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Drug Abuse In Highschool

Drug Abuse in Highschool



Drug Abuse in Highschool

Drug abuse is a social problem because it affects not only the person who uses or abuses them but the whole society deals with the grave consequences of drug abuse. Drug abuse implicates the virus of immorality in society and influences society’s moral standings. Most of the people, who do drugs, do not properly understand drugs because they are illegal, which is unfortunate, and neither any drugs are getting off the streets ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"ypWHQUkP","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Botvin, 2000)","plainCitation":"(Botvin, 2000)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1346,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/PWTMSSH2"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/PWTMSSH2"],"itemData":{"id":1346,"type":"article-journal","title":"Preventing drug abuse in schools: Social and competence enhancement approaches targeting individual-level etiologic factors","container-title":"Addictive behaviors","page":"887–897","volume":"25","issue":"6","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Preventing drug abuse in schools","author":[{"family":"Botvin","given":"Gilbert J."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2000"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Botvin, 2000). This essay is focused on drug abuse among youth and especially among the high school students.

Nowadays, high school students mostly vape, use Juul, or smoke weed at school. It’s not uncommon for a few people to turn up to school drunk, and a few people actually bring alcohol to school. The beer cans in the parking lots tell all. However, Vape and Juul are by far the two biggest products abused by high schoolers ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"cbYrPiBK","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Sussman et al., 1995)","plainCitation":"(Sussman et al., 1995)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1351,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/58L3DFLJ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/58L3DFLJ"],"itemData":{"id":1351,"type":"article-journal","title":"Continuation high schools: Youth at risk for drug abuse","container-title":"Journal of Drug Education","page":"191–209","volume":"25","issue":"3","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Continuation high schools","author":[{"family":"Sussman","given":"Steve"},{"family":"Stacy","given":"Alan W."},{"family":"Dent","given":"Clyde W."},{"family":"Simon","given":"Thomas R."},{"family":"Galaif","given":"Elisha R."},{"family":"Moss","given":"Mary Ann"},{"family":"Craig","given":"Sande"},{"family":"Johnson","given":"C. Anderson"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1995"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Sussman et al., 1995). Some people are of the view that smoking weed or marijuana is not as harmful as cocaine and meth are. However, drugging inside the school premises is more than just a social problem. It deteriorated the health of young boys and girls, and when it is not addressed as such and treated as a criminal issue, then it becomes a social problem. The social issues arise from improper means of dealing with addiction. Most addicts are simply looking for a human connection, to feel a part of ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"qOW7HtBN","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Botvin & Griffin, 2006)","plainCitation":"(Botvin & Griffin, 2006)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1347,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/N2QHPTB5"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/N2QHPTB5"],"itemData":{"id":1347,"type":"chapter","title":"Drug abuse prevention curricula in schools","container-title":"Handbook of drug abuse prevention","publisher":"Springer","page":"45–74","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Botvin","given":"Gilbert J."},{"family":"Griffin","given":"Kenneth W."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2006"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Botvin & Griffin, 2006). If the government here in the United States focused on treatment and rehabilitation (i.e. therapy, counseling, inpatient treatment, job, and housing assistance) instead of law enforcement, a lot of the social issues would take care of themselves. 

In addition, drug abuse is not the problem as much as the lifestyle and choices that come with it. For example, if people did drugs and never did anything different while on them or to get more of them like robbery or stealing or rape or not going to work, domestic violence and the list goes on (Yes! even for so-called functioning addicts), then drug use would not be a social problem.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Botvin, G. J. (2000). Preventing drug abuse in schools: Social and competence enhancement approaches targeting individual-level etiologic factors. Addictive Behaviors, 25(6), 887–897.

Botvin, G. J., & Griffin, K. W. (2006). Drug abuse prevention curricula in schools. In Handbook of drug abuse prevention (pp. 45–74). Springer.

Sussman, S., Stacy, A. W., Dent, C. W., Simon, T. R., Galaif, E. R., Moss, M. A., … Johnson, C. A. (1995). Continuation high schools: Youth at risk for drug abuse. Journal of Drug Education, 25(3), 191–209.

Subject: Critical review

Pages: 1 Words: 300




Name of Student

[Name of the Institution]



Cultural appropriation can be defined as the theft of the rituals, behavior, cultural expression and aesthetic standards from a minority culture and applying it to any unrelated culture. It is usually used when the motive is social, economic or political. This phenomenon is applied without logical reasoning of the original culture and then implementing it on some other culture and promoting it. Some artifacts have been so much exploited by this modern pop culture which would do anything to stay in news diminish the original meaning of art ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"PdHNY9zs","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Crayton, 2018)","plainCitation":"(Crayton, 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":70,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/ABHBHH5G"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/ABHBHH5G"],"itemData":{"id":70,"type":"book","title":"Everything You Need to Know About Cultural Appropriation","publisher":"The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc","ISBN":"1-5081-7918-2","author":[{"family":"Crayton","given":"Lisa A."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Crayton, 2018). Fashion, artifacts and traditions have become the center of expression and approach in this society. Fashion is a trend which is extremely popular among the public and accepted much wider audience. Items of clothing, jeweler and other accessories are an important part of defining cultural identities and traditions. Today, it is quite normal to get inspirations from other cultures and individuals of cross-culture.

It is a by-product of many elements in our society such as capitalism, imperialism, oppression and assimilation. Imperialism is responsible for creating and maintaining an unequal cultural and economic relationships between stated and noticing the engagement of people with other states and the search or empirical roots and functions on the basis of domination and subordination. The concept of cultural appropriation is actually profitable. The models, actors, artifact and traditions of different kind cultures are exploited at the hands of dominant cultures but they accepted it as exotic and desirable because it will generate profit for them ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"gFZLwant","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(McAuliffe, 2015)","plainCitation":"(McAuliffe, 2015)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":66,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/MK4CZ42B"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/MK4CZ42B"],"itemData":{"id":66,"type":"post-weblog","title":"Cultural Appropriation - The Thin Line Between Appreciation and Exploitation","container-title":"NewYork Apparel","URL":"https://eportfolios.macaulay.cuny.edu/whatwewear/cultural-appropriation/","language":"en-US","author":[{"family":"McAuliffe","given":"Alanna"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015"]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",9,24]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (McAuliffe, 2015) . Capitalism thrives well in such settings where people are not an individual identity but differences among their cultures are studied well and then adopted by mature and dominant cultures. Diverse culture identities have been mostly stripped away in the recent times. Fashion is generally coined as a way of self-expression and is a very important component of cultural identity. For example braided hair for Africans and use of an ink mark on face in Indian culture and surprisingly these things become one of the most popular fashion culture ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Wg1iNYpB","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Vezina, 2019)","plainCitation":"(Vezina, 2019)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":62,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/EFER8CQC"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/EFER8CQC"],"itemData":{"id":62,"type":"article-journal","title":"Curbing Cultural Appropriation in the Fashion Industry","container-title":"Carol Bonnett","collection-title":"Centre for International Governance Innovation","page":"213","journalAbbreviation":"CIGI","author":[{"family":"Vezina","given":"Brigitte"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019",4]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Vezina, 2019).

Famous stars be them actors, models or any media personality have stolen the spotlight for so many cultural instances which has ultimately brought in the question of adapting culture appropriation. These celebrities utilize their fame and access to mold cultural patterns for drawing attention to themselves and most of the times it is some sort of advertising culture. Only the seller doesn’t and cannot sell it. Similarly, fashion designers and consumers defined the expression of freedom and against the desire. Fashion is sometimes considered as most dry and difficult because it requires expressing one own self and keeping the cultural values and norms safe ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Yua53bKM","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Soh, 2018)","plainCitation":"(Soh, 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":69,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/27ZZ3UD2"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/27ZZ3UD2"],"itemData":{"id":69,"type":"article-newspaper","title":"Does fashion have a cultural appropriation problem?","container-title":"BBC News","section":"Newsbeat","source":"www.bbc.com","abstract":"Dior is the latest designer to be caught up in the row after being accused of \"exploiting\" Hispanic culture.","URL":"https://www.bbc.com/news/newsbeat-46297329","language":"en-GB","author":[{"family":"Soh","given":"Stephanie"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018",11,22]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",9,24]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Soh, 2018).

Another dimension of cultural appropriation is that it can be regarded as a practice that exploits and assimilates the marginalized and colonized cultures. It also deals with survival of subordinate cultures, their resistance and resilience towards dominant cultures. Cultural identity is classified due to social beliefs, myths and rituals. Fashion is something that exhibits including one’s the class and wealth. For some, fashion is the representation of tradition. Fashion and clothing system reinforce social ideologies and it is expect the ideologies and cultural identity is their own perception. If clothing is reinforces as social and cultural identity, it is important to know where it came from and its significance and what place did it take among fashion trends. Some perceive fashion as a superficial things and it offends people who tend to maintain and honor the heritage. Sociologists recommend that appropriation is linked with anticipation and as people still remain part of the fashion machine and others try to engage and communicate with them. The cross-cultural interaction could become a real trick and play role in placing itself into pop culture ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"WINLPZjE","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Alspaugh, n.d.)","plainCitation":"(Alspaugh, n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":63,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/Y5LWMAZF"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/Y5LWMAZF"],"itemData":{"id":63,"type":"article-journal","title":"Is Cultural Appropriation Braided into Fashion Coverage? An Examination of American Magazines","container-title":"Elon Journal of Undergraduate Research in Communications","collection-title":"1","volume":"10","author":[{"family":"Alspaugh","given":"Laney"}]}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Alspaugh, n.d.).

Several theories offer a comprehension about the concept of cultural appropriation and how it is taken in modern world today. The Cognitive Theory by George Gebner can be utilized to predict the influence of cultural appropriation within the fashion world. It suggested that what we view on TVs or on social media, influences our vision of the world. For example, if we observe an artifact or an attire in fashion on social media, we realized that though fashion media is so common but still it may not be enough to call cultural evidence. Fashion critics ask if fashion instills cultural inspiration in a few departments, it cannot be generalized for all. It is imperative to know that why is that fashion unable to reach its roots where it originate from on its own. It is a grave offence in cultural appropriation if there is knowledge of culture and yet inspire fashion.

The fashion industry is the most visible form to influence today’s society. Fashion campaigns can be seen everywhere on TVs, billboards, magazines, movies etc. to make a statement and influence people to get it too. But sometime, fashion industry is involved in offensive advertisements for example, romanticizing less diet plan or making shirts they have depressive stuff painted on it. It is quite offensive that companies start promoting their brands though this network of cultural appropriation. Cultural values and identities have huge significance to whom they belong and hurting them is quite offensive. Cultural appropriated is a better version of herself but the staff needs someone who can be trusted. People write critique on industry’s transparent use of cultural appropriation but as to date it remains a challenge for minority cultures ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"g4rDzk6u","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Abisambra et al., 2016)","plainCitation":"(Abisambra et al., 2016)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":64,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/N5LNKHAV"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/N5LNKHAV"],"itemData":{"id":64,"type":"book","title":"Fear of Fashion - Critical case on anxiety of fashion","publisher":"SelfPassage","author":[{"family":"Abisambra","given":"Camila"},{"family":"Aguilera","given":"Rebecca"},{"family":"Baerwolf","given":"Bailey"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Abisambra et al., 2016).

The famous denim brand Good America cofounded by Khloe Kardashian and Emma Grede gives us the idea of a thriving career by the only black woman. She had been forced into thinking that she was incapable of doing what she did because of her race but instead of making it her weakness, she made it her strength and it gave her the confidence to go anywhere and do whatever she wants without the fear that she is a person of color and her culture is different from the whites, yet she managed to fit herself in and earned a place. She said someone had to lead forward and accept the role of being the first black woman in that company but with time you realize that these things shouldn’t matter. Her cultural identity is nothing she needs to hide from or not avail the opportunities. This confidence and self-assurance is very inspiring for others especially black women who want to make a name in fashion. But it is to be remembered that these things are only coping mechanisms. Fashion world does not simply greet everyone with open arms but you have to struggle to be confident over you cultural identity ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"UhFau0uv","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Titton, 2015)","plainCitation":"(Titton, 2015)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":71,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/QXPIJLMF"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/QXPIJLMF"],"itemData":{"id":71,"type":"article-journal","title":"Fashionable personae: Self-identity and enactments of fashion narratives in fashion blogs","container-title":"Fashion Theory","page":"201-220","volume":"19","issue":"2","author":[{"family":"Titton","given":"Monica"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Titton, 2015).

It is considered that cultural appropriation is a very powerful phenomenon yet others think that it has its own negative impacts on the fashion world. And it tends people to emphasize on ego and pride which changed by using innovation and prestige strategy cultural appropriation is observed on attires, jewelry, hair , makeup and any other fashion related things. It is empirical to examine the fashion history as it keeps borrowing elements from past and future. Another example of cultural appropriation is the cornrows which is the traditional hairstyle of African culture. This hairstyle is much more than just a hairstyle, it has a rich history behind it. It was considered as an art to make different hairstyles and designs engraved in the scalp. It had a spiritual and social significance which had been intrinsic to the origins of their cultures thousands of years ago. This is the reason hair is not an entirely groom up thing for West Americans. Each specific style represented different characteristics of the culture. It was like a religion and a sacred matter for the community.


Culture appropriation is the use of a phenomenon by those people who have no association with a culture that they try to represent in the fashion industry. This way, the heritage underlying is being cheapened. It can be in any form, be it denigration for the minority groups and it also hurts their culture. The challenges and complexity have been increasing drastically and within a pluralistic society, people should interact and explore more about cultures. Though the motive of cultural appropriation might be deep exploration of inter-cultural settings and finding any element of xenophobia. The occurrence of this issue has increased and it is time to eliminate such a thing from our society.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Abisambra, C., Aguilera, R., Baerwolf, B., 2016. Fear of Fashion - Critical case on anxiety of fashion. SelfPassage.

Alspaugh, L., n.d. Is Cultural Appropriation Braided into Fashion Coverage? An Examination of American Magazines. Elon Journal of Undergraduate Research in Communications, 1 10.

Crayton, L.A., 2018. Everything You Need to Know About Cultural Appropriation. The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc.

McAuliffe, A., 2015. Cultural Appropriation - The Thin Line Between Appreciation and Exploitation. NewYork Apparel. URL https://eportfolios.macaulay.cuny.edu/whatwewear/cultural-appropriation/ (accessed 9.24.19).

Soh, S., 2018. Does fashion have a cultural appropriation problem? BBC News.

Titton, M., 2015. Fashionable personae: Self-identity and enactments of fashion narratives in fashion blogs. Fashion Theory 19, 201–220.

Vezina, B., 2019. Curbing Cultural Appropriation in the Fashion Industry. CIGI, Centre for International Governance Innovation 213.

Subject: Critical review

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

Non Representational Art Essay

Hugo Ramirez

Professor Carnley

Art Appreciation Dual Credit

20 September 2019

Non Representational Art Critique

Roger de la Fresnaye painting called “Artillery” is a non-representational work of art. The oil on canvas painting was inspired by cubism which was started by Pablo Picasso in 1907. The painting depicts the French military in a scene of marching in public. The painting was finally completed in 1911, which was three years before the start of World War 1.

In the scene, there are soldiers, generals on horses, and artillery mortars in the center of attention fainting off to a crowd of heads, towards the bottom of the painting. The colors are equally warm and cool that present the overall mood of the scene gloomy in the forms of grey skies to the touch of pastel color scheme of blue and red.

The focal point of the painting is oriented towards the center, as that’s where the most color and action in the picture is being set. Although it is not a clear picture, there is a portrait-like a lens being set in a circle with the outside of that focus being duller and less focused, making the balance radial, diverging in lines from the center. The intense effect is created with bold body language shapes made from the soldiers.

One of the main shapes that are being repeated the most in this painting is the cylinder-like object that is making a bridge, mortal barrel, rim of the wheel and pavement of the road. The sense of depth and space of the painting is shallow and three dimensional. The darker areas of the picture are more towards the middle and the top of the painting.

The influence of Cubism can be observed in an explicit manner considering the overall style of the painting presented by Roger de la Fresnaye in “Artillery.” Strong geometric prominence is one clear aspect appeared in case of this art form considering the representation of different shapes, colors, and lines ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"mDObCh5r","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Antliff and Leighten)","plainCitation":"(Antliff and Leighten)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1363,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/7Hi3kAOD/items/8WUQY5HB"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/7Hi3kAOD/items/8WUQY5HB"],"itemData":{"id":1363,"type":"book","title":"A cubism reader: documents and criticism, 1906-1914","publisher":"University of Chicago Press","URL":"https://books.google.com.pk/books?id=WMDpAAAAMAAJ","ISBN":"978-0-226-02110-2","author":[{"family":"Antliff","given":"M."},{"family":"Leighten","given":"P. D."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2008"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Antliff and Leighten, 190). The prospect of basic shapes is utilized by the painter to present the main approach of the painting.

Different shapes such as cylinder are highlighted by adopting the squishes of different bold and cool colors. The element of shapes is also considered by painter by prompting the rhythm of the movement explicitly in the form of extensive use of armaments of war, horses, and guns in advancing manner.

Various forms of lines have been used in this painting to connect different objects with the focal point of this artwork. The fundamental tool of lines is impressively used by the painter to define the actual theme of the weaponry prospect ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"gsmnloYt","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Burn)","plainCitation":"(Burn)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1362,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/7Hi3kAOD/items/LFGS7AU4"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/7Hi3kAOD/items/LFGS7AU4"],"itemData":{"id":1362,"type":"book","title":"Masterpieces of the Metropolitan Museum of Art","publisher":"Metropolitan Museum of Art","URL":"https://books.google.com.pk/books?id=4fZBEzBEThIC","ISBN":"978-0-87099-849-2","author":[{"family":"Burn","given":"B."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1997"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Burn, 203). The existence of lines can be witnessed in many different forms such as simple, sharp, thick, curved, and implied lines. These forms of lines are considered to connect different objects with each other by focusing the perspective of the focal point of this painting.

The inclusion of lines is also present in the form of different shapes such as circles, squares, and the approach of the cylinder. The movement of different figures is defined through the artistic approach of implied lines to indicate their direction with the main point of the painting.

The smooth and soft texture is the identity of this painting which is apprehended with the elements of color and emotions. Different warm, dark, and neutral colors are used by the artist to create the overall mood of artillery and convey the emotions of the characters in this piece of art. The elements of lines, shapes, and colors are repeatedly utilized by painter to enhance focus to the main domain or theme of the painting.

Works Cited

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Antliff, M., and P. D. Leighten. A Cubism Reader: Documents and Criticism, 1906-1914. University of Chicago Press, 2008, https://books.google.com/books?id=WMDpAAAAMAAJ.

Burn, B. Masterpieces of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1997, https://books.google.com/books?id=4fZBEzBEThIC.

Subject: Critical review

Pages: 1 Words: 300

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