less, odor less, toxic gas

Combusting oil, charcoal, woods

Headaches, hear diseases, lung diseases, asthma

Ozone formation and transformed into CO2

Sulfur Dioxide SO2

Color less, corrosive gas

Industrial smog

Skin problems, cancer

Acid rain

Nitrogen Oxide NO2

Reactive gas

Photochemical smoke

Skin problems, cancer

Acid rain

Discussion

In my report, I have selected a disease that is lung cancer/asthma as it is one of the leading causes of death in the world and in the US. According to the statistics, over 8.93 million people died because of cancer in the world and more specifically in the US 21.3% of total deaths is caused by cancer. The most common cancer that is the cause of death in both females and males is lung cancer. Recently during a survey conducted in April 2019, there was total of 76650 people who died because of lung cancer in the US CITATION Nic19 \l 1033 (Nichols).

In this report, I will be comparing three different states’ monthly average of unhealthy days due to asthma and lung cancer. Also, how air pollutants are the leading cause of lung cancer and asthma. For this purpose, I have selected three states (San Bernardino, CA), (Miami-Dade, FL), and (Chelan, WA).

Comparison between (San Bernardino, CA), (Miami-Dade, FL), and (Chelan, WA)

Figure SEQ Figure \* ARABIC 1 (Source: https://www3.epa.gov/aircompare/index.htm#trends )

In fig 1 these graphs show the monthly average of unhealthy days for people suffering from asthma and lung cancer. Here unhealthy days are represented using different colors. Orange color represents the number of unhealthy for sensitive people. Red color shows a number of unhealthy days for all the people and indigo color shows very unhealthy days. The value above each bar is the index value that is AQI.

It can clearly be seen in fig 1 that California has a number of unhealthy days as compared to the other two states. Especially, in the month of June, July, and august people experience a number of unhealthy days as compared to the rest of the months. While in Chelan, WA august is the only moth where sensitive people face unhealthy days. The main cause of an increased number of unhealthy days in the environment is air pollution. The excessive pollutants like ozone, carbon monoxide are the real culprits (Foell et.al, 1995). The more the people inhale air pollutants the more they are prone to suffer from asthma which may in some cases lead to lung cancer.

Conclusion

It is vital for every human being to breathe air to live and any problem in the air directly affects us. Air pollution is increasing day by day which is a great threat to our natural echo system. Global warming, diseases like cancers, cardiovascular issues, allergies are all due to pollution in the environment. It is, therefore, necessary to plant more trees, avoid using plastics, consume less fuel, etc.

References

Di, Q., Wang, Y., Zanobetti, A., Wang, Y., Koutrakis, P., Choirat, C., ... & Schwartz, J. D. (2017). Air pollution and mortality in the Medicare population. New England Journal of Medicine, 376(26), 2513-2522.

Foell, W., Green, C., Amann, M., Bhattacharya, S., Carmichael, G., Chadwick, M., ... & Kuylenstierna, J. (1995). Energy use, emissions, and air pollution reduction strategies in Asia. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 85(4), 2277-2282.

BIBLIOGRAPHY Nichols, Hannah. What are the leading causes of death in the US? Ed. Brighton, UK. Healthline Media UK Ltd. 4 July 2019. 7 July 2019.

Subject: Environmental Science

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Chapter



Chapter

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Chapter

What is sustainable water use?

Sustainable water use is the sensible utilization of water resources, without affecting the important functioning of the hydrologic cycle.

What are the benefits of dams on the Columbia River? The drawbacks?

There are many benefits of dams on the Colombia River. They provide hydroelectricity, water for irrigation, flood control, navigation, and recreation. There are no as such drawbacks of dams on the Colombia river but dams damage the environment and the cost of building dams is very high.

How can individuals conserve and manage water resources?

There are different ways by which an individual can conserve and manage water resources. Use water according to the requirement and try to turn off the water when you are not using it. Replace high flow showers with low flow fixtures to conserve water. Sweep outdoor areas instead of washing them and repair all the leaking pipes to conserve water.

What problems are associated with overdrawing surface water? With aquifer depletion?

If too much water is withdrawn then the water will remain very less for the natural system which is one of the problems that is associated with overdrawing surface water. The problem which is associated with aquifer depletion is that it drops the water table.

What issues surround the water problems of the Ogallala Aquifer? The Colorado River Basin?

Ogallala Aquifer is known as the biggest groundwater deposit in the world. However, it has been observed that it has been misused from decades by farmers. The excess use of water by farmers have affected badly the level of water. The Colorado River Basin is also one of the biggest rivers in the world which provides almost water to 30 million people.

How does international cooperation affect shared water resources?

According to the research, about three fourth of the world's 200 water resources are being shared between different nations and International cooperation has the responsibility to protect the supply of water resources and shared equally among each nation. International cooperation is required and it is very important because it helps to conserve the water resources.

What is water pollution?

When the groundwater, rivers, and lakes are polluted due to harmful chemicals and bacteria they cause water pollution. It happens when waste products are thrown directly into the clean water.

What is biochemical oxygen demand? How is BOD related to sewage?

Biochemical oxygen demand is a measure of the quantity of oxygen that is being used by microorganisms. BOD is used to specify the strength of sewage.

How does point source pollution differ from nonpoint source pollution? What are some examples of each?

Point source pollution releases pollutants from a single source while non-point source pollution release pollutants from several distinct sources. Water that is discharging from an industrial plant is an example of point sources while non-point sources include chemicals into rivers or oceans.

What are some common sources of groundwater pollutants?

Some common sources of groundwater pollutants include chemicals, fuels, fertilizers, detergents, and air pollution.

How is most drinking water purified in the United States?

In united states, most drinking water is purified with the help of chemical coagulant. It helps to remove the floating particles and filter the water from microorganisms.

What are the stages in municipal sewage treatment? What happens in each stage?

There are several stages that are involved in municipal sewage treatment which include primary treatment stage, secondary treatment stage, and tertiary treatment stage. In the primary treatment stage, floating particles are removed from wastewater with the help of mechanical process. In the secondary treatment stage, floating particles are removed from wastewater using biological treatment. In the tertiary treatment stage, floating particles are removed using advanced wastewater treatment.

How has the safe drinking water act affected US water supplies? How has the clean water act affected them?

The purpose of safe drinking water is to create federal standards that are essential to make sure the safety of water supplies. The safe drinking water act affected US water supplies in a way that they are not able to receive proper water supplies in different states. On the other side, the clean water act affected the United States in a way that it affected the quality of rivers, aquifers, and coastal waters. However, it has helped the united states in improving the quality of water.

Subject: Environmental Science

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Citizens Science Project

Citizen Science Project

Your name

Affiliation

Introduction

Anything that makes our earth dirty and unhealthy is called pollution. It has immense effects on land, air and water. Products that are daily used by human beings like packages, food, games, school supplies or electronics etc. combine to increase pollution. All these products end up in large underground dumps called landfills. These landfills not only affect human beings but also animals. The flood of 2018 in Carolina was due to heavy rain storm, and according to national weather service eight trillion gallon of rain was recorded across the Carolina state. Which became the major issue of flooding and due to which all the polluted water majorly hit the state. It was recorded by the NASA that the color of the river has turned dark brown or black due to pollution. This is an alarming condition for the people of Carolina and the government that due to their actions the state had to go through so much suffering. Throwing dumps in the river or the underground landfills have caused massive diseases in the flooding, and who is behind all this? We humans are the major cause of the pollution. It’s our habit to dump the waste in the underground landfills and when natural disasters like flood hits the area all the waste comes above the surface causing blockage of water and massive emergence of dangerous bacterial infections and diseases. The core point of this paper is to discuss the actions of people causing pollution in the Carolina state.

Observations

Many observations have been made on the effects of pollution and its causes. The heavy rain storm brought a disastrous flood to the state and the rivers started to swamp coal ash dumps and low-lying hog farms which rose the major concerns of pollution. The observations and collected data showed that coal ash landfill collapsed at the L.V. Sutton Power Station near Wilmington, Carolina which is an on-going situation for the government because it contains the unknown amount of potentially contaminated storm water flowing into a nearby lake. Before flood, power plan plant near Goldsboro, old coal ash dumps were covered by the soil and all the dump was brought back to the surface by the flood of Neuse River. Dumping of waste is never a solution it’s a hazard because flood can bring back the waste in toxic ways back to the land causing massive pollution. Another observation showed that an associate press photographer flew over Eastern North Carolina and he saw several flooded hog farms along the Trent River. Such farms can become the significant water contamination hazard after the flood because of large amount of pits are filled with hog urine and feces. Many of the hog waste is disposed in the river and according to AP analysis the data show that at least forty five active Carolina farms are at high risk of being flooded by the nearby streams and rivers just because of the hog waste disposal and imagine the diverse effects of the flood filled with contaminated and polluted water. Federal forecast predicted many rivers that are at high risk of flooding and this an awakening situation for us. Officials of Carolina has suggested the farmers to take their animals to the higher ground levels. In the dumping of coal ash Duke Energy played a vital role. It was recorded that millions of tons of ash has been dumped into the areas near waterways. Duke did not handled the coal ash waste well and was found guilty for violating nine clean water Acts and for the illegal discharge of coal ash dumps at five North Carolina power plants.

In 2016, Hurricane Mathew flood waters eroded the underground coal ash which flowed into Neuse River. Hence, even capping the coal with soil is not a permanent solution to the problem. Even the Lumber River is at high risk of flooding. It is expected to crest at more than twelve feet above the flood stage putting floodwaters near the earthen dike which contains the plants coal ash dump and it’s a major hazard for the state.

Environmentalists have been warning from ages that Duke’s coal ash dumps and pounds are big hazard. They said it can pose a great threat towards the drinking water supplies and safety of the public. Duke Energy should immediately remove its coal ash dumps near the water lines as it a great threat towards flood and public health.

Process of data collection

A mock budget is in which we analyze the expenses or budgets, and also how the money will spent towards the better solution of the problems. For the mock budget of Carolina we analyzed the operating, capital and tax expenditures to analyze the behavior of state towards the better solution of the pollution. The collection of data is an important step as it enables us to look into a deeper picture of the problem. We first started to collect our data about the operating expenditure. This expenditure is related to on-going process for a product or an item. We initially started looking for appropriations bills and governor’s budgets for Carolina. We also searched online to retrieve information about the specific adaptions used by Carolina for prevention of pollution and we also reviewed the climate action plans of Carolina. The results of collected data showed that Carolina is putting its efforts for eradication of pollution and has spent one hundred and nine thousand dollars on the on-going issue of drinking water contamination. It constituted on a 0.2% of the total budget of the government.

Capital expenditure is the amount of money spent on upgrading or maintaining the industry, company or any resources. For finding the capital expenditure of Carolina on pollution we conducted online searches by using terms lie capital investment plans of Carolina or capital expenditure of Carolina. Although, the search did not gave great answers but according to the results Carolina government has spent one twenty billion dollars on pollution since 1954 to 2014. Which is a great amount to spend.

Tax expenditure are the methods of deduction, exemptions, or credits in order to benefit certain group of sources or activities. We used the same approach of internet surfing and searching with technical terms like tax credits by Carolina, tax deduction by Carolina or tax credits by Carolina etc. This led us to the website of the Institute of Taxation and Economic policies which contains all the tax expenditure reports of the states. We searched for Carolina and it showed that Carolina government has used sixty two million dollars. The tax expenditure focus was on recycling which is a great solution towards the pollution (because all the packaging, food product waste, or any sort of plastic will be recycles and would not be thrown into rivers or dumped at landfills) and it only used 0.2% of the budget of the government (Zachary Bean, Frederick Hunt, Alan Bidelspach, 2007).

Conclusion

The actions of people are the major cause of pollution. Every day many people have been observed throwing away tons of disposable cups and plastic made products into the river. Which causes the blockage into the water and eventually leading towards the flooding of rivers. It is important for the industries and companies to understand that rivers are not made for the storage of the toxic waste material. They should stop dumping their waste in the landfills and should follow proper measures to get rid of the waste materials. The actions that people should follow to save themselves from pollution are to stop flushing contaminated liquids, pills or drugs down the drain which destroys the quality of natural water system. Proper disposal methods should be used for medications. Detergents and bleach should be used in the minimum amount in the houses instead people should use phosphate-free detergents and soap. The major cause of water pollution is the excessive use of fertilizers, pesticides or herbicides, because these chemicals often find their way into the water and contaminate it. Government should ensure the proper sewage system so that toxic material should be saved from going into rivers and oceans because the drinking water comes from the rivers and causes many diseases. Proper disposal of trash is very important. People should learn the point that disposal of waste products is very important as it helps us in the getting rid of the blockage of the water. Many people have a bad habit of dumping the products directly into the water systems. Disposal of products directly into the rivers not only cause pollution but also kill the poor sea living animals. It should become the habit of the people to by environment friendly products. So that we could be safe from global warming and ozone depletion. Plastic is the most harmful thing in the water pollution because it is not dissolvable into the water causing some series damages. Hence, people should always tend to use such plastic which water dissolvent. Such shoppers have been developed which are environmental friendly and can be dissolved into the water without causing any harm or damage. Government should plant green trees in large amount of number as they help a lot in the production of the oxygen. If we start following all these points we can easily get rid of the pollution (Vernberg, Vernberg, 2013).

References

Zachary Bean, E., Frederick Hunt, W., & Alan Bidelspach, D. (2007). Evaluation of four permeable pavement sites in eastern North Carolina for runoff reduction and water quality impacts. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 133(6), 583-592.

Vernberg, F. J., & Vernberg, W. B. (Eds.). (2013). Pollution and physiology of marine organisms. Elsevier.

Subject: Environmental Science

Pages: 6 Words: 1800

Free Essays About Blogs
info@freeessaywriter.net

If you have any queries please write to us

Invalid Email Address!
Thank you for joining our mailing list

Freeessaywriter.net is a platform where students can find free online tools for paper writing. With the help of these instruments, you are more than capable of composing the content according to any academic requirements.

@ All Rights Reserved 2023 info@freeessaywriter.net

Back to top