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Who Am I? # 2

Law and Order in Morcco

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Law and Order in Morcco

Now, there is dual legal system that seems to be working in Morocco. The legal systems is based on the secular system that is much more based on the French Court law as well as well as the courts that area based on the Jewish and Islamic traditions. Talking about the secular system, then it is based on the communal and district courts as well as the appellate courts and consequently a Supreme Court. There is another legal system that involves the military court and it deals with the cases and prosecution where military personnel are involved. There are instances when military courts have intervened in the matters of the state security as well. It can be seen that as there are so many legal systems, it creates confusions and there has been numerous instances where court judgement has been impaired in the broader decision making. Many homeless individuals in large cities are addicted to huffing solvents such as gasoline, paint, and glue.

Crime Against Women

As is the case with most of the third world countries in the world, the harassment and crime against women is one of the prevailing issues in the country About 80 % of the working have claimed that they have faced some sort of harassment at the workplace and they are afraid to the report the cases. The other major problem is that there is certain level of stigma that is associated with the harassment and women who report such cases are reprimanded and shamed, so none of the women who has faced these issues is comfortable when it comes to being forward and reporting the instance then and there. And this is the case with the harassment, there has been instances that the cases of the sexual assault has been reported at the public events and people have supported the perpetuators of that violence.

Drug Related Crimes

Due to loose check and balance, the drug trade that has been carried out in the region has been far from ideal. The primary drugs that are exported in the region are Cannabis but there has been instances when some other drugs are also being used. At the same time, the country has been used as a transit hub for the cocaine traffickers who have funnelled their product into the region and then they have gone to the Sub Saharan countries. This is despite the fact that great effort has been carried out by the law enforcement agencies to adopt degree of control in this regard. Significance penalties are being imposed. So there is effort on the part of the law enforcement agencies but the problem is that it is not translating into something sustainable or turning into a long term solution, so bit more planning is needed to be done in this regard is that how the law enforcement agencies can be made more effective with the passage of time.

Assistance of the Crime Victims

The lot can be said about the state of the law and order by looking at the sort of assistance that is being provided to the crime victims. Most of the times, there are only limited instances when the interactions with the police are being done when there is a crime and the primary reason for that to be happening is the fact that how the smaller cities and the rural areas are in the position to make sure that they create impression of safety for the people. There are people who have talked about the fact that the police response is quite sensitive though and at times, one gets the feeling that the lack of resources is one of the primary reasons for the lack of effectiveness in that regard. The government places a great deal of effort into fighting international narcotics trafficking. Police reported seizing 1.65 tons of cocaine, over 1.3 million psychotropic and ecstasy pills (up 43% over 2017), 52 tons of cannabis resin, and 693 kilograms of cannabis. Penalties for possession of narcotics are severe, and police deal with suspected traffickers harshly. Police/gendarmerie corruption in regards to drug trafficking occurs. While authorities have occasionally been involved in assisting traffickers, when identified they face legal consequences.

Personal Identity Issues

Keeping in mind the demographics of the country, it is safe to assume that the country is not safe for the alternative sexualities and genders. The LGBT community has faced considerable issues when going out and at times, they have been subject of great abuse if they have decided to come forward. The tolerance level of the people is on the lower side and the hate crimes, specifically in terms of the cyber crime and harassment are quite common. There are issues to the religious minorities as well in the country making it a difficult place


In the hindsight, it can be said that the situation regarding law and order is quite troublesome now in the country. It has to be noted that the response time and the sensitivity is always there as far as the law enforcement personnel are concerned but the major issue is that how they are going to be coping with the situation if the allocation of the resources is not carried out appropriately in this regard. Furthermore, the situation for women and the cases of the harassment are on the side. One of the major reasons for the failure of the system is that the legislation is quite complicated.


Charrad, M. M. (2012, May). Family law reforms in the Arab world: Tunisia and Morocco. In Report for the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA), Division for Social Policy and Development, Expert Group Meeting, New York (pp. 15-17).

Cseres, K. J., Cseres, K. J., Schinkel, M. P., & Vogelaar, F. O. (Eds.). (2016). Criminalization of competition law enforcement: economic and legal implications for the EU member states. Edward Elgar Publishing.

Dorn, N., Murji, K., & South, N. (2017). Traffickers: Drug markets and law enforcement. Routledge.

Dwyer, D. H. (2016). Law actual and perceived: the sexual politics of law in Morocco. Law and Society Review, 739-756.


Subject: Sociology

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Who Am I? #3


[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Compare and Contrast Law Enforcement Of USA and Morocco

In the United States, among three major criminal justice components, Law enforcement has a special place. It acts semi-independently but linked to other components of the criminal justice system of America(Foster, 2006). Governmental police agencies are a prime source of law enforcement operation. The police department of U.S. has approximately 17,985 agencies of police which includes state troopers, federal law enforcement agencies, and offices of county sheriff's. The main purpose that the law enforcement serves in the U.S. is to do suspected investigation of criminal activity, suspected criminals temporary detention and refer their result of the investigation to courts.

Morocco's establishment of police is based on the French model of police as it was established by colonial authorities of France. Later after the formation of a new government after the independence by Morocco from France and Spain, the same form persists(Bartolucci, 2010). After riots in 1965 in Casablanca, Surete Nationale becomes an organization which is autonomous which in comparison to America is directly answered to their King. Responsibilities of the Moroccan police include criminal activity deterrence, and stop the crime to progress. They act in accordance with courts directives.

Police in Morocco is less effective due to corruption which results in a lower level of rule of law respect among people. A survey is conducted that tells that out of 10 4 households have paid a bribe to police during 2015(Foster, 2006). It was also reported that among civilian authorities and officers, abuse reports were not controlled effectively by security forces. When investigations were carried out it rarely results in disciplinary or criminal proceeding actions. Several NGOs reports that complaints are dismissed and proceedings are carried out solely on events versions. Eight out of ten citizens in Morocco think police to be corrupt while the trust index of Moroccan police is one third among Moroccans. Companies' protection was found out to be reliable moderately by business communities. One positive aspect of prosecution success about police corruption has been reported. One case was reported about in early 2015 about two highway policemen who were caught on camera of taking bribe from tourist were imprisoned for a month and were fined USD 200. Another case of the bribe was reported and filmed when an officer took a bribe in Casablanca from a driver who will stand on trial in 2016. Concerning authorities equipped the police with a camera mounted helmets to avoid such corruption issues. Documentation of such measures has yet to be done.

In America media issues related to police, corruption is rarely reported but cases of police corruption and brutality are reported about US police charges of killing(Johnson, 1981). A study identifies that 6724 cases are identified that results in the arrest of 5545 officers between 2005 and 2011 for the different activities of crime(Andreas & Price, 2001). 1000 police officers in the USA are arrested per year.

Crimes committed on duty tolls to 41%. Main five crimes breakdown is as follows.

1070 arrest out of 1475 police officers were related to sex-related crimes.

1283 arrest out of 1405 were related to alcohol-related crimes

665 arrest out of 739 were related to drug-related crimes

2586 arrest out of 3369 were related to violence related crimes

1396 arrest out of 1592 were related to police motivated crimes.

Both the United States of America and Morocco are allies in combating terrorism. In June 2014, terrorists belonging to ISIL were uncovered in Morocco when 33 terrorists plot to do terrorist activities were detained. In 2015 an agency is formed by the government of Morocco combatting terrorism with the name of (BCIJ) that focus on transnational and terrorism-related crimes. In America DOH and DHS has most of the agencies working under its supervision that fights terrorism


Bartolucci, V. (2010). Analysing elite discourse on terrorism and its implications: the case of Morocco. Critical Studies on Terrorism, 3(1), 119-135.

Foster, S. W. (2006). Cosmopolitan desire: transcultural dialogues and antiterrorism in Morocco (Vol. 5). Rowman Altamira.

Johnson, D. R. (1981, January). American law enforcement: A history. St. Louis, MO: Forum Press.

Andreas, P., & Price, R. (2001). From war fighting to crime fighting: transforming the American national security state. International Studies Review, 3(3), 31-52.

Police Corruption. (2019). United States Institute of Peace. Retrieved 3 May 2019, from https://www.usip.org/events/police-corruption

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Why It May Be Important To Have Teachers/ Faculty Conceal And Carry Guns In Mass Shooting Situations

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of Instructor]



Gun Control


The aim of this paper to examine the idea behind why is it necessary to allow teachers and staff to carry the gun along with them. The paper tends to criticize the idea with an in-depth analysis. The deep research has helped to uncover a number of facts that tells the reader what actually mass school shootings is, and why the idea has been based on that. The paper helps the reader to understand the basic right of teachers with regard to school mass teaching. By having in-depth research, the opinions of different type of people have been stated in the paper. The outcomes of this help the reader to understand the opposing arguments of the paper regarding the same topic. The paper uncovers the future related facts that may come to occur in case if the idea has been implemented. The proper research with relevant sources helps to tell the reader why the idea will emerge in a positive way. There is no doubt that the implementation of this idea will reduce future mass school shootings. The reason for that lies in the fact that when teachers will get armed, they will be able to stop the violence themselves, and it will gradually decrease the rate of such incidents. Apart from this, the paper tends to provide the benefits that a state may get after implementing the idea. The matter of fact is that the implementation of this idea will be quite beneficial for both the state and the citizens as well. In order to do that, teachers and staff should be highly confident to a certain extent in dangerous situations.


There is no doubt that teaching is considered to be one of the hardest occupations in the world. In most cases, teachers are expected to act as caretakers, true friends, and surrogate parents for their students. Teaching can simply not be assumed as a task to grade homework and execute lesson plans. Rather teaching is about devoting your entire life to children. In the 21st century, society has become quite dangerous. It has been observed an increase in the mass public shootings. Apart from this, a large number of schools are seen to become the most vulnerable targets. A number of teachers globally tend to face a threat of school shootings and a few of them have ever experienced such terrible situations with bad consequences. Due to the increase in such incidence, there is a high need for the staff and teachers to be granted a carry and conceal permit in importance to mass school shootings.

Basic Right

Apart from the incidence that tends to highlight the need to implement such changed, there is another important thing to consider which is the right to arm teachers. In the current scenario, there may be a number of a dangerous situation that can occur in schools or institutes. Many people tend to believe that it would be a fair decision to arm teachers. The reason for that is quite simple as it may help the teachers to protect not only themselves but students as well. The outcomes of this may result in decreasing the chances of terrible tragedy. The matter of fact is that only responsible educators having proper training should be armed. There is no doubt that it may result in making schools feel safe, and a number of lives will be saved. When it comes to police officers, they tend to take quite long to arrive at the site of the shooting. In the case of armed teachers, there may be taken certain actions against the shooters right at the moment.

There is a high need for educators to consider themselves as the first responder. In case of an emergency situation, educators are considered to be the first to stop possible shooters and treat victims. One thing that must be taken into consideration is the fact that police officers are not always going to reach the spot on time. Due to this, teachers and staff are on a high need to attend advanced training which will allow them to protect their students. The matter of fact is that a large number of people are against the idea, but it must be considered a gun is worth to protect the children in such circumstances (Agnich, 2015).

Future Aspects

There is no doubt that a large number of people are against this idea, however, still, some of them are standing in its support. The aftermath of the implementation of this idea will gift students a peaceful and safe future. In order to make the future secure, the idea must be implemented as soon as possible (Agnich, 2015). When it comes to the individuals who stand still against this idea, they believe that it is not the job of teachers to be armed security staff. As per them, it may increase the numbers in school shootings. Although, not all teachers are reliable, and it arming teachers may not solve the entire problem completely, but still it will help to make the situation to not get worse.

At times when an emergency is seen to have occurred, each person hopes for a quite response by the law enforcement professional. There is no doubt that carrying a gun is not for each person. Every person needs to be physically, mentally, and morally prepared all the time. The matter of fact is that only a small percentage of U.S. teachers should be allowed to be armed. By doing that, it may resolve a wide number of issues, and the future of students can become safer as well (Anklam, 2015). There is a high need for the teachers to be able to use firearms, provide medical assistance, and response to injuries in an effective manner against each threat that can be happened. In order to do that, teachers and staff should be highly confident to a certain extent in dangerous situations.


In the past few years, the sole concern of students was to save their grade, but in the current scenario, students are more often seen trying to save their lives. The matter of fact is that a school is a type of place where not only the mental and social growth of students is seen, but they also learn about the world around them. When it comes to the individuals who work each day for helping students, they are none other than the teachers themselves. In the past few incidents of Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School shooting, it has been observed that each school in the U.S. has been quite worried and nervous. Teachers tend to have the responsibility to not only just teach their students, but also protect them (Katsiyannis et al., 2018).

There have been numerous such incidents that have paved the way to understand the need to adopt this idea in the future. Aarons Feis who was football coach, he played the role of a hero by throwing himself in the way of flying bullets. The incident happened in the Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School. After having that much bullets, the coach was rushed in the hospital and later died. One thing to consider here is that the teacher did not have to lose his life to protecting the lives of students, but he did. For that being said, it can be simply be said that it is quite safe to say that the teacher could have lived if he was armed (Anklam, 2015).

There is a high need for the teachers to become able to protect themselves and their students as well. Teachers must not have to be human sacrifices when there is still a high probability that students will get hurt even after the help. Teachers are required to not be defenseless in any such situation. It has been felt a wide number of teachers that it is their obligation for helping the students. As the teacher must be able to protect their surrounding bodies, therefore, teachers must be allowed to carry guns with them,


It is concluded that many teachers globally tend to face a threat of school shootings and a few of them have ever experienced such terrible situations with bad consequences. The matter of fact is that only responsible educators having proper training should be armed. There is no doubt that the outcomes of this may result in making schools feel safe, and a number of lives will be saved. One thing that must be taken into consideration is the fact that police officers are not always going to reach the spot on time. When it comes to the individuals who stand still against this idea, they believe that it is not the job of teachers to be armed security staff. As per them, it may increase the numbers in school shootings. There is a high need for the teachers to be able to use firearms, provide medical assistance, and response to injuries in an effective manner against each threat that can be happened.

Work Cited

Agnich, Laura E. "A comparative analysis of attempted and completed school-based mass murder attacks." American Journal of Criminal Justice 40.1 (2015): 1-22.

Anklam, Charles, et al. "Mitigating active shooter impact: analysis for policy options based on agent/computer-based modeling." Journal of emergency management 13.3 (2015): 201-216.

Elliott, Rebekah. "The real school safety debate: Why legislative responses should focus on schools and not on guns." Ariz. L. Rev. 57 (2015): 523.

Katsiyannis, Antonis, Denise K. Whitford, and Robin Parks Ennis. "Historical Examination of United States Intentional Mass School Shootings in the 20 th and 21 st Centuries: Implications for Students, Schools, and Society." Journal of Child and Family Studies 27.8 (2018): 2562-2573.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 6 Words: 1800

Will The Revolution Be Advertised?:

Will the Revolution be advertised? #ImWithKap and #BurnNike

With the progressing technological advancements, humans have got multifaceted potent platforms for the communication at global levels. Our thoughts, opinions and views are just one click away from the masses no matter they synchronize with the universally established and widely- acknowledged societal and cultural norms or not. Various social media platforms such as Twitter, Instragram, Google, Facebook and Whats App have brought revolutionary alterations within the cultures at the micro and macro levels. A similar groundbreaking trend is valid enough to stand in this case; Colin Kaepernick’s refusal to stand for the National Anthem during the National Football League (NFL) in response to the killing of innocent black people by police. He further elaborated that he stood against racism and did not stand for the National Anthem of such country that oppresses people on the basis of their color and race. After his action and supporting tweet, masses started responding and posting mixed reviews about his stance. Some attributed him as a rebel and called him pathetic creature that disrespected his motherland whereas some supported him saying that he stood for the right cause. Needless to say, rational transformations at micro level serve the purpose of bringing about a cultural revolution through massive unconscious perpetuation. The Nike brand supported and endorsed the stance of Kaepernick whereas his opponents burnt Nike products and demonstrated their disagreeableness aggressively. After consulting numerous tweets on the hash-tag trend #ImWithKap and #BurnNike, I found that the phenomena of outsider culture and cooptation were best defined here. Kaepernick’s stance was entirely outsider cultural in nature whereas attainment of support from a renowned brand not only reinvigorated his stance but also galvanized other similar entities to hold and embrace his views. Hence, technology, rebels and capitalism act collaboratively to develop significant changes in the members of same society at rational levels; individualistic change undoubtedly opens the ways up to cultural metamorphosis (Quart, 2013).


Quart, A. (2013). What Does it Mean to be an Outsider in a Capitalist Society? AlterNet.

Retrieved from https://www.alternet.org/2013/07/what-does-it-mean-be-outsider-capitalist-society/

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Works Of Emily Durkheim

Works of Emile Durkheim

Sabina Benke

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Author Note

Based on Capitalism and Classical Social Theory by John Bratton and David Denham

Works of Emile Durkheim

Emile Durkheim was a French Sociologist, who is deeply regarded as one of the largest contributors to Modern Sociology alongside Max Weber and Karl Marx. He published several influential writings during his life on several topics. He analyzed the roles played by different social institutes, laying the foundation for structural functionalism. It should be noted that during his writings, sociology was not recognized in academic circles as an independent field of study. Therefore, Emile's works were classified under the discipline of Philosophy, a subject that he thought had a lot in common with Sociology. This works includes the study of the philosophy of religion, hermeneutics, language, meta-ethics, morality and epistemology. In this paper, we will be discussing the works of Emile Durkheim but under the given text called ‘Capitalism and Classical Social Theory’ by authors John Bratton and David Denham. Only the relevant chapter which has elaborated Durkheim's works will be discussed.

Background of the Main Text Used

The works of Emile Durkheim have been discussed in chapters seven, eight and nine of the relevant texts. Chapter seven elaborates Emile's point of view regarding the work done to develop modern societies. He also highlights the differences between his views and that of Marx and Weber. The book discussed in this chapter is called "The Division of Labor in Society". In this book, he introduced the failure of the effect of the established norms and the people within a society. He also believes that placing people with a unique skillset for their specified jobs is highly beneficial for the functioning of society while honing the skills of the labor as well. He also believes that the division of labor into different skilled teams goes beyond the commercial benefits of society. It establishes a kind of order within society. He thinks that the division of labor is in direct relation to the density of a society.

Chapter eight is about the rules of sociological method and on suicide. The framework of rules of sociological research that he specified in the former can be seen as the groundwork on which all his future research is based. He terms reality as ‘Sui Generis’, a Latin word phrase meaning ‘of its kind’. He believed that all the social facts are objective and they can only be understood by sociological laws. There can be no other scientific or psychological explanation of these facts. He went so far as to declare sociology as a science of hard-core facts. Emile's other text on suicide, commonly known as ‘Le Suicide’ was an unprecedented text that is still the basic building block of the discipline of psychology. Again, he links the causes of the suicide of a person with societal factors. He concludes that the person who socializes and integrates himself into the fabric of the society does not have a reason to commit suicide.

Chapter nine, also the last chapter to feature Emile’s works, is based on his book called ‘Rationalization and the limits of Rationality’. In this scripture, he describes the importance of unity in society. He believes that a force or an idea is needed to yoke the society together in a bond. He classifies this force into two categories, namely mechanical unity and organic unity. The former is the creation of homogeneous behavior in a society. This can be observed in the post-industrial era societies, especially those that were under the influence of the Soviets. In, organic unity, heterogeneous behavior is the main selling point. We observe a higher rate of dependency on the diversity in the skillset of the people involved. Durkheim argues that the bonds of society become stronger over time since diversity increases the chances of survival of society due to diversified knowledge which guarantees an easier path to financial success.

Theories of ‘Le Suicide’

I believe that Emile Durkheim's theories of suicide is his greatest achievement. Suicide was seen as the greatest social problem of the nineteenth century. It also proved how affectivity the sociological methods of research used by Emile Durkheim, and to what extent they could be used. He showed through his research that the suicide victim has a reason when he decides to take his own life. The victim thinks that the act of suicide will somehow benefit the society that he is the part of. Durkheim tried to increase the focus of the society on the objectivity of the act of suicide and emphasized the fact that many states have a rather stable percent of suicide victims rather than the common belief of its rising rate at the time. He refuted the established jargon related to suicide and listed a series of factors such as race, imitation, heredity and mental state of the victim at the time of committing the act. These explanations later helped him to develop the basic framework of his book Le Suicide.

He linked two types of suicide with the intensity of social unity in a society, meaning the feeling of belonging to a single group. He was of the view that a highly integrated society will naturally have almost zero suicide rates. He believed that a person is generally more selfish and that he favors individual goals over collective ones. The condition mentioned above gives rise to ‘Egoistic’ suicide. According to Durkheim, the victim feels like, to use the phrase, a fish out of water. When the victim feels as part of the sea, his desire for committing suicide vanes. His attachment to the group will give rise to a kind of collective pride, which in turn gives him a reason to work harder for the survival and prosperity of his group. The main factor that Durkheim discusses in his theories is the factor of religion in both acceleration and prevention of suicide. Although religion condemns the act of suicide, it can also be observed that sometimes it comes to the cause of it too. The split in religious values among ethnic groups creates an incentive for the victim to commit suicide. He cites the example of Protestants vs Catholics, declaring that the former has a higher tendency to commit suicide as compared to the latter.

A factor that he discusses as an antidote to the suicidal tendency is family. Theoretically, we can assume that a single person has a lesser chance to commit suicide due to a lack of burdens and responsibilities, but Durkheim proved otherwise. He proved through the careful analysis and collection of data that married people have a lesser chance to commit suicide. But he argues that the decrease in the tendency of the above mentioned depends on the environment of his home and family. Quoting the data from the French census (1886), he underlines that married men without children are more likely to commit suicide. He also points out the political integration as an important factor in the prevention of suicide. We can quote the example of the French Revolution in this regard, showing the turmoil between 1789 and 1800, a lot of people lost their lives due to the lawlessness in the state by committing suicide.

He also argues with another type of suicide, with he dubs as Altruistic suicide. He gives the example of an old man or a soldier who would give his life to avoid dishonor that will come to his family or nation. Another option that he gives in the same category is the "option" for a person to commit suicide after a severe row with his family or peers. Lastly, he discusses who someone would feel pleasure in committing suicide that he would consider noble. The custom of "Settee" in the religion of Hinduism is the classic example of such a case. It is a centuries-old custom where the widow would commit suicide to prove her love for her dead husband.

His work on Anomic suicide is, in my opinion, one of the most contributing to the societal understanding of suicide. The most common suicide is when the person loses hope in the system. The financial crisis of Vienna (1873) is cited by Durkheim as a case that lead to almost three-quarters of the city's populace into suicide.


Durkheim's theories started the trend of observing the scientific method in the field of Sociology. He proved that a human is codependent on the structure of society and vice versa. He was the first sociologist that highlighted the role of the state in the cause and prevention of the act of suicide. Indeed, the Global North is still plagued by this epidemic. The tremendous increase in street crimes and demonstrations should be studied in the light of his theory so that his issue could be curtailed.


BIBLIOGRAPHY John Bratton, D. D. (2014). Capitalism and Classical Social Theory, Second Edition. Toronto, Ontario: University of Toronto Press.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 4 Words: 1200


Unit VII Social Structures Worksheet

Social Institutions or Structures

Functionalist view of this structure:

Conflict view of this structure:

Interactionist view of this structure:

Discuss the view you think best applies to the structure:


It is the fundamental building block that is crucial for managing functions of society. Essential features include biological reproduction, satisfaction from sex, socialization and meeting economic needs.

Families are important for maintaining the status quo. Family members encounter many conflicts and compete for resources.

Shared activities are vital for establishing an emotional bond among family members. Negotiations are important for maintaining a relationship.

Functionalist provides the best analysis because it explains all functions linked to family.


Religion is vital for maintaining social order and stability. Shared rituals and beliefs are crucial for maintaining social solidarity, expression, and cohesion.

Religion gives explanations to social ills including social inequality and divine sanctions. Conflict arises between different religious communities.

Religion involves different events and rituals that is natural phenomena and required for promoting moral values.

Interactionist provides the best explanation because rituals and events are useful for encouraging good values and eliminating evils.

U.S. healthcare system

Effective medical healthcare is important for the ability of society to function.

Competition and social issues emerge due to the capitalist system. Healthcare system functions for gaining benefits.

Interactionist is important for sharing the meaning of health and sickness. By connecting to sick people know their pain, sufferings, and needs.

Interactionist provides the best argument by stating how building interactions allow people to understand sickness.


Marriage and family are the primary components of a stable society. Children are produced through marriages.

Different conflicts emerge in the marriage relationship including the power struggle between men and women.

It is a set of repeated actions that is vital for building social bonds.

Functionalist provides the best view by stating that marriage keeps social order and stability.


Chazournes, L. B. (2015). Functionalism! Functionalism! Do I Look Like Functionalism? . European Journal of International Law , 26 (4), 951–956.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Writer Can Decide

Name of Student

Name of Professor

Name of Class

Day Month Year

Social movements in China:

Umbrella movement was a political movement that started in China. It emerged during a protest in Hong Kong in 2014. The term “Umbrella” has been given to this movement because at that time, umbrellas were used as a tool by the passive protesters for resisting the Police who was attacking protesters at that time. It has been observed that during those 79 days, one main demand was for the free elections. There were tens of thousands of people who participated in this protest that started on 26 September 2014. There were several incidents of violence as well as there were triads and thugs that made the residents of Hong Kong to raise their voice against the authorities. There was another important movement that emerged during the past few years that is known as Foxconn Labor movement; both the movements are listed below in details:


Who started these movements and why these incidents happened:

This protest was started by three activists (Joshua Wong, Nathan Law, and Alex Chow) who were students and the pro-democracy group of Hong Kong, in 2014. It is also known as the Occupy Central Movement or the Umbrella Revolution. Hong Kong is one of the financial hubs but in 2014 it exploded in protest, and there were seen tens of thousands of Hong Kong residents on the streets. The place that was the central business district, turned into a virtual conflict zone. This movement mainly started by the students who were on the front foot, and the government was not taking their demands seriously and this was the reason that pushed out all youngsters, old, rich and poor. These incidents happened, because the residents of Hong Kong were feeling insecure (Ho,et,al,2018). By taking a look at the history of Hong Kong, it could be seen that Hong Kong used to be a British colony, but in 1997 it was handed to China as its city.

It was decided that “One Country, Two System” is going to be applied to Hong Kong and it was ensured by the Chinese Communist Government that Hong Kong is going to retain its currency and all the things that may vary than the political system that would be implemented in China. People at that time were very happy by that freedom that they were having but during the recent years, there happened something that made them realize that their freedom is being threat by the Chinese government, as the Chinese government was trying to give priority to the things that were best in their interest, especially the incidents like the spending of public funds for pro-China white elephant, and developing of some neo-liberalism economic policies, Hong Kongers even unhappy.

While on the other hand, there was another famous movement that started in China, “Foxconn labor movement” that was started by the labors who were working in that empire of factories. It was also a kind of social movement that started in China because rights of the workers were violated at a great level, and this was happening for many years against which people raised their voice in the form of this movement. There were many incidents of suicides that become the reason of this social movement. One of the main incidents that attracted attention of the global world and the Chinese authorities was the suicide attempt of a 17 years girl, Tian Yu who was a worker at Foxconn and jumped from the fourth-story dorm. Other important incidents or reasons that forced labors of Foxconn, to start this social movement was the bad attitude of the managers who used to shout on the workers and used to torture them. Also, the workers of Foxconn were not at all given labor rights that became one of the main reasons for this social movement.

Goals of the movement:

The goal of the Umbrella Movement was to make China aware of residents of Hong Kong who were not ready to tolerate any injustice. The goal of this movement was to protect the democracy of Hong Kong, and they demanded that they wanted the free elections; this demand was sparked by the decision of a political party "Standing Committee of the National People's Congress" who demand pre-screening. If mentioned in simple words, the goal of this movement was to choose a leader of their own choice for which residents of Hong Kong struggled.

Moreover, by taking a look at the Foxconn labor movement, it could be seen that this movement started for securing the rights of the labors, as it was seen, Foxconn broke Chinese labor laws as they underpay their labors. For raising voice against the violation of rights against the labor class who were committing suicide, the investigation was started in which the team inspected that how Foxconn was treating its labor and why the labors were forced to commit suicide.

State’s response:

By having a deep analysis of the umbrella movement, it could be said that it was much surprising for the government to see thousands of people, protesting in most populated streets of Hong Kong. The state felt being in trouble as this movement stared over the night and people in larger number, blocked three of the main districts of Hong Kong. The state was being criticized by the international media as the Hong Kongers started declaring that Hong Kong is not China, so this was the thing that put the state in more trouble. This movement was more like a threat to the state as it continued for 79 days. It was seen that state at first tried to deal this issue by using power but later on, when it realized that the situation was getting out of their hands, it took a smart step and tried to fulfill demand of free electoral system of the Hong Kongers.

The state’s response was positive and was appreciated by everyone as the state took timely and strict response against those who were violating the labor rights and torturing the labor. The state responded in time and sent the legal team for investigating the conditions in which the workers were working in Foxconn which is one of the largest manufacturers of iPhone (Chan,et,al,2013). The response given by the state gave the protesters a confidence that their state is there behind them for protecting their rights as workers were working in Taiwan factories that were taking advantage of the Chinese labor power by violating all the labor rights, but the quick and positive response of state warns the factories who were violating its labor's rights. Demands of labors were put in front of the companies for providing workers with better working conditions.

Methods used by the movement:

There is no doubt that umbrella movement was one of the movements that were quite unusual and used a unique way for proceeding. In this movement, the protestors selected a kind of little different method of protest as they were trying to make this movement as peaceful as possible but situation went out of hands. The method that was opted for this movement included a series of sit-in-street protests. Though the protestors not harm people or any property but still for jamming all the system of the city, they blocked many crowded and famous streets and roads, so that the authorities would pay attention towards them, (Ortmann,et,al,2015). It was seen that tens of thousands of protestors blocked the streets of three main districts of Hong Kong. In this movement, one of the most important things that have been used was umbrella as it was summer when this movement started and people for saving them from the pepper spray of police used umbrellas as shield. Other things that were used by the protestors were the surgical masks, diving goggles and shield for their arms so that they could save them from police (Tang,et,al,2015). They used a method that would make the authorities helpless, so that they could put their demands in front of them.

For this movement, the method that was adopted by the protestors was, they raised a voice against the violation of the labor rights and media has been used for making this movement stronger and with the suicide attempt of a young girl who became paralyzed for the life, international and Chinese newspaper was used as a tool for making this movement popular so that the voice of the labor could reach the hears of international media and authorities, who could take steps against the violation of the labor rights (Lüthje,et,al,2017). The protestors after having an in depth analysis of the increasing number of suicides committed by the labors of Foxconn, called legal associations for help and used one of the most peaceful methods by involving the local and international organizations that were there for protecting the rights of these labors.

Strength scale

Protest and rising voice against anything that one may think, is against his/her rights, and has been seen many times. Protests that could be viewed in China during the last few years, which proved influential, are many but these two above mentioned movements were the most powerful of all during the last few years. It would not be wrong to say that umbrella movement was large-scale disobedience that started in Hong Kong (Tang,et,al,2015). The strength scale of this movement could be judged by taking a look at the involvement of students as it is fact that students are the main power of any country or state who are going to decide about the future of a country, so it was seen that this movement had such a great strength that it was mainly started by three students. The strength of this movement could also be seen by taking a look at the fact that this movement gave an identity to the students.

Another thing from which the strength scale of this movement could be checked is that this umbrella movement has cast such a great impact internationally that it has been nominated for the Noble Peace Prize for 2018. Another important thing that should be kept in mind for taking a look at the strength scale of this movement is that the Chinese government was forced to accept all the demands that the protestors put in front of it after the continuous struggle of 79 days.

It has been seen in the history that there have been many protests that are being done for securing the rights of the labor, but this protest or the movement proved one of the most influential movements that have been done in history for raising a voice against the violation of the labor rights. This movement has merged das one of the most strong and its strength level could be seen by taking a look at the coverage of this movement on an international level (Ngai,et,al,2012). The strength level of this movement could be seen by taking a look at the attention that the whole world gave to this movement and especially the Apple instructed not only to Foxconn but to its all supplier for making a sound and flexible policy for the labors in which there would be no conception of violation of any labor rights as workforce is the main source of the revenue.

Another thing that reflects the strength scale of this movement is that Fair Labor Associative took notice of this matter and started investigating things. This inspection team also warned Foxconn that they have to be very careful about how they are going to treat their labors. The strength of this movement could be seen by taking a look at the changed attitude of Foxconn as they ensured that they are going to fix a standard work time and also they are going to increase the wages of the labor as per their efforts.

After effects of movements

We are discussing two different social movements that started there in China; likewise there were different after-effects of these two social movements on the world and particularly on Hong Kong and China. By taking a look at the umbrella movement, it could be seen that it would be enough to know the role and impact that umbrella movement has been nominated for the noble peace award 2018. It has been seen that after 28th September 2014, one of the most influential and intense pro-democracy mobilization that was never seen before in Hong Kong. There was seen that a user of the online communication by using the techno-politics. In some of the parts, this movement has been overstretched. After fighting for almost 79 days and being teargased, arrested and beaten by the police, feelings of hatred were quite understandable in the protestors. One of the main after effect of this movement is the realization of how in just their society was even with them by the residents of Hong Kong, especially this thing was realized by the young students of Hong Kong.

One of the most eye-catching and attention grasping after effect of this movement is that three activists and the pro-democracy group who were behind this movement have been nominated for 2018, Noble Peace Prize for making efforts, in bringing the positive changing and reforms in the Chinese territory. Initially it just stated as a political movement, but later on, it was proved that this movement cast great impacts on civic education, critical thinking and theories of education and widen up the areas and thinking of people.

The primary effect for which this movement started was seen and that was the involvement of the Chinese government is in political matters by taking the demands of residents of Hong Kong, as it was seen that China choose to engineer the electoral system of Hong Kong so that no one who is being mistrusted is going to be selected for competing in the election as the chief executive. The after effect of this movement was that China was having a kind of fear that no political coalition wins the Legislative Council. The protestors of the umbrella movement also achieved their goal for which they started this movement as China for selecting chief executive, made a committee of people who were trusted by both people of China as well as Hong Kong. There were also healthy impacts on the economy that favor the interests of Hong Kong, and they were also given access to decision making. It has been seen that Taiwan based Hon Hai precision industry (also known as Foxconn), was blamed that it is violating the rights of labor, many investigating teams were being sent to the

Impact Foxconn labor could be easily seen by taking a look at the overall scenario that has been created, but it is important to say that in contrast to the umbrella movement that had the positive outcomes, Foxconn labor movement may have negative impacts on many of the international manufacturers who are taking advantage from the cheap labor of China. With the rising numbers of suicide cases, the international media and the local media paid more attention to Foxconn Empire that was the primary source of iPhone production. There was the violation of the human rights at an exceptional level; such workers were pushed to work for overtime and completing the rush orders without any extra money or bonus (Friedman,et,al,2010). They were inhumanely treated by the managers. Workers had to work for 12 hours and the overtime of the month in Foxconn was 80 hours whether it is 30 hours internationally.

After being into the limelight and being blamed for the suicide of the 147 young people, much internal and government started investigating against Foxconn. There gathered many pieces of evidence that workers used to be tortured and they were forced to commit suicide just because of the pressure of the work and unfair wages, but it was seen that when the investigating of many of the factories was done, this manufacturing giant Foxconn ensured that it is going to take care of its workers and would take serious notice against anyone who is going to violate any labor right. Foxconn also ensured that it would sharply curtail working hours for the workers and would try its best to provide them all those facilities that the labor deserves as their right.

Another visible impact of this Foxconn labor movement is that Foxconn also promised to fairly increasing the wages of the labors as per the law inside the Chinese plants making electronic of many multinational companies, such as Apple. Researchers are expecting that they would be seen positive impacts of this social movement on the overall labor conditions in China. An inspection was done by the Fair Labor Association and after that a shift in the attitude of management of Foxconn was seen. With labor who were feeling very insecure because of the bad treatment of management and managers. This inspection team investigated that there were more than 43 violations of chine laws and regulations. When the investigation team saw that they were more than 43% workers who witnessed or personally experienced violence that they started making a file with strong pieces of evidence against Foxconn, then Foxconn promised that they are going to change the manner of how they will have to deliver. Foxconn was warned by the Apple as it recently joined Fair Labor Association, it requested this inspection to check and investigate the plants and places where Apple products such as iPhone, pads and other devices are manufactured.

The impact or the after effects of Foxconn labor movement was that there during the past months there has been seen protests and petitions against Foxconn. There has been seen many labor rights organizations started the scrutiny of the apple suppliers in China. After effects of this movement were more threatening for Apple, as it was being sent many letters to ensure decent conditions of working and it was also advised to make ethical policies for labors at the level of all its suppliers. Another positive impact that has been seen facilitating the labors is that Apple has released a list of its 156 suppliers which it previously failed to identify. Apple started monitoring the conditions in which its worker work, and also it started getting a report for its management about the time like how many hours its work in China. There is no doubt there in China Foxconn is the almost only manufacturer of iPhone, and it is one of its biggest manufacturers in China.

What these movements’ means to the Chinese civilians

By taking a looking at both the starting points and the after effects of the umbrella movement could be said that it cast great impacts on the chines civilians as it first it makes them insecure and threatens them as the situation was getting worse with each passing time. With ten passage of time, Chinese civilians realized that through umbrella movement people are just claiming for the free electoral process that is their right. It was seen that Chinese civilians were feeling a kind of threat at the beginning as it was a complete failure of government at all levels. Media coverage used to represent that it was a complete failure of China to get the things on the right track. Chinese civilians were trapped in the thoughts that maybe there would be even a severe outcome of this movement, and Chinese civilians were feeling more insecure as Hong Kong's residents refused for being a part of China anymore, so the Chinese civilians were at the risk of a great clash. When things started moving towards the right direction and the main electoral demand of protestors Chinese civilians become and supported the decision took by the authorities.

By taking an in-depth eye on the Foxconn labor movement, it could be said that growth of Foxconn was a clear sign for the chines economy that a new phenomenon has been introduced by which there could be seen an expansion of the capitalism in China when it comes to the size of the workforce. This social movement was very important for the Chinese civilians as in this chain of factories, most students were working who were the future of this country and the way the number of suicide was getting increase it scared the Chinese civilians, but then it was seen that chines civilians were very satisfied and happy after the success of this movement as this gave the labors a sense of security. This movement means a lot for the chines civilians as it gave them a feeling that they have the power to raise their voice against an unjust and change the thing in favor of their fellows.

Tiananmen incident in 1989

It has been seen those in 1989 after many weeks of the demonstration, finally, on the 4 June, Chinese troops entered the territory of Tiananmen Square. With entry, the Chinese troops are starting firing on the innocent civilians. Pro-democracy protesters were being killed and arrested by the chines e troops. This brutality was criticized by the international world, and there could be seen that many sanctions were imposed on China by the United States. It was seen that millions of young students in 1989, entered in central Beijing to protest for the resignation of the leader of the communists' party and the protesters were seen marching and chanting in the streets, for almost nearly three weeks (Zhao,et,al,2004). Tiananmen Square was almost stormed by the Chinese troops and police. Many of the media houses covered all this brutality for the international world, and it was seen that for saving themselves thousands of students tried to escape the rampaging Chinese force that was shooting on people without any discrimination. While on the other hand there were another group of the protesters as well who did not run away to save their lives; instead they fought back and attacked the chine force with whatever they had. It has been reported that they used to set on fire the vehicle of ten Chinese forces. They were also stoning back at the troops as well.

According to the foreign diplomats and media, more than 300 were killed by the Chinese troops, and more than a thousand were arrested. This act of cruelty really stunned both the allies and cold were enemies, and this act created fear on them as well. One of the leaders of the Soviet, Mikhail Gorbachev said that this event saddened him, but he hopes that the Chinese government would implement its domestic reform program. The international media believes that one day China would begin to democratize its political system. just after the three weeks of this cruel act, U.S Congress proposed a bill and voted that the U.S is going to impose some of the sanctions on people’s China as a response against the unethical and brutal act that they did against Tiananmen.

It would not be wrong to say that it is the right of people to protest if they are unhappy with anything and peaceful protest should not be treated with brutality as Chinese government did as it was seen that there were almost thousands of people if not millions who were calling for an economic and political change and wanted to see reforms, but the way Chinese government responded was something below than the level of humanity. Chinese government overwhelming used its force for suppressing the voice of people and their demonstration. One should also know that there gathered many people in 1989 across China at Tiananmen Square, in Beijing were there to mourn the death of a political leader Hu Yaobang, and starting showing frustration there at the slow going of the reforms that were promised to them, so this was the only thing that killed hundreds of people.


Chan, Jenny, Ngai Pun, and Mark Selden. "The politics of global production: Apple, Foxconn, and China's new working class." New Technology, Work and Employment 28.2 (2013): 100-115.

Friedman, Eli, and Ching Kwan Lee. "Remaking the world of Chinese labor: A 30‐year retrospective." British Journal of Industrial Relations 48.3 (2010): 507-533.

Ho, Petula Sik Ying, Stevi Jackson, and Jun Rene Lam. "Talking Politics, Performing Masculinities: Stories of Hong Kong Men Before and After the Umbrella Movement." Sex Roles 79.9-10 (2018): 533-548.

Lüthje, Boy, and Florian Butollo. "Why the Foxconn model does not die: Production networks and labor relations in the IT industry in South China." Globalizations 14.2 (2017): 216-231.

Ngai, Pun, and Jenny Chan. "Global capital, the state, and Chinese workers: the Foxconn experience." Modern China38.4 (2012): 383-410.

Ortmann, Stephan. "The umbrella movement and Hong Kong's protracted democratization process." Asian Affairs 46.1 (2015): 32-50.

Tang, Gary. "Mobilization by images: TV screen and mediated instant grievances in the Umbrella Movement." Chinese Journal of Communication 8.4 (2015): 338-355.

Tang, Gary. "Mobilization by images: TV screen and mediated instant grievances in the Umbrella Movement." Chinese Journal of Communication 8.4 (2015): 338-355.

Zhao, Dingxin. The power of Tiananmen: State-society relations and the 1989 Beijing student movement. University of Chicago Press, 2004.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 13 Words: 3900

Writer Give

Artificial Intelligence and how it is impacting humanity

mona li (First M. Last)

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)


Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a computer-based technology that deals with artificial intelligent behavior and learning and adaption in machines. This is the kind of technology which is transforming almost every field of human life whether connected with the economy, production, healthcare, communication and many more. As technology is impacting every field, research has also been done on its impacts on the modern world in both positive and negative ways. As every technology has its own advantages and disadvantages, AI falls in the same domain. This paper seeks to define and explain the technology of AI, an in-depth look at its history and its impacts on human life. In addition, it will also make people understand how this technology will impact their future. AI is a technology which has transformed different domains of human lives in both positive and negative way, and it will continue to impact future generations.

History of AI

The term Artificial Intelligence is defined as intelligence displayed by an artificial entity. Generally, AI is considered as a computer. However, it is a branch of computer science which deals with the artificial behavior, and its research is linked with the automation of tasks by a machine which may include planning, scheduling, and control. Due to the benefits and ease it has created for mankind, AI is now used in almost every industry and every area of human life such as economics, medicine, health care, and military and it has also been used in many computer applications. Looking at the history of AI reveals how it started at how it stretched here.

It all began with the growth of electronic computer in 1941 and the stored program computer in 1949, the research for AI started, however, till late 1950, the observation about the link between the machines and human intelligence was absent ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a178hg8i68e","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf (\\uc0\\u8220{}World-Information.Org,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)}","plainCitation":"(“World-Information.Org,” n.d.)"},"citationItems":[{"id":1265,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/FGhKhGPG/items/JB5GZE7X"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/FGhKhGPG/items/JB5GZE7X"],"itemData":{"id":1265,"type":"webpage","title":"World-Information.Org","URL":"http://world-information.org/wio/infostructure/100437611663/100438659360","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",3,6]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“World-Information.Org,” n.d.). A discovery made by Norbert Wiener influenced the early development of AI. He is declared as the first one who theorized the concept of intelligent behavior as the outcome of a feedback mechanism that can be stimulated by the machines. The next step in the field of AI was the creation of The Logic Theorist that was planned by the Newell and Simon in 1955 and it can be declared as a leading AI program. However, the first person who coined the term AI and is also considered as the pioneer of AI is John McCarthy. He was an American computer scientist. He organized the Dartmouth Conference titled as "The Dartmouth summer research project on artificial intelligence." The aim of that conference was to draw the proficiency and talent of those interested in machine intelligence. This conference resulted in the research centers focused on the possibilities of AI.

The following years of AI were the formation of research centers on AI including some at Carnegie Mellon University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). In addition, new challenges were also encountered. These challenges were related to the creation of systems capable of solving the problems intelligently and the systems that could learn on their own. The extensive research on AI resulted in the formation of a unique program called The General Problem Solver which was used by Simon and Newell in 1957. It was capable of solving more significant problems and was extended on the principles of Wiener's feedback. Those years in which the computer scientists faced the shortage of funds to do comprehensive research on AI were named as AI Winter ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"ai19mnht80","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf (\\uc0\\u8220{}A Short History of Artificial Intelligence,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)}","plainCitation":"(“A Short History of Artificial Intelligence,” n.d.)"},"citationItems":[{"id":1268,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/FGhKhGPG/items/H5NDM27D"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/FGhKhGPG/items/H5NDM27D"],"itemData":{"id":1268,"type":"webpage","title":"A Short History of Artificial Intelligence","container-title":"The Practical Dev","abstract":"What is Artificial Intelligence? What has Artificial Intelligence reached in the past? What are appreciable milestones of Artificial Intelligence in the last years?","URL":"https://dev.to/lschultebraucks/a-short-history-of-artificial-intelligence-7hm","language":"en"}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“A Short History of Artificial Intelligence,” n.d.). 1990 has been marked with the year in which the Japanese government revealed their plans to launch fifth generation computers for the advancement of machine learning. Since 2010, AI is moving at a breakneck speed, and it is almost used in almost every field with its tools and technologies.

Tools of AI and Their Implications in Various Fields

AI involves a number of tools and technologies that are helping mankind in different fields, and it continues to flourish. Some of these tools include the Natural Language Generation which produces text from the computer data and is profoundly used in report making. Speech recognition is another tool of AI which converts human speech into useful formats and is used in mobile apps and voice response systems. AI virtual character referred to as a virtual agent provides an intelligent conversation with the users and is used for artificial customer representation. Machine learning platforms are currently employed in a large variety of enterprises to design, deploy and train models into machines and applications.

Various technologies of AI such as biometrics allow the unique recognition of humans on the basis of their unique physical characteristics and is highly used for access management. Text analytics allow the analysis of text and sentence structure and its sentiment by using the method of machine learning. Human action automation is done by using the robotic process automation to ease the business processes. These tools and technologies are much employed in the field of health care, business management, education and in autonomous vehicles. Robotics and Cyborg Technology address many challenges and reduce human limitations. The usage of AI will continue to increase in the future. AI can play a fundamental role in the future of many domains, and hence its impacts have been under considerations. Like any technology, it has both merits and demerits.

Positive and Negative Impacts on Humanity

The AI tools have been successful in creating ease in human life; nevertheless, along with that research studies are also focused on its positive and negative impacts. There has been a consistent debate on whether AI is a boon or bone to the society. The technology of AI has created tremendous benefits for mankind. The research on the benefits reveals that this technology has enhanced efficiency and creates new opportunities for revenue generation. It has helped humans reduce errors in whatever they do. Intelligent robots have taken the place of humans, and hence the likelihood of errors in a task has been reducing to zero. The power of robots has been used in space exploration. The real benefits of AI are realized when it frees up humans to do what they are best at doing. Apart from that, the overall human lifestyle has enhanced.

Efficient businesses, efficient performance of tedious tasks and mundane tasks are performed by intelligent assistants. Marketing targeting has gone better, better health care is in human access, and better machines and robots are performing diagnosis. All of this is the courtesy of AI. Telemedicine is another favorite of AI to the industry of health care and manhood. Businesses are enjoying low production, and operational cost and hard labor are replaced with robotics. In many ways, human conditions have been elevated as robots and machines are performing tasks being the capacity of the human brain. The technology of AI has enabled man to focus on higher order functions and enhance his quality of life. In addition, it is the most significant opportunity of a generation to enhance human creativity. Despite all the benefits AI has produced for the mankind concerns have raised regarding its negative impacts and risks for the society.

The impressive capabilities of AI are narrow in nature. It seems like AI will be able to solve any complex and intelligent task that humans will be unable to do, but the question is how much benefit society will obtain from this technology. The automation of services results in the replacement of human labor with robots. This will bring more benefit to the enterprises and business in reducing their costs, but the labor will be lacking employment opportunities ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a2q8ieemhvh","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf (\\uc0\\u8220{}The impact of AI on work,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)}","plainCitation":"(“The impact of AI on work,” n.d.)"},"citationItems":[{"id":1270,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/FGhKhGPG/items/NRQ2HATZ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/FGhKhGPG/items/NRQ2HATZ"],"itemData":{"id":1270,"type":"post-weblog","title":"The impact of AI on work: implications for individuals, communities, and societies | Robohub","abstract":"The impact of AI on work: implications for individuals, communities, and societies","URL":"https://robohub.org/the-impact-of-ai-on-work-implications-for-individuals-communities-and-societies/","shortTitle":"The impact of AI on work"}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“The impact of AI on work,” n.d.). The point to consider here is what will happen to the labor market if driverless cars become common. This is one issue linked with the development of AI. It gives rise to a number of moral issues when AI will replace humans in all the fields, and one of such issue is also highlighted in a movie Ex-Machina which reveals what will happen if the robots will get better than humans in diverse areas of life.

If robots get better than the humans, then there is also the concern of loss of control. Loss of control can be a deterrent if robots get smarter than human beings. Another risk linked with AI is that robots can create unintended consequences for human beings. It is also believed that the algorithm of Facebook impacts the outcomes of election eventually impacting geopolitics. AI is a gift of nature, but it cannot be replaced with humans. As robots do not have any moral or social values, they are unable to make the judgment of right and wrong, and they cannot encounter any ethical or moral situation. In addition, unlike humans, they cannot learn from their experiences. They remain unable to alter their responses according to the changing environment. There is no additional creativity in robots, and they fail to imagine like humans. Robots and machines work according to how they programmed. This has raised concerns on the use of AI and Association for the advancement of artificial intelligence aims to advance the research on the responsible use of AI ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a13115hd4bp","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf (\\uc0\\u8220{}Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)}","plainCitation":"(“Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence,” n.d.)"},"citationItems":[{"id":1274,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/FGhKhGPG/items/SH7YH8FY"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/FGhKhGPG/items/SH7YH8FY"],"itemData":{"id":1274,"type":"webpage","title":"Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence","URL":"http://www.aaai.org/","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",3,6]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence,” n.d.).

Reflection and Conclusion

Based on the research conducted on the use and positive and negative impacts of AI on humankind shows that it is hard to imagine the humanity in the context of this technology as it is occupying almost every industry and every field. There is a conscious need to consider how this technology should be used. Like every other technology, it is being embraced by mankind, but the need is to use the technology in a way that produces positive outcomes for society outweighing the negative impacts. There is a need to conduct studies like the one by Stanford Institute on the 100 years of development of AI to see the impacts it has produced on the mankind since its evolution ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"L3ZiUQym","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Tyagi, 2016)","plainCitation":"(Tyagi, 2016)"},"citationItems":[{"id":1278,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/FGhKhGPG/items/WNKXQGST"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/FGhKhGPG/items/WNKXQGST"],"itemData":{"id":1278,"type":"book","title":"Essay: Artificial Intelligence: Boon or Bane?","note":"DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.2836438","author":[{"family":"Tyagi","given":"Amit"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016",8,15]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Tyagi, 2016). A system of check and balance is needed with several AI technologies to evaluate its impacts. There is also a need to develop ethics charter on AI and the research studies on machine learning and robotics for the advancements in these technologies. The changing nature of work due to the AI technologies puts the responsibility on the policymakers so that the benefits of AI are equally distributed among all the parties including the businesses, workers and those who are impacted by it and risks of AI can be avoided. Research of today can be helpful to skip all the potential adverse outcomes of AI in the future and hence the benefits of AI can be enjoyed ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"anck04l2q5","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf (\\uc0\\u8220{}Benefits & Risks of Artificial Intelligence,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)}","plainCitation":"(“Benefits & Risks of Artificial Intelligence,” n.d.)"},"citationItems":[{"id":1276,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/FGhKhGPG/items/VHENI4SQ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/FGhKhGPG/items/VHENI4SQ"],"itemData":{"id":1276,"type":"webpage","title":"Benefits & Risks of Artificial Intelligence","container-title":"Future of Life Institute","abstract":"Why do we need research to ensure that artificial intelligence remains safe and beneficial? What are the benefits and risks of artificial intelligence?","URL":"https://futureoflife.org/background/benefits-risks-of-artificial-intelligence/","language":"en-US"}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Benefits & Risks of Artificial Intelligence,” n.d.).

The technology like AI should not be taken for granted as it is way different than any other technology. Its positive impacts were displayed on society in no time, but its negative aspects should not be ignored. Mankind must get ready to face the consequences of this technology related to privacy, unemployment and many other areas. To sum up, social bugs of AI must be considered to avoid any threats to humanity in the long-run.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY A Short History of Artificial Intelligence. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://dev.to/lschultebraucks/a-short-history-of-artificial-intelligence-7hm

Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence. (n.d.). Retrieved March 6, 2019, from http://www.aaai.org/

Benefits & Risks of Artificial Intelligence. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://futureoflife.org/background/benefits-risks-of-artificial-intelligence/

The impact of AI on work: implications for individuals, communities, and societies | Robohub. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://robohub.org/the-impact-of-ai-on-work-implications-for-individuals-communities-and-societies/

Tyagi, A. (2016). Essay: Artificial Intelligence: Boon or Bane? https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2836438

World-Information.Org. (n.d.). Retrieved March 6, 2019, from http://world-information.org/wio/infostructure/100437611663/100438659360

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 6 Words: 1800

Writing Assignment 2

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of Instructor]




Introduction to healthcare

The term health refers to the physical, mental and social wellbeing of a person. To be healthy, one must be physically, mentally, emotionally and socially secure and active.

The topic under discussion that is healthcare is the preservation/ betterment of physical and mental wellbeing of people through the care, identification, and examination and care for any sickness, ill health, damage, and other physical and mental malfunctioning in human beings.

Healthcare systems

In many countries of the world, especially in the developed countries, there are health care systems that enable their citizens to access to quality health facilities and take care of any health issues that are faced by them. Countries like Germany, France, UK, Canada and Singapore etc. have elaborate and well-functioning healthcare systems.

When it comes to gauge the functioning and goals of a health care system there are three basic things that come into play namely access, quality of care and cost. A good healthcare system should be accessible to the public, should provide quality care to the diseases and the costs should be in a range that is affordable for the middle and lower middle class income groups.

Canadian healthcare system

Now let’s look at the Canadanian healthcare system

The Canadian system started off with a  health insurance program at provincial level which bore the costs of universal hospital (1947) and cost of doctors (1962). The expenditures were taken care of on a 50/50 % basis with the federal government for health institutions (1957) and for physicians or practitioners (1968) ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"HjlkHcZz","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Clements et al.)","plainCitation":"(Clements et al.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":14,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/8F7AC5D7"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/8F7AC5D7"],"itemData":{"id":14,"type":"article-journal","title":"Effective Teamwork in Healthcare: Research and Reality","container-title":"HealthcarePapers","page":"26-34","volume":"7","issue":"sp","source":"Crossref","abstract":"Issues affecting health workplaces range from serious concerns that could affect the immediate physical safety of workers to those that would improve productivity and efficiency, or make an organization a preferred employer. Employers and workers might consider effective teamwork an asset, but for patients it is a prerequisite. This paper reviews the evidence for effective teamwork, primarily that gathered by a research team funded by the Canadian Health Services Research Foundation (CHSRF). We also review the expert opinion provided by a group of 25 researchers and decision makers convened by CHSRF in late 2005 at a forum for discussion about issues related to effective teamwork. Included in the retreat were representatives from professional organizations and occupations as well as areas such as legal liability.","DOI":"10.12927/hcpap.2013.18669","ISSN":"19296339","shortTitle":"Effective Teamwork in Healthcare","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Clements","given":"Dave"},{"family":"Dault","given":"Mylène"},{"family":"Priest","given":"Alicia"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2007",1,15]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Clements et al.). During 1960s, other governments at provincial and territorial levels followed this system and till 1972 it was prevalent all over Canada. Then came the “National Medical Care Insurance Act” (1968) that made the federal government to bear 50% of the cost of the insurances at provincial levels.

The main features of Canada’s system are: easy access to public, compendious, flexibility, good administration of public insurances and universality. However, the system faces problems also. Canada’s system is believed to be “mediocre at best”. But U.S healthcare system is more costly and less efficient as compared to the Canadian system ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"HtYLz1wB","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Ginter et al.)","plainCitation":"(Ginter et al.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":31,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/VNYDFCCU"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/VNYDFCCU"],"itemData":{"id":31,"type":"book","title":"The strategic management of health care organizations","publisher":"John Wiley & Sons","ISBN":"1-119-34970-2","author":[{"family":"Ginter","given":"Peter M."},{"family":"Duncan","given":"W. Jack"},{"family":"Swayne","given":"Linda E."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Ginter et al.).

The effective team work in healthcare in Canada results in the identification of weak areas that need improvement and consequently result in better outcomes for the patients and better team coordination. This also decreases the errors made during work ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"3ijd7q7S","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Clements et al.)","plainCitation":"(Clements et al.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":14,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/8F7AC5D7"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/8F7AC5D7"],"itemData":{"id":14,"type":"article-journal","title":"Effective Teamwork in Healthcare: Research and Reality","container-title":"HealthcarePapers","page":"26-34","volume":"7","issue":"sp","source":"Crossref","abstract":"Issues affecting health workplaces range from serious concerns that could affect the immediate physical safety of workers to those that would improve productivity and efficiency, or make an organization a preferred employer. Employers and workers might consider effective teamwork an asset, but for patients it is a prerequisite. This paper reviews the evidence for effective teamwork, primarily that gathered by a research team funded by the Canadian Health Services Research Foundation (CHSRF). We also review the expert opinion provided by a group of 25 researchers and decision makers convened by CHSRF in late 2005 at a forum for discussion about issues related to effective teamwork. Included in the retreat were representatives from professional organizations and occupations as well as areas such as legal liability.","DOI":"10.12927/hcpap.2013.18669","ISSN":"19296339","shortTitle":"Effective Teamwork in Healthcare","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Clements","given":"Dave"},{"family":"Dault","given":"Mylène"},{"family":"Priest","given":"Alicia"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2007",1,15]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Clements et al.)

Also there are rules and regulations that apply to the big pharmaceuticals and are checked for the economic activities or situations which is an important factor that contributes to the quality of Canadian healthcare.

My research shows that Canada spends approximately about 228 billion dollars (2016) on healthcare and corresponding to 6,299 dollars per person. Whereas U.S spends 3.5 trillion (2017) which makes for eighteen percent of U.S total income which is more than any other developed country’s spending but still almost half (46.1%) deaths owing to diseases were due to either cancer, heart diseases or respiratory diseases. Also the quality of the medical service is also compromised in U.S as medical errors are also a leading cause of deaths and thousands of people die every year due to such errors ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"knqLpl1f","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Freemantle et al.)","plainCitation":"(Freemantle et al.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":26,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/Y8L9V4N3"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/Y8L9V4N3"],"itemData":{"id":26,"type":"article-journal","title":"Promoting cost effective prescribing","container-title":"BMJ","page":"955-956","volume":"310","issue":"6985","source":"www.bmj.com","abstract":"In many countries the cost effectiveness of drugs is receiving increasing attention. Rising budgets have heightened concerns about containing costs and whether resources are used efficiently.1 The need for rigorous examination of cost effectiveness as well as clinical effectiveness has been argued for.2 3 4 The message is clear: doctors may prescribe an effective drug to patients who will benefit, but if the drug is not cost effective they may be using resources that would produce greater benefit for other patients for the same cost.\n\nExpensive drugs require the use of limited resources, which, once deployed are not available for other activities that may bring greater benefits for patients. When an expensive drug is shown to be cost effective, however, its use is justified by the additional benefits it brings. To use scarce resources efficiently the careful and explicit measurement of the value of what is given up (the opportunity cost) and the value of what is gained (for example, improvements in the length and quality of life) is essential. The measurement of cost alone or effectiveness alone will produce inefficiency as a rational health care system finances expensive alternatives to existing treatments only if these bring additional benefits commensurate with the cost.\n\nThe pharmaceutical industry has been quick to realise the potential of economic analyses in promoting new and expensive products.5 Governments have also recognised the importance of economic …","DOI":"10.1136/bmj.310.6985.955","ISSN":"0959-8138, 1468-5833","note":"PMID: 7728021","journalAbbreviation":"BMJ","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Freemantle","given":"Nick"},{"family":"Henry","given":"David"},{"family":"Maynard","given":"Alan"},{"family":"Torrance","given":"George"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1995",4,15]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Freemantle et al.).

It is researched upon that if the amount spent on home care is increased to two hundred dollars to allocate for the costs of self-care and for professionals’ services will lead to a saving of two hundred and fifty dollars every day for the patients or put in other words seven hundred and fifty thousand dollars each day for some three thousand patients in Ontario. It will lead to a whole of 273,750,000 dollars every year in amount spent in hospitals. But such investments will count if we see that:

Estimates as that of the Public Health Agency of Canada highlighted the Canadians spend a hundred and ninety billion dollars every year on the “Chronic diseases” in direct and indirect costs

According to the World Economic Forum, due to the chronic diseases the Canadians suffer from, lead to loss in productivity about four hundred percent more than the money spend directly on the treatment of the diseases.

The study of the “Ontario Chronic Disease Prevention and Management” in 2007 revealed that only in Ontario if then expenses on the chronic diseases were reduced by a mere ten percent, there could be a 1.2 billion dollar worth of savings ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"X6jX43R9","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Manns et al.)","plainCitation":"(Manns et al.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":21,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/E8ZAKJJX"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/E8ZAKJJX"],"itemData":{"id":21,"type":"article-journal","title":"Population based screening for chronic kidney disease: cost effectiveness study","container-title":"BMJ","page":"c5869","volume":"341","source":"www.bmj.com","abstract":"Objective To determine the cost effectiveness of one-off population based screening for chronic kidney disease based on estimated glomerular filtration rate.\nDesign Cost utility analysis of screening with estimated glomerular filtration rate alone compared with no screening (with allowance for incidental finding of cases of chronic kidney disease). Analyses were stratified by age, diabetes, and the presence or absence of proteinuria. Scenario and sensitivity analyses, including probabilistic sensitivity analysis, were performed. Costs were estimated in all adults and in subgroups defined by age, diabetes, and hypertension.\nSetting Publicly funded Canadian healthcare system.\nParticipants Large population based laboratory cohort used to estimate mortality rates and incidence of end stage renal disease for patients with chronic kidney disease over a five year follow-up period. Patients had not previously undergone assessment of glomerular filtration rate.\nMain outcome measures Lifetime costs, end stage renal disease, quality adjusted life years (QALYs) gained, and incremental cost per QALY gained.\nResults Compared with no screening, population based screening for chronic kidney disease was associated with an incremental cost of $C463 (Canadian dollars in 2009; equivalent to about £275, €308, US $382) and a gain of 0.0044 QALYs per patient overall, representing a cost per QALY gained of $C104 900. In a cohort of 100 000 people, screening for chronic kidney disease would be expected to reduce the number of people who develop end stage renal disease over their lifetime from 675 to 657. In subgroups of people with and without diabetes, the cost per QALY gained was $C22 600 and $C572 000, respectively. In a cohort of 100 000 people with diabetes, screening would be expected to reduce the number of people who develop end stage renal disease over their lifetime from 1796 to 1741. In people without diabetes with and without hypertension, the cost per QALY gained was $C334 000 and $C1 411 100, respectively.\nConclusions Population based screening for chronic kidney disease with assessment of estimated glomerular filtration rate is not cost effective overall or in subgroups of people with hypertension or older people. Targeted screening of people with diabetes is associated with a cost per QALY that is similar to that accepted in other interventions funded by public healthcare systems.","DOI":"10.1136/bmj.c5869","ISSN":"0959-8138, 1468-5833","note":"PMID: 21059726","shortTitle":"Population based screening for chronic kidney disease","journalAbbreviation":"BMJ","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Manns","given":"Braden"},{"family":"Hemmelgarn","given":"Brenda"},{"family":"Tonelli","given":"Marcello"},{"family":"Au","given":"Flora"},{"family":"Chiasson","given":"T. Carter"},{"family":"Dong","given":"James"},{"family":"Klarenbach","given":"Scott"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2010",11,8]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Manns et al.). The government of Canada is actively working on these and other related aspects of the healthcare system.


Canada’s health-care system faces some issues as well. Firstly, post late 1970s, the federal governments have lessened the money allocations towards the system. Secondly, the costs of the hospital insurance have been ever increasing. Canada spent about 11.1% of her total income on healthcare which was approximately 7% back in 1975. The money spent per head in Canada costs for around 6000 Canadian dollars which makes the Canadian healthcare more costly as compared to other developed nations. Moreover, the Canadian healthcare system is practically more responsive and accessible to the main chronic illness issues like heart diseases and cancer than it is for other non-chronic issues. It seems like the patients of chronic diseases are prioritized over other patients.

Also there is some need of repairing and redesigning of the system in the areas in which it is weak and not so efficient. Research and analysis still needs to be carried out in light of which there would be initiated any essential reforms in the Canadian healthcare system.

Work Cited

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Clements, Dave, et al. “Effective Teamwork in Healthcare: Research and Reality.” HealthcarePapers, vol. 7, no. sp, Jan. 2007, pp. 26–34. Crossref, doi:10.12927/hcpap.2013.18669.

Freemantle, Nick, et al. “Promoting Cost Effective Prescribing.” BMJ, vol. 310, no. 6985, Apr. 1995, pp. 955–56. www.bmj.com, doi:10.1136/bmj.310.6985.955.

Ginter, Peter M., et al. The Strategic Management of Health Care Organizations. John Wiley & Sons, 2018.

Manns, Braden, et al. “Population Based Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease: Cost Effectiveness Study.” BMJ, vol. 341, Nov. 2010, p. c5869. www.bmj.com, doi:10.1136/bmj.c5869.

“Top 3 Leading Causes of Death in the US.” Pharmacy Times, https://www.pharmacytimes.com/news/top-3-leading-causes-of-death-in-the-us. Accessed 14 Mar. 2019.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Written Assignment

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Cross-Functional Teams and Critical analysis of Nursing Experience

Your Name (First M. Last)

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)

Cross-Functional Teams and Critical analysis of Nursing Experience

Cross-functional teams are necessary to achieve a common goal as team collaboration enables individuals to work effectively and productively. The cross-functional collaboration is a great team-building tool, and it also contributes to a healthy working environment (Tang, Mu, Thomas, 2015). There are some practical approaches that need to be adopted to derive maximum benefit out of the cross-functional teams.

Integrate the Right Team

A particular set of skills are required for a useful cross-functional team. In this regard, the overall work requires expertise from the team. Therefore, it is imperative that the individuals are equipped with various skills to accomplish the task. However, shared skill is an element which is often not considered while developing the team. A specific type of people is needed to work in these settings. These individuals are the self-starters who have decision-making authority. Also, they should be experienced to deal with different types of situations. The team members in the cross-functional team need to dynamic in a sense that they should be ready to take on task after task. Furthermore, the collaborative members should be able to work within less-defined space.

The concept of a Leader in Cross-Functional team

It is not essential for cross-functional teams to have one leader rather every individual in the team must take responsibility. According to the spirit of the cross-functional team, every member is aware of their role. However, the team members may find a leader who can hold the team accountable and develop self-leaders in every team members. Moreover, a team leader needs to educate, develop self-confidence in team members, give them autonomy, and keep a tack of their overall progress. In addition, a leader gets input from all the team members in the planning process because every single individual in the team is an integral part of the group. Whenever team members need any help, a leader should come forward to guide them. A team is also held accountable for the overall success of the project. Although having a team leader in cross-functional teams is not essential, its better to have someone who can guide the members and steady the ship.

Clearly Defined Objectives

Every individual of the cross-functional team should be aware of the team goals. In this respect, regular meetings should be held with all the team members so that they can align themselves with objectives (Strese et al., 2016).

Shared Success

All the members in cross-functional teams have different expertise and experiences, but they need to share their knowledge and get along with each other as its all about collaboration and teamwork. If a team manages to achieve its goal, it will be a success for everyone.

Healthy Communication

Good communication is one of the essentials of cross-functional teams. Also, all of the members should be adaptable to change. The group members need to discuss different aspects of all the project with each other so that there is no ambiguity left regarding any element of the project. Communication should take place among team members using all the modes such as Skype, email, and verbal interaction. Effective communication is the key to success for cross-functional teams.

Constant Reevaluation

The cross-functional teams are ideal when they constantly evaluate their performances according to the set standards. For this purpose, meetings must be conducted on a regular basis to discuss the overall progress of every individual in the team. In case, any member is not performing well then other team members should support them and investigate the problems so that everyone is on the same page as far as the accomplishment of the goal is concerned.

Ways to Support Cross-functional Team Collaboration

Communication is the main tool for success in cross-functional teams. Team members may be working at different locations to achieve the same goal. Often, a great deal of coordination is required to carry out a particular task. Therefore, teams should be using the right platform that could facilitate collaboration and communication among all the members of the team. Advanced and updated software must be installed at the locations where members are based. Every individual must be well informed with the overall progress of the project (Tang, Mu, Thomas, 2015). A real-time data can be obtained through Projectmanager.com. It also ensures that at every location, team members are receiving an accurate picture of the projects progress.

Analysis of Healthcare Team

I have been the part of a radiology team which comprised a number of interdisciplinary professionals with the likes of doctors, nurses, radiologists in the radiology department. Also, a few individuals were in the team whose duty was to interact within a complimentary department. For instance, a patient is referred to radiology department from gyne ward then those individuals would collect all the relevant information of the said patient, and will pass that on to concerned professionals. Therefore, in order to carry out the smooth operation, the interaction was a vital element for the whole team, the doctors, nurses, and radiologists shared all the necessary information with each other. The team was headed by the senior doctors, and it was the team of five members including the front desk officer whose responsibility was to gather all the relevant information from patients. Our team leader always conveyed the significance of effective communication in healthcare settings. The whole team believed in providing patients with quality of care, and for that, all agreed that every single element should be considered. The team conducted a meeting by the end of every week to discuss the overall progress of department during the week, and individual performances also came under discussion in the meetings. Our team leader always advised us that lack of communication in our profession would affect the quality of care, and eventually, the patient will suffer.

All the team members were trained, and they were following SOPs. However, one of my colleagues and I were the junior members of the team therefore, we needed a bit more training in order to become well versed in all the tasks that we were required to carry out. In this respect, we were placed in Collaboration for Professional Practice (CIPP) module, the primary purpose of the training was to attend a ward session with the doctor. Both of us knew the history of the patients in the ward and were instructed to listen to the conversation of the doctor with patient carefully as it would improve our overall learning and skills. There are a few patients in the ward, who were not very good at speaking English as it was not their first language, and to communicate with the doctor, they were relying on us. My colleague nurse had newly joined the hospital, so she was a bit hesitant in asking questions.

A doctor visited patient with my colleague and discussed with patients about his health condition. My colleague was having this experience for the first time, and she was also interpreting the patients words. The patient had suffered heart attacks, so, the doctor was discussing with him all the necessary details. Meanwhile, my colleague somehow skipped one question that the patient wanted to ask the doctor. As a result, the patients query remained unanswered. Once the session was over, I discussed with my colleague if she has communicated everything to the doctor on patients behalf, she replied I might have missed a couple of points, but overall I have interpreted all the things. Upon hearing this, I conveyed that the patient had a heart problem, so, it was important for you not to miss even a single point. She replied, maybe next time, I will come up with perfection. Later, we came to know that the patient was discharged from the hospital as he was feeling well.

Moreover, we got engaged in our daily tasks. After a couple of weeks, we got to know that the same patient got admitted into the hospital again as he started having heart problem again. The doctor who also was our team leader and visited the patient with my colleague went to examine the patient and asked him as to what caused the problem. The patient replied that he took all the medicines on time, and adopted other precautionary measures as well, so, he was unable to make out as to what caused the problem again. During the conversation (an interpreter was there as the patient was from the non-English background), the doctor asked him that what has been his diet since his discharge from the hospital, he replied that he ate white rice alongside other dishes as it was one of his favourite dishes. Having heard this, the doctor got surprised, and asked him do you know that white rice is harmful to your health as it increases the risk of heart attacks. He replied when you visited me last time when I was admitted to the hospital, I asked the nurse about this thing, but when I did not get any reply, I assumed it would be okay. This was the point when the doctor realised the primary cause of the problem, and it was lack of communication. Had our colleague heard patients conversation carefully and communicated that to the doctor, he would not have had the problem again.

Therefore, the doctor strictly advised the patient not to have white rice again as it is not suitable for the patients suffering from heart diseases. Subsequently, a meeting was called by the doctor which was attended by all the team members including my colleague who missed that crucial point about the diet, and that caused a problem. The agenda of the meeting was the patients issue that occurred due to the negligence of my colleague. During the meeting, she admitted her mistake by saying that she should have been more vigilant while translating patients concerns to the doctor. Once again in the meeting, emphasis was laid on effective communication. Our team leader communicated to the whole team that a little bit negligence and lack of communication caused a major issue for the patient.

Furthermore, it was stressed that all the team members should feel free to ask any questions in case they are feeling any problem about any single aspect because we are dealing with the health of patients. Thus, teamwork in healthcare profession is more significant than any other field. A couple of more sessions were held with my colleague who committed the act of negligence. In order to further train her, she was recommended for special training program. The training for the period of one month was provided to our colleague, and when she joined our team again, we all could see the change in herself, she seemed more confident. She resumed her services, and actively participated in meetings, and asked her concerns. She developed good interaction with patients to make them feel comfortable and obtain all the necessary information from them. She maintained positive and professional relationship with all the other team members. While taking details of patients, she double checked all the information, and she would ask patients the question in case of any ambiguity. She ensured that all the information is recorded correctly.

The communication is the fundamental part of teamwork and the healthcare profession. In hospitals, patients from different background come for treatment, which is why it is imperative for healthcare providers to fully understand their problem by listening to them (Souza et al., 2016) carefully so that each and every single aspect is analysed. Sometimes problems arise for nurses and doctors while dealing with non-English and older patients as many of them struggle to communicate their concerns. In order to address this issue, hospitals should provide nurses with special trainings, and the services of interpreter may be hired depending upon the geographical location of the hospital, and carefully analysing the demographics of the particular area. Also, interdepartmental interaction is very necessary in the teamwork. During my experience in healthcare settings, I learned that all the departments are related to one another in hospitals that is why professional nurses and doctors should share all the relevant and necessary information with the concerned department in a timely manner. In this way, all the staff members are a team, and they are working to provide patients with quality of care.

The overall actions of all the doctors and nurses should reflect a teamwork. To ensure smooth delivery of care, the teams can be future divided into sub-teams so that tasks can be performed in small segments, and all the team members are assigned tasks according to their own abilities and skills. Also, to discuss the overall progress of each member and the health conditions of patients, meetings should be conducted on a regular basis so that effective plans can be made to improve the services. Besides, the feedback from patients is also important because it gives a clear picture to doctors and nurses about the patients satisfaction.

Teamwork is a reflective process, and as a result of effective teamwork, individuals are able to recognise their strengths and weaknesses and identify the areas in which they need more training and learning. Self-awareness is crucial in nursing and in the overall teamwork. All the team members communicate with each other and learn from the experiences and knowledge of their colleague and seniors. Also, teamwork enables individuals to maintain positive and professional relationship with patients. The new team members should quickly integrate with team members, and they should not hesitate to share their concerns and ask any questions. In this context, the role of team leaders is of high significance as they guide all the team members, and take them along, make them feel comfortable, and lead them from the front. Also, the environment of the team should be friendly for the members to share their experiences with each other. The seniors of the team should encourage the interdepartmental collaboration so that effective care can be ensured.

The self-evaluation of all the healthcare providers whether senior or junior is also critical as it gives them opportunity to improve themselves and learn from their mistakes. The evaluation of strengths and weakness enables doctors and nurses to get better. The ultimate goal of a hospital or a healthcare centre is a patients care and satisfaction. All the teams and sub-teams need to work together to make sure they are on the right track in achieving their goals. From planning to execution, all the stakeholders should be involved. As a part of a team, I know the consequences of the lack of communication therefore, first element of a nurse training should be effective communication alongside development of other skills that are required for patients care.


Souza, G. C. D., Peduzzi, M., Silva, J. A. M. D., Carvalho, B. G. (2016). Teamwork in nursing restricted to nursing professionals or an interprofessional collaboration. Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da USP, 50(4), 642-649.

Strese, S., Meuer, M. W., Flatten, T. C., Brettel, M. (2016). Organizational antecedents of cross-functional coopetition The impact of leadership and organizational structure on cross-functional coopetition. Industrial Marketing Management, 53, 42-55.

Tang, F., Mu, J., Thomas, E. (2015). Who knows what in NPD teams Communication context, mode, and task contingencies. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 32(3), 404-423.





Running head SOCIOLOGY

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Subject: Sociology

Pages: 8 Words: 2400

Your Choice

Social classes and behavior

Your Name (First M. Last)

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)

Socialization is the process by which people learn how to behave in society. At the very initial stage, a newborn individual is molded in such a way that he would interact with surrounding people keeping in consideration the expectations and social values of a culture in mind. With time and growth, a person comes to know about the social class he/she belongs to. In our society, we could see that there are some social classes that divide us into certain groups i.e. poor, middle class and the elite class. According to the researches, people always feel comfortable within the class they belong to. It is important for all the individuals to know the basics on which social classes are being created. According to Karl Marx, income inequality is the mean cause that categorized people into certain social classes. The parting line between the “Haves and have nots” makes them aware about restrictions and ways they have to socialize with others. Mainly it teaches them about the group of people with whom they have to social. A person sees which type of people his parents interact more and following them he/she is going to interact with some kind of people. According to other researchers race and ethnicity are other key factors that teach people about social restriction and social groups. Race from with a person belongs teach him about certain social norms that make him/her different from the rest. One finds it easy to communicate with those who share the same norms and values. People believe that members of the group or the social class he/she belongs to would understand him better than others as they have more commonalities among them.

I think the above-mentioned factors are the main causes why people are being categorized. They are being taught by their surrounding people about their class. I believe that financial conditions and surrounding people are the driving forces that let a person know his/her social class. Family is the first social institute that teaches one about his/her identity. Family is the institute that teaches one about the behavior. With time, a child starts learning about his social identity. We took our parents as our first teacher or guide who make some rules and restrictions for us. Abiding by the rules being made by our parents let us know who we are, what our boundaries are and these boundaries include our social circle (friends, colleagues an people we usually interact with). It has generally been seen that we follow the footsteps of our parents and accompany by the people who are socially and culturally like us (Afonso,et,al,2019). We feel comfortable interacting with people who are like us. According to most of the sociologists, a person’s class is defined by education, occupation level, family impacts, and income etc.

This fact cannot be denied that a person also engages himself/herself with a social class that his/her parents interact with the most. I have personally experienced this that parents influence the social behavior of a child. Bing a member of the working class, like my parents I have always found myself being surrounded with middle-class relatives and friends. Almost all of my friends are from a mediocre family.

It is a fact that we socialize with the kind of people our parents socialize with. For example, a child from elite class would feel happy while interacting with members of the same social class. Similarities and difference are the other main factors that make us aware of the social class we belong to. One of the best examples that I have ever seen is of my friend who belongs to a mediocre African family. His social interact has been shaped by his surroundings and especially by his family. In simple words, it won’t be wrong to say that age, race, gender, ethnicity, sexuality and religion are the main factors that shaped up his personality. In most of the cases, he restricts himself considering which social class he belongs to and which background he came from. He used to confine himself and his actions by keeping his social group is considering (Ntim,et,al,2019, p. 29-39). He wanted to be surrounded by people of his ethnicity and social class. Rarely, he makes friends out of his race. He does not feel comfortable in the presence of elites who makes him feel that he is someone odd one out. Like his parents, he loves to be surrounded by middle-class people and people who are socially and culturally like him. Taking a look at the social behavior of my friend, I would say that we are being trained by the two major social institutes i.e. family and society.

Another thing that I observed is that some factors force people to deviate from the normal path. These factors include education, thirst for economic stability, and an instinct to do something extra-ordinary that has not been done by your social class. Deviating the normal path is mainly for changing the history that has been followed by the rest of the members of a social class. Karl Marx’s theory of inequality could be seen as the major driving force that forces people to deviate the normal path. Karl Marx believes that for understanding the behavior of an individual, it is important to consider his/her economic conditions and social class they belong to, as both these factors greatly influence the behavior of an individual.

So as a whole, it could be promulgated that the social class position of a person is being defined by his/her surroundings. His parents are the main institute who must be held responsible for the social behavior he/she shows. Parents teach him how to interact and with whom.


Ntim, S., & Manu, M. O. (2019). Delinquent Behaviour as Dissociation between Prescribed Aspirations and Socially Structured Avenues: The Case of Stronger Social Bonding and Secure Attachments. International Journal of Applied, 9(1), 29-39.

Afonso, S. (2019). Universal tumor screening for lynch syndrome: investigation of patient reported distress levels(Doctoral dissertation, University of Pittsburgh).

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Zimring Book Report

Zimring Book Report


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Author Note

[Include any grant/funding information and a complete correspondence address.]

Zimring Book Report

In this study we will discuss two aspects of the Great American Crime decline of 1990s. First we will highlight the importance and exceptionality of the Great American Crime decline that took place in the US in 1990s. Then we will discuss the role of Canada in the understanding of reasons behind the Great American Crime decline.

The Great American Crime Decline

The crime rate in the US declined continuously for nine years in a row from 1991-2000. This decline in crime was the longest in the history of the US. This continuous decrease in the crime rate in the 1990s was a unique event and was observed in almost all categories of crime. To explore the distinctiveness of this event, we will discuss the data of some common offenses in US history. Homicide was remained a most distinctive crime in America since the beginning of 20th century. The rate of homicide was increasing since the beginning of the 1950s until the beginning of an exclusive period in the US; the decade of the 1990s. The homicide rate was 5 killings per 100,100 persons in the US in the 1950s. This crime rate of homicide increased by more than 100% within the next 40 years. In 1991, the homicide rate was more than 10 killings per 100,000 people. After 1991, this rate continuously decreased for the next 9 years in a row. In 2000, homicide rate in the US was 6 killings per 100,000 person. The data for most common crimes also displayed downward trends in the decade of the 1990s. Rape and Burglary both declined by 41% from 1992-2000. Similarly, robbery declined by 44%, auto theft by 37%, larceny by 23%, aggravated assault by 24% and homicide by 39% in that time ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"OO037Lqo","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Zimring, 2007a)","plainCitation":"(Zimring, 2007a)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":895,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/YFUSZRHW"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/YFUSZRHW"],"itemData":{"id":895,"type":"chapter","title":"The Size and Charactor of the Crime Decline","container-title":"The Great American Crime Decline","publisher-place":"New York, NY","event-place":"New York, NY","author":[{"family":"Zimring","given":"Franklin E."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2007"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Zimring, 2007a). This American continuous decline in crime in 1990's urged many scholars to find out the reasons behind this pattern of crimes. We can find many studies that attempted to provide their point of view over this event.

The Great American Crime Decline was seen in almost every region of the country. This decrease in all forms of crime filled researches with curiosity because there was no direct link among these different types of crimes. There was no sudden social and cultural change that took place in the US during that time period. Now we also take a look at the crime rate in some other developed countries of the world during the same period. The data from G7 countries of 5 major crimes like homicide, robbery, burglary, auto theft, and theft depicted that the decline in the crime rate in the US was different as compared to other developed nations at that time. Other developed nations like France, Italy, Japan and the United Kingdom also showed some decline in the rate of crimes during the time period of 1990-2000. But the magnitude of this decline was much lower as compared to the magnitude of the decline in the crime rate in the US. Moreover, the data of some formats of crime displayed increasing trends in these countries like robbery increased by 29% in Italy, homicide increased by 34% and 9% in the UK and Japan respectively. The events of robbery also increased by the huge magnitude of 204% in Japan. The US decline in the crime rate in the 1990s was a distinctive event in the history of the US because the crime rate tended to decline for consecutive nine years in almost all formats of crime. Moreover, this decline was also an exceptional event if we compare it with the crime rate tendencies in other developed countries at that time.

What Can We Learn from Canada?

Canada was a country that showed a decline in the crime rate of almost all categories of crime in the 1990s. There was a great similarity between both countries concerning the decline in the rate of crime during the time of 1990-2000. Both countries showed a similar pattern, timing, and magnitude of the decline in crime. Canada and the US shared a long and open border and also have many similarities in their social and cultural norms. So, the study of crimes in Canada during that period can help a lot in understating the true nature of the great American decline in crimes. The US was a country that displayed a decline in crime rate in the seven most important categories of crime like, homicide, rape, robbery, aggravated, auto theft, larceny, and burglary. Crime data of the US and Canada displayed same pattern of crimes in both of the countries during the same period except for one category of crime, auto theft. The crimes related to auto theft increased by 26% in Canada during 1990-2000. While auto theft incidents decreased by 37% in the US during the same period. Despite the increase in the crimes related to auto theft in Canada, we can find great similarities between both countries that they shared during the 1990s. There was a very minor difference in the magnitude of the decline in crimes that both countries faced. The decrease rate in the crimes related to assault and larceny was higher in Canada as compared to the decline rate of the US. While the US performed better than Canada in the other four categories of crime like homicide, rape, robbery, and burglary. The change in crime rate was geographically dispersed in both countries and the timeline for change in crime rate was also mutually shared by the US and Canada. Homicide killing was on a declining trend in both the countries for consecutive 9 years started in 1991 ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"OAAwRXuz","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Zimring, 2007b)","plainCitation":"(Zimring, 2007b)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":896,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/6IBEL44Z"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/6IBEL44Z"],"itemData":{"id":896,"type":"chapter","title":"Which Twin Has the Toni? Some Lessons from Canada","container-title":"The Great American Crime Decline","publisher":"oxford press","publisher-place":"New York, NY","event-place":"New York, NY","author":[{"family":"Zimring","given":"Franklin E."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2007"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Zimring, 2007b). Both of these countries share a long and open border with many similarities in culture and society. The study of the decline in crime rate during 1990-2000 in Canada can help in the understanding of the American decline in the crime rate during the same period.

These similarities of crimes can help in identifying the true reasons behind the decline of the crimes in the US during that period. Like we cannot associate a decrease in crime in the US at that time with the increase in imprisonment, good economic condition, and an increase in the rate of police per capita. Because these three are the factors in which the US performance was quite good while Canada was far behind in these three factors. The economic condition was not good in Canada at that time and unemployment was on increasing trends. Police per capita were also decreasing in Canada. Imprisonment in the US increased by 57% during the said period while it decreased by 6% in Canada. So, if these three factors can explain the lower crime rates in the US at that time then the crime rate in Canada should be higher because Canada was not performing well on these indicators. Therefore, these three factors of economic wellbeing, police per capita and imprisonment rate cannot explain the reasons behind the great American decline in the crime rate. Besides these factors, both the US and Canada shared many similarities in their demographic characteristics. The ratio of young adults decreased in both of the countries at that time and this fact might be able to explain the American declined rates of crime.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Zimring, F. E. (2007a). The Size and Character of the Crime Decline. The Great American Crime Decline. New York, NY.

Zimring, F. E. (2007b). Which Twin Has the Toni? Some Lessons from Canada. The Great American Crime Decline. New York, NY: oxford press.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

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