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Every region has its own norms and traditions. These traditions are linked with the lifestyle of the ancestors and religion. The dominant religion of the region has a great impact on the business. Every individual who wants to enter into the market of the specific region has to consider religious and cultural impact over the market. Ringsted is the region located in Denmark ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"4zIgekby","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Culture of Denmark - history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“Culture of Denmark - history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":395,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/rVaVAHaF/items/UY35MVDT"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/rVaVAHaF/items/UY35MVDT"],"itemData":{"id":395,"type":"webpage","title":"Culture of Denmark - history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family","URL":"https://www.everyculture.com/Cr-Ga/Denmark.html","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",3,30]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Culture of Denmark - history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family,” n.d.). This city is situated in the heart of New Zealand, bridging southern areas of Zealand. In Ringsted, there is the essence of a strong historical presence. Protestant is the major religion of the region. These entire religious, cultural elements influence the business market of the city.


Denmark is a little country whose social solidarity is moderated by provincial customs of rustic, urban, and island networks with refinements dependent on neighborhood language, sustenance, and history. This circumstance has now and again made erosion between neighborhood history and national history. Ringsted is the region where protestant is dominant. The second highest religion present here is the Catholic. Both Catholic and protestant influence the life of the people. Most of the culture and norms reflect religious element in them. For instance, the region is famous for St. Bendt's Church ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"OcujZtgk","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Sct. Bendt\\uc0\\u8217{}s Church,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“Sct. Bendt’s Church,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":389,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/rVaVAHaF/items/TZ7ZA5PF"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/rVaVAHaF/items/TZ7ZA5PF"],"itemData":{"id":389,"type":"webpage","title":"Sct. Bendt's Church","container-title":"VisitDenmark","URL":"https://www.visitdenmark.com/gdk/619915","language":"ln-int","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",3,30]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Sct. Bendt’s Church,” n.d.). The Church of St. Bendt is the main structure left of Ringsted Kloster, the Benedictine cloister that torched in the eighteenth century. It is generally accepted that religious and social personalities matter in the region and that becoming social and religious decent variety represents a test to national characters, social attachment, and political and financial steadiness.

The second thing that capture the religious and traditional identity of the regions are the number of museums and monuments in the region. Ringsted carries the memory of the past in his heart and thousands of people every year come to the city as tourists. Therefore, the place welcome diversity as people from the different region, religion, country comes to visit the place. People of Ringsted are hostile than being extremist towards their religion and traditions. Due to this hostility, Ringsted organizes festival which attracts not only the tourists but also the businessman to enter into the regional market ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"ruYuy9Il","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Ramallah, n.d.)","plainCitation":"(Ramallah, n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":400,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/rVaVAHaF/items/BGJ5MEFH"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/rVaVAHaF/items/BGJ5MEFH"],"itemData":{"id":400,"type":"webpage","title":"Danish Culture and Lifestyle","container-title":"Mission Ramallah","abstract":"Many probably associate Denmark with dairy products, windmills and Legos. But the small Scandinavian country is much more than that.","URL":"http://ramallah.um.dk/en/about-denmark/danish-culture-and-lifestyle/","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Ramallah","given":"Mission"}],"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",3,30]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Ramallah, n.d.).

Ringsted Festival began as a brilliant thought in 1990 by Anders Sorensen, (originator of Ringsted Festival) as a just dependent on deliberate work and beginner groups. This went to hold for a long time after, due to deficient assets. In 2005 Ringsted Festival began again as a one-day outdoors music occasion from 2 scenes ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"EKXrJOTF","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Pedersen, n.d.)","plainCitation":"(Pedersen, n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":391,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/rVaVAHaF/items/C9W9JWQY"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/rVaVAHaF/items/C9W9JWQY"],"itemData":{"id":391,"type":"article-journal","title":"Understanding volunteers in cultural Tourism of festivals","page":"97","source":"Zotero","abstract":"This paper contributes to the understanding of the serious volunteer work, its similarities in festivals in Denmark, the volunteer’s potential within this grey zone of public – private partnerships and how this social capital can contribute to further tourism development. This thesis research is based on the participation model MOA and the evaluation model FEET with the elaboration of framework based on the conceptual model of festivals and the development of social capital.","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Pedersen","given":"Mette Vallentin"}]}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Pedersen, n.d.). This time it was with surely understood groups, some paid staff, volunteers and distinctive relaxation associations. The celebration happens on the grounds around the medieval church St. Bendts from 1170'ies. The celebration was based on another bit of genuine history from the medieval ages, of the town Ringsted and St. Bendt's Church.

The Festival comprises of market squares exercises, road entertainers, knight competitions; Children medieval play schools and music around St. Bendt's Church. The notable authenticity is a solid brand for the celebration. This is the reason the association of the festival is finished by Ringsted museum and archive with the assistance of volunteers, affiliations, and patrons. Ringsted Festival was the one with the littlest demography. This was doubtlessly in light of the fact that the work was less requesting in unique abilities other than accommodation, yet at the same time required dependability, diligent work, serving nourishment, cleaning behind the stage rooms and adjusting the stars, before amid and after their execution which implied 8-hour services.

As churches, monuments, architecture, and festivals all of them represent the customs and traditions of the regional people. The businessmen who try to start their business have to adopt these norms as a necessary element of their work to be successful in the market. Ringsted outlet is the only and largest outlet in Denmark which contains almost every famous brand. Therefore, Ringsted market is the dream place for the businessman to develop their business.

While considering the religious and traditional norms of the region, businessmen have to use managerial approach to manage the differences. The best approaches for the region are clan control and market control. It is because during the festivals many people try to develop their business and invest to be part of the regional market. Therefore, Clan Control answers on qualities, shared standards, convictions, corporate culture, and casual connections to direct worker practices, conventions, and encourage coming to of authoritative objectives. In addition, market control utilizes outer market components to set up gauges in the framework. It includes the utilization of value rivalry to assess yield. ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"uZvCzWjh","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Identifying Managerial Approaches In Implementing Controls,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“Identifying Managerial Approaches In Implementing Controls,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":392,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/rVaVAHaF/items/QFTZ95F2"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/rVaVAHaF/items/QFTZ95F2"],"itemData":{"id":392,"type":"webpage","title":"Identifying Managerial Approaches In Implementing Controls","container-title":"UKEssays.com","abstract":"Most managers always encounter difficulties while applying management methods to control operations and govern their subordinates within the...","URL":"https://www.ukessays.com/essays/business/identifying-managerial-approaches-in-implementing-controls-business-essay.php","language":"en","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",3,30]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} ("Identifying Managerial Approaches In Implementing Controls," n.d.). Through these approaches businessmen can adopt different strategies like discounts, free vouchers, and other promotional steps to attract the customer.


Ringsted is the region located in the country of Denmark. Denmark is a small country who is famous for its religious, cultural, and historical traditions and norms. Ringsted attracts businessmen as it is the center of attraction of the tourists due to church, museums, and festivals. Ringsted outlet is the largest outlet in the country that has almost every famous brand in it. It is the best place for the businessmen to develop their business and to take place in the market. To handle the religious and cultural influence businessmen should adopt market control approaches. Through this approach, they can use different strategies to attract customers because most of the consumers in the region are tourists.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Culture of Denmark - history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family. (n.d.). Retrieved March 30, 2019, from https://www.everyculture.com/Cr-Ga/Denmark.html

Identifying Managerial Approaches In Implementing Controls. (n.d.). Retrieved March 30, 2019, from UKEssays.com website: https://www.ukessays.com/essays/business/identifying-managerial-approaches-in-implementing-controls-business-essay.php

Pedersen, M. V. (n.d.). Understanding volunteers in cultural Tourism of festivals. 97.

Ramallah, M. (n.d.). Danish Culture and Lifestyle. Retrieved March 30, 2019, from Mission Ramallah website: http://ramallah.um.dk/en/about-denmark/danish-culture-and-lifestyle/

Sct. Bendt’s Church. (n.d.). Retrieved March 30, 2019, from VisitDenmark website: https://www.visitdenmark.com/gdk/619915

Subject: International Relations

Pages: 3 Words: 900

A Letter To The Current President Of South Africa



Course Code


Restitution of Land Rights Act 22 of 1994 in South Africa

The land has always been one of the main reasons for conflict – likewise in SA. As far as South Africa is concerned, where it is a very emotive issue, perhaps because the land is unevenly distributed, for whatever reasons. Unfortunately, there are people that use the issue for political advantage, encouraging mass hysteria. Restitution of Land Rights Act 22 of 1994 in South Africa Embittered mutual hatred, much fiercer in the lonely countryside than in the dense and multi-colored population of towns. Besides, it ripened over two centuries of oppression on one side and terror on the other, means that compromise will be hard to achieve. It is unacceptable that in a country with a massive majority of colored people most of the fertile land should be held by an obdurate white minority, but on the other hand the whites are justified in saying, first, that they are suffering from vandalism so severe, as to come close to civil war, and, second, that expropriation risks producing a farming production crisis comparable to what happened in Zimbabwe a while back. However, if there is expropriation, there must be compensation; expropriation without compensation would do nothing but reinforce the mutual hatred and intensify the violence.

The constitutional clause related to the expropriation of property isn't there for the purpose of giving away free land. Instead, its real purpose is to give the government a strong legal guideline when meddling in private property affairs. If the government really, truly wanted to give land to the people, it would only have to take a look at the many tracts of unused land it owns already. Besides, during the process of doling out land to the masses, it can get started on appropriate expropriation using the existing legislation in place. We tend to be overly positive about the government because we assume that position somehow correlates with authority. However, this is not the case. Decades have passed and the bare minimum of land claims have been settled. And compared to the real problems this country faces, it is mostly a non-issue. The simple truth is that the government, which is to say the majority of so-called leaders wasting space in parliament, all the way down to the smallest municipalities, lacks the will to properly govern. This includes solving any real or imagined land issues.

South Africa’s Apartheid government’s correction methods were based on racially motivated corrective discriminatory laws and actions against another race’s perceived danger because of their superior numbers and level of perceived civility. South Africa’s ANC government’s correction methods are currently based on racially motivated corrective discriminatory laws and actions against another race’s perceived injustices and privilege.

Land expropriation is not "black" South Africans walking up to "white" South Africans. What happens to white farmers and property owners who bought their land legally? What happens to their investments? This is reverse apartheid, basically taking from people who paid for the land, then some resolutions can be made, also taking into consideration all the work and money invested into that land, how is that going to be paid out? Had the land being left as it was, it would be Bush and jungles, the black is taking land for their squatter camps as of now ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"hnboM0Gs","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Walker)","plainCitation":"(Walker)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":942,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/5FVZPS47"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/5FVZPS47"],"itemData":{"id":942,"type":"book","title":"Landmarked: land claims and land restitution in South Africa","publisher":"Jacana Media","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Landmarked","author":[{"family":"Walker","given":"Cherryl"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2008"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Walker). I firmly believe you must earn what you want and not be a handout on a charity gravy train, it is the same as beggars.

Apartheid unlike the slave trade did not transpire 400 years ago. Unlike in America, it did not happen 120yrs ago. Unlike the Civil Rights movement, it did not happen 50years ago. Apartheid happened 24yrs ago. Over 70% of all South Africans have experienced and lived under a very horrific period is South African history. Over 70% of South Africans do have the right to claim that they were tormented, discriminated again, treated as less than human "Black" race ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"kB9xgHhb","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Cook)","plainCitation":"(Cook)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":945,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/U26NDJ7N"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/U26NDJ7N"],"itemData":{"id":945,"type":"article-journal","title":"South Africa: Current Issues, Economy, and U.S. Relations","container-title":"South Africa","page":"32","source":"Zotero","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Cook","given":"Nicolas"}]}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Cook). The people who used the Land Act of 1913 to take land from its owners are old but still alive. South Africa is not America, and do not think you can compare these two countries as equals in terms of their respective struggles. In America, Minorities were left with bread crumbs and were unfairly treated. In South Africa, the Majority (92% of the population) were left with bread crumbs ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"6oVJjsuD","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Lahiff)","plainCitation":"(Lahiff)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":940,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/PLYRKG63"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/PLYRKG63"],"itemData":{"id":940,"type":"article-journal","title":"Land reform in South Africa: is it meeting the challenge?","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Land reform in South Africa","author":[{"family":"Lahiff","given":"Edward"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2001"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Lahiff). Do not ever claim that all struggles are the same everywhere because they are not. Again, I will repeat: Land expropriation in RSA is not "blacks" walking up to "whites" and saying; I am black and poor, and you're white and rich, give me your land." If you do not have evidence that a specific property of yours was unjustly taken you cannot claim the property of someone else as yours because of skin color.

South Africa's democracy and constitutional fairness are only 25yrs old but they are very reputable as the best in the world. For example, dagga (weed or cannabis) is legal to smoke and cultivate in South Africa not because doctors said it was, but because the constitutional court deemed it a breach of privacy to arrest someone for a crime not committed against a second person on your own property. For instance, it is illegal to be naked on the street but not in your own private property (an act committed on yourself without harming others). Therefore, whilst it is illegal to smoke and cultivate weed on public property by the principle of privacy it is legal to do so on your own property as this is an act that is committed on oneself without harm to others, and, therefore, breached the right to privacy when arrested for it. Another example RSA is that it does not have a progressive tax, it only has a fair/flat tax ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"hbGr33L2","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(James)","plainCitation":"(James)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":941,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/ES43FTAR"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/ES43FTAR"],"itemData":{"id":941,"type":"book","title":"Gaining Ground?: Rights and Property in South African Land Reform","publisher":"Routledge-Cavendish","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Gaining Ground?","author":[{"family":"James","given":"Deborah"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2007"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (James). The reason for this is that a progressive tax was deemed to be unfairly discriminatory based on financial standing, and is not justified by the claim of having equality because it doesn't pass the PEPUDA test of unfair discrimination.

This idea did not come from the ANC, but from the EFF, a radical racist political party. There are unfortunately many poor and uneducated people in South Africa who believe that all their troubles will end if they get to land. Unfortunately, profitable farming is not that easy in modern times and many of the community farms have gone bankrupt, there are many success stories, but many failures too. Many of these desperate people would vote EFF in hopes to get land and I'm sure that people at the helm of affairs know very well that empty promises have worked very well up until now.

I think this land claim issue is more of a thorn in Cyril Ramaphosa's flesh. I don't think this is what wanted to deal with at this stage. When Jacob Zuma became president, the South African land trading was at R9 to the USD, at its weakest under Zuma's rule, it hit a low of R18 to the USD. We believe that Cyril Ramaphosa's goal is to turn our economy around, but now he has to deal with the EFF's land claim idea.

As long as the constitutional court of South Africa continues to respect the 28 rights afforded to every one of its citizens it will never happen that The Republic of South Africa fall under any unjust acts. Unjust acts that unfairly discriminate against other people on any grounds be they race, age, sex, gender, marital status, culture or religion. Our government is not above the law nor are they the law.

Works Cited

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Cook, Nicolas. “South Africa: Current Issues, Economy, and U.S. Relations.” South Africa, p. 32.

James, Deborah. Gaining Ground?: Rights and Property in South African Land Reform. Routledge-Cavendish, 2007.

Lahiff, Edward. Land Reform in South Africa: Is It Meeting the Challenge? 2001.

Walker, Cherryl. Landmarked: Land Claims and Land Restitution in South Africa. Jacana Media, 2008.

Subject: International Relations

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

Applying Classical Realism Theory To The Ethio-Eritrean War (1998-2000)

Applying Classical Realism to the Ethio-Eritrean War (1998-200)

A variant of realism that is one of the most influential school of thought in International Relations is classical realism. The most famous proponents of classical realism are Thucydides, Morgenthau, Machiavelli, Hobbes and most famously from twentieth century are Carr, and Kennan. Classical realism, like other variants of realism considers conflict to be deeply-rooted in international political arena. Three basic differences can be drawn between classical realism and (neo) -or realism and structural realism. First, more attention is given to description of human nature. Secondly, classical realists are more adaptive towards the chances of possibility or role of suspicion, which makes them less optimistic about the ability of the national leaders to predict the behaviour of the state. Thirdly, classical realists have rarely focused on explaining the outcomes of state actions in international political rather they emphasize more on cautioning on the behaviour of the states i.e. what do they do. CITATION Gar18 \l 2057 (Garrett W Brown, 2018)

According to classical realists, international politics is “power politics”, where political actions of state revolve around uses of power, acquisition of power and seeking more means of power. The central themes that encompass power politics are enmity, antagonism, conflict and war exist amongst sovereign states which are contending for their national interest and safeguarding their survival. CITATION Rob07 \l 2057 (Robert H. Jackson, 2007)Though many examples can be found but applying classical realism on Eritrean and Ethiopian war (1998-200), it can be said that a senseless conflict soon turned into a full scale war, when both states engaged in violence against each other, justifying it as an act of protection of a disputed border of Badme. Both states claimed this territory as significant for their country, so neither of them was ready to give up. Thucydides viewed struggle and conflict to be inevitable between Hellas i.e. city states, and between city states and non-Greek neighbouring empires.

Thucydides believed that none were equal to one another in any sense, neither Hellas nor the non-Greek neighbouring empires. The inequality between them was seen as natural, and this inequality was viewed in terms of power and capabilities of the state to dominate others and defend itself from the threats of others. So, whether the state is large or small it must adapt to the inequality of powers between them and thus they must act accordingly. If states act upon this principle they can prosper and survive, otherwise they can jeopardize themselves, which would lead to their destruction. Eritrea gained its independence from Ethiopia in 1993 as a result of a referendum. Despite Eritrea being smaller than Ethiopia in every aspect, for instance in terms of land, population, and economy, Eritrea sent its heavily armed troops with tanks and took over Badme on 12th May 1998, resulting in Ethiopia losing control in the neighbouring towns. CITATION Ber09 \l 2057 (Berk, 2009) It was declared the Ethiopian government same day that “an act of aggression” had been committed by Eritrea, thus it demanded them to remove its troops or Ethiopia would retaliate equally as it will be defending its territory. In this case, both states were among world’s poorest countries, where they spent heavy amount of dollars too fight war and as a result this money was diverted to military expenditure rather than domestic development. Consequence of this heavy spending was that both countries had to face a drought and scarcity of food, as the economy became so weak that it could not support the domestic needs. Before the war, much of trade that Eritrea had was with Ethiopia, and much of the foreign capital that Ethiopia received came from Eritrea. Thus, both were at losing ends, as production of food had stopped and according to the World Factbook Report published in 2006, it dropped as low as 62%. This war destroyed both of the states, because they were already weak and barely surviving and war just made them a hungry state where famine was exacerbating with the time. War resulted in 44% of Ethiopian population malnourished, while in Eritrea the figure was 52%. CITATION Cen06 \l 2057 (Agency, 2006) So, states like Ethiopia, who lack the ability to dominate each other must not engage in such acts of violence as both states were left vulnerable due to the war. Thucydides also emphasizes in his work that the actions which states take have consequences, fruitful or fruitless, which are seen the case of Ethiopia and Eritrea’s decision to go war.

Another tenet of classical realism focuses on prioritizing the military forces of the country i.e. make them stronger. According to this assumption, the best means for states survival rests with a strong military force. During the war years, both Eritrea and Ethiopia, as mentioned above, spent rigorously on their military forces in order to strengthen them, while ignoring the needs of the civilians and domestic projects of developments. When such a situation takes place, the economy of the states starts to weaken. Similar happened in these two countries and nations were starving, famine was growing, and food production, trade and other economic activities came to halt. Both Ethiopia and Eritrea were fragile states, that had weak institutions and were heavily reliant on their military might.

According to Machiavelli, another classical realist, if states fail to pay attention to the threats and fail to guard themselves against these threats, it could result in their destruction. He assumes if world is a dangerous place then simultaneously it also offers opportunity. He cautions the leaders to antedate the motives of rival states and act instead of waiting for the other state to act and in this manner the vigilant leader would fend off the threats. So, the states must be fearful of each other and view their actions suspiciously. CITATION Rob07 \l 2057 (Robert H. Jackson, 2007) In case of Ethiopia and Eritrea, both states had suspicions about one another. On the part of Ethiopia, it was believed that Eritrea was involved and backing the rebel groups and movements in her territory, whereas on the other hand Eritrea believed that Ethiopia was aiming to oust its government. This collective suspicion of nations resulted in aggression and hostilities, thus became an important factor in the eruption of war.

Classical realists assume that international organizations, multinational corporations, NGOs and non-state actors have minimum or no importance in the conduct of international relations, as states are primary actors. A very basic assumption of realism is that states have to rely on self-help, as international system is anarchic where no overriding body exists to enforce law and thus absence on an authoritative international body allows people to act violent by using state as an instrument for practising force at a global level. International organizations failed to prevent the war and causalities. In June 2002, the United Nations and Organization of African Union, diplomatically intervened, and both parties to the conflict agreed to sign a peace agreement in Algeria, which created a buffer zone on the disputed border area. The Algiers Agreement and the Comprehensive Peace Treaty after six months invited United Nations peacekeepers to invigilate the implementation of the treaty, forces were redeployed. This was followed by the creation of the United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea, the goal of this body was to come up with a long-term resolution of the border dispute, which was aimed to be done through arbitration carried out by Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission. CITATION Emm06 \l 2057 (Zondi, 2006) A problem was created, though UNMEE worked in a sensitive way which aimed to involve both the countries beyond the issue of border, national security. But these efforts did not put their insecurity away. UNMEE still had successful peacekeeping missions which worked effectively under the harsh conditions.

In 2005, Eritrea further complicated the working of the UN towards establishing peace when it imposed transport restrictions on the UN, which hindered the freedom of movement of UNMEE, even in the security zones at several occasions. The major challenge to the UN and the working of UNMEE was the lack of cooperation on the end of Ertirea. This signifies that international organziations, in many cases, for their effective working depend upon the cooperation of states. As argued by classical realists, states are the primary actors, who seek power, is manifested in this case.

As for the regional organization, African Union actively participated in mediating the conflict, but its weakness was giving high regards for Ethiopia and thus it failed to stop the war and prevent the situation from further escalation. When such circumstances exist, where one party from the two is being favoured the neglected one loses faith and trust, which was the case of Eritrea, as it had little or no trust in the working of the AU. So, any kind of international efforts pouring in were of no significance, as with the time the stance of both parties became stronger and their rivalry was only getting heated. Thus, the process of reconciliation became nearly impossible.

In the view of classical realists, the primary interest of states is gaining power and to maximise it the states will engage in a never-ending struggle. The states seek power because they believe it guarantees their safety and survival in the international arena, thus they accumulate more resources, so they can build up a stronger army. This leads to conflicting and incompatible interests between neighbours, and they don’t trust each other rather rival states tend to view each other with suspicion. So. states will not act according to morals or principles of ethics as laid down by Christianity, in fact, their decisions will be driven by power, and as they prioritize their self-interests, states would go to war instead of restoring to diplomatic options because they believe that if a state wins the war, advantages would be much more. If this logic is followed, states choose to enter into a war as they see it as their finest option, and if states win the war, they would definitely conquer new lands thus resulting the justification of war and bringing glory to the winning state. When waging a war, states are the only actors responsible for taking entire decision. It is evident in the war of Ethiopia and Eritrea that both states could have resorted to diplomatic channels to resolve their conflict, rather once known as brothers, these two countries went to war and chose their destruction. Both of the states, ignoring the status of power inequality, were seeking to gain power and strength at the cost of each other. Another reason, why states choose to resort to use of force is the absence of an international body or international law, which would stop such hostilities being done on the part of the state by enforcing strict penalties.

The bloodshed and hostility between two states officially came to an end by signing of “Joint Declaration on Peace and Friendship”, which was signed in July 2018. Both states called off the far, and agreed to engage in cooperative interaction, and begin an era of peace and friendship where both former parties to conflict would aim at promoting peace and prosperity in the region as well as across the globe. CITATION Han18 \l 2057 (Stauffer, 2018)One weakness of classical realism is that with the time circumstances in international politics have changed, and states have evolved thus their goals are ever changing. Now they don’t only focus on strengthening their military, or seeking more power at the expense of other, though it exists still at a certain level, but states now cooperate in international political arena in order to seek mutual benefits, states are now focusing more on economic sector rather than solely on military, so the dynamics and nature of power has shifted from military or politics to economic. Though economic competition still exists, but the nature of struggle has changed. Moreoever, classical realism only holds pessimistic views about the nature of human beings which is responsible for conflict and war and overlooks the historical context or the role of foreign powers. In the case of Ethiopia and Eritrea though it was a struggle of power by acquiring a land, Badme, which had no minerals or any resources, the haphazardly drawn borders by the previous colonial powers was the main reason for a conflict turning into a bloodshed. Humans act according to the situation at hand, though they are selfish and only seek gains for themselves, but the decision of going to war by two weak nations was not only motivated by their selfish nature but many other factors played an equally important role. Since the agreement, both states have been into cordial relations, which is another aspect overlooked by classical realism- the ability to live peacefully.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Agency, C. I., 2006. Ertirea, Washington DC : Central Intelligence Agency .

Berk, T. V. d., 2009. Realist Paradise: Crises, Conflicts, and Interventions in the Horn of Africa. Rotterdam: Erasmus University.

Garrett W Brown, I. M. a. A. M., 2018. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations. 4th ed. New York: Oxford Univeristy Press.

Robert H. Jackson, G. S., 2007. Introduction to International Rleations: Theories and Approaches. 3rd ed. New York : Oxford University Press.

Stauffer, H.-U., 2018. Ethiopia & Eritrea Peace Treaty and End of UN-Sanctions. Afrika-Komitee Basel, 9 December , p. 4.

Zondi, E. R., 2006. The Ethiopia-Eritrea Border Conflict and the Role of the International Community. [Online] Available at: https://www.accord.org.za/ajcr-issues/%EF%BF%BCthe-ethiopia-eritrea-border-conflict-and-the-role-of-the-international-community/[Accessed 26 April 2019].

Subject: International Relations

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Assignment 1 A


Assignment 1 a

Name of Student

[Name of the Institution]

Assignment 1 a

Indigenous experience and knowledge:

Indigenousness is a constructed identity that has been shaped by contemporary colonialism. The people, communities, tribes or the nation that is considered to be indigenous belong to the land that they inhabit. They have the characteristic that contrasts the colonial societies that have spread as wide as to the European continent. These groups are characterized by different cultural and traditional values. The lifestyle of these people is impacted by environmental changes and the demonstrated diversity in a socio-economic organization, religion, and culture. These people think that being indigenous is a mindset and they considered themselves the true owner of the land ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"ppghJwzB","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Mundy and Compton, 1991)","plainCitation":"(Mundy and Compton, 1991)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":495,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/uHsb2Xzj/items/Y45JFG3T"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/uHsb2Xzj/items/Y45JFG3T"],"itemData":{"id":495,"type":"article-journal","title":"Indigenous communication and indigenous knowledge.","author":[{"family":"Mundy","given":"P."},{"family":"Compton,","given":"L."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1991"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Mundy & Compton 1991).

The number of indigenous people is decreasing worldwide and the population was 300 million across approximately 70 countries. Aboriginal Australians have been on the continent for more than 6000 years before the continent was invaded by the British (Mundy & Compton 1991).

In the contemporary world the aboriginal experience various issue with marinating their identity, territory, and traditions. The most common issue faced by aboriginals is of maintaining their territorial boundaries. These people used have strong roots in the land before the invaders and they have a culturally and traditionally link with the landscapes. The lives of these people were mostly based on land and water and still some communities dependent on water and land to run their livelihood. The territorial rights of these people are addressed by the political activists of the locality (De La Cadena &Starn 2007).

However, the problem with the territorial link is contacted with the issue of sovereignty and the issue of territorial integrity have also a negative effect on the social changes in the community. The community of indigenous people has been invoked by the discriminatory policies of the country (De La Cadena & Starn 2007).


It is a type of domination of a certain group of people over the territory or the overall behavior of a group of people (Horvath 1972). For me, it is a process of economic and cultural exploitation of a group of people by the dominant individuals. It refers to the domination of a group over the less privileged ones in society. There could be intergroup domination or the dominant factors could be external. Like the domination of English over the rest of the European people is an example of intergroup domination and the British invasion of Australia and South Asia is the example of external domination.

The impact of Colonialism on the contemporary society of Australian:

The economic disparities of the indigenous community in contemporary time is a result of injustice done to them in the colonial era. The dispassion of their lands, discrimination of basic rights and inhuman behavior of the colonial masters have marginalized these societies. Such actions have resulted in the poor health, poverty, and marginalization of the aboriginals in contemporary time (Dinnen & Braithwaite 2009).

The role it has played in the shaping of my own identity:

Colonialism has impacted our psychology has it has suppressed our indigenous

Cultural values. It has played a role to change my identity in a way that our local community used to live within a group and a kingship now these attributes are controlled by the state government and we no more share our specific traditional values.

The biggest issue faced by Indigenous Australians

The biggest challenge faced by the Indigenous people of Austria is that they lack a basic human right. They don’t have access to basic education and health facilities. Because the majority of the population die of cancer, heart disease or they are having other chronic health issues.52 percent of the aboriginal people are not employed and they live IN absolute poverty (Guenther & McRae-Williams 2014). The policymakers need to ensure that these people will have access to the basic needs of a healthy life.


De La Cadena, M., Starn, O., 2007. Indigenous experience today. Berg.

Dinnen, S., Braithwaite, J., 2009. Reinventing policing through the prism of the colonial kiap. Policing & Society 19, 161–173.

Guenther, J., McRae-Williams, E., 2014. Does education and training for remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander lead to ‘real’jobs? Evidence from the 2011 Census, in: AVETRA 17th International Conference. Citeseer.

Horvath, R.J., 1972. A definition of colonialism. Current anthropology 13, 45–57.

Mundy, P., Compton, L., 1991. Indigenous communication and indigenous knowledge.

Subject: International Relations

Pages: 2 Words: 600


Student’s Name

Professor’s Name

Course Code


Crisis Communication Plan Targeting Wells Fargo's Employees

The goal of the communication crisis is to restore trust among employees and stakeholders. After the crisis, which happened at the bank, the employee became demoralized and deserted and therefore, there is a need to ensure that the team remains the focus. The purpose of the plan is to improve the performance of employees and help in bringing unity and confidence among the employees. It is essential for employees to remain focus on the key objectives of the company and this cannot happen without addressing issues affecting the employees.

Target Audience

The main target audience is employees of the company. Employees are individuals employed by Well Fargo either on a permanent or temporary basis. Again, these are employees who were involved in the banking crisis to open imaginary accounts using the client's name. It was established that the majority of employees were involved in the crisis and therefore, almost 40% of employees are victims. The next targets are customers and other shareholders of the company. The key message would be trust, honesty, and performance among employees. It intends to provide an illustration of the importance of honesty, trust, and confidentiality to the bank.

Communication Tool

The appropriate communication tool would be an internal memo. The internal memo will be placed on the company's notice board and send to employees via email as well. Wells Fargo should also use newspaper and social media to communicate to employees. The social media platform such as LinkedIn, facebook and twitter will be also to disseminate information to employees. Otherwise, it can also use radio, to get information to the secondary audience such as shareholders and customers.

Advertising tool

It will be recommended for the company to use social media and newspaper as an advertising tool. This is because most employees are on social media and can easily access the information on social media and therefore, the use of social media will give employees easy accessibility. Again social media is free and therefore, the company is not going to spend any amount to ensure that the message is disseminated.

Subject: International Relations

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Case Study

Case Study

What key financial ratios will be affected by the adoption of FAS 141R and FAS 160? What will be the likely effect?

Once the FAS 141 R and FAS 160 are adopted, the likely impact can include the decreasing of any company’s ratio of debt to equity. There are also the chances that the ratio of debt to an asset may also decrease. The only reason behind this is that the increase in equity is because of the reclassification of the interest that is uncontrollable. In cases of the subsequent acquisitions, there could be the chances that the increase in the ratio of asset and equity be observed. This can happen when the market value experiences a further decrease in its ratio.

Could any of the recent and forthcoming changes affect the company's acquisition strategies and potentially its growth? 

The potential effect of the company’s acquisition strategies could include the addition of the values in comparison to the value of the full market. The repercussions of this will include the increasing trend in the goodwill and the unlimited controls on the interests, Further, in case if the assets are raised or in case if they are overvalued, there are chances that they can experience a decrease in their full amount ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"cBz1tAPh","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Pounder 2010)","plainCitation":"(Pounder 2010)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":5,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/pCT5fGyt/items/A43Y7TE4"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/pCT5fGyt/items/A43Y7TE4"],"itemData":{"id":5,"type":"article-journal","title":"A common framework for accounting standards","container-title":"Strategic Finance","page":"20–23","volume":"92","issue":"5","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Pounder","given":"Bruce"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2010"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Pounder 2010). The acquisitions are generally calculated because of the amount being paid or the full amount. That is why the important cost is just linked with the acquisitions. These can then result in expenses, that will for sure decrees the income, Similarly, if there is an entity which is trying to get over to the target of the earnings, this will then again have the effects on the decision about the acquisition.

What were FASB's primary reasons for issuing FAS 141R and FAS 160?

As mentioned in the FAS 141r and in the FAS 160, the FASB has already issued. It includes the minimum standards that can improve the relevancy in the standards that are maintained, the reliability standards- which are more likely to remain constant, and the comparison in the financial statements of the entities. Along with this, the FAS 141R, the FAS 160 and the revisions in the text of the IFRS 3 that were present in FASB/IASB were projected to facilitate the convergences in the fields of accounting and finance.

What are qualifying SPE's? Do they exist under IFRS? What is the effect of FAS 166 eliminating the concept of qualifying SPEs on the convergence of accounting standards? 

The qualifying SPEs are the entities of special purposes. The important aspect of them is that they are very limited in their activities. They are also very limited in the type of assets they can hold to. Experts opine that this entity is passive, and this is the reason why this cannot be engaged in the active decision-making process, according to the terms that were arranged and set forth in FAS 140 ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"ScaDFvzC","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Pounder 2010)","plainCitation":"(Pounder 2010)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":5,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/pCT5fGyt/items/A43Y7TE4"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/pCT5fGyt/items/A43Y7TE4"],"itemData":{"id":5,"type":"article-journal","title":"A common framework for accounting standards","container-title":"Strategic Finance","page":"20–23","volume":"92","issue":"5","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Pounder","given":"Bruce"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2010"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Pounder 2010). As per the codification of the FASB, the qualifying SPEs are the trusts or a kind of legal entities that fulfils the conditions that are placed in FAS 140. Such entities normally involve the securitization of the mortgages. According to the rules and regulations of the IASB, it does not accept the idea of the qualification of the SPE. Therefore, the reduction and elimination of the SPEs, that are considered qualified facilitates the convergences in many areas of the accounting.

If the company adopts IFRS, what changes should management be aware of?

If the company adopts the IFRS and then an opportunity is available for the employees to get the train over to that, then there exist opportunities that the company will offer maximum opportunities for its staff to grow. Also, there exists a wide potential for the company to grow. If the staff has the knowledge and skills of both the US GAAP and the IFRS, it can provide ample opportunities in the host country and abroad. The professionals that have the working experience and the knowledge of both the accounting modules will be placed high in the demands through the world. As there are many chances that the US companies are ready for the adoption of the IFRS ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"A1pJ0v9w","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Foundation 2009)","plainCitation":"(Foundation 2009)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":6,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/pCT5fGyt/items/UIA2TD24"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/pCT5fGyt/items/UIA2TD24"],"itemData":{"id":6,"type":"book","title":"FASB accounting standards codification","publisher":"FASB","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Foundation","given":"Financial Accounting Standards Board Financial Accounting"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2009"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Foundation 2009). So, the professionals of accounting who have both the knowledge about the IFRS will also have significant knowledge of the global market knowledge.

What are the principal differences between IFRS and the US GAAP?

The principal difference between the IFRS and the US GAAP are as follow

Inventory: As the U.S. GAAP allows the usage of LIFO inventories for the cost flow assumption, IFRS especially do not allow the use of LIFO. Also, the minimum of cost or the rules of the market (LOCM) is applied uncommonly in IFRS. Whereas in U.S. GAAP, changing cost normally makes the value in the market, In IFRS, the value of the market is decided as inventories' total realizable value. In short, inventory scripts-downs in the light of the LOCM rule, which can be traced back under IFRS; while it is not allowed in the U.S. GAAP.

Items Classification: The classification and arrangement of the extraordinary items, is not present under IFRS. Whereas considering the US. GAAP, it is a valid and retraceable statement of the income ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"O38eJGpb","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Pounder 2010)","plainCitation":"(Pounder 2010)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":5,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/pCT5fGyt/items/A43Y7TE4"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/pCT5fGyt/items/A43Y7TE4"],"itemData":{"id":5,"type":"article-journal","title":"A common framework for accounting standards","container-title":"Strategic Finance","page":"20–23","volume":"92","issue":"5","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Pounder","given":"Bruce"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2010"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Pounder 2010).

Property and equipment’s: IFRS have a choice in the validation of the long-preserved assets. In this also, the companies can set the market value at any place in time and according to the market value. The other choice for it is the cost which is normally less while the accumulation of the depreciation. Whereas in the US. GAAP, currently it is not permitted to reconsider the value of the market.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Foundation, Financial Accounting Standards Board Financial Accounting. 2009. FASB Accounting Standards Codification. FASB.

Pounder, Bruce. 2010. “A Common Framework for Accounting Standards.” Strategic Finance 92(5): 20–23.

Subject: International Relations

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Connecting Current Affairs And International Relations

[United States with drawl from the INF Treaty: What’s next for International Security?]

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United States with drawl from the INF Treaty: What’s next for International Security?


The United States with drawl from the Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (known as the INF treaty) is the recent big decision by the Oval Office. The White House has officially confirmed on February 1st in 2019 that the United States will no longer be a party to the treaty. Many in the present administration has claimed tis treaty as the ageing treaty, which they believe constrains the U.S in many ways. Some also claims that Russians have never complied themselves with the provisions of the INF treaty. This treaty was signed back in 1987, between the then Soviet Union and the U.S, just to curb the nuclear race between the arch rivals of that time ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"SN8p5dlU","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Reif 2019)","plainCitation":"(Reif 2019)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":40,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/3352UKXC"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/3352UKXC"],"itemData":{"id":40,"type":"article-journal","title":"After the INF Treaty, What Is Next?","container-title":"Arms Control Today","page":"26–29","volume":"49","issue":"1","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Reif","given":"Kingston"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Reif 2019).

The present administration in Washington consider China as a looming threat and believes that China is on the receiving edge, if the U.S keeps on its commitments with the INF provisions. This shows that at present the U.S considers China as a more prominent threat as compare to Russia. This with- drawl has swerve repercussions on the global nuclear order and as well contradicts with the NATO’s security assessment of the European continent ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"mFWlsdwr","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(K\\uc0\\u252{}hn 2019)","plainCitation":"(Kühn 2019)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":42,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/LXSJF38L"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/LXSJF38L"],"itemData":{"id":42,"type":"article-journal","title":"Between a rock and a hard place: Europe in a post-INF world","container-title":"The Nonproliferation Review","page":"1–12","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Between a rock and a hard place","author":[{"family":"Kühn","given":"Ulrich"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Kühn 2019). The experts of the International security opines that since Europe would be at the loosing edge, therefor the administrations there should work on framing a new and a more sophisticated Nuclear constrain pact. They also opine that the stake holder both in the Europe and in Russia must work on agreeing towards stabilization measures, as the INF with- drawl seriously threatens the peace and security of the U.S, Europe and Russia ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"lvYzmg8C","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Reif 2019)","plainCitation":"(Reif 2019)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":40,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/3352UKXC"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/3352UKXC"],"itemData":{"id":40,"type":"article-journal","title":"After the INF Treaty, What Is Next?","container-title":"Arms Control Today","page":"26–29","volume":"49","issue":"1","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Reif","given":"Kingston"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Reif 2019).

Origins of the INF: The INF treaty has its origins in the Russian deployment of its missile known as the SS-20. With its deployment, U.S considered it a massive threat to its security, as it was capable of carrying three nuclear weapons with a very less delivery time. To this move of the Russia, the U.S responded by deploying its missile the Cruise and Pershing II that were based in Europe. To come over with this threat, the U.S administration led by then President Ronald Reagan and the administration of Mikhail S. Gorbachev remained in a continuous set of negotiations. These diplomatic efforts resulted in the signing of the INF treaty in the year 1987 ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"uoWcucsd","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Sargana 2019)","plainCitation":"(Sargana 2019)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":41,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/YFQXIMM2"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/YFQXIMM2"],"itemData":{"id":41,"type":"article-journal","title":"From ABM to INF Treaty","container-title":"Defence Journal","page":"13–20","volume":"22","issue":"6","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Sargana","given":"Tauqeer Hussain"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Sargana 2019).

The prominent threat emanating from the crisis of that time was the deployment of intermediate- range missiles that were just on the hair trigger alert. Their flight range was less than ten minutes that raised the threats in the U.S, in Europe and in the Soviet Union too. The security analysts that have a command on the security matters between the U.S and Russia opines that Russia was on the losing edge as it could have been destroyed like the bolt from the blue. To overcome this threat, the reports of that time suggests that the Soviet administration allowed the lower defense command to retaliate without the prior order from the leadership ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"hV5ia52U","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Sokov 2019)","plainCitation":"(Sokov 2019)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":45,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/XJDY63DW"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/XJDY63DW"],"itemData":{"id":45,"type":"article-journal","title":"The INF Treaty Crisis: Filling the Void With European Leadership","container-title":"Arms Control Today","page":"20–24","volume":"49","issue":"2","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"The INF Treaty Crisis","author":[{"family":"Sokov","given":"Nikolai"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Sokov 2019). In the international security context it is known as the Dead hand. The dead hand mainly works on the radar guidance and involves less human interference. The INF treaty is specific about the land based missiles, it scope does not covers the sea based variants or the air based variants of the missile technologies ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"ZRVMeoFb","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Richter 2019)","plainCitation":"(Richter 2019)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":39,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/5ZB6UFQE"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/5ZB6UFQE"],"itemData":{"id":39,"type":"article-journal","title":"The end of the INF Treaty is looming: a new nuclear arms race can still be prevented","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"The end of the INF Treaty is looming","author":[{"family":"Richter","given":"Wolfgang"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Richter 2019).

Problem Statement: Since the scope of this essay is concerned about the future of International security in context of with- drawl from the INF treaty, this essay will analyze the development of new formations of weapons deployment considering the abandonment of the INF treaty and the future of international alliances.

The following research will be divided into three sections. The first section will include the theoretical understanding of the subject in context of the Barry Buzan’s Regional Security Complex theory. The section will include the debate about the possible impacts on the U.S after withdrawing from the INF treaty. The research problem will also be sorted out in this section under a separate heading titled New Formations and Future Alliances. The third section of this research will answer the question as to what is next for the International security. A thorough conclusion will also be the part of this section.

Theoretical posture supporting the Context

The International Relations discourse always is set on the discourse of the security. Security in context of the people’s welfare, in context of the state’s sovereignty and in context of the regional stability remains the primary contours of in every discourse. The scholars have many time put the States in the center and has debated on what next can be achieved for maximizing the security of the state. The realist school which remains dominant consider security as a synonym of power ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"EqqvVaxw","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Buzan 2008)","plainCitation":"(Buzan 2008)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":63,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/VBIW8ZM3"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/VBIW8ZM3"],"itemData":{"id":63,"type":"book","title":"People, States & Fear: An agenda for international security studies in the post-cold war era","publisher":"Ecpr Press","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"People, States & Fear","author":[{"family":"Buzan","given":"Barry"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2008"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Buzan 2008). Much is the power, more is the state safe. Many argues that the security as the synonym of power was relevant in the World Wars context. The cold war and the many other inventions in the weaponry resulted in widening of the concept of the Security. Some adds to this that environmental protection, the protection from the domestic threats and the maximization of measures in each context for state also comes in the traditional notion of the state security ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Q6GxNAQm","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Buzan et al. 2003)","plainCitation":"(Buzan et al. 2003)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":62,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/RBHQXVQ7"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/RBHQXVQ7"],"itemData":{"id":62,"type":"book","title":"Regions and powers: the structure of international security","publisher":"Cambridge University Press","volume":"91","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Regions and powers","author":[{"family":"Buzan","given":"Barry"},{"family":"Buzan","given":"Barry G."},{"family":"Waever","given":"Ole"},{"family":"W'ver","given":"Ole"},{"family":"Buzan","given":"Ole Waever Barry"},{"family":"Wver","given":"Ole"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2003"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Buzan et al. 2003). There is a bunch of data available about the security paradigm and how it is evolving, also many scholars has worked to explore what could new be added to it.

Since the topic been discussed in this research essay is related to the regional security mechanism, therefor Barry Buzan’s regional security complex theory will be used as a guiding tool to narrow the scope of this research. Barry Buzan opines that security is still very narrowly discussed ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"U4PAxlGk","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Buzan 2008)","plainCitation":"(Buzan 2008)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":63,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/VBIW8ZM3"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/VBIW8ZM3"],"itemData":{"id":63,"type":"book","title":"People, States & Fear: An agenda for international security studies in the post-cold war era","publisher":"Ecpr Press","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"People, States & Fear","author":[{"family":"Buzan","given":"Barry"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2008"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Buzan 2008). He has offered in his writing a very broad context of security, which is in a regional sense. In his this theory he has considered new paradigms of state security, which were not previously discussed. While remaining too holistic in his approach towards security, he has incorporated the societal and environmental aspect to the level of regions. He considers each aspect of individual state security on the level of region ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"k62XFwb9","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Buzan 2008)","plainCitation":"(Buzan 2008)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":63,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/VBIW8ZM3"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/VBIW8ZM3"],"itemData":{"id":63,"type":"book","title":"People, States & Fear: An agenda for international security studies in the post-cold war era","publisher":"Ecpr Press","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"People, States & Fear","author":[{"family":"Buzan","given":"Barry"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2008"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Buzan 2008). Since the topic being discussed includes the American region, the East European region and to some aspects the Asian region, therefore this theory will be used as a guiding tool to sort out the regional security mechanism in this case.

Regional security complex theory posits the regional- sub systems as objects of security analysis, therefore the U.S integrated military command with the NATO and the Russian military makeover with its partner states comes at competitions if any security mechanism (the INF in this case) is disturbed. Such regional contours in this case will remain the primary drivers for the situation that will then unfold. The theory also consider the state as one unit and the political and military sector as the units collaborating with it ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"qy2WhV1Z","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Watson 2009)","plainCitation":"(Watson 2009)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":61,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/NYC7L9PN"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/NYC7L9PN"],"itemData":{"id":61,"type":"book","title":"The Evolution of International Society: A Comparative Historical Analysis Reissue with a new introduction by Barry Buzan and Richard Little","publisher":"Routledge","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"The Evolution of International Society","author":[{"family":"Watson","given":"JH Adam"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2009"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Watson 2009). Therefore, the political and military sections both at the U.S side and at the Russian side must work collaboratively to undo the dangerous situation which then unfolds if they both completely quits themselves from the INF treaty. Since Barry Buzan mentions that insecurity as associated with proximity, but in the case between the U.S and the Russia, it would be taken as the lower flight timings. The last aspect of the theory relevant to this case remains the interdependence on neighbors, since the security fate of Europe and the whole American continent remains attached with the security mechanism of both U.S and Russia therefore this is how the last point of Buzan’s theory conforms to this matrix of security. Since this inter- mingled security patterns both at the part of Russia and the U.S conforms to Buzan’s theory, therefore this theory is much relevant to this research.

Impact on the National Security

There are differing views as to how the U.S decision of quitting from the INF treaty could impact on the national security. Many of the experts opine that the Russian regime if not has completely violated the INF terms, it so has tried to do that ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"hsuMDunF","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Buzan 2004)","plainCitation":"(Buzan 2004)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":64,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/RNFX7IXC"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/RNFX7IXC"],"itemData":{"id":64,"type":"book","title":"From international to world society?: English school theory and the social structure of globalisation","publisher":"Cambridge University Press","volume":"95","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"From international to world society?","author":[{"family":"Buzan","given":"Barry"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2004"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Buzan 2004). They believe that, that it is why the U.S felt itself compelled to look into the things as what could be done to better the situation. Before the both sides could have sorted the emerging differences, the U.S administration opted to quit form the INF terms. Here comes two perspectives, as to how this decision of the U.S could impact on the national security. One impact could have been generated if the U.S could have coerced the Russia to comply with the terms of the treaty and the other is what has happened- the U.S with- drawl ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"IMT7Q93P","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Sokov 2019)","plainCitation":"(Sokov 2019)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":45,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/XJDY63DW"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/XJDY63DW"],"itemData":{"id":45,"type":"article-journal","title":"The INF Treaty Crisis: Filling the Void With European Leadership","container-title":"Arms Control Today","page":"20–24","volume":"49","issue":"2","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"The INF Treaty Crisis","author":[{"family":"Sokov","given":"Nikolai"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Sokov 2019). The following paragraphs will now analyze the possible impacts in both the cases as to what could be the impact on the U.S security.

Since as the result of the treaty, both the states dismantled around 2600 ground based missiles in total, which includes the ground based cruise missile also. The U.S allies in the Europe felt the sense of extreme stabilization at the time, and it was thought by many of the International security experts of that time that an unlimited stabilization could now be experienced in the region ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"MPa1R1Nb","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Wanis-St John 2019)","plainCitation":"(Wanis-St John 2019)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":43,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/EBUMJFJ2"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/EBUMJFJ2"],"itemData":{"id":43,"type":"article-journal","title":"Fumbling abdication: Make America diplomatic again","container-title":"Negotiation Journal","page":"107–110","volume":"35","issue":"1","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Fumbling abdication","author":[{"family":"Wanis-St John","given":"Anthony"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Wanis-St John 2019). Taking forward this notion, stability as both the upper and lower level at present exist in Europe ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"fFsR9oDs","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Wanis-St John 2019)","plainCitation":"(Wanis-St John 2019)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":43,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/EBUMJFJ2"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/EBUMJFJ2"],"itemData":{"id":43,"type":"article-journal","title":"Fumbling abdication: Make America diplomatic again","container-title":"Negotiation Journal","page":"107–110","volume":"35","issue":"1","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Fumbling abdication","author":[{"family":"Wanis-St John","given":"Anthony"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Wanis-St John 2019). But if in the case of total abandonment, the European stability comes again in question with the NATO compliance of deploying missiles in this case. This decision has for this reason made the European allies of the U.S apprehensive of this move. The unilateral decision of the U.S of quitting from the treaty brings for them a new era of instability. As once the U.S formally quits the treaty, it has been mentioned a lot that then it will be difficult to compel Russia to comply with the terms of the treaty ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"SbN7RAFv","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Nichols 2019)","plainCitation":"(Nichols 2019)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":48,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/NQLFZYCV"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/NQLFZYCV"],"itemData":{"id":48,"type":"article-journal","title":"Mourning the INF Treaty","container-title":"Foreign Affairs","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Nichols","given":"Tom"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Nichols 2019).

Since the INF treaty does not limits the testing of new weapons, neither it restrains form developing and deploying the air based variants of the missiles and the sea based cruise missiles, therefore considering the massive stockpiles of the weapons it has least impact on the security of the U.S. The one bad aspect for the U.S security remains that this move will surely make Russia to deploy and develop new variants of the cruise missile that will then (to an estimated) range could be threatening for the security of the U.S. As Nicolas mentions that U.S is both at the receiving and the loosing edge under the terms of the INF treaty ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"QcXC71os","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Nichols 2019)","plainCitation":"(Nichols 2019)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":48,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/NQLFZYCV"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/NQLFZYCV"],"itemData":{"id":48,"type":"article-journal","title":"Mourning the INF Treaty","container-title":"Foreign Affairs","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Nichols","given":"Tom"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Nichols 2019). Since the U.S calculations includes the Chinese cruise missile threat also, and U.S feels itself compelled to gear up against the Chinese threat, therefor some analysts speaks in favor of the Trump’s administration’s decision of quitting from the INF treaty. In short, it is too early to exactly narrow down the impacts of U.S with- drawl from the INF treaty on its security.

New formations and future of International Alliances:

Once both the states are completely done with the INF treaty and there remains no compulsions over them for developing and deploying the land based cruise missiles, the new formations and the International politico- security conditions will become apparent. The most apparent threat that emanates from the INF with- drawl is the instability in terms of weapons race. Asia and Europe will significantly see a new arms race that will change their political situations and their international alliances structures. Once the U.S decides to deploy the cruise missiles in Europe to ward- off the threat of Russia, it will involve new set of political engagements between the U.S and the European countries. The European partners in this regard will also have analyze from a whole new their relations with China. Considering the mega- economic bunch of arrangements between China and European countries and the Japan, Philippines and the South Korea factor, it appears this time hard for the U.S to create a favorable strategic situation for itself ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"nZaDojtC","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(K\\uc0\\u252{}hn 2019)","plainCitation":"(Kühn 2019)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":42,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/LXSJF38L"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/LXSJF38L"],"itemData":{"id":42,"type":"article-journal","title":"Between a rock and a hard place: Europe in a post-INF world","container-title":"The Nonproliferation Review","page":"1–12","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Between a rock and a hard place","author":[{"family":"Kühn","given":"Ulrich"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Kühn 2019).

There is another factor in making of the new alliances at this part of the World and that is the South China and East China naval crisis of the U.S ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"UhjuuOeg","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Shambaugh 2013)","plainCitation":"(Shambaugh 2013)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":68,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/7TIB2HMJ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/7TIB2HMJ"],"itemData":{"id":68,"type":"book","title":"China goes global: The partial power","publisher":"Oxford University Press Oxford","volume":"111","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"China goes global","author":[{"family":"Shambaugh","given":"David L."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2013"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Shambaugh 2013). As because of the recent year’s strategic engagements of both the U.S and China at this part of the world remained too stringent, therefore this will remain consequential for the future of Asia. Western Pacific Allies of the U.S which has traditional remained against the deployment of the land-based nuclear weapons, this provides the reasons to the U.S administration if they go towards harnessing their naval capabilities or creating new sea- based weapons. Also Japan seems not likely to carry on new set of difficult relations with China, as it can trigger domestic conflicts and other deployment issues could emerge. Coping this trend, both the Philippines and Australia will not put themselves in a difficult condition with China.

The last remaining in the row is Europe. U.S seems in a position to make the European leaders believed on its words. The reason to this is as the U.S authorities claim that they have briefed the European allies about the Russian violations of the INF treaty back in 2017. To this the European authorities released a statement calling Russia to transparently comply with the terms of the INF treaty. This was added with John Mattis briefings to the Defense Ministers of the NATO countries about the continuance of the Russian violations. Again at this time the NATO called on to the Russian authorities to comply with the terms of the INF treaty but it remained again null and void. This was finally ended with the President’s announcement of with drawl from the INF treaty. Therefor the security experts opine that this must not be considered as a surprise by both the European and the NATO allies. ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"NvuoQDc0","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Taheran 2019)","plainCitation":"(Taheran 2019)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":47,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/IKLI2LG7"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/IKLI2LG7"],"itemData":{"id":47,"type":"article-journal","title":"US Counts Down to Quitting INF Treaty","container-title":"Arms Control Today","page":"27–27","volume":"49","issue":"1","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Taheran","given":"Shervin"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Taheran 2019) Since Europe remains crucial for both the U.S and China, along with Russia, therefore the Europeans will remain crucial in making of next alliances. It is also believed that the Europeans have the idea of how to tackle with the present crisis and how to unroll the circumstances if a new INF treaty is ought for.

What’s next for the International Security?

In view of the contemporary developments, it is at present much difficult to precisely analyze that how this situation will unfold. There are some facets for this claim. For example, the U.S withdrawal from the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Actions (JCPOA), erosion of the treaty of conventional armed forces in Europe, the South China and East China Sea crisis, the Afghan end game, the India- Pakistan dogfights, the Syrian Crisis and the much debated the INF withdrawal. The international security situation depends on all such factors to take a shape in any time near future. At part of the U.S, there much negative propaganda about the President Donald Trump, that he is like an imperfect person in the Oval Office. This propaganda is attached to the unpredictability at the U.S part. The other important factor in this domain is of China. China at present dominates all the alliances of the U.S. It is in good economic terms with Russia, with European countries, with many countries of South Asia and many countries in the South Africa. Considering all such aspects the U.S, China, Russia and the European Union are the key players of the upcoming situation. What could be their inputs to this “Next”, the following paragraphs will analyze that.

For the United States, both the China and the Russia are the real threats. To come up with good terms on that, the U.S seems not interested- as it disturbs the status- co image of the U.S. Also if U.S opts in normalizing relations with them, it has to consider cuts in its weapons development, deployments and has to call of her strategic forces from major strategic areas in the world. U.S might not opt to go for this. China on other hand at present is focused on materializing the OBOR dream ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"o0KgQWGU","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Stokes 2019)","plainCitation":"(Stokes 2019)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":46,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/MPDVRFTJ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/MPDVRFTJ"],"itemData":{"id":46,"type":"book","title":"China's Missile Program and US Withdrawal from the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty","publisher":"US-China Economic and Security Review Commission","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Stokes","given":"Jacob"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Stokes 2019). It therefor will never at any cost try to disturb the strategically calm situation. As the stability can just ensure the proper materialization of the OBOR dream. Then comes Russia. Many experts opines that Russia remains every time aggressive towards the International developments. For Russia, maintaining good relations with China are crucial, and same is the case with its relations with the European world. It will not annoy them, as they remain crucial for its own stability. The last is the European countries. The World Wars episodes and the Cold War episode have taught great lesson to the European World. They are therefore much fast in the Cost- benefit analysis. It must not come to surprise for anybody, if these countries opt to go neutral in any dangerous conditions- if in case develops. Therefor there are many reasons to analyze that the International security environment will remain strategically stable in the years to come- as like the strategic stability and instability paradox suggests. It means there will be stability on the upper level, but at the lower level there will remain instability, and there will remain the factors which will not allow the lower instable factors to take on the upper seat.


However, considering the developing situations related to the INF withdrawal, it is too early to think that the circumstances will result negative for both sides. There are many options still which suggest that the crisis will not result in the most adverse manner. There still remains the option of re- assessment of the breaches of both sides, this has yet to be exhausted. There is also an opportunity that these crisis be turned as an opportunity for the re- initiating the dialogue on the INF treaty. The situations of the past suggest that whenever such ambiguity has existed the nuclear ambiguity could result in the devastation of any region. The crisis always opens the ways for misjudgments and creates a sense of instability at tall facets. The concern at hand should be the re- evaluation of the INF treaty, as like the stable International strategic environment suggests.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Buzan, Barry et al. 2003. 91 Regions and Powers: The Structure of International Security. Cambridge University Press.

———. 2004. 95 From International to World Society?: English School Theory and the Social Structure of Globalisation. Cambridge University Press.

———. 2008. People, States & Fear: An Agenda for International Security Studies in the Post-Cold War Era. Ecpr Press.

Kühn, Ulrich. 2019. “Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Europe in a Post-INF World.” The Nonproliferation Review: 1–12.

Nichols, Tom. 2019. “Mourning the INF Treaty.” Foreign Affairs.

Reif, Kingston. 2019. “After the INF Treaty, What Is Next?” Arms Control Today 49(1): 26–29.

Richter, Wolfgang. 2019. “The End of the INF Treaty Is Looming: A New Nuclear Arms Race Can Still Be Prevented.”

Sargana, Tauqeer Hussain. 2019. “From ABM to INF Treaty.” Defence Journal 22(6): 13–20.

Shambaugh, David L. 2013. 111 China Goes Global: The Partial Power. Oxford University Press Oxford.

Sokov, Nikolai. 2019. “The INF Treaty Crisis: Filling the Void With European Leadership.” Arms Control Today 49(2): 20–24.

Stokes, Jacob. 2019. China’s Missile Program and US Withdrawal from the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty. US-China Economic and Security Review Commission.

Taheran, Shervin. 2019. “US Counts Down to Quitting INF Treaty.” Arms Control Today 49(1): 27–27.

Wanis-St John, Anthony. 2019. “Fumbling Abdication: Make America Diplomatic Again.” Negotiation Journal 35(1): 107–110.

Watson, JH Adam. 2009. The Evolution of International Society: A Comparative Historical Analysis Reissue with a New Introduction by Barry Buzan and Richard Little. Routledge.

Subject: International Relations

Pages: 10 Words: 3000

Drug Law Violation

Drug Law Violation

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Drug Law Violation

A chronic offender is the one that has persistently crossed the line and has broken the law over the period of time. The types of crime that are carried out by these offenders are mostly property oriented and drug related. Now, in this case, the first boy does not have any record and the ideal thing that has to be done here is to make sure that rather than takin him to the centre, effort would be carried out to make sure that he should be providing some counselling then and there. Whereas the one with the proven history and “track record” is going to be taken to the centre. The benefits are simple that the boy does not have history would be getting more harm out of the situation and they would be scarred for life for facing such experience whereas the one with the record is clearly in need of some help. So different approaches are going to reap different benefits in this case and situation of both the boys needed to be handled differently. Some clarity in terms of the regulation is also needed to be there. Coming towards the state laws, at the moment, there is not much clarity with regards to the way these laws are supposed to be panning out. What these laws imply that the they are permissible in the quantity that does not distort the judgement. Now, the key thing here is that there is not much perspective or definition here with regards to what is going to be prescribed limit and thus this confusion is always going to be creating problems in terms of the way legislation is supposed to be carried out. The ideal thing that has to be done is to make sure that the laws are needed to be setup in the manner that there has to be consistency.


Hoge, R. D., Guerra, N., & Boxer, P. (Eds.). (2008). Treating the juvenile offender. Guilford Press.

Subject: International Relations

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Effective Area Of Int Cooperation

International cooperation in peace and security


[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Author Note

This paper discusses the global cooperation in peace and security

International cooperation in peace and security

After the end of the second world war, the biggest challenge for the Allied powers to prevent such catastrophe. So, in other to prevent such a mass loss of life, a series of programs were initiated by the global political community, aiming for cooperation in various areas of peace and security. The cooperation continues to this day and it is largely successful in addressing the grievances of the global community. This effort for global peace and security was spearheaded by the United Nations (UN) which was formed in 1945 CITATION Ram16 \l 1033 (Thakur, 2016).

Since the 90s, almost all the conflicts that have happened around the world were ended through UN mediation or collaboration among different states. The latest example that can be quoted in this regard is the resolution of the conflict in Sudan which was solved by the separation of the state into northern and southern parts. A steady stream of cooperation under the banner of the UN has resulted in a significant decline in conflicts, although not completely. There have also been sixty-nine peacekeeping missions funded by the developed states that have been successful in the resolution of some conflicts, if not all. These were aimed at providing a peaceful resolution, especially in the case of newly emerging states. The international community also provided military forces, financial aid, and the civilian workforce to operate camp schools and hospitals in conflict zones. Some aid is also given to developing states so that they do not elapse into political anarchy, and their internal peace and security is ensured. The international community has also gained a lot of success in the area of disarmament. Some may argue that we are nowhere near the end of all arms on the planet, but it is also true that we are moving towards our goal of zero arms every day. Organizations like the Australia Group have significant stopped the spread of chemical and biological weapons to near extinction CITATION The19 \l 1033 (The Australia Group: An Introduction, 2019). The Chemical Weapons Convention was signed and enforced by a hundred and ninety states. Similarly, the international community has successfully managed to clear landmines in over thirty states, including warzones like Congo, Sudan, Afghanistan, Libya, and Columbia. The affected locals were taught by volunteers from different states to spot and disarm landmines to prevent harm. The international community also helps the affected states to destroy stockpiled landmines.

A high level of success has been observed in the area of the Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Over fifty years, the global community has had a high rate of success regarding the spread of nuclear weapons CITATION Dim15 \l 1033 (Bourantonis, 2015). An agency called International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was set up as the watchdog that not only prevents testing and spreading nuclear weapons but also helps in setting of the nuclear power plants to help third world states to fulfill their energy needs. To this day over a hundred and eighty states have accepted the safeguards set by the IAEA for pursuing means to obtain clean nuclear energy for their population.

After the incident of 9/11, we can also observe a collective global effort to combat terrorism. The direct attack on the US was taken by the world as an attack unto themselves, and so effects began under the umbrella of the UN to combat terrorism. Today we have several coalitions like the Combined Joint Task Force, who is fighting in Syria and Iraq to contain the serious threat of ISIS.

In short, the world is relatively at peace. There has been no large-scale war since the calamity of the Second World War. International Organizations and Regimes have helped to keep global peace, but it should be remembered that although they have had huge successes, there is still a long way to go.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Bourantonis, D. (2015). The International Nuclear Non-Proliferation Policy Framework under the NPT and Related Instruments. The EU and the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, 33-47.

Thakur, R. (2016). The United Nations, Peace, and Security: From Collective Security to the Responsibility to Protect. Cambridge University Press.

The Australia Group: An Introduction. (2019). Retrieved from https://australiagroup.net/en/introduction.html

Subject: International Relations

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Essay Final Portion

Cold War and US Policy of Containment

[Name of Writer]

[Name of Institution]

The ‘Policy of Containment’ refers to a series of policies that became a major determinant of foreign policy during much of the cold war with the Soviet Union. This policy in its true form originated from a report submitted to the US defense secretary by diplomat George Kennan. However, the word ‘containment’ is also used for the policies introduced in the cold war era by US President Harry Truman and can be collectively called Truman’s doctrine. It basically meant that the USA would take measures to prevent the spread of communism in the world and consisted of policies to ‘contain’ USSR influence. (page 6 cold war 3)

Following the rise and fall of fascism in World War 2, the nations in Latin America saw a surge in nationalist and socialist sentiment. These ideas had come into being and existed primarily as a deterrent to Nazism and fascism, but their sustained growth post WWII was a cause of worry for the United States. By 1947, the number of communist movements in Latin America alone was 400,000. Much of this continued increase in communist sentiment was owed to the relevance of the Soviet Union in the aftermath of WWII. Several countries in Eastern Europe all the way to the Berlin Wall had fell under Soviet control after the war and they were all administered under the Communist Party of Russia. The Soviet Union called the boundary between communism and democracy the Iron Curtain. The United States of America was categorically opposed to the communist ideology and hence, its growing pertinence especially in the countries neighboring USA was a cause of alarm. The containment policy was therefore a direct reaction to the rising global threat of communism. Truman’s doctrine termed it as supporting the free peoples all over the world against external threats or militarized minorities. (pages 3-13 cold war 3)

This policy of containment seemed as a reaffirmation of the Monroe Doctrine due to the similarities in the context of both eras of US foreign policy. In the 19th century, the Monroe Doctrine declared that the USA would resist the subjugation of the American continent to European powers. It was brought forth in a time when Spanish and Portuguese colonies were declaring independence in South America. Meanwhile, the interests of North America lay in keeping the Europeans limited to the Old World so they could take hold of the New World. The theory of containment was also based upon resisting a foreign ideology. Therefore, its implementation in Latin America became the twentieth century reaffirmation of the Monroe Doctrine.

A general glimpse of the interests of the USA during cold war can be easily accessed via a close observation of the theory of containment. USA was the leader of the democratic world as it was the only country that came out of WWII with its cities and forces intact. It also had a formidable nuclear weapon and was undeniably the new superpower. Therefore, all of Europe that was west of the Berlin Wall represented an extension of the West that USA was leading. The US interests hence lay in ensuring that democracy and capitalism overpowered in any nations that were not protected by the Iron Curtain.

The three tiers of US interest in Latin America during the cold war were ideology, economy and security. USA provided arms to democratic regimes to curb militarization of leftist and communist movements. They used several means to prevent psychological erasure of democracy at the hands of labor movements and any left-leaning political parties. Moreover, economic reforms were directly or indirectly funded by various US Presidents that benefitted a capitalist system of economy. Ideological interests that involved eliminating the public interest in communism took the front seat. (pages 16-17 cold war 3)

USA was keen on implementing the theory of containment in Latin America and provided funding and weapons to fight off communism. The USA and Soviet Union had created a bipolar world but had agreed on preventing direct confrontation as both were nuclear-armed superpowers. The only option to be used in this scenario was proxy wars by taking sides in international conflicts. Latin America was one such location where this indirect confrontation played out. (pages 14-15 cold war 3)

Latin America was different from Europe because of weaker economies and no serene experience with democracy. The Marshall Plan could work smoothly in Western Europe but could not be similarly implemented in Latin America. Preventing the rise of communism in Latin America was, therefore, more difficult. USA, however, took measures that ensured a fulfillment of its theory of containment in Latin America. On an ideological level, USA took interest in rejecting policies by Latin American leaders that hinted at socialism. The ousting of Jacobo Arbenz in Guatemala in the early 1950s was one such example. The CIA was used to overthrow his government in response to an agrarian policy that expropriated land from corporates and large owners to landless peasants. His land reforms were termed socialist and his government replaced. (page 23 cold war 3) The second major incident for the USA to practically showcase its policy of containment came in Cuba. After the Cuban revolution of late 1950s, USA placed economic embargo on the communist regime of Fidel Castro, resisted any provision of arms to Cuba by Soviet Union. (pages 37 to 39 cold war 3) USA also provided support to the previous regime of Fulgencio Batista but to no avail. In the aftermath, USA dedicated its resources to prevent another Cuba. USA policymakers termed it the “Domino Effect” and were determined to prevent it. (page 45 cold war 3) US intervention in the democratically elected socialist government of Salvador Allende in Chile was also in alignment with its policy of containment. (page 51 cold war 3)

Other than Cuba, the only other country to have a successful communist revolution was Nicaragua. Almost two decades after the Cuban Revolution, Nicaragua saw a communist uprising by the Sandinistas that replaced a dictatorship under Anastacio Somoza. Unlike Cuba where USA had fought back with economic embargos and proxy nuclear standoffs with the USSR, President Reagan opted for military intervention. A group called contras (short for contra-revolutionaries) was armed and trained by the US had amounted to around 15,000 troops by mid 1980s. Contras fought the Sandinista government. However, the Nicaraguan leadership sought peace as soon as in 1987 and was already ready for elections in 1989. Therefore, a totalitarian system of government under the communist ideology did not last long. (pages 21-24 cold war II)

The US struggle of restoration of democracy in Latin America during the cold war era of 1947-1989 was partially successful. There were several levels of intervention that the USA carried out in order to thwart communist revolutions and to make sure that democratic process took hold. This process continued into the 1980s where USA even carried out two direct interventions to restore democracy. These were Operation Just Cause in Panama by President George Bush and Operation Uphold Democracy in Haiti by President Bill Clinton. (page 15 postcoldwardemocracies)

Other than direct interventions, the US maintained a policy of indirect intervention via funding and weapons to prevent the rise of any form of the political left. Later, in the post-cold war era, the subsequent US administrations adopted a relaxed form of similar relationships as democracy slowly settled in Latin America.

Subject: International Relations

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

Forecasting Alliances

Your Name

Instructor Name

Course Number


Research Essay: Forecasting Alliances

The bilateral trade is considered as a crucial determinant of cultural proximity. Although empirical testing and quantification are considered difficult because of the absence of elusiveness and observed ability concept. In this paper, we are going to analyze political alliances based on geographic and cultural proximity for acquiring major goals. In this research essay, we will also discuss trade volume's positive effects while controlling cultural proximity standards measures.

It is observed widely that cultural proximity played a major role in determining the trade flows among countries. Various factors represent cultural ties which include common religion, language, and ethnicity such factors identify cultural proximity it also reflects some of the trade developing factors which include the cost of communication.

Russo-Latin American Military and Political Alliance

For the closer inter-governmental and military ties, Russia is developing the military buildup with America. It also has collateral benefits which include Russia nominated advisers in the military headquarters and defense ministry who would determine the influence tactics, the doctrine as well as made purchasing decisions ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"HydOXzmM","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}Russo-Latin American Arms Sales})","plainCitation":"(Russo-Latin American Arms Sales)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":508,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/vDOrLj7p/items/QNAYR95D"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/vDOrLj7p/items/QNAYR95D"],"itemData":{"id":508,"type":"webpage","title":"Russo-Latin American Arms Sales","abstract":"Photo: courtesy of Flickr user Andrewy Korchagin.Russia is pursuing a military buildup in the Americas to consolidate commercial deals and develop closer military and inter-governmental ties. The push also brings collateral benefits: Russia has placed contractors and advisers in local defense ministries and military headquarters who can influence doctrine, tactics and","URL":"https://www.americasquarterly.org/content/russo-latin-american-arms-sales","language":"en","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",12,2]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Russo-Latin American Arms Sales). In 2014, the defense minister of Russia announced the military bases used for refueling Russian planes and this negotiation is between Venezuela, Cuba, and Nicaraguan. Though Russia is also becoming a military threat for America because of its military equipment sale to Latin America. America kept a close eye on Russian military equipment sales in the region. The administration of George W. Bush also questioned this by saying it is not helpful in the regional stability terms.

Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO)

The cultural proximity theory is mostly used to explain the consumption of transnational media which are similar in religion, ethnicity, geography, and language ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"wUvfaDQs","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Lu et al.)","plainCitation":"(Lu et al.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":510,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/vDOrLj7p/items/HVTUT5YC"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/vDOrLj7p/items/HVTUT5YC"],"itemData":{"id":510,"type":"article-journal","title":"Cultural Proximity and Genre Proximity: How Do Chinese Viewers Enjoy American and Korean TV Dramas?","container-title":"SAGE Open","page":"2158244018825027","volume":"9","issue":"1","source":"SAGE Journals","abstract":"This article examined a transnational viewing process, in which Chinese audience watch American and Korean TV dramas. Cultural proximity and genre proximity were adopted to predict media involvement and enjoyment. A quantitative content analysis was conducted with a probability sample of 16,440 comments from 411 TV dramas. It was found that cultural proximity failed to predict enjoyment but succeeded in explaining involvement. It also revealed two different routes to enjoyment—to enjoy Korean dramas through involvement with characters and American dramas through involvement with the narrative. Genre proximity was found in action/crime but not in fantasy/adventure. The level of involvement varied in different genres, such as romance, horror/crux, and comedy.","DOI":"10.1177/2158244018825027","ISSN":"2158-2440","title-short":"Cultural Proximity and Genre Proximity","journalAbbreviation":"SAGE Open","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Lu","given":"Jia"},{"family":"Liu","given":"Xinchuan"},{"family":"Cheng","given":"Yaoyao"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019",1,1]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Lu et al.).The cultural elements also include lifestyle, organizational affiliation, and personal experiences. The Shanghai Corporation is the intergovernmental organization that is composed of Russia, China, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. The major aim of this organization is to demilitarize border it also consists of increase counter-terrorism and Military Corporation with intelligence sharing. It also consists of regional economic initiatives such as the economic belt of Silk Road. SCO is considered as a strong and unified organization however, this young organization is underfunded and also has limited powers in taking independent decisions ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"tcdq65Wx","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}Shanghai Cooperation Organisation})","plainCitation":"(Shanghai Cooperation Organisation)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":512,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/vDOrLj7p/items/6S2TKVDF"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/vDOrLj7p/items/6S2TKVDF"],"itemData":{"id":512,"type":"webpage","title":"Shanghai Cooperation Organisation","URL":"http://eng.sectsco.org/","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",12,2]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Shanghai Cooperation Organisation). With these challenges, however, SCO broadened its mandate currently and added the programs of economic development and joint security. Its major priority programs are deepening economic ties and Energy Corporation which also include widened development banks. However, SCO still lacks in considerable essential factors for becoming a secure institution. In addition, the SCO state members also have differences that include contradictory economic and political interests. The SCO intensified security policy which leads to the cautious development of a fully established security organization. In case it is the member state desire, this development would still require several years in becoming the East of NATO ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"CHJvA994","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation: Towards a Full-Grown Security Alliance? | Clingendael})","plainCitation":"(The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation: Towards a Full-Grown Security Alliance? | Clingendael)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":518,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/vDOrLj7p/items/8HCQDB8R"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/vDOrLj7p/items/8HCQDB8R"],"itemData":{"id":518,"type":"webpage","title":"The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation: Towards a full-grown security alliance? | Clingendael","URL":"https://www.clingendael.org/publication/shanghai-cooperation-organisation-towards-full-grown-security-alliance","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",12,2]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation: Towards a Full-Grown Security Alliance? | Clingendael).

Although the current rest in the US and Russia relationship, as well as the modernization partnership with the EU, failed to leave an impact on Russia’s neighborhood policies. However, the EU is well advised to engage Russia constructively including the neighboring countries ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"ch976PG3","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}Russia | Fact Sheets on the European Union | European Parliament})","plainCitation":"(Russia | Fact Sheets on the European Union | European Parliament)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":514,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/vDOrLj7p/items/CLDK2YR8"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/vDOrLj7p/items/CLDK2YR8"],"itemData":{"id":514,"type":"webpage","title":"Russia | Fact Sheets on the European Union | European Parliament","abstract":"Read about Russia. Fact Sheets provide an overview of European integration and the role of the European Parliament.","URL":"https://www.europarl.europa.eu/factsheets/en/sheet/177/russia","language":"en","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",12,2]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Russia | Fact Sheets on the European Union | European Parliament). The relation between EU and Russia is regarded as the strategic partners and for strategic relation, it is required common values and goals. Whereas, it also needs joint road maps and action plans.

Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

This group is based on the 14 major oil-exporting countries which were founded for the petroleum policies contribution ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"1iTAprzf","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Chen)","plainCitation":"(Chen)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":516,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/vDOrLj7p/items/FUT2E8NF"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/vDOrLj7p/items/FUT2E8NF"],"itemData":{"id":516,"type":"webpage","title":"Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)","container-title":"Investopedia","abstract":"The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries is a group consisting of the world’s major oil-exporting nations.","URL":"https://www.investopedia.com/terms/o/opec.asp","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Chen","given":"James"}],"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",12,2]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Chen). The objective of OPEC is to manage the supply of oil and also set the world market price for oil. It is also developed for avoiding the fluctuations which might affect the oil-producing and purchasing countries. Although, it is noted that the world's largest oil-producing countries that are United States, Russia, and China are not included in the OPEC members as they are free to pursue their objectives ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"1iTAprzf","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Chen)","plainCitation":"(Chen)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":516,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/vDOrLj7p/items/FUT2E8NF"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/vDOrLj7p/items/FUT2E8NF"],"itemData":{"id":516,"type":"webpage","title":"Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)","container-title":"Investopedia","abstract":"The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries is a group consisting of the world’s major oil-exporting nations.","URL":"https://www.investopedia.com/terms/o/opec.asp","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Chen","given":"James"}],"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",12,2]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Chen).

BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa)

These countries are considered to be the dominant manufactured goods suppliers as well as the raw materials from 2050 ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"C9Qqy80a","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Majaski)","plainCitation":"(Majaski)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":520,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/vDOrLj7p/items/KAVEKDAV"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/vDOrLj7p/items/KAVEKDAV"],"itemData":{"id":520,"type":"webpage","title":"History and Criticism of Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRIC)","container-title":"Investopedia","abstract":"BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) refers to the idea that China and India will, by 2050, become the world's dominant suppliers of manufactured goods and services, respectively, while Brazil and Russia will become similarly dominant as suppliers of raw materials.","URL":"https://www.investopedia.com/terms/b/bric.asp","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Majaski","given":"Christina"}],"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",12,2]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Majaski). For the flow of resources, China and India have a significant interest in safe and secure sea lines for the fulfillment of their energy requirements. Controlling or securing oil resources within BRICS required a stable flow of energy sources in BRICS. In short BRICS countries have various significant territories of maritime collectively and individually. The collective role provides longer sustainable advantages which for a longer time to these countries. As energy is not only the fundamental tenet for the BRICS member economic status in the future but also considered as the critical aspect of security.

The discussion on impact and responsibilities of BRICS on the international system is still ongoing as it revolves around the politico-economic impacts. The rise of China to become the future superpower holds various indicators regarding the possible military confrontation. Although, defending or protecting the communication in sea line which will sustain its economic growth become the major focus of its navy. While India's economic growth is dependent on the sea so the main priority of India is the stability of the Indian Ocean. Unfortunately, China does not have good relations with India and the other main and strong member of BRICS is also raising competition between these countries.

The above all are examples hypothetical unions brought together in a result of cultural and geographic proximity. Though all of the countries have some political and military concerns with the other country which might affect their coalition such as the case of India and China in BRICS.

Work Cited

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Chen, James. “Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).” Investopedia, https://www.investopedia.com/terms/o/opec.asp. Accessed 2 Dec. 2019.

Lu, Jia, et al. “Cultural Proximity and Genre Proximity: How Do Chinese Viewers Enjoy American and Korean TV Dramas?” SAGE Open, vol. 9, no. 1, Jan. 2019, p. 2158244018825027. SAGE Journals, doi:10.1177/2158244018825027.

Majaski, Christina. “History and Criticism of Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRIC).” Investopedia, https://www.investopedia.com/terms/b/bric.asp. Accessed 2 Dec. 2019.

Russia | Fact Sheets on the European Union | European Parliament. https://www.europarl.europa.eu/factsheets/en/sheet/177/russia. Accessed 2 Dec. 2019.

Russo-Latin American Arms Sales. https://www.americasquarterly.org/content/russo-latin-american-arms-sales. Accessed 2 Dec. 2019.

Shanghai Cooperation Organisation. http://eng.sectsco.org/. Accessed 2 Dec. 2019.

The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation: Towards a Full-Grown Security Alliance? | Clingendael. https://www.clingendael.org/publication/shanghai-cooperation-organisation-towards-full-grown-security-alliance. Accessed 2 Dec. 2019.

Subject: International Relations

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Global Governance

Global Governance

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Global Governance


Water serves as the critical link between the environment and the society, an essential resource for the growth and preservation of all human life. Water is fundamental for ecological development, sustainability and is crucial for socio-economic progression, food production and energy, vigorous ecologies and for the survival of human beings itself. Water is also a human rights matter. With the growth of the global population, the need to balance the usage of water around the globe is of critical importance so that communities everywhere get enough for their necessities. Sanitation and Water cannot be isolated, and they are vital for decreasing the affliction of disease and improving the well-being, economic productivity and education of inhabitants collectively around the world.


Water crisis and contamination

Nearly one billion publics around the globe hardly have access to drinkable water, largely those people living in under-developed nations. The water predicament has engrossed these countries, intimidating the lives of the majority of the developing and underdeveloped world. The water and hygiene calamity claim more lives through infections and illnesses than any war has claimed through weaponries according to The U.N (Human Development Report). Roughly 1.4 million children expire from water unavailability of water or unsanitary drinking water. Diarrhea among children is closely related to lacking water resource, insufficient cleanliness, contamination of water with diseases that are communicable, and poor sanitization practices. It is estimated that only Diarrhea causes 1.5 million child deaths every year in underdeveloped countries. Noticeably this is one of the chief health concern in the world that ought to be addressed(Water Facts, 2012).

Polluted water and a lack of elementary hygiene are undermining struggles to end life-threatening scantiness and ailments in the third world countries. Worldwide, about 2.3 billion people do not have elementary hygiene conveniences such as latrines or toilets and a large number of people drink water from a system deprived of acceptable protection against sanitary dangers (Morrison et al., 2009).

Challenges to Water Quality

The quality of Water in underdeveloped and third world countries is frequently held back by lack of or inadequate enforcement of:

Environmental agencies due to lack of resources or and political will

Assimilation with other related concerns such as solid waste management

market-based enticements for water treatment/pollution control

non-point source controls such as agricultural runoff

understanding/responsiveness of issues and laws

trans-boundary regulations

water quality standards

emission standards

chemical controls

As discusses above, the biggest problem contributing to the water predicament in developing nations is that the available water is not uncontaminated; therefore there is still the quality issue of that water, often leading to ailment Bartram’s (2010). According to the national water quality standards (2010), more than the fifth of the water supplies in major Asian cities do not measure up to the minimum standards.


One of the primary reasons that the water quality may be poor is because of pathogens contained in the water. These pathogens are usually from fecal matter dumped in the streams of water and rivers from where the water is gathered. These germs result in growing diseases that influence millions of inhabitants globally, for instance: malaria, E. coli, Guinea worm, cholera, giardia, typhoid, and numerous others. Diarrhea is the most prevalent of all the illnesses resulting from poor hygiene and water, and unfortunately, most of the people suffering from these avoidable ailments are not conscious of the causes. In large sums, mercury can be very unsafe to the human body and result in various diseases, therefore; the quality of the water needs to be checked not only for pathogens but for injurious chemicals such as mercury as well (Kleiner & Rajani, 2010). These problems of water and its quality are all components of the water emergency that need to be addressed (Palaniappan et al. 2010). It also confines financial efficiency and growth opportunities. Asian rivers are the most contaminated, and harmful bacteria levels from human waste in these water resources are almost three times greater than the world average. Furthermore, lead quantities in these streams and river are twenty times more than those in the developed nations.

On the other hand, commercial activities globally are draining aquifers much quicker than the usual speed of replenishment, and overwhelming the watercourses, forests, and swamps on which native watersheds rest on. Even though the resource of natural freshwater is restricted, the demand or in other words overuse of freshwater is snowballing twice the rate of populace growth. According to the estimation, if the percentage of people devoid of access to drinkable water remains, by the year 2020, approximately between 50 to100 million people, most of them children, will expire from avoidable water-related illnesses (Pistotnik). Also, because of the significance of water, the clash over its supply and the right to use is becoming complicated with the worldwide controlling actors taking more interest in the international systems.

Global Governance Structures

The UN-Water

The United Nations has been talking on to the worldwide predicament caused by the deficient supply of water to satisfy basic needs of the public and increasing the burden on the water resources of the world to meet human, agricultural and business needs.

High-Level Committee on Programs of the UN created UN-Water, in the year 2003, to foster greater information-sharing and cooperation among worldwide partners to focus concentration on the significance of freshwater and sustainable freshwater administration. Recent landmark agreements of the UN includes in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, and the 2015 Paris Agreement on Climate Change, the 2015 Addis Ababa Action Agenda on Financing for Development and the 2015-2030 Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction.

Water for Life

As component of the attempt to meet up the Millennium Development Goals, the ‘Water for Life’ International Decade for Action (2005-2015) helped more than a billion people in poor nations gain access to harmless drinking water.

ACP-EU Water Facility

ACP-EU Water Facility was established in 2004, and it received funds from the EDF (European Development Fund) to back projects concerning the improvement of water quality, sanitation, and overall water management governance in the ACP (Pacific countries, African, Caribbean)

The Water Project

It is a not for profit organization that plans and implements sustainable water schemes in Uganda, Kenya, Sierra Leone, Rwanda, and Sudan. It has funded over 250 schemes that have improved access to clean water and sanitation for thousands of people.


Water crisis is a global issue and it is therefore, responsibility of the global organizations and establishments to cooperate with each other on the global level, so to eradicate the diseases and illnesses, excessive use of water, contamination of water and to supply clean water to the unprivileged. Unfortunately, the current global governance structure, international organizations that have the most authority are not playing the part that is more profitable and simple. Rather than exerting all of the energies and resources on political issues of water, these organizations such as UN and WHO and, establishments should focus more on providing resources to the common man and educate them about the situation. The global governance should provide capacity building and teach people how to save, clean and store water easily and cost-effectively.


Following are some recommendations:

Improved sanitation and economic benefits

The association between scarcity of water and hygiene access and the improvement objectives are apparent, and the answers to the crisis are identified and cost-effective. Studies illustrate that for every one dollar invested in enhanced hygiene translates into a middling return of approximately nine dollars. Those reimbursements are experienced particularly by underprivileged children and in the destitute communities that need them most.

Surface water remedies

Most of the population in third world nations gets their water from surface level sources, for instance, rivers, lakes, ponds, and streams. These natural sources of water are used by Humans and animals alike and therefore, deposit their waste because of which these sources get polluted causes diseases. These sources need to be ell purified before people use them.

Rainwater Harvesting

Rainfall provides the natural and most straightforward answer for drinkable water. Rainwater is the most affordable and sustainable source of usable water, particularly in the regions where there is much precipitation. There are many benefits linked with rainwater harvesting such as it has no harmful impact on the atmosphere; anyone can collect it easily resulting in saving time, resources and energy; and economically. Rainwater needs to be fully utilized either by individuals themselves or by an organized system. Rainwater can be collected through a variety of ways. The simplest technique is to preserve rainwater by using the rooftops as the collectors by installing barrels sand; the sand will filter the water. From this point, the collected water should be left on the roof in closed containers to let the ultraviolet rays of the sun exterminate any residual germs. From this undemanding process, people can have access to clean, cheap usable and drinkable water.


Communities should be empowered through short-term and long-term outreach efforts and education. The States and international organizations should sponsor competence building among all. Environmental agencies and organizations should promote greater collaboration through education and practices to build understanding and coordination among people and governments around the world (Green et al., 2015).


The process of is one of the best innovations that can provide safe drinking water. The chlorination process destroys disease-causing microbes. The use of chlorine protects drinking water and is the most commonly-used sterilizer around the world. Chlorine is affordable, effective and extensively available.


Boiling is another effective process of water purification. It is known to be the best method for making water drinkable and safe. Boiling kills the microorganisms that cause sicknesses, for example, the bacteria that causes of diarrhea. Though boiling large quantities of water can be costly still, it is better than using unhygienic water.


Another way to get rid of impurities from water acquired from streams, wells, rivers or other sources of water is through filtration plants or devices. Water filters can be used as an individual or community level. Filters can help extensively in reducing diseases. Filter usage can also preserve the resources formerly used to generate clean water. Use of filters and their positive outcomes assisted in shifting the attitudes, beliefs, and practices of the community in western Kenya toward sanitary water and filtration devices.


One way to trim down the quantity of wastewater contamination and at the same time amplify water supply is the utilization of wastewater is to use the already used water from one process to be used in an added process where used water is tolerable. Reuse and recycling methods can consist of the recycling and management of used water from manufacturing plants intoxicated water or service treated water from mining for use in lesser quality uses. In the same way, wastewater re-use in commercial buildings for example in washrooms and toilets, etc.


Green, P. A., Vörösmarty, C. J., Harrison, I., Farrell, T., Sáenz, L., & Fekete, B. M. (2015). Freshwater ecosystem services supporting humans: Pivoting from water crisis to water solutions. Global Environmental Change, 34, 108-118.

Kleiner, Y., & Rajani, B. (2010). I-WARP: Individual water main renewal planner. Drinking Water Engineering and Science, 3(1), 71-77.

Morrison, J., Morikawa, M., Murphy, M., & Schulte, P. (2009). Water Scarcity & climate change. Growing risks for business and investors, Pacific Institute, Oakland, California.

Palaniappan, M., Gleick, P. H., Allen, L., Cohen, M. J., Christian-Smith, J., Smith, C., & Ross, N. (2010). Clearing the waters: a focus on water quality solutions.


Water, W. (2012). Water facts. Online at: http://www. dwrcymru. co. uk/English/waterefficiency/school/_pdf/waterfacts. pdf.

Subject: International Relations

Pages: 6 Words: 1800

Globalization, Social Movements, And Global Justice


Instructor Name

Art 101

03 December 2019

Globalization and Social Movements

Section A (1)

During the past two decades, globalization had a huge influence on the lives of women in under-developed nations. Globalization may be symbolized as a multifaceted political, economic, cultural, and terrestrial procedure in which the movement of capital, ideas, organizations, treatises, and individuals has engaged a transnational or global structure ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"ezmhK4F8","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}40 The Evolution of Debates over Female Genital Cutting - The Globalization Reader, 5th Edition [Book]})","plainCitation":"(40 The Evolution of Debates over Female Genital Cutting - The Globalization Reader, 5th Edition [Book])","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":190,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Hznayqvz/items/FGDULMS3"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Hznayqvz/items/FGDULMS3"],"itemData":{"id":190,"type":"webpage","title":"40 The Evolution of Debates over Female Genital Cutting - The Globalization Reader, 5th Edition [Book]","abstract":"40 The Evolution of Debates over Female Genital Cutting Elizabeth Heger Boyle In 1958, the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations formally requested that the World Health Organization … - Selection from The Globalization Reader, 5th Edition [Book]","URL":"https://www.oreilly.com/library/view/the-globalization-reader/9781118737026/c40.xhtml","language":"en","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",12,3]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (40 The Evolution of Debates over Female Genital Cutting - The Globalization Reader, 5th Edition [Book]). At present, the global economic organizations are perceived to be benefitting western beliefs and political customs, and extant them as examples for the rest of the nations, but ignoring and disregarding women's ethnic movements within the global south. Modern feminist scholars opposed that neo-liberalism highlights the economic development, efficiency, and revenue making above other values, for example, the advancement of economic justice and improving democracy and noble supremacy.

Conferring to the statement of United Nations Development Fund for Women, during the last two decades the procedure of globalization has distributed huge inequality within and amongst nations, united with economic and community downfall in Eastern Europe and portions of Sub-Saharan Africa ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"uVG5ST70","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Berkovitch)","plainCitation":"(Berkovitch)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":189,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Hznayqvz/items/4MP54IX8"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Hznayqvz/items/4MP54IX8"],"itemData":{"id":189,"type":"article-journal","title":"Berkovitch, Nitza. 1999. “The Emergence and Transformation of the International Women's Movement.” In: Constructing World Culture: International Non-Governmental Organizations Since 1875. Edited by John Boli and George Thomas. Stanford University Press. pp. 100-126.","source":"www.academia.edu","abstract":"Berkovitch, Nitza. 1999. “The Emergence and Transformation of the International Women's Movement.” In: Constructing World Culture: International Non-Governmental Organizations Since 1875. Edited by John Boli and George Thomas. Stanford University","URL":"https://www.academia.edu/12899810/Berkovitch_Nitza._1999._The_Emergence_and_Transformation_of_the_International_Womens_Movement._In_Constructing_World_Culture_International_Non-Governmental_Organizations_Since_1875._Edited_by_John_Boli_and_George_Thomas._Stanford_University_Press._pp._100-126","title-short":"Berkovitch, Nitza. 1999. “The Emergence and Transformation of the International Women's Movement.” In","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Berkovitch","given":"Nitza"}],"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",12,3]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Berkovitch).

Additionally, the mistreatment of women in this division contradicts women employees of their privileges to representation, unionization, and reimbursement. According to Structural Adjustment Policies, countless poor nations have been forced to accept borrowing currency from administrations, for example, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"wmpQqM0T","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Berkovitch)","plainCitation":"(Berkovitch)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":189,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Hznayqvz/items/4MP54IX8"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Hznayqvz/items/4MP54IX8"],"itemData":{"id":189,"type":"article-journal","title":"Berkovitch, Nitza. 1999. “The Emergence and Transformation of the International Women's Movement.” In: Constructing World Culture: International Non-Governmental Organizations Since 1875. Edited by John Boli and George Thomas. Stanford University Press. pp. 100-126.","source":"www.academia.edu","abstract":"Berkovitch, Nitza. 1999. “The Emergence and Transformation of the International Women's Movement.” In: Constructing World Culture: International Non-Governmental Organizations Since 1875. Edited by John Boli and George Thomas. Stanford University","URL":"https://www.academia.edu/12899810/Berkovitch_Nitza._1999._The_Emergence_and_Transformation_of_the_International_Womens_Movement._In_Constructing_World_Culture_International_Non-Governmental_Organizations_Since_1875._Edited_by_John_Boli_and_George_Thomas._Stanford_University_Press._pp._100-126","title-short":"Berkovitch, Nitza. 1999. “The Emergence and Transformation of the International Women's Movement.” In","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Berkovitch","given":"Nitza"}],"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",12,3]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Berkovitch). In this concern, SAPs have an unfavorable influence on women mostly in developing nations, where the administration's borrowing currency from SAPs has adjourned their responsibility by dropping for illustration, education and children's car. They have donated to protective mortality and the outline of institute dues has made learning unapproachable to the inferior children, particularly girls in developing nations and publicly-funded health facilities.

Section B (1)

Rebeca Barlow is a scholar for Muslim minorities and Islam policy. In most of her writings on feminist activism two groups of women discussed and referred to as "Islamic feminist" and "secular feminist". This term can be problematic, as they tend to suggest that these streams of activism occur within static, definite, and mutually exclusive boundaries. In the current world, globalization is tangled with significant political fluctuations, for example, the development of identity politics, new methods of governance, international civilian society, and universalization of moral rights ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"5dVrETHt","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}40 The Evolution of Debates over Female Genital Cutting - The Globalization Reader, 5th Edition [Book]})","plainCitation":"(40 The Evolution of Debates over Female Genital Cutting - The Globalization Reader, 5th Edition [Book])","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":190,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Hznayqvz/items/FGDULMS3"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Hznayqvz/items/FGDULMS3"],"itemData":{"id":190,"type":"webpage","title":"40 The Evolution of Debates over Female Genital Cutting - The Globalization Reader, 5th Edition [Book]","abstract":"40 The Evolution of Debates over Female Genital Cutting Elizabeth Heger Boyle In 1958, the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations formally requested that the World Health Organization … - Selection from The Globalization Reader, 5th Edition [Book]","URL":"https://www.oreilly.com/library/view/the-globalization-reader/9781118737026/c40.xhtml","language":"en","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",12,3]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (40 The Evolution of Debates over Female Genital Cutting - The Globalization Reader, 5th Edition [Book]). Relating to economic inequalities, transnational corporations have exploited women's rights with the conspiracy of their administrations. Employment liberalization strategies have directed to the failure of small scale and survival farming in under-developed and less developed nations since western nations, trade greatly sponsored agricultural yields to under-developed or less developed nations ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Bo7XPrA4","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Berkovitch)","plainCitation":"(Berkovitch)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":189,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Hznayqvz/items/4MP54IX8"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Hznayqvz/items/4MP54IX8"],"itemData":{"id":189,"type":"article-journal","title":"Berkovitch, Nitza. 1999. “The Emergence and Transformation of the International Women's Movement.” In: Constructing World Culture: International Non-Governmental Organizations Since 1875. Edited by John Boli and George Thomas. Stanford University Press. pp. 100-126.","source":"www.academia.edu","abstract":"Berkovitch, Nitza. 1999. “The Emergence and Transformation of the International Women's Movement.” In: Constructing World Culture: International Non-Governmental Organizations Since 1875. Edited by John Boli and George Thomas. Stanford University","URL":"https://www.academia.edu/12899810/Berkovitch_Nitza._1999._The_Emergence_and_Transformation_of_the_International_Womens_Movement._In_Constructing_World_Culture_International_Non-Governmental_Organizations_Since_1875._Edited_by_John_Boli_and_George_Thomas._Stanford_University_Press._pp._100-126","title-short":"Berkovitch, Nitza. 1999. “The Emergence and Transformation of the International Women's Movement.” In","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Berkovitch","given":"Nitza"}],"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",12,3]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Berkovitch). This does reflect some historical reality in the Iranian context.

The terms used in the article, religious-oriented and secular oriented feminists, are more conductive in conveying the fact that women belonging to one or other of these institutions ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"d4qkRuib","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}40 The Evolution of Debates over Female Genital Cutting - The Globalization Reader, 5th Edition [Book]})","plainCitation":"(40 The Evolution of Debates over Female Genital Cutting - The Globalization Reader, 5th Edition [Book])","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":190,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Hznayqvz/items/FGDULMS3"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Hznayqvz/items/FGDULMS3"],"itemData":{"id":190,"type":"webpage","title":"40 The Evolution of Debates over Female Genital Cutting - The Globalization Reader, 5th Edition [Book]","abstract":"40 The Evolution of Debates over Female Genital Cutting Elizabeth Heger Boyle In 1958, the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations formally requested that the World Health Organization … - Selection from The Globalization Reader, 5th Edition [Book]","URL":"https://www.oreilly.com/library/view/the-globalization-reader/9781118737026/c40.xhtml","language":"en","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",12,3]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (40 The Evolution of Debates over Female Genital Cutting - The Globalization Reader, 5th Edition [Book]). Consequently, numerous women agriculturalists who have been lacking their acreage, have sought after employment in trade processing regions, at lesser salaries than their male colleagues in their nations. Therefore, it is significant for both secular and religious women’s groups’ engagement in the campaigns.

Works Cited

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY 40 The Evolution of Debates over Female Genital Cutting - The Globalization Reader, 5th Edition [Book]. https://www.oreilly.com/library/view/the-globalization-reader/9781118737026/c40.xhtml. Accessed 3 Dec. 2019.

Berkovitch, Nitza. Berkovitch, Nitza. 1999. “The Emergence and Transformation of the International Women's Movement.” In: Constructing World Culture: International Non-Governmental Organizations Since 1875. Edited by John Boli and George Thomas. Stanford University Press. Pp. 100-126. www.academia.edu, https://www.academia.edu/12899810/Berkovitch_Nitza._1999._The_Emergence_and_Transformation_of_the_International_Womens_Movement._In_Constructing_World_Culture_International_Non-Governmental_Organizations_Since_1875._Edited_by_John_Boli_and_George_Thomas._Stanford_University_Press._pp._100-126. Accessed 3 Dec. 2019.

Subject: International Relations

Pages: 2 Words: 600

International Business Plan

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International Business Plan

Name of the writer

Name of the institution

Executive Summary

In the process of planning, the essential element is the understanding of the business operation and environment. It allows to determine opportunities and threats related to a specific area of business. Internal and external analysis of an organization look at the factors that are affecting the business such as environmental factors, strengths, and weaknesses. It is notable to mention that the internal and external analysis provides an organization the complete picture of the prevailing situation. There is a rapid growth of the infants product industry in the recent decade, which has caught the attention of global players. In particular, there is an increasing growth of the economies in the Asian region, due to which Biotech is interested to expand its business in these regions. After analysis, steps can be determined to plan effective marketing exploration. Evaluation of economic, political, legal, social, and cultural consideration of Chinese market provide effective insight into the potential for infant formula products.


Biotech products are remarkably effective and are attributable to the change in lifestyles. People tend to use new and innovative products for infants due to their significant efficiency. Biotech Health and Life Products, Inc. is a global, family-owned American company which become a product of household in the United States, Europe, Canada and some parts of Asia. Headquarter of the company is in Yonkers, New York and it has specialization in natural products for maximum health and beauty. This Biotech industry seeks to market its new infant products in the major regions of Asia. For that purpose, there is a need for a comprehensive analysis of the market as well as the company itself to develop an effective strategy for launching its products in the Asian region. The company has interests to enter the Chinese market due to the increasing growth of economies in the region. Based on this view, the focus of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of the external and internal factors that are affecting both the market and the company. This report will help in developing a comprehensive business strategy for Biotech Health and Life Products Inc. in order to enter the fast-growing industry.

Size of Market

The size of the baby care products industry in China is growing steadily at a rate of 15 as of 2018. There is a consistent growth in the baby care market of China due to the recent One Child Policy in 2016. In accordance with this policy, both online and offline distribution channels are showing consistent growth accompanied by the growing household income of Chinese families. China has shifted from a centrally planned to a market-based economy due to the rapid growth in social and economic development (Fogel, 2010). China is experiencing the fastest sustained expansion as its GDP growth has averaged nearly 10 percent per year which is a significant achievement. It is noteworthy to mention that Chinese manufacturing is a practice that the United States and other international businesses have acknowledged in the recent few years. China has become an indispensable to prosperous manufacturing as its utilized by some of the prominent brands. The need for economical overseas manufacturing rises due to the increase in domestic prices. Since the inception of China manufacturing, their manufacturing capabilities have continued to grow. China has more than 100 million total employees in the manufacturing sector. Whereas, the United States has only 17 million manufacturing employees. The cost variance among manufacturing in China and manufacturing domestically is momentous. It is obvious that shipping and duties along with costs of manufacturing domestically is a real challenge. Manufacturing in China is cheaper as compared to most of the nations. Labor minimum wages are less as compared to most of the countries which give Biotech an edge to prosper in China. There is a higher overhead for domestic manufacturers with high turnover and steep training costs. Overseas manufacturing has become ideal in China as it provides affordability in real estate.

China is one of the most exciting places to be for an entrepreneur. It has a huge reserve of highly trained labor. Therefore, China has the right pool of labor for Biotech to place its manufacturing and distribution plants. In order to increase the number of skilled labors, China has pledged to improve their vocational education. Outsourcing to China will give Biotech an opportunity to access the factorys cheap labor. Minimum wages are lower in China as compared to other nations which attract many businessmen to establish their work in that country. Hence, businesses such as Biotech can easily avail these cheap labors and prosper in that country with a significant profit margin. China also has higher production capabilities as it produces goods for the global economy. Due to this, the manufacturing capabilities of China has increased beyond anyones expectation. Biotech will get an advantage while outsourcing to China because China has the capability to produce quality products. China is an eco-friendly country and it welcomes those businesses, whose products are manufactured without any hazard to the environment (Fogel, 2010). Strict rules and regulations regarding the environment will not affect the business of Biotech. It will be a great location for Biotech as its infant formula products are green products. China is also a suitable place for Biotech due to rising Chinese consumers. Biotechs infant formula products will get maximum consumers due to the large population of China. Chinese are more concerned about the health of their infants due to which they are willing to buy those products that have no side effects and are pure. The urbanization in China accelerates due to which consumer spending increases. China has a well-organized road infrastructure that will help Biotech to distribute its products from the manufacturing field.

Social acceptance of Product

The cultural and social aspect of China has a vital role as the demographics are changing consistently. Biotech should understand the fluctuation in the age distribution and population growth, which can modify both cultural and social values. Based on Geert Hofstedes value dimensions, China is a collectivistic culture, and social factors that can impact a business in China include religion, education, lifestyles, family size, social behaviors, and immigration. Biotech is willing to enter the Chinese market, so it should clearly consider these social factors due to their remarkable importance for the market segmentation. There are more than 420 million internet users in China who often shop online. Regardless of a large number of internet users, there is still a group who prefer physical shopping in order to dodge the risk related to online shopping. People are willing to spend on the infant formula products as health care has become a concern to many people. People concentrate on the health of their newborn babies due to which the economies and human income level are increasing in China. The above-mentioned trend proves that there is a real opportunity for infant formula products to excel in the Chinese market. China is a large market whose economy has been increasing in the last decade. Therefore, Biotech has a great opportunity to prevail its business in that market.

China has become an attractive market for foreign investors due to the globalization of the business world. Hence, Biotech is interested to launch its infant formula products in the Chinese market. It must need to understand the cultural differences between Chinese and western world. It is critical for an organization to make progress in other countrys market, by keeping in view the cultural aspects. Undoubtedly, Biotech is willing to hire local personnel in the Chinese market in order to understand the current market of infant formula product in Chinese industry. To be successful, it is crucial for Biotech to respect the cultural values and rituals of Chinese people. It is significant for them to respect Chinas long history and culture. It is noteworthy to mention that China is a relationship oriented society. Interaction among people is essential and important for the business. The risks can easily be minimized in the Chinese market by building network and interactive (Nawaz et al., 2007). It also helps in combating failures and setbacks as build-up network will help in keeping things as normal. In China, consumers mostly tend to deal with companies they trust. Therefore, it is utmost important for Biotech to establish an interpersonal relationship to prosper in the Chinese market.

Chinese are concerned about the health of their infants, so by effective advertisement Biotech can build its trust among people. It is notable to mention that Confucianism affects business practice a lot. Biotech needs to understand the value of each person in the Chinese society. Chinese tend to develop a relationship with those, who show respect to age. Consequently, Biotech need to show respect to age, educational background, and seniority to reflect Confucian. Confucianism does not mean that questioning or raising concern on superiors decision is disrespectful. It means that people will ethically respect each other (Nawaz et al., 2007). Use of abusive language is against Confucianism which can destroy the relationship of a company in the area. Therefore, Biotech needs to respect and value the seniority, age, and education background in China to avoid the deteriorating relationship between management and staff.

The concept of Face is critical for the purpose of business interaction in the Chinese market. It comprises of pride, dignity, and public reputation. Biotech should understand public reputation and pride. Choices must be clear and effective to avoid any slight mistake. Biotech needs to welcome everyone and appreciate their efforts and work in the company. Insulting someone is an easy way to lose face which can damage the public reputation. Insulting a junior in the organization, just because of high official status is considered as ethically wrong in Chinese society (Nawaz et al., 2007). If someone is at fault, then management must consult with them in utmost sincerity and honor. Another significant aspect of Chinese culture is its collectivist orientation. People are willing to honor the whole group, instead of an individual which promotes the appreciation and helps in maintaining efficiency in the working process. It is a significant paradigm of tighter teamwork as it promotes obedience, decision making, and spread information sharing. Biotechs management needs to involve employees in the decision making the process in order to promote obedience and ownership. If staff feel the ownership to any working process, then they will definitely adopt that process without any hesitation and will work with full efficiency. The biotech also needs to share rewards equally among all members of the team to follow the Chinese culture of collectivist orientation.

Legal/Bureaucratic environment

Biotech Life and Health Products Inc. is likely to affect from the Labor laws as it enters the Chinese market. Although, China does not have strict laws on employment, but it dictates the level of the minimum wage for employees in different sectors (Fogel, 2010). Chinas overall employment laws are not strict therefore, Biotech has a great opportunity to enter in this country. Labor minimum wages are fixed, but these wages are relatively less than other countries, so Biotech will be able to gain maximum profit from China. The analysis of the legal factors shows that Biotech should establish sales outlets and manufacturing units in China.

Competition in Market

Biotech is a global, family-owned American company which has built a strong and influential profile in the United States, Europe, and Brazil. Biotech has become a successful player in these regions. Its fame and status will help it to attract a large number of consumers in order to compete with local competitors in China (Hossain, et al., 2017). Biotech will use its innovativeness and professionalism to influence and convince more customers. Companys reputation in Europe and the United States is mainly attributable to these characteristics. Due to the rapidly developing economies in China, there is a great opportunity for Biotech to sustain in the Chinese market. Infant formula products offer complete nutrition. The infants, who are allergic to cows milk or lactose, can frequently use soy protein-based formulas. Biotech contains high-quality infant formula products, which can definitely increase their demand in China. There has been an increase in consciousness of people regarding the health and nutrition of their infant. Due to the high tech products, Biotech can easily thrive its business. Its obvious that Biotech is new in the Asian region. Therefore, it will need some aggressive strategies in order to compete with its competitors. There are many industries that have established their strong household in China, which will make it difficult for Biotech to establish itself. It is obvious that costumers will stick clearly to brands that they are familiar with and different people have different behavior towards infant formula products as the population in the target market are highly diversified (Shi, 2016). There is a diverse culture in China, so it is difficult for new entrants such as Biotech to effectively understand the Chinese market.

There are a lot of opportunities for Biotech Health and Life Products Inc. to establish itself in the Chinese market. These strong opportunities for Biotech are due to the ever-growing economies in this market. China has shown an abrupt growth in various sectors, which provide a ready market for manufactured services and goods. The biotech also has a great opportunity to flourish in China because of its long history of developing natural products which are exported to many Asian regions. Other competitors have mixed product profile in the Chinese market, while Biotechs profile shows its specialization in natural products. Above mentioned factors show that the company has an incredible chance to establish and flourish as an exclusively the brand developer. Additionally, the increase in income per person has given people the power to purchase different products regardless of any financial issue. It gives Biotech a chance to inaugurate itself as a modest provider of infant formula products.

It is significant to mention that the major threat for Biotech is to enter in the competition in the Chinese market. Biotech is a multinational company, which can be affected by the change in laws and politics of China. Changing the political situation is always a real threat to multinational brands. If the diplomatic relations between the United States and China changes, then the market of Biotech may have to go through a critical crisis. In the past, China and the US have had stressful trade relations which are more likely to affect Biotech. In addition, having a long history of providing natural products is not worthy of Biotech in China as people are less likely to understand its profile. Many competitors in the market could prove to be problematic for Biotech. The framework of Porter five forces is referred to as a significant tool to critically assess the feature of business competition. It is helpful to model for business entities to recognize the preceding competition to prevail in the corporate world. Following are the major prospects of the porter five force analysis in the particular context of the organization of Biotech.

It is worthy to observe that potential Asian market recognized as the growing business world having an immense form of opportunities for the new entrants. Many stakeholders in the market involve infant products. China is one of the major business markets which has the potential to grow by offering business paradigms to new companies (Mathooko and Ogutu, 2015). Referring to the growing domain of this market, it is essential to consider the phenomenon of high competition. The company needs to develop business strategies concerning the risk factor of competition in the market. The market of China is ranked as a chief corporate region to offer business chances to the new business organizations. The company of Biotech needs to develop a comprehensive business plan to attain a strong position in the market. Products with natural ingredients are the new interest in the market of China, so many business corporations want to invest in this paradigm. A thorough analysis of the market of China indicates that there are many potential suppliers of the natural products which are relevant to the infant product industry. The company should focus on the alternative means of raw material and make the most suitable decisions. The power of customers can also never be ignored as it critically explains the potential demands of the products introduced by the company in the market. A keen analysis of the market in China shows that the buying power of customers is high. It is important for the company to target the major portion of the market. The threat of substitute products is relatively low as it seems difficult for customers to switch to other products when it comes to finding alternatives against natural commodities. Substitution of the infant formula product is not an easy task for the buyers.

Economic Environment

Over the past few years, China has experienced a remarkable GDP and growth rate. It has potential urban growth, abundant and skilled labor as well. Due to the cheap labor cost, many brands and companies are boosting to establish their business in China. Biotech can hire cheap labor in China to increase their profit. It is obvious that the GDP rate is increasing in China, which adds more values to society. Thats the reason behind the increase in the purchasing power of the consumer (Fogel, 2010). However, Biotech should keep it in mind that the inflation, interest, and exchange rate of China can impact its business as well. The inflation rates in China tend to be dynamic, and interest rates are lower than most of the other countries in the Asian region. According to the decreased interest rate, people have money at their disposal for spending in China. It is a recognized fact that companies are willing to invest in countries where interest and growth rates are lowered. Despite the impressive growth rate, Biotech should keep in mind a few potential trends that can significantly impact their business in China. In China, there are high property prices and high inflation rate, but there is a low-interest rate. Consequently, it is a preferable country for Biotech as it will attract more sales due to low interest rates.

Political Environment

There are many political factors that influence the economy such as employment, environmental, trade, consumer protection, tax, regulations on labors and standards. Nations are more likely to affect trade and diplomatic relationships. Both China and Malaysia are among the most attractive locations in the world. This rise boosted the international business and both formal and informal rules effect China as these rules must be obligated. It is a well-known fact that the political force is the most unsettled force that can impact the business of any industry. Despite the fact that China is the largest market in Asia, certain political factors are more likely to affect the potential to support the proliferation and growth of foreign industries. China is increasingly focused on bringing capital and technology in order to support their local labor (Fogel, 2010). China has some trade issues with the United States in the past which can affect their business and trade. In this regard, the United States and China have imposed certain taxes on imported products from each other. It is obvious that Biotech will establish its manufacturing plants in China as it has increased importation tax on the infant formula products in the recent time and these taxes may hinder the profit margin for Biotech. In order to avoid tax regimes, it is better to establish manufacturing plants in China.

Methods for Marketing and Distribution

Biotechs business unit strategy should look to attain some critical goals according to the business analysis in China. Biotech should need to develop an aggressive marketing strategy before starting its venture. For this purpose, Biotech needs to create awareness among people regarding the importance of their infant formula products. Here, the main objective is to make sure that the market is well studied. In addition, a company needs a well-developed entering strategy in order to gain an initial competitive edge (Serbin and Serbin, 2018). An aggressive start will help Biotech to get a competitive edge. A company should need to maintain its sustainable approach in the Chinese market. By doing so, the company can retain a competitive advantage over its rivals. The objective behind this is to consolidate its market after entry. Moreover, the business should need to meet the existing goals along with the demand and needs of the market. For this purpose, the company needs to provide pertinent information about the constituents that are used for making infant formula products. Social and internet media should be used as an effective strategy to create awareness among people so that they can understand their needs.

A B2B International survey provides an insight that how Chinese business owners and senior purchasers would like to be contacted by potential suppliers. It is notable to mention that majority of the respondents preferred to learn about various offers from their suppliers at an event or conference. In order to contact customers, Biotech needs to establish conferences and exhibits to move a relationship forward. Conferences and exhibitions give customers opportunities to ask questions and share their concerns about the new product. The face to face connection with the Chinese buyers is important and of great value for Chinese. Conferences and exhibitions help to demonstrate that Biotech is interesting to serve in the Chinese market by spending time and money. Among Chinese businesses, email is a potential means of communication as it aware customers about the products and services. Biotech needs to avail email service as buyers tend to react positively to a personalized email. It is also a potential option for Biotech to make a telephone call to create a positive relationship with employees. Additionally, the use of the website is the most favored way of learning about various aspects of suppliers and their products.

Biotech needs to promote an effective and attractive website to convey a companys offering to potential customers in China. The biotech also needs to develop a well-designed Chinese-language website as it will help to communicate with a wide target audience. It will also demonstrate the commitment of Biotech to the Chinese market. After the identification of suitable marketing methods, Biotech needs to determine potential distributors in the Chinese market. Biotech can use the tools such as service of the US and Chinese consulting companies and internet research to determine effective distribution method. Establishing a local sales team will help to achieve sales in the Chinese market. The sales team needs to comprise of both American and Chinese candidates as it will help in the negotiation process in unique Chinese business culture. The effectiveness of local staff will help to access key decisions makers to make a sale. It is also essential for Biotech to visit potential distributors in-person to see their operations as it will provide an opportunity to learn their business model.

Managerial and Labor Climate

Detailed and critical analysis of the entire market structure of the foreign country is important to ensure the successful form of business at the global level. It is vital for the business company to figure out the important aspects of the emerging corporation market of China and how this business environment can be better utilized to achieve actual objectives of the foreign country market plan. Comprehensive analysis of the market of China reveals that there are some potential and specific aspects links with the potential to international business. It is important for the management of the company to critically check the overall potential of the Chinese market when it comes to introducing biotech infant formula products in this region.

It is utmost important to figure out the existing situation of Chinese market specifically in the context of managerial and labor climate of this particular market. This form of exploration is necessary to differentiate the market structure of the potential market of China and America. Exploration of two crucial domains of management and labor climate eventually helps to determine the potential challenges and opportunities of this market specifically in case of biotech infant formula product. Examination of key trends of China is essential before the practical execution of launching consumer product of biotech infant formula product in the country. Growing competition is one of the keys and prominent features of the business world of China. People working at managerial positions strive to attain and sustain high managerial positions to ensure their strong position. It is important to observe specific managerial trends and styles adopted by managers that might differ from the working perspective of local managers. The prospect of work culture and managerial trends are the unique domain of consideration in case of China. It is interesting to explore managerial strategies adopted by Chinese managers to attain their organizational goals.

Close assessment of the managerial style of China shows that it is different from the management perspective of western countries. Exploration of Chinese management style is essential to indicate better perspectives about the objective of globalization. The cultural values and specific business norms of China also reflect in the form of overall managerial and labor climate prevails in the country. Mutualism is one prominent aspect of the managerial perspective of the Chinese business market. Chinese people come up with the opinion that self-discipline needs to be properly aligned with the mutual line of action. The main characteristic of the managerial approach prevails in China is that it is a people-centric domain. When it comes to the overall idea of the managerial position of the business in China than humanistic management style is a common prospect adopted by managers to achieve all the outcomes of organizational management. The business corporation originally belongs to America needs to consider this piece of knowledge that managerial style is different in the case of China. Common goal orientation is another major perspective of the entire managerial form of Chinese business organizations. Actions are effectively aligned with the approach of logic and proper reasoning.

It is also vital that how the management of Chinese organizations reacts when it comes to successfully adopt the objective of change. Various aligned strategies are considered by the management to positively react to the phenomenon of change. The strategy of response change is adopted to solve problems of performance and other managerial concerns. The Chinese management system is closely linked with the feature of perception. Failure of any organizational policy is recognized as personal failures and adopt significant measures to minimize the adverse impacts of ineffective decisions. Internal factors are characterized as the basic elements of success or failure of the project.

Managerial trends of the potential business market of China can better understand through the four main aspects of its civilization, cultures, language, and the entire perspective of management. All these features eventually play a critical role in the case of general managerial styles exist in the business market of China. At the first stage, it is important to get some necessary knowledge about the Chinese culture and its language to properly figure out the actual managerial and labor climate exists in the country. Proper involvement with the business perspective of the host country is only possible when it is linked with the consideration of working behaviors of Chinese people. Exploration of deep insights into the culture of China is critical to determine the consumer trends in the market. This form of knowledge further helps to propose possible effective managerial measures to meet the expectations of consumers.

Examination of labor trends of the Chinese market is also crucial to increase the understanding overall business perspective. It is vital to examine market conditions for labors and relevant policies. Low-cost labor is a prominent feature of the business world of China due to the higher population of the country. This specific dimension can be effective for global business organizations to hire cheap labor in the region of China to meet all the business objectives for both short-run and long-run. Detailed scrutiny of the labor climate of Chinese market also helps to identify the potential issues that prevail in case of operations of labors in different sectors. The strategy of low-cost labor ultimately come up with some forms of concerns relevant to the perspective of management. It is essential for the management of the business organizations to never exploit the situation in the form of long working hours for workers and pay less to them. A global business organization needs to be focus to address all the concerns relevant to the main idea of the labor climate. Ample range of labor can be one positive aspect of consideration for the global business organization. Local labor can be hired for different levels of organizational operations.

Financial Viability of Chinese Business Market

It is essential for the business organization to critically evaluate the financial positioning of the Chinese market to make better anticipations about the margin of profitability from the global business. It is utmost important to overview the markets trends of the Chinese market in case of product of biotech infant formula. It is essential to assess how much the decision of offering consumer product of biotech infant formula product can be viable in case of the market of China. The overall financial range of the Chinese market is essential to determine the potential opportunities for success as an international organization working in the market. Market entry in the case of China is only effectively execute considering all the relevant form of information. Financial viability of China helps to determine the potential business trend of the market. This form of knowledge further assists to adopt effective business measures when it comes to launching a new consumer product of biotech infant formula product in China. Consideration of the financial scope of the product is a key aspect to ensure the successful form of business in the region of China. Statistics and ground realities of the Chinese market indicate that there are high chances of offering new products in the market ass it is enjoying booming time-period. It is one vital chance for international organizations to focus on the Chinese market as the potential market and attain better outcomes.

The Chinese market is large in number that reflects plenty of chances of foreign investment. It is crucial for a foreign investor to consider it as the opportunity and avail maximum outcomes from the growing positioning of the market. Consumer segmentation is another critical aspect to determine the better ideas of a business functioning in the market of China. Initial cost and benefit analysis of the Chinese market is important to formulate a practical strategy of entering in the market by introducing a new product of biotech infant formula product. The analysis of cost and benefit helps to determine the actual opportunities and risk factors that involve in the scenario of business specifically for the market of China. Economic development is one prominent feature associated with the overall perspective of the Chinese business market. There are vital chances of success for the foreign companies that open new ways of investment for the global business. Consideration of relevant challenges is also essential to attain better outcomes from the business objective of initiating new product for Chinese consumers. Lower labor cost is one major financial objective for the business organizations that can lead to achieving the desired level of profitability.

Conclusion and Recommendations

The internal and external analysis provided an overview of the Chinese market situation and the chances of Biotech to prosper. Analysis suggests that Biotech has a great opportunity to enter the new market. China is a well-known market due to low-interest rate. Labor minimum wages are also less as compared to most of the countries, which give Biotech an edge to prosper in China. The analysis proves that Biotech can establish itself as a worthy competitor in the Chinese market. Strong and increasing GDPs along with growing purchasing parity of people show that it is a reasonable opportunity to establish a new business. The analysis shows that the strengths exceed the weaknesses in the Chinese market which provides an edge for Biotech. The political, social, environmental, economic, and technological factors can affect the industry, so Biotech need to design a customized and aggressive entry strategy. An effective strategy will help Biotech to maintain a strong position in the market as the buyer power is quite strong in the Chinese market.


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Marke size of baby care industry in China

International Relations PAGE MERGEFORMAT 2



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Subject: International Relations

Pages: 18 Words: 5400

International Money Fund (IMF) And The World Bank.

International Money Fund (IMF) and the World Bank

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the institution]


International Money Fund (IMF) and the World Bank


International Monetary Fund and World Bank, both are known as Bretton Wood Institutions as they were formed after a meeting of participation of 43 countries in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire in the United States of America in 1944 (Beazer & Woo, 2016). The aim of both of these international financial organizations was to help the world rebuild its shattered economy postwar and to promote international economic cooperation between all the countries of the world. IMF and WB are both the twin intergovernmental pillars that are headed on their mission to support the structure and dynamics of economic and financial order of the world. Although they were built at the same time for almost the same purpose they are distinct in their approach towards the financial development of the world. The basic difference that differentiates the two agencies other than their names is that the IMF's sole responsibility is to stabilize the exchange rates of the countries. This is not the case with the World Bank as WB is more focused towards the elimination of world poverty (Clemens & Kremer, 2016). That means that WB is a development institution whereas the IMF acts as a cooperative institution that is given the authority to maintain a stabilizing system of payments and recipients between the countries. Hence, the IMF is an international bank which gives loans to needy countries with the help of finically strong countries. IMF and WB both were established and are managed by the governments of participant countries. The participant countries consist of all the countries that are part of both the agencies. Both IMF and WB takes the economic issues of the participant countries seriously and focuses on their efforts to resolve the issues and strengthen the economies of those countries. They both also conduct international conferences together and these two also have their headquarters in Washington D.C which makes it a confusion if they both are the same. These two international institutions have many similarities and dissimilarities in them that distinct their role in structure, functions, and operations, funding, although both came into existence due to the Bretton Woods Agreement 1945 (Daoud et al.,2017). This paper will analyze all the differences and similarities of these renowned agencies that played a huge role in the economic and financial development of the world. The paper will make a comparison of the aspects of what they do and why they are different in their approach towards international relations.


When it comes to observing the structure of both the agencies, IMF is relatively small having only 2,300 employees that work for the agency. Whereas the World Bank is quite complex and is spread in almost all the countries due to its affiliates and subsidiaries, unlike the IMF. IMF staff members work only in their headquarters and have three offices present in Paris, New York, and Geneva. The employees are the economists and financial experts that maintain a record of financial an and economic development of all the nations (Dreher, 2018). World Bank is different in this case as WB has two broad organizations within itself which are: The International Bank for Reconstruction and the International Development Association (IDA). International Finance Corporation is yet another cooperation that is affiliated with WB but is legally and financially independent. This organization works for the assistance of funding for private enterprises in the developing nations. This is why WB cannot be considered solely as an organization but a group that has 7,000 employees, triple the figure of IMF and they are assigned to 40 different offices of WB around the world. However, like IMF almost 95 percent of WB's staff carry out operations in the headquarters located in Washington D.C. WB has a huge staff that has expertise in urban planning, portfolio management, transportation, education, rural development, population control, healthcare, and many more disciplines.


World Bank

World Bank was created to reassure the technical assistance poor countries need to develop economically and financially. The WB provides the funding for the development projects and also helps in suggesting effective policies that will boost the economic growth of the poor countries (Guven, 2017). WB gives foremost importance to the long term development and this is why plans policies for the countries that are more than five years longer to execute. Initially, when the bank came to existence, the starting policies and assistance of the agency focused more on electric power and infrastructure projects. Although WB prioritized these projects for many decades, they also expanded their operations in other development sectors as well related to food and security, water management, education, healthcare, poverty and many more. Bank gives extensive attention to the countries that have the poorest population in the world and therefore, directly involves in their economic matters by promoting agriculture and rural development (Hernandez, 2017). The purpose is to provide basic necessities and productivity to the countries that are deprived of them and lack resources to avail them. The projects are mostly specific, targeting one sector of the economy at a time and the decision of funding of those projects depends on the economic situation of that country. Mutual collaboration is made and decision-making authority is shared between the bank and the governments of those countries. WB is more active in designing and executing projects than the functions of lending. World bank does not opt for competition when it comes to providing loans to developing countries. It only supports those development projects for which the resources are not accessible from any other source on reasonable conditions.

International Monetary Fund (IMF)

IMF is drastically different than the World Bank in carrying out the operations and functions. IMF history can be divided into two major phases on the basis of the work undertaken by the agency until now (Kersting & Kilby, 2016). In the first phase that ended in 1973, the IMF supervised the acceptance of general convertibility among the powerful currencies of the world. It has directed a system that dealt with fixed exchange rates measured by the value of gold and assisted short term financing to economies in need of foreign exchange. The foreign exchange was needed by the countries to stabilize the value of their currencies and adjust them according to economic situations prevailing at that time. IMF faced many hurdles in the maintenance of a fixed foreign exchange rate as it gives way to unstable financial and monetary conditions all around the world. This consequence led the international community to review and revise the function of IMF related to exchange rates. The system was soon shifted to flexible exchange rates which became more effective in maintaining the monetary and financial balance in the countries. The second phase of IMF started after 1978 when the functions were broadened to suggest solutions to the challenges raised with the failure of the earlier system. IMF main functions include the role of being a mobilizer and moderator of the currencies of its member countries. IMF asks them to make their national currencies to be easily exchanged without any type of restriction of the currencies of other member states (Kilby, 2015). Till 1996, almost 115 members showed agreement to the full convertibility of their currencies without giving wat to any hurdle. The second important function of IMF includes the supervision of IMF in devising the economic policies that will help in balancing the payments under a flexible exchange rate system. This assistance helps in identifying the early warnings of any problem related to the balance of payments and exchange rates. In this aspect, the IMF has the edge to authorize and monitor the financial performance of all the countries which is done once a year. IMF keeps a close check on the economic policies and developments of the economies of its member states and keeps them updated. The member states can approach the IMF for technical and financial assistance only if the balance of payments are not roughly balanced. When there occurs major instability in the economies, only then it becomes a compulsion for the countries to ask the IMF for loans under the conditions set by the IMF. These conditions ultimately make the exports of the country more expensive and the imports relatively cheaper (Agyemang, 2018). This is because the countries take times in reorganization and improving the current economic situations and the IMF will lend money during that time of change for the countries to assist in reforms.


The World Bank is a bank used for investment, managing the payments between investors and recipients. It involves in the borrowing process from one to another entity. WB is owned by the government of its 180 member countries having equity shares in the Bank that were worth $176 billion in 1995. Whereas the IMF cannot be considered as a bank although it has functions similar to one. IMF does not play any part in the process of investors and recipients (Peet, 2009). However, the IMF has enough resources to assist other countries with the worth of value to be $215 billion. These resources come through the quota subscriptions or the membership fees taken from the 182 members of IMF. World Bank is a key borrower in the global capital market and the biggest non-resident borrower that is working virtually in 180 countries where its issues are traded. WB do borrow money through the selling of bonds and reports directly to the government of its member countries, their agencies and the central banks of these countries. IMF is different in this regard as IMF does not borrow and lends but acts as credit union whose members can access a common pool of resources through the sum of their own contributions. The recipients of the World Bank are not the rich countries or private entities but the governments of poor and developing countries (Polak & Boughton, 2016). The poorer the country is; the more facilitation it receives from WB in the form of financial assistance. In contrast, in the case of IMF, all the countries no matter whether they are rich or poor, have equal access to the cooperation's financial resources. As all the countries want to maintain their balance of payments, therefore each one of them has the right to go for financial help to IMF.


Although both the agencies are working effectively to assist the member countries in every way possible there are still some matters that need to be considered by them. It is seen in the context of IMF that when the poor countries borrow from the IMF, the conditions IMF impose are manipulating the economy instead of showing any improvement. Those conditions in the Structural Adjustment Programs (SAP) are not helpful enough to bring the country out of economic instability. Overvaluation in the currency becomes deviated from the trade policies and are destructive in nature. IMF should work on its role as a financial provider to assist and not as a business investor that places conditions difficult to fulfill by the developing countries. As for the World Bank, the specific project for which the agency provides its assistance, it will be very effective if the agency sends their teams to the member countries that require their help in policy implementation and project execution. Both the World Bank and IMF should closely monitor the economic performance of the countries twice a year and keeps providing constructive feedback on matters where they are required the most.


Beazer, Q. H., & Woo, B. (2016). IMF conditionality, government partisanship, and the progress of economic reforms. American Journal of Political Science, 60(2), 304-321.

Clemens, M. A., & Kremer, M. (2016). The new role for the World Bank. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 30(1), 53-76.

Daoud, A., Nosrati, E., Reinsberg, B., Kentikelenis, A. E., Stubbs, T. H., & King, L. P. (2017). Impact of International Monetary Fund programs on child health. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114(25), 6492-6497.

Dreher, A. (2018). 3 Political influences in IMF and World Bank operations: Lessons for the design of European institutions. Bretton Woods, Brussels, and Beyond, 23.

Güven, A. B. (2017). Defending supremacy: how the IMF and the World Bank navigate the challenge of rising powers. International Affairs, 93(5), 1149-1166.

Hernandez, D. (2017). Are “New” Donors Challenging World Bank Conditionality? World Development, 96, 529-549.

Kersting, E. K., & Kilby, C. (2016). With a little help from my friends: Global electioneering and World Bank lending. Journal of Development Economics, 121, 153-165.

Kilby, C. (2015). Assessing the impact of World Bank preparation on project outcomes. Journal of Development Economics, 115, 111-123.

Konadu-Agyemang, K. (Ed.). (2018). IMF and World Bank sponsored structural adjustment programs in Africa: Ghana's experience, 1983-1999. Routledge.

Peet, R. (2009). Unholy trinity: the IMF, World Bank and WTO. Zed Books Ltd..

Polak, J. J., & Boughton, J. M. (2016). The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund: A Changing Relationship. In Economic Theory and Financial Policy (pp. 92-146). Routledge.

Subject: International Relations

Pages: 6 Words: 1800

International Relations

Title page

International relations: Foreign policy

Is that president’s foreign policy more consistent with realism or liberalism? Why?


President Trump’s foreign policy is based on the ideology of fundamental realism. The first foreign policy of Trump’s administration reflects its connection with conservative realism the National Security strategy addressed the major shifts in the geopolitical order that also involved resurgence of great power competition. Realism involves burden sharing with allies and open-ended interventions that are sensitive to costs. Trump is seen as a non-liberalist because he is not intended on treating this order and in only concerned about raising questions regarding institutions that have been working for over sixty years CITATION And172 \l 1033 (Wivel, 2017). His central argument for adopting realist foreign policy is that the institutions are not complying with the interests or values of America. The business background of the president has also influenced his decisions because he believes in the benefits that a country can derive.


Realists interpret the foreign policy in accordance with political power. They don’t define the amount of power and claims that it depends on the situational need. The state’s access to resources and its size influence the decisions regarding foreign policy. The policy also changes according to the security challenges faced by the country. The nature of the strategic environment also affects the weight of domestic influences. The theory states that powerful countries are more likely to enjoy large external action compared to the weak states. Realism relies on an anarchic structure on an international system that reflects the absence of legitimate monopoly of power. It states, “the absence of a central authority that could protect states against each other leads every state to focus primarily on its own security and survival, and, in particular, how it might best protect itself from the attack of other states” CITATION And172 \l 1033 (Wivel, 2017). It stresses on the absence of powerful authority that provides protection to the states. The foreign policy emphasizes on human decisions at the state level. It means that decisions are taken that provide the best response to the external challenges.

Relists are crucial for the enhancement of the country's national security. An ineffective policy will have adverse impacts on the country if it neglects the national agenda. the decision maker has a right to address the challenges and make decisions that are in the best interest of the country and state. Realism is against the philosophy of attaining a greater good. This means every state is responsible for taking actions that ensure its own security and benefit. The theory rejects the ideology of greater good because such actions can have adverse impacts on the national stability of the country CITATION And172 \l 1033 (Wivel, 2017). The central idea of the theory is that it is built on the philosophy of realism. The decisions rely on the assessment of benefits and risks. The leaders following realism will be concerned about choosing the policy framework that maximizes the national benefit.

Realism is established on the ideology of collective selfishness and politics of necessity. It states, “a concern with power politics and how it influences decisions on war and peace, a writing style attempting to unpack the factual development of events, and a focus on foreign policy decision makers” CITATION And172 \l 1033 (Wivel, 2017). This indicates that the policy is formulated by considering the facts and examining possibilities of development. As each state is concerned about its own security and power, it reflects the concept of collective selfishness. Realism promotes the decision-makers to take actions or devise a policy that acts in favor of the country. The politicians don't care about its implications on the rest of the world. Political necessity indicates that any decision can be justified according to the need of the situation. This reflects the application of catalyzing change.

The theory states that the leader must be able to provide logical reasoning behind policy intervention. According to realism “policymaker is the anti-idealist attempting to view the world as it is in order to rationally and cool-headedly employ the means necessary to preserve the political community he is the leader of” CITATION And172 \l 1033 (Wivel, 2017). The decisions or the changes must be justified with rational logic. The leader if convinces policymakers about his views, it represents the realistic issues. It will be appropriate to adopt such measures because they offer to reason.

Historical cases

The decision of the United Nations to support NATO during the cold was based on the theory of realism. Trump's actions on foreign policy depict that he appeals to non-interventionists who reflects engagement with multilateralism CITATION KIM19 \l 1033 (AMADEO, 2019). Trump claims that “China stop stealing America’s intellectual property the United States loses about $600 billion a year to intellectual property theft, with China accounting for the majority of cases” CITATION Nad18 \l 1033 (Schadlow, 2018). The claims were raised in Trump's speech of 2018 that criticized the role of powerful countries and identified it as a threat to the American economy and the position of superpower. The president has used realism for interpreting the adverse impacts of competition. The reason for making such claims is to highlight the foreign policy weaknesses that are having negative implications on the security of America. Trump states that countries that are enjoying high power due to their strong political and economic standings must be considered as rivals.

Trump in 2019 declared to close the southern border of Mexico. He claimed that security is more critical than trade. The decision of Trump in 2018 resulted in rectification of North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). This act has great significance in American history because it was established for promoting trade between Mexico and America. Major policy changes reflect, “Trump imposed a 25 percent tariff on steel and a 10 percent tariff on aluminium on Canada, Mexico, and the European Union. In retaliation, Canada imposed tariffs on $12.6 billion of U.S. imports” CITATION KIM19 \l 1033 (AMADEO, 2019). This reflects changes in policy for integrating changes that maximize the interest of America. It indicates a strategy for revising trade negotiations that removes the imbalance of trade.

Trump’s policy on controlling drug trafficking relied on minimizing the cross border movement between Mexico and America. He adopted a realistic approach by claiming the Mexican trucks are supplying most of the drugs in America. The cocaine production cartels shifted to America in the 1990s that required the state's crackdown CITATION Nad18 \l 1033 (Schadlow, 2018). Since that time the majority of the traffickers moved to Mexico and are still operating from there. The decision of Trump to close the Mexican border reflects selfishness because he has focused on the national security of America only. This is also against the history of NAFTA that was approved for promoting free border movement between Mexico and America.


The National Security of Trump’s administration indicates realism because of the role of central power. It states, “the American way of life cannot be imposed on others, nor it is the inevitable culmination of progress” CITATION Nad18 \l 1033 (Schadlow, 2018). This idea reveals that Trump is following a realistic philosophy because of his actions or decisions regarding foreign policy don't impose an American way of life on immigrants or minority populations. This is because everyone has a right to choose the way they want to live. The president has thus focused on adopting democratic means that don’t undermine personal choice.

The foreign policy is focused on advancing American principles that stress on peace and prosperity. The first principle of sovereignty that includes "the preservation of American freedom of action and the unwillingness to cede control of decisions to multilateral organizations or other collective bodies” CITATION Nad18 \l 1033 (Schadlow, 2018). This view has deep connectivity with the theory of realism. President’s claims that the ideology of the United Nations is associated with diminishing democracy undermines the sovereignty of member states. he believes that the EU is not fulfilling the purpose for which it was created. The president is concerned more about American interests and values that convinces him to give up power to prominent undemocratic bodies like the UN. He is only willing to collaborate with organizations that ensure that produced actions support American interests and values.

The second principle of the National Security has an association with the competition. Trump's National Security Strategy reflects that it is put on the competition front. He witnesses the world and globalization as a competition that reflects realistic viewpoints. He talked about the competitors like China who are powerful in economic, political and military aspects. The nature of order has always supported other powers to rise according to Trump. He witnesses these powers as a threat to the United States. his policy consider the developed countries who are superior in power as a threat to America. The states that gained excessive power due to success in the economic, military and political means are more likely to cause adversaries for America CITATION KIM19 \l 1033 (AMADEO, 2019). Trump’s policy has thus stressed on great power competition. he has also criticized the role of globalization due to increased competition and power shifts taking place across the world. Competition states that the world is not safe due to the emergence of a global economy because business firms from all over the world are working for maximizing benefits. This according to the president poses challenges for the local businessman who has to compete with the organizations engaged in the global community. The policy considerations of Trump depicts that America needs to address globalization in a way that it will address American benefit. This reflects that America must compete with powerful countries by building a foreign strategy that strengths the country's position.

Trump has considered America’s engagement with Russia, China and Iraq as power exploitation of the country. He suggests cutting defiance budgets and working on the policy of peace. Trump’s police states, “defence budget cuts under sequestration, and developing a national defence strategy to reestablish the balance of power in key regions" CITATION Nad18 \l 1033 (Schadlow, 2018). This reflects that the president has taken the role of a realist who rejects to depend on the arc of American history but believes in reconsidering security problems. Trump has also rejected the view that new power equilibria like that of China's rise will not pose any threats to American security. He claims that international rules and domestic regimen will ultimately affect political harmony and convergence. The realistic philosophy followed by Trump depicts that he has criticized the idealism of conservative internationalists. His argument also denies the benefits of liberal democratic values.

The third principle stresses of Trump’s foreign policy is focused on catalyzing change. the presider is concerned about the costs involved in the ambitious policies. He claims that America should not bear undue or unnecessary burdens by confronting issues of the world. Such a mindset indicates that Trump is relying on realistic philosophy for retaining its position as a superpower. This is the only way by which American National policy will contribute to the long-term stability of the country. The incentives of Trump also indicates that foreign policy must be capable of taking all necessary measures that will promote national security CITATION And172 \l 1033 (Wivel, 2017). Realism used by Trump states the need for catalyzing change and taking actions that are in the best interest of America.

Realism is also apparent in Trump's views regarding sharing a burden or sharing responsibility. He claims that the Muslim-Majority countries need to take actions for fighting against radical Islamists. This is because the engagement of America in supporting anti-terrorism has increased financial burden on the country. This according to the president's views is uneven and unjustified. The argument of Trump states that it is the collective responsibility of the Islamic countries, not America. The analysis of Trump's views indicates that he has relied on the ideology of realism by taking actions that result in the best interest of America CITATION KIM19 \l 1033 (AMADEO, 2019). Here his central focus is on minimizing the cost burdens by disengaging from unnecessary foreign activities.

Trump has demanded reciprocity and actively seek corporation for security and trade. He involved modern defence alliances for spreading security and peace-related obligations. He has also criticized the trade imbalances that have affected the American economy negatively. He highlights many real issues related to trade such as tariff and non-tariff barriers and the manipulations of currency. Realistic views are also apparent in the president’s response to immigrants CITATION Nad18 \l 1033 (Schadlow, 2018). He identifies the threats faced by America due to the increase in European and Asian immigrants. The suggestions for adopting strict immigrant policy indicate the adoption of realism.

The immigration policy according to Trump has played a negative role by encouraging immigrants to settle in America. The rise in immigration has shrunk employment opportunities for local people. He also claims that the entry of foreign investors has increased the competition for the local firms. This indicates the realistic views are used by Trump for defending his views. He considers such policy as ineffective and flawed. The president has thus relied on realism for justifying his claims about immigrants. The consistent rise in immigrants has created problems of employment and joblessness for the American nationals. The realistic philosophy of Trump depicts that the policy must act in favor of the local citizens. This reflects that the solution for overcoming unemployment is by reducing the number of immigrants. By adopting strict immigrant policy the foreign policy will contribute towards the development of the local people CITATION And172 \l 1033 (Wivel, 2017). This will create more jobs for local Americans and increase the chances of their growth.

Trump has used realism for justifying his strong views against NAFTA. He claims that the foreign policy must close the border with Mexico irrespective of its economic implications. This is because the increase in drug trafficking is due to open trade between the two countries. Closing the southern border according to him will affect the economy but is crucial for maintaining national security. The response of Trump to the border trade between Mexico and America depicts that he has used realism that suggests adopting change according to the situation. It is appropriate to change the policies depending on the situational needs.

The overall analysis of Trump’s decisions regarding foreign policy depicts that he has relied on collective selfishness and political necessity. The ideology of collective selfishness indicates that the states are justified in taking measures that represent national agenda only irrespective of its impacts on the world or neighbor countries. Trump has taken a selfish stand by proposing changes in the trade agreements. This is due to the fact that increased immigration has worsened the conditions of employment. The local Americans have to struggle for jobs due to the availability of high workforce. This has also undermined opportunities for employment and minimized wages. The companies hire foreign labor at cheap wages that affect the employment opportunities for first-class citizens.

Realism states that the leader is free to take action that reflects political necessity. Trump’s decision of considering changes in the NAFTA act is also justified on the basis of political necessity. The necessity of the situation requires the president to take action that would minimize the threats of drug trafficking. Drug trafficking is linked to Mexican cartels it is appropriate to adopt a defensive strategy like closing borders CITATION And172 \l 1033 (Wivel, 2017). Similarly, Trump's decision of deporting undocumented immigrants also reflects realism. This is also linked to political necessity because it suggests the welfare of local Americans. Realism is linked to peace and stability that means taking actions that are essential for national security. This is justified even if neglects shared burden or shared responsibility. Trump manages to provide adequate reasoning behind policy changes that make him realise.


The foreign policy of Trump on represents the fundamental realism because it stresses on peace and stability. The decision maker has a right to address the challenges and make decisions that are in the best interest of the country and state. Realism is against the philosophy of attaining a greater good. The analysis of Trump's views indicates that he has relied on the ideology of realism by taking actions that result in the best interest of America. By adopting strict immigrant policy the foreign policy will contribute towards the development of the local people. The leaders following realism will be concerned about choosing the policy framework that maximizes the national benefit. The ideology of collective selfishness indicates that the states are justified in taking measures that represent the national agenda. The decisions of Trump are justified on the basis of realism.


BIBLIOGRAPHY AMADEO, K. (2019). Trump's NAFTA Changes. Retrieved 04 09, 2019, from https://www.thebalance.com/donald-trump-nafta-4111368

Schadlow, N. (2018). The Conservative Realism of the Trump Administration's Foreign Policy. Retrieved 04 09, 2019, from https://www.hudson.org/research/14738-the-conservative-realism-of-the-trump-administration-s-foreign-policy

Wivel, A. (2017). Realism in Foreign Policy Analysis. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics.

Subject: International Relations

Pages: 9 Words: 2700


International relations

Thucydides: A Greek historian and author knew for his work ‘History of Peloponnesian War'.

Anarchy: A state that lacks order due to the absence of authority.

Hegemonic stability theory: The stability of the international system requires the enforcement of laws.

Security dilemma: a spiral model that focuses on strengthening military power through weaponization.

Bipolar system: explains how military and economic activity influence two states.

Balance of power: a condition in which states enjoy the same power.

Rationality: decisions based on logic and reasoning.

Arms race: the competition among nations for superiority and power.

League of Nations: it is an organization that stresses on the treaty of versatility.

International regime: a process that involves rules for transforming intergovernmental organizations.

Liberalism: a philosophy that emphasizes an individual's freedom and liberty.

Neoliberal institutionalism: it reflects that international institutes have maintained international relations including political and economic perspectives.

Positive peace: it refers to justice for all.

Feminism: stresses on women rights and equality.

Groupthink: harmony in the group for attaining group results.

Organizational process model: involve a set of assets and work standards for maintaining organizational efficiency.

Cognitive bias: a decision that lacks rationality due to partiality.

Prospect theory: identifies the reasons that encourage people to choose problematic alternatives.

Public opinion: views of the public about different state decisions and policies.

Power: the capacity of influencing others.

Power transition theory: explains the relationship among states in the international system.

Deterrence: discouraging an action for avoiding negative consequences.

Unipolar system: a condition in which states enjoy the same power in the military, political and economic aspects.

Multipolar system: political arrangements are disrupted by the political powers. This also refers to the decentralization of power.

NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization in which European countries agree to support each other.

Prisoner’s dilemma: the situation in which outcomes are dependent on the simultaneity of the situation. The prisoners are given choices for confessing or denying to the crime.

Immanuel Kant: a popular philosopher of ethics. Known for his ethical theory of utilitarianism that explains that the ethical decision leads to the benefit for the maximum number.

United Nations: international organizations united for cooperative and political advantage.

Collective security: a broader security framework that stresses on the security at global and international levels. The nations engage in generating a collective response to threats and security risks.

Liberal institutionalism: UN and NATO unite for maximization of aids among nations.

Postmodernism: criticism of the late twentieth century that emphasized on self-consciousness and early conventions. Artists emerged to challenge political injustices.

Marxism: involve the theory of Karl Marx for explaining the division between the rich and the poor. The resources and unequal possession of wealth creates a natural gap between the poor and the rich.

Decision-making: the process involved in making decisions.

Rational actor model: rationality refers to maximization of value.

Government bargaining model: policy decisions that involve diverse outcomes.

Affective bias: negative bias that affects the neutrality of decision.

Interest groups: a group that aims at influencing the policy decisions of the state.

Military-industrial complex: an alliance between the nation and the military working for making policies.

Question# 2

Sun Tzu, Thucydides, and Thomas Hobbes are all considered to be thinkers who shaped what we call a realist approach to politics. However, the approach is less useful that pre-9/11 because the state needed to address the interest groups that challenged the national security.

Question# 3

The strengths of realist theory include its ability to stressing on human nature and explaining how states interact with each other. Security and maximization of power are strengths. Conflict and inter-state wars are common weaknesses this became evident in the Middle East. The strengths of the liberal theory include collective security and corporation. The weakness includes minimum state intervention such as in America where business firms enjoy monopoly power.

Subject: International Relations

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Judging About “just Wars.”

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Judging about “just wars”

The true essence of war as a quintessential social phenomenon has largely been denoted as a fight between groups of human societies whereby the groups entailed savage tribes in the primitive times and states in the civilized periods. Viewed through the lens of history, many instances demonstrate the assertiveness of nations and various leaders as they waged war, simultaneously questioning the agenda of their enemies. This tradition paved the way for the evolution of just war theory and it has long been incorporated by the scholars of international relations in the pursuit of understanding the dynamics of war and interstate disputes across the globe. This essay attempts to probe into the dynamics of five cases namely, Sino-Vietnamese War in 1979, Falkland War, attack on Libya from an international coalition in 2011, Russian occupation of Crimea in 2014, and the attack from United States of America and Russia on the ISIS’s positions in Syria.

According to the basic abstractions of many studies, war is the most violent form of association between the two states. Deeply anchored in human history and broader culture, war is primarily categorized as an institutional invention and is regarded as an organized activity. Unlike individual killing, war requires a multitude of factors to fulfill, for instance, the political support from the citizens is a vital requirement before waging war in addition to the timely training and mobilization of armed forces and production of weapons CITATION Kim94 \l 1033 (Kimball).

The events revolving around the Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia and subsequent occupation has widely been recognized as the pre-cursor for driving the conflict which led to the Sino-Vietnamese war in 1979. Consequently, the ouster of the Pol Pot regime which was essentially pro-Beijing in nature proved to be the final nail in the coffin for China and it primarily condemned this action by Vietnam. Described as Vietnamese hegemony, backed up by Russian imperialism, the Vietnamese occupation of Cambodia was strongly condemned by China. In spite of sharing Marxist ideologies, Vietnam and China have had a complex and conflicting relationship. This war was the last alternative China had several reasons for launching this attack. Pot Pol regime toppled by Vietnam was an unfavorable action and China wanted to punish Vietnam for it. Chiefly concerned about the increasing prevalence of socialism and Soviet influence in the region, China had no option but to wage war against Vietnam, garnering a blow to the Soviet prestige in the region CITATION Cha16 \l 1033 (Chang). Although this was the last alternative option available to the attacking nation, the Sino-Vietnamese War cannot be considered as a just war. In the case of the Falklands War, the prevailing disputes had a history of over two centuries and the war was fought between the British and the Argentines. There was a pursuit of the sovereignty of the Islands by both nations but it is a historical instance that official declaration was absent from either side of this war. The intention from both sides was righteous by virtue. Potential vindication of the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands and their right of self-determination was the intention of the British to instigate a military action. The foreign military intervention in Libya is a strict departure from the requirements of just war theory. The issue of intention derived from the just war theory implies that the long history of hostilities between Gaddafi and the West was a primary factor to launch this foreign intervention. The primary motivation behind this intervention did not ponder upon any humanitarian concerns CITATION Doy16 \l 1033 (Doyle). Provision of logistics and communications in complex missions, creating a safe environment for instigating negotiations with the sitting head of state are some of the alternatives that could be deployed instead of exceeding the United Nations Resolution Mandate CITATION Bar11 \l 1033 (Bartu). The use of force in the intervention was not a last resort nor did it seem harmonious with the true democratic needs and desires of the Libyan people. In spite of prevalent expectations, the intervention was executed by North Atlantic Treaty Organization with maximum damage, therefore other alternatives such as negotiations or peace talks with the sitting president of Libya at that time could have been explored. As far as the Russian annexation of Crimea in 2014 is regarded, it has been decreed as a severe violation of the rules and regulations of international law. Instead of invading Crimea, Russia could have negotiated but this did not happen. Finally, in the case of the United States and Russian interventions in Syria to destroy ISIL territories in Syria also is not the last option left for these two superpowers to address the issue at hand. The actions of both the governments overseas could be chiefly focused on hampering and disrupting the networks spread across various regions that are supporting ISIL. Allocation of increased resources to law enforcement agencies and intelligence departments, operational barriers and hurdles can be established for terrorist activities across the globe. Additionally, limited influence can be used in Syria by the Russian Federation and the United States for the promotion of a political change so that it is difficult for ISIL to take advantage of the grievances of Sunni Arabs CITATION Dav17 \l 1033 (Davis). Furthermore, military operations could have been restricted so that civilian casualties in the aftermath of this war could have been avoided.

As a result of enduring Vietnamese ignorant attitude for a long time, Chinese troops were deployed in Vietnam. The Chinese army in this case and the government are considered as legitimate authorities because China has always been overly concerned about the influence of the Soviet Union in the East-Asian and South-Asian region in addition to the sanctity of its borders. The Just War theory requires that war must be initiated by a sovereign and political authority that primarily allows distinctions of justice. In the case of the Falklands War, both nations acted in a just manner and did not coincide in their pursuit of being the legitimate authority. There was no formal declaration of war by either side in the Falklands War. In line with the preceding analyses, there is no need to inquire whether the Argentine Junta or the state authority was legitimate or not in this sense. Viewing through another lens, it might be noted here that some research scholars have argued that the wars and disputes that are waged and initiated with the consent and full knowledge of the citizens and army of the states involved are legitimate. The intervention of NATO in Libya during 2011 while being extremely controversial also failed to delineate its true objectives. The underpinnings of this intervention were under the framework of Responsibility to Protect, it is quite evident from the statistics and in-depth analyses that the priority for NATO was the regime change. The alteration of achieving the apparent objectives leads to interrogate the entirety of this foreign military intervention and simultaneously questions the legitimacy of NATO as well as one of the central requirements to validate the just war theory. There is a commonly believed assumption among a larger majority of Russians maintaining that Crimea has always been an integral and dynamic part of Russia. To tell the truth, most of the historical accounts point to the fact that the Crimean Peninsula has nothing to do with the Russian Federation and is autonomous in its sovereignty. Therefore, in this case, the legitimacy of Russia in annexing Crimea and waging war is highly questionable. Russian spokesmen were also unable to present credible evidence for the state's actions and chose to play a defense card but reflections and overviews over the Russian arguments regarding this matter have managed to establish that Russian annexation of Crimea does not have a constitutional basis which questions Russian authority in waging this war CITATION Gar16 \l 1033 (Gardner). There is no moral justification of the U.S. led intervention followed by Russia in Syria. The competent authorities in the Syrian war are questionable because Donald J. Trump and Putin have bypassed the opinion held by the significant majority of their parliaments, thus all the dynamics of these interventions can be called into question by the International Court of Justice CITATION Phi19 \l 1033 (Phillips).

Some of the historical causes which paved the way for the Sino-Vietnamese War include hegemonic aims by Vietnam, threats posed by Vietnam regarding Chinese borders, and the Soviet Union’s persistent attempts to expand its influence in Southeast Asia CITATION Mac16 \l 1033 (MacDonald). These causes cannot be categorized as wrongful acts or manifestations of armed aggression or armed violence. The Falklands War also did not redress a wrongful act. There was no instance in the history of British and Argentine that can be categorized as armed violence. Rather it was the case of a sovereign dispute over the Falkland Islands. The goal of NATO's military intervention led by the United States of America was to prevent a massacre and protect Libyan citizens from the then-dictator of state, Al- Gaddafi. After seven months of the initial intervention, the military mission expanded massively and there was a transition in its aims. From the protection of civilians, the foreign military intervention in Libya shifted its objective stance to a change in regime. Therefore, this war also did not start to redress a wrongful act. It was instigated by the Obama administration in 2011 so that military intervention can be proliferated into a dynamic campaign in the pursuit of regime change in Libya. The Crimean operation and eventual annexation was a timely response to NATO's threat of expansion along the western border of Russia. Deploying this logic, Putin annexed the peninsula in the pursuit of preventing the dangerous possibility of Ukraine joining NATO. The imperialist perspective declares this annexation as a Russian strategy to slowly recapture all those territories which were previously a part of the Soviet Union CITATION Tre16 \l 1033 (Treisman). Although these two interpretations of Russian annexation of the Crimean Peninsula are extremely hostile and power-seeking in the true essence, still these do not justify the instigation of this war. This annexation is also regarded as an impulsive decision by many research scholars of international decisions, therefore it can be concluded that this was not redressing a wrongful act CITATION Gra15 \l 1033 (Grant). The war crimes committed by insurgent groups and Islamic State fighters have led the Russian and American governments to intervene in the Syrian Civil War. Crime investigators stipulated that ISIL groups committed deadly attacks on American civilians and used them as human shields, which left no option for America but to demolish the ISIL territories in Syria. These interventions partly redress the wrongful attacks by Syria but the big picture portrays Syria as a victim in global politics.

The original goals of China in waging a limited war against Vietnam were both political and military including the jeopardy of Soviet Union's global reputation, strengthen Den Xiaoping's influence in China, and pursuit of aids from the western superpowers. Although from a military perspective, China could not meet its objectives, yet it attained all its political goals. Peace was never a goal for the instigation of this war, therefore its establishment cannot be determined adequately. China succeeded in accomplishing the major strategic goals but many innocent Vietnamese and Chinese lives were lost in the process. Diplomacy in the relations between the British and Argentine nations was not restored and peace was not maintained until the end of the 1980s after the end of the Falklands War. The propagation of 'the sovereignty umbrella', a formula that led Argentina to surrender at the end of this conflict established peace in the region and paved the way for further negotiations and talks about those matters who garnered mutual interest from both nations. Conventional wisdom about NATO's intervention in Libya during 2011 is wrong which entails that this intervention was peaceful. It was never peaceful but violent from the very start. The main objective of the intervention was not the protection of civilians, rather it was strategically designed to overthrow the dictator regime of Gaddafi. In this process, many Libyans were harmed and the risk to civilians was amplified manifold. Western powers and various sanctions still condemn the Russian annexation of Crimea and there is a general acceptance that there is no possibility that Russia will return the Peninsula to Ukraine in the next foreseeable future. Until then, the geopolitical tensions will perturb the peaceful fabric in the region. The Russian and American interventions in Syria have destroyed ISIL territories and chiefly destructed the civilian lives and prospects. The demilitarization of the Syrian war has remained the top-most agenda of many peace processes in the United Nations but the realization of 'peace' remains a distant goal. Military interventions from Russia and America have led this conflict to last longer than the Second World War.

Works Cited

BIBLIOGRAPHY Bartu, Peter. "What mandate? Mediating during warfighting in the Libyan Revolution." African security (2011): 176-191.

Chang, Cheng-Yun. "Were Those Decisions Righteously Made? The Chinese Tradition of Righteous War and China’s Decisions for War, 1950–1979." Foreign Policy Analysis (2016): 398-415.

Davis, Lynn E., Jeffrey Martini, and Kim Cragin. "A strategy to counter ISIL as a transregional threat." RAND National Security Research Division, International Security and Defense Policy Center Santa Monica (2017).

Doyle, Michael W. "The politics of global humanitarianism: The responsibility to protect before and after Libya." International Politics (2016): 14-31.

Gardner, Hall. "The Russian annexation of Crimea: regional and global ramifications." European Politics and Society (2016): 490-505.

Grant, Thomas D. "Annexation of Crimea." American Journal of International Law (2015): 68-95.

Kimball, Jeffrey. "Alternatives to War in History." OAH Magazine of History (1994): 5-9.

MacDonald, Matt. "The Law and Politics of a Norm Violation: Punitivity and the Sino-Vietnamese War of 1979." Amsterdam Law Forum (2016).

Phillips, Christopher. "Structure, Agency and External Involvement in the Syria conflict." Shifting Global Politics and the Middle East (2019): 67.

Treisman, Daniel. "Why Putin Took Crimea: The Gambler in the Kremlin." Foreign Aff (2016): 47.

Subject: International Relations

Pages: 7 Words: 2100


Organizational Culture

Institutional Affiliation

Student’s name



Organizational Culture

Communication culture in Ringsted, Denmark

Culture is an important aspects when it comes to any organization. It defines the way people interact with other members of the institution, deal with outside clients, and approach leaders among other important operation that takes place within the firm (Maindal et al, 2016). For this reason there is need of nurturing a good culture within any organization, in order to improve the general performance and the productivity of the organization. The region I have decided to choose is Ringsted, which is found in Denmark. Denmark is among the leading countries when it comes to entrepreneurship.

One of the major factors that affects business in this region is language. The official language in this region is Danish, but still eighty percent of the population understand English (Heiselberg 2018). This is because it is taught in elementary schools as a compulsory subject. Apparently most Danish people have adequate English knowledge and very little interpretation is required during business. Most emails are also written in English, which makes it possible for colleagues from different countries ti get involved.

There are also various verbal and non-verbal cues that affects business in this region. Looking at the nonverbal cues for instance, handshakes between men and women are accepted forms of greeting, during, before and after meetings. During handshake, it is required to be firm, short and eye contact maintained during the whole process.

Generally, communication in Danish is quite informal even in business, and is characterized by much humor, goodwill and low key is also maintained all through (Jensen 2016). Most of the Danes share a lot about their families with other colleagues openly among other aspects of their private lives. However, in times of meeting they tend to stick only on business issues. Communication is quite friendly, and this is one of the reason that apparently has highly contributed to better performance when it comes to business in this country.


Heiselberg, M. H. (2018). Operation ‘Long Distance Parenting’: the moral struggles of being a Danish soldier and father. Gender, Place & Culture, 1-21.

Jensen, K. V. (2016). Crusading at the Edges of Europe: Denmark and Portugal c. 1000–c. 1250. Routledge.

Maindal, H. T., Kayser, L., Norgaard, O., Bo, A., Elsworth, G. R., & Osborne, R. H. (2016). Cultural adaptation and validation of the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ): robust nine-dimension Danish language confirmatory factor model. SpringerPlus, 5(1), 1232.

Subject: International Relations

Pages: 1 Words: 300

New US Grand National Security Policy

US Grand National Security:

China and the United States in East Asian Regionalism


The study argues that since the end of the Cold War, regionalism has been changed due to the changing US-China interactions. It has also cause a great influence, development, and transformation of the security, political, and economic cooperation in the region. Thus, the study intend to present understanding of the historical inter-connections between the two countries (United States and China) in East Asia and their dynamic nexus with the regional evolution. The study has followed literature analysis methodology to evaluate the Grand National security of the United States driven by power rivalry, geopolitics, realism, balance of power, and political economy. The findings of the study will be helpful to analyze how the rise of China has become a great threat to the US, due to which the US has changes its national security policies in the East Asia.

Key Words: China, United States, Cooperation, Competition, Security


Focusing to the regional integration in East Asia, it is consensus that three largest economies; South Korea, Japan, and China have proved them as a key players in driving the integration process. Due to their largest influence on the region’s international relations, they have also shaped the pivotal role of the super power, the United States. Specially, the political and economic rise of China in the past decades has highly influenced the international political economy and shaped regional integration’s direction. However, this influence of the China-US relations on regional integration will determine its success or failure in East Asia. Thus, it becomes clear that understanding the evolution of regional integration in the East Asia cannot be done without having a deep look to the relationships between China and the US in East Asia.

After the end of Cold War, the relations between China and United States have evolved several stages in East Asia. Especially the collapse of the USSR proved to be the great influential to the American-European-Asian military alliance, which lost its legitimacy and compelling rationale in the region. After such incidents, it became crucial for the US to evaluate and maintain the US-centered core structure in the East Asia? The questions rose regarding the new political force after the USSR. The answer of this question was of great importance to the United States to identify the presence of new force as the threat to the US?

The transformation of international political economy after the Cold War contributed to the competition relations between the two powers of the world; the China and the US in East Asia. Also, the transition of the US Administration and the dramatic rise of China made it necessary to conceptualize the cooperation relationship and complex competition between the two powers.

Methodologically, the study has followed the meta-analysis approach for providing the evaluation of contradictory elements in China-US relationship and its impact on regional integration process in East Asia. Further, to analyze the cooperation and dual interactions of conflict between two powers within the historical, geopolitical and political economy perspectives, and to understand their transformations impact on East Asian regionalism in different periods.

Starting with the analysis of the Rise of China in East Asia, It is developing day by day, and along with its development, it’s economic growth, trading volume growth, regional relations, international relation, and international investments are also on rise. Now China’s this rise has become the major focus of all scholars and analysts. The scholars are now making different assumptions about China’s rise that if it will be violent or peaceful. As China’s rise is most relevant to the international relations (IR) so the answers of this question can be achieved by competing the rise of China with the theoretical perspectives of international relations. Most of the scholars think that China’s rise will cause so many conflicts later. These scholars analyze the rise of China by the vision of either offensive realism or power transition theory.

Phases of Chinese International Relation Theories:

In the post-cold war era, the two important phenomena are the China’s rise and China’s integration with global community. Several Western international relations theories have been done on such issues but somehow the problem is that these theories cannot explain the non-Western regions properly. To predict the outcomes of the China’s rise, the international relational theories can be employed. The Western international relations theory, while explaining China’s rise, has few limitations due to the different geo cultural and geo-political roots. Now-a-days various debates are going on about the China’s rise, China’s development and democracy. However, the concern of this study is to theorize China’s rise. The understanding of China’s rise depends on the techniques, method, and sources employed by China (Knutsen 1997).

When talking about China’s rise then during the Maoist era (1949-76), Chinese state has controlled the International Relations (IR) as highly ideological field and the best guiding force in Chinese international affairs was the “Marxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong” thought. In 1992, ‘Socialism with Chinese Characteristics’ of Deng Xiaoping became the special attention and guiding ideology to establish international relations (IR) for empirical research and theoretical research. In 1980, ‘National Association of History of International Relations’ (NAHIR) established as the 1st academic association. This association worked hard for the development of international relations as a separate discipline. Later on, the name was changed to China National Association for International Studies (CNAIS) to have a wide coverage (Viotti 1999).

International relations community of China explained Chinese behavior and foreign policy by translating Western International Relations Theories liberalism, classics of realism, Marxism, and constructivism. However, Chinese IR community work was source of inspiration because it was quite hard to establish Chinese International Relations Theories by dominant Western IRT. Chinese international relations community did this inspiring work by employing Western theoretical achievements and traditional Chinese philosophy. China basically focus on international relations and established many international relations schools rather than one school which supported to the establishment of Chinese international relations theory, which added the diverse and rich ontological assumptions for pluralising the Western international relations theory.

Development of IR:

In China, the development of IR has taken place in three phases namely,

•Pre-theory (1978-90).

•Theory-learning (1991-2007).

•Theory-innovation phase (2007 till today).

Pre-Theory Phase (1978-90):

In this phase, both Leninism and Marxism were dominant but on the other hand, due to the innovative thinking realism was on the rise. However, for the construction of theoretical paradigm, no attempt was made. This period was of the development of ‘Three World Theory’. This theory was about three worlds. First world consists of USSR and US; second world consists of Western allies and US and on the other side East European allies and USSR; and third world consists of Africa, Asian, and Latin American countries. At that time, the significant development was the belief of two schools of Marxism. Out of these two, one believed that revolution drawing upon the analysis of imperialism of Lenin and the world was in the era of war. On the other hand, other school stressed that the development of Marxism depends on the changes in international politics and economy. In other words, the first school focused on international class struggle and the other school favoured economic and reform development (Yaqing 2009).

Theory-learning Phase (1991-2007):

In this phase, International Relations discipline became academic community and on the other side, realism and liberalism referred to the knowledge-oriented research. In 1992, China started to make some steps to establish its own international relations theories instead of copying the Western IRT. In this era a lot had been done by the Chinese Government for the establishment of Chinese IRT but in 2002, it was expected that the communist party will represent the advanced culture and social productive forces, and will also represent the interests of people. These expectations diverted the focus of China from classical mainstream international relations theories to complexity theory and world governance theory. From 2001 to 2007, the debate about the peaceful rise of China was going on, which implies that behavior and identity are changeable and developed a deep interest in constructivism. During this phase the Chinese international relations community employed the analytical frameworks and methodologies of United States for the explanation of Chinese behavior and experiences. Among the international relations scholars of China, the interest in constructivism was an amazing feature of this phase. Chinese IR theories were helpful to understand the international political complexities and were tool for the foreign policy interpretation (Cohen 1990).

Theory-innovation Phase (2007-today):

In this phase, the focus was to build Chinese international relations theory rather than to develop it. In 2007, the whole world was trying to achieve harmonious society and harmonious world with peaceful developments. This concept of the development of harmonious society and harmonious world revolves around mutual co-operation for common prosperity, multilateralism for common security, United Nation Security Council (UNSC) reforms, and spirit for harmonious world. In this phase, some Chinese leaders were trying to achieve the high growth rate, while the others were trying for balanced development in China. However, the interest of constructivism coincided with China’s peaceful rise discussions change at the international level. This change is due to the China’s success in international society. This success rise of China has led it to explain the national interests for a peaceful rise all over the world. When debating over the China’s international relations development, China has concentrated on some issues like Will the Chinese school of IR theories be able to emerge, sustain and develop itself, is social theory rooted or universal in the history, and should the positivist methodology guide International Relations research? (R. Kitts 1990)

International Relation Debate:

This section is about the theoretical breakthrough of International relations of China. In 2008, Yan Xuetong highlighted the need to develop Chinese international relations theories. He was the traditional thinker who believes spring to autumn period. He used to emphasis on the quantitative methods but he was also aware of the fact that different questions demand different methodologies like causal analysis, hypothesis testing, verifiability and objectivity. He presented an idea on ‘use traditional culture as soft power’. This idea was the basic inspiration for the soft power of China’s strategy. He was influenced by ‘level of analysis’ tool which led to the analytical perspectives of ‘Guanzi and Hanfeizi’ on the state level, ‘Mozi and Laozi’ on the system level and ‘Confucius, Xunzi and Mencius’ on an individual level. He thought that in international politics the central factor is the hard power but this is not always the case, especially in the case of military and economic power (Xuetong 2008).

In 2009, Zhao Tinyang argues that the global problems cannot be solved by inter-state institutions. At that time, Tianxia institutions were established by China as Chinese cultural concept. These institutions were solving the global problems. In fact, if we go in deep concept of the Tianxia institutions then the word “Tianxia” has three meanings. First meaning is “as all peoples in the world”, second meaning is “as the land of the world” and the third meaning is “as a world institution combined in single term”. It basically emphasizes on the unity of the psychological world, physical world, and the political world. The concept of Tianxia (all-under-heaven) favours the world measure based order. According to its concept, the issues of the world should be measured in the world context. However, Tianxia system’s basic assumption is the principle of subjectivity. He feels that China needs to excel in knowledge production as well as economic production to achieve the position as world power. China should now exploit its own resources of traditional thoughts instead of importing ideas from West. Only by this way China can become the knowledge power. Whenever there is need to rethink and reconstruct China then the problem arises that now China’s issues are the issues of the World, so instead of rethinking and reconstructing China, one must focus on “Rethink the World and Reconstruct the World”. The China’s rise has changed the order of the world and now the problem is to conceptualize the new world. If we focus on the social factors, such as ethics, identity and hierarchy then these social factors are the basic keys to Tianxia system. To protect the China’s way of understanding the world, He considers the Chinese School as a cultural sovereignty assertion. He constructed an IR theory based on ancient philosophy of China to rethink the contemporary global politics (Zhao 2009).


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Subject: International Relations

Pages: 7 Words: 2100

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