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Air Pollution On Carbon Monoxide

Air Pollution on Carbon Monoxide

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Air Pollution on Carbon Monoxide


The entire world has been facing a significant threat due to higher levels of air pollution. Many pollutants adulterate the quality of air. One of those pollutants is Carbon Monoxide (CO). Numerous sources release CO into the environment contributing to air pollution. Moreover, intake of CO can bear detrimental effects on a human being. There is a dire need to contain the increasing levels of CO to make the air quality better.


Carbon monoxide is a colorless and odorless gas and a major air pollutant. There are numerous sources of CO that percolate into the air and lower its quality (Rao et.al, 2017). CO is created whenever something is set ablaze. Traces of CO are detected in the smoke as a result of the fire (Rao et.al, 2017). Moreover, CO is released when fossil fuels are burned down. The smoke coming out of automobiles is a major source of CO. Furthermore, industrial smoke has also increased levels of CO. Apart from automobiles and industrial smoke, certain items of everyday household can contribute to air pollution because of higher levels of CO (Rao et.al, 2017). For instance, kerosene heaters and gas ovens also release CO. Therefore, both indoor and outdoor sources of CO contribute to deteriorating the air quality and causing subsequent air pollution (Rao et.al, 2017).

Anyone who intakes CO as a result of air pollution is at great risk of contracting various diseases. Whenever someone breaths in the air with higher levels of CO, their vital organs can be deprived of adequate blood supply to keep them functioning properly (Sircar et.al, 2015). The heart and brain can bear significant damage as CO gets mixed into the blood. Moreover, any individual breathing in an environment with increased levels of CO can experience nausea, confusion, dizziness, and unconsciousness (Sircar et.al, 2015). Mostly, increased levels of CO are not found outdoors. However, at a time when CO levels are increased outdoors, individuals battling with cardiovascular diseases can struggle to cope with the effects. The capacity of receiving oxygenated blood is already decreased in individuals with cardiovascular diseases, as a result, they are at increased risk due to increased levels of CO (Sircar et.al, 2015). Moreover, the tissues of the human body can suffer damage due to prolonged exposure to CO. It is evident that exposure to even minuscule levels of CO can render huge damage to the health of human beings, apart from deteriorating air quality (Sircar et.al, 2015).

There are numerous ways in which the levels of CO can be brought down. Both at the individual level and the level of government, certain measures can be implemented to fight off increased levels of CO in air (Guillerm & Cesari, 2015). Individuals must ensure that they bring down their travel time in their cars so that less smoke is released. Moreover, within the houses, old gas ovens and kerosene heaters should be replaced with more efficient products. Additionally, air purifiers can be used to clean the air indoors (Guillerm & Cesari, 2015). On the other hand, the government should give incentives to those who buy electric vehicles and electronic stoves to motivate other people. Another thing the government can do is become less dependent on energy production through coal and should move its energy dependence on solar energy and wind power (Guillerm & Cesari, 2015). Apart from the suggestions mentioned above, numerous measures have already been enacted. The United Nations have recognized air pollution as a global challenge and included the fight against air pollution in Sustainable Development Goals 2030. The Environmental Protection Agency of the US is bound to assess the levels of air pollutants present in the air and inform the general population about it (Guillerm & Cesari, 2015).


Carbon monoxide has been a major air pollutant for several years as the dependence on inefficient engines and fossils increased. Increased traces of CO in the air pose serious dangers to the health of the general population. Numerous measures have been enacted to fight the increasing levels of CO. Lastly, it is encouraging that air pollution has been recognized as a significant threat to populations around the globe.


Guillerm, N., & Cesari, G. (2015). Fighting ambient air pollution and its impact on health: from human rights to the right to a clean environment. The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease, 19(8), 887-897.

Rao, S., Klimont, Z., Smith, S. J., Van Dingenen, R., Dentener, F., Bouwman, L., ... & Reis, L. A. (2017). Future air pollution in the Shared Socio-economic Pathways. Global Environmental Change, 42, 346-358.

Sircar, K., Clower, J., kyong Shin, M., Bailey, C., King, M., & Yip, F. (2015). Carbon monoxide poisoning deaths in the United States, 1999 to 2012. The American journal of emergency medicine, 33(9), 1140-1145.

Subject: Chemistry

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Anatomy And Physiology

Lab Report 1: Introduction To Science

Part 1: Data Interpretation (40 Points)

© 2013 eScience Labs, LLC. All rights reserved.

Instructions: Answer the following questions in complete sentences using correct grammar, spelling, and terminology. Include your graph in question 7.

Dissolved oxygen is oxygen that is trapped in a fluid, such as water. Since many living organism requires oxygen to survive, it is a necessary component of water systems such as streams, lakes and rivers in order to support aquatic life. The dissolved oxygen is measured in units of parts per million (ppm). Examine the data in Table 4 showing the amount of dissolved oxygen present and the number of fish observed in the body of water the sample was taken from; finally, answer the questions below.

Table 4: Water Quality vs. Fish Population

Dissolved Oxygen (ppm)











Number of Fish Observed












1. What patterns do you observe based on the information in Table 4?

The table is showing that the dissolved oxygen is constantly increasing, and furthermore there is an increasing and decreasing pattern in the population of the fish. This can be interpreted in two different aspects. If noted, the column 1-7 shows a continuous increase, telling us that water in the oxygen is directly proportional to the fish population which reports the 15 fishes in the 12 ppm of the dissolved oxygen. In the column 7 and 8, transition showed an inverse proportion, and after that the remaining columns again showed direct proportionality. Thus, it can be formulated that lesser the fish population, more the oxygen will be present in the water.

2. Develop a hypothesis relating to the amount of dissolved oxygen measured in the water sample and the number of fish observed in the body of water.

The dissolved oxygen in the water shows a decline with an increase in the fish of the population of the fish. If the oxygen that is dissolved in the water decreases in its concentration, and decreases below the equilibrium, fishes mortality rate will increase.

CITATION Fon19 \l 1033 (Fondriest Environmental, 2019).

3. What would your experimental approach be to test this hypothesis?

The experiments that I would like to conduct would be in two different containers. The first container would contain less number of fishes, and the other container would container a higher number of wishes, and as the time is passed, the water quality will be continuously increased by 2 ppm within equal time intervals. Then, I would prefer to increase the population fish in the first container, and in the second, I would like to decrease the quantity in the fish population to notice the effects on the quality of water in both situations.

4. What would be the independent and dependent variables?

The dependent variable is the oxygen which is dissolved in the water or the quality of water. However, independent variable is the population of the fishes.

5. What would be your control?

The control measures should be taken with care and great concern. As my control for the experiment would be the same water source throughout the whole experimental approach that I designed, same rate of the addition of the dissolved oxygen, same temperature of the environment throughout and fishes that possibly have the same size and weight.

6. What type of graph would be appropriate for this data set? Why?

A line graph would be better as it will clearly and easily show the change that occurred while being in the transition.

7. Graph the data from the table 4: Water Quality vs. Fish Population (found at the beginning of this exercise).

8. Interpret the data from the graph made in Question 7.

This graph is showing that when the dissolved oxygen is ranging from 0-4 ppm, the rate of the dissolved oxygen is higher because of the lesser number of fishes. However, during 6-12, the water show a decline in its quality, as there is an increase in the number of the fishes than the dissolved oxygen rate in the water. In 12-14, since, the quantity of the fishes decreased from 15 to 10, the making the water quality higher. During 14-18, the water quality will be high, since the rate of dissolved oxygen is higher than the number of fishes.

Part 2: Clinical Calculations (50 points)

Instructions: Use your knowledge of chemistry, textbook, and lab manual to answer the following questions. Show your work for calculations. Answers should include units and use appropriate significant figures.

NOTE: In order to prevent medication errors in the clinical setting, a placeholder zero is always used before a decimal (0.5 mg NOT .5 mg) but not after a decimal (5 mg NOT 5.0 mg).

Case 1. You are performing an assessment of a 26-year-old male patient. You measure his height to be 5’11” and his weight to be 186 pounds. What is the patient’s Body Mass Index (BMI)?

1. What is the patient’s height in centimeters?

Since, the formula for 1 inch is equal to 2.54 cm, height of the patient in centimeters will be

5’11” * 2.54 = 13 cm Approximately (12.979 cm)

2. What is the patient’s weight in kilograms?

The formula for 1 pound into kilogram is

1 pound = 0.45kg

Therefore, the patient’s total weight will be

186 * 0.45 kg = 84.362kg

3. What is the patient’s BMI? (BMI = kg / m2)

We have height in centimeter, for the conversion into m2 , we will divide height in cm by 10000

Height in m2 = 13 / 10000 = 0.0013

The patients BMI would be 25.9

Case 2. According to Saladin (7th ed.), the oral body temperature may rise as high as 40 oC during hard exercise (p. 1019).

1. What is this temperature in oF?

The formula for the oC to oF?, would be (0°C × 9/5) + 32 = 32°F. By putting the values in the formula, which is 40 oC, the answer is 104 °F/

2. What is the typical oral body temperature range in oF?

The oral body temperature is 98.6 oC.

3. Convert this range into oC.

The formula for the oC to oF is 32°F − 32) × 5/9 = 0°C. After putting the values and the calculations, we would get 37 oC.

Case 3. In the United States, blood glucose concentration is expressed in mg/dL. However, the international standard is to report blood glucose in mmol/L. You are checking your patient’s blood glucose level and your finger-stick glucose meter (glucometer) is stuck on the mmol/L setting. It displays a value of 3.4 mmol/L. Is this value within the typical range for blood glucose?

1. Convert 3.4 mmol/L to mol/L.

For the conversion of the mmol/L to mol/L, the formula used is

Total amount of the given substance divided by the volume value by 1000

3.4 mmol/L to mol/L = 3.4/1000 = 0.0034 mol/L

2. What is the molecular weight of glucose? Complete the following table. Round atomic mass to the nearest whole number.



Atomic Mass



# of Atoms

in a Glucose



Total Mass

























3. What is the mass of one mole of glucose?

The mass of one mole of glucose is 180 amu.

4. How many milligrams are in one gram?

There are a thousand milligrams in one grams.

5. How many deciliters are in one liter?

There are 10 deciliters in one liter.

6. What is the patient’s blood glucose concentration in mg/dL?

For the conversion of 3.4 mmol/L to mg/dL, we will multiply it by 18.

3.4 * 18 = 61.2 mg/dL

7. What is the typical range for glucose in the blood (in mg/dL)?

The normal range of glucose in the blood ranges from 70 to 130 mg/dL.

8. Is the patient’s blood glucose reading within the typical range?

As mentioned, the normal range of glucose in the blood ranges from 70 to 130 mg/dL. However, the patient’s glucose level is 61 as per the calculation. So, it is below than the average.

Case 4. In an emergency, an adult with low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) can be treated with an injectable solution of 50% dextrose (w/v) in water. A preloaded syringe contains 50 mL of the dextrose solution.

1. What does (w/v) mean?

It means the amount of solute in a solution in grams and the volume of that solution in mL. For Example, the 5% w/v KCl solution implies the dissolving of 5g of KCl in a 100mL of solution.

2. How many grams of dextrose are in the syringe?

There is 25g of dextrose in the syringe.

3. What is the concentration of the dextrose solution, expressed in mg/mL?

The concentration of the solution would be same as the g/L.

4. If 40 mL of the dextrose solution are administered to the patient, how many grams of dextrose did they receive?

The patient will receive 20 grams of the dextrose solution.

Case 5. A flexible 1 L “bag” of intravenous saline solution is more accurately described as 0.9% sodium chloride (w/v) in water.

How many grams of sodium chloride are in the 1 L bag?

There is 0.09 gram of sodium chloride in 1L bag.

What is the molarity of the sodium chloride solution, expressed in mmol/L?

The molarity of the sodium chloride solution expressed in mmol/L will be 0.154M.

3. What is the osmolarity of the sodium chloride solution, expressed in mOsm/L?

Since, the in water the NaCl dissociates into two ions. Hence, the osmolarity will be

0.9 * 2 = 1.8 mOsm/L

4. According to Saladin (7th ed.), the osmolarity of blood ranges from 280 to 296 mOsm/L (p. 675). Based on your calculations, does the sodium chloride solution have an osmolarity similar to blood?

No, our osmolarity is 1.8 in mOsm/L which is far more different.

5. How many milliequivalents (mEq) of Na+ are contained in the 1 L of sodium chloride solution? How many mEq of Cl-?

The mEq of Na+ will be 23mg and that of the Cl- will be 35.5 mg

Part 3: Anatomy of the Head (10 points)

1. List the bones of the skull that make up the orbit.

Following are the seven bones that make up the orbit

Frontal Bone

Lacrimal Bone

Ethmoid Bone

Zygomatic Bone

Maxillary Bone

Palatine Bone

Sphenoid Bone

List the posterior openings into the orbit.

Optic canal

Sphenoid strut

Subject: Chemistry

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

Any Topic Relating To Chemistry

Chemistry of Perfume

Your Name (First M. Last)

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)

Chemistry of Perfume


Each perfume comprises a base compound and a fragrance. The base is usually water or alcohol and the Ethyl alcohol is essentially utilized as it vaporizes rapidly on contact with the skin. The pertinent bases in perfume are Coumarin, beeswax, Phthalates, and Benzyl Benzotate. The fragrance can be artificial or can be extracted from plants and animals. In absence of the combination of base and fragrance combined, the odor may come as strong or too light. Thus, the primary components of perfume are perfume oil, water, and alcohol. It is imperative to highlight the role of chemistry and the molecular structure of alcohol, perfume oil, and water.


Perfume oil can be classified and divided into several kinds as a fragrance or synthetic oil taken from the peculiar source by techniques like headspace. It gets the print out of the chemical equation for the recreation of the smell and vacuums the smell from objects directly ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"wjQZTJwn","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Scintillating Scents,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“Scintillating Scents,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":468,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/h6KbaPMu/items/SX9NPWIR"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/h6KbaPMu/items/SX9NPWIR"],"itemData":{"id":468,"type":"webpage","title":"Scintillating Scents: The Science of Making Perfume | Science Project","container-title":"Science Buddies","abstract":"In this chemistry science fair project, the student will investigate the process of enfleurage to make and test perfume.","URL":"https://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project-ideas/Chem_p083/chemistry/science-of-making-perfume","shortTitle":"Scintillating Scents","language":"en-US","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",5,15]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Scintillating Scents,” n.d.). Plants, animals and flowers can be harnessed to extract the oil. The oil comprises three fundamental parts as the heart note, top note and base note. Besides, there exist a wide range of alcohols which can be used. Distilled water (H2O) is utilized as an alternative to spreading the fragrance of the perfumes. However, one of the critical aspect involved in the process is dilution. Ethyl alcohol (C2H60) is prominently used as it assists to spread the fragrance. Several strengths of perfumes based on the amount of dilution supplemented in them. The perfume with the extreme concentration known as perfume is essentially fifteen to twenty five percent perfume oil. The least concentrated perfume known as cologne comprises ten percent perfume oil.

In addition, the smell is a molecule which is sufficiently light to drift in the air. The molecular weight of fragrance material rarely exceeds 260 AMU and they are semi-volatile organic compounds ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"JMMFEsGt","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Organic Chemistry Contributing to Flavours and Fragrances,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“Organic Chemistry Contributing to Flavours and Fragrances,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":470,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/h6KbaPMu/items/NAA8MFJP"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/h6KbaPMu/items/NAA8MFJP"],"itemData":{"id":470,"type":"webpage","title":"Organic Chemistry Contributing to Flavours and Fragrances","URL":"https://www.rsc.org/Membership/Networking/InterestGroups/OrganicDivision/organic-chemistry-case-studies/organic-chemistry-flavours.asp","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",5,15]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Organic Chemistry Contributing to Flavours and Fragrances,” n.d.). Not every molecule, however, which drifts in the air, has a smell to be recognized by the nose. Carbon monoxide (CO) is an explicit illustration of such smell. There exist different categories of fragrances as woody, floral or citrus notes ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"bLIbgmGh","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Chemistry of Scent and Fragrance,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“Chemistry of Scent and Fragrance,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":472,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/h6KbaPMu/items/6LCWNEYI"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/h6KbaPMu/items/6LCWNEYI"],"itemData":{"id":472,"type":"webpage","title":"Chemistry of Scent and Fragrance","container-title":"American Chemical Society","abstract":"American Chemical Society: Chemistry for Life.","URL":"https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/acs-webinars/program-in-a-box/pib-on-demand/fragrance.html","language":"en","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",5,15]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Chemistry of Scent and Fragrance,” n.d.). The modern trends of perfumes constitute the synthetic compounds which are altered to offer them distinct traits as enhanced odor. Jasmine, cardamon, nutmeg, sandalwood and lavender are the plant sources which are commonly used. The animal sources were also common once including musk but there use has been abrogated because of ethical reasons.

Another method to make perfume is maceration wherein the raw components are saturated in oil water or solvent to craft the fragrances. The process of expression includes squeezing the aromatic oils and compressing materials. It is worthy to highlight enfleurage which is a process followed to draw out fragrances into oil base or fat and then extracting with alcohol ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"i4vXctVF","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}The Chemistry of Fragrances}, 2006)","plainCitation":"(The Chemistry of Fragrances, 2006)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":473,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/h6KbaPMu/items/6STWF4HX"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/h6KbaPMu/items/6STWF4HX"],"itemData":{"id":473,"type":"book","title":"The Chemistry of Fragrances","source":"pubs.rsc.org","abstract":"Modern perfumery is a blend of art, science and technology, with chemistry being the central science involved. The Chemistry of Fragrances aims to educate and entertain, and inform the audience of the very latest chemistry, techniques and tools applied to fragrance creativity. Beginning with the history of perfumes, which goes back over fifty thousand years, the book goes on to discuss the structure of the Perfume Industry today. The focus then turns to an imaginary brief to create a perfume, and the response to it, including that of the chemist and the creative perfumer. Consumer research, toxicological concerns, and the use of the electronic nose are some of the topics discussed on this journey of discovery. Written by respected experts in their fields, this unique book gives an insider view of \"\"mixing molecules\"\" from behind the portals of modern-day alchemy. It will be enjoyed by chemists and marketeers at all levels.","URL":"https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/ebook/978-0-85404-824-3","ISBN":"978-0-85404-824-3","note":"DOI: 10.1039/9781847555342","language":"en","issued":{"date-parts":[["2006",11,6]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",5,15]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (The Chemistry of Fragrances, 2006). Moreover, the perception of each person matters and the genetic code also makes people experience distinct smell receptors that make the smell to be dissimilar to every person.


The chemical reactions as a result of light are also capable of morphing the smell of perfumes. The energy inside light can advance to break the bonds present in the molecules of the fragrance. Likewise, bright sunlight can also destruct the perfumes in a week. All these aspects call for the need of keeping the perfumes in a dark room at the room temperature. It is also imperative to remember several perfumes may cause dermatitis, allergies and hormone disruption. The presence of synthetic compounds in perfumes as galaxolide and plasticizing agent can cause adverse effects.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Chemistry of Scent and Fragrance. (n.d.). Retrieved May 15, 2019, from the American Chemical Society website: https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/acs-webinars/program-in-a-box/pib-on-demand/fragrance.html

Organic Chemistry Contributing to Flavours and Fragrances. (n.d.). Retrieved May 15, 2019, from https://www.rsc.org/Membership/Networking/InterestGroups/OrganicDivision/organic-chemistry-case-studies/organic-chemistry-flavours.asp

Scintillating Scents: The Science of Making Perfume | Science Project. (n.d.). Retrieved May 15, 2019, from Science Buddies website: https://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project-ideas/Chem_p083/chemistry/science-of-making-perfume

The Chemistry of Fragrances. (2006). https://doi.org/10.1039/9781847555342

Subject: Chemistry

Pages: 2 Words: 600


Unit Title:

Student’s Name:

Instructor’s Name:


Chemical Reaction


The reaction is between an acetone and a formaldehyde in presence of sodium hydroxide (NaOH).

CH3COCH3 is the acetone with IUPAC name of the compound is the propan-2-one. It belongs to the ketones family.

HCHO is the formaldehyde with IUPAC name methanol. The bonds present is C-H, C-C, C=O. The compound belongs is a member of aldehydes.

CH3COCH2CH2OH has IUPAC name 4-Hydroxy-2-butanone.

Enzyme regulation is a process through which enzymes are utilized to control the rate of a chemical reaction. Therefore, through enzyme regulation the chemist can be able to fasten or slow a reaction with an aim of increasing the yield. To achieve this, we alter particular conditions that favor the working ability of the enzyme. Some of these conditions are such as the pressure temperature, concentration etc. In addition, enzymes can be used to carry out the function of a catalyst.

Subject: Chemistry

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Benzene Nitration

Benzene Nitration Procedure

Student’s Name



The experiment was conducted to investigate products which are formed when benzene compounds are nitrated. In order to complete the study nitric and sulphuric acid, methylbenzene, flask, plate, a spoon was used. The correction procedure was used to complete the experiment and the result was obtained. The experiment established that nitrobenzene is the product formed when benzene react with nitric acid in the present of concentrated sulphuric acid. The temperature changes as the reaction continues to the highest of 3000C


Benzene is a colorless, volatile, highly flammable, liquid aromatic hydrocarbon. It has a gasoline like odor and therefore, it can catch fire easily. Benzene is exit inside the crude oil and mostly used as a byproduct oil refineries used for the production of various types of oils CITATION Man14 \l 1033 (Mane, Mane, Dongare, & Jadhav, 2014). According to Mane, Mane, Dongare and Jadhav (2014), nitration is used to add nitrogen into the benzene. Therefore, the chemical compound is the reaction of nitrogen and benzene. In the industry sector, Benzene is utilized as a solvent. It is also used to synthesis for several chemicals and as a chemical intermediate. Nitration of Benzene is regarded as electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions. It is pointed that benzene reacts with nitric using concentrated sulphuric acid as catalyst to form nitrobenzene. However, expose to the reactions or the substance can cause neurological affects, which can affect the born narrow hence causing anemia and excessive bleeding to the humane system. Moreover, it is six carbon aromatic annulene whereby each atom carbon provides one of its 2p electrons into the delocalized system. The purpose of the study is to investigate products which are formed when benzene compounds are nitrated. It is conducted to analyze and discover the aromatic compound which is formed when the compound of Benzene are nitrated. In order to successful complete this study, nitric and sulphuric acid, methylbenzene, flask, plate, a spoon. The correction procedure was used to complete the experiment and the result was obtained.

Benzene reacts with sulphuric acid or concentrated nitric acid to establish a nitrobenzene. As illustrated in the diagram below, when benzene reacts with nitric acid in the presence of sulphuric acid the nitrobenzene is formed. During the reaction of nitric acid and methylbenzene, the nitric acid accept the proton given by sulphuric acid and then detach is used to form nitronium ion. However, the whole process does not require heat since heat since, the sulphuric acid is used as catalyst in the entire process.

Diagram 1: The formation of nitrobenzene

Diagram 2: formation of nitric acid and nitronium ion

Some of the experiments which have been conducted established that when nitronium ion (NO2+), approaches or reach the benzene ring, nitropositive of the nitronium ion attracts, is attracted by the electron rich benzene ring and therefore, two of the ions from both inside and outside break down to establish or form a bond between benzene and nitronium ion.

Material and methods

The experiment was conducted in the lab and the following equipment and reagents were used for the success of the experiment. The H2SO4 (conc.) 1.0 mL HNO3 (conc.) 1.0 mL Toluene 1.0 mL Diethyl ether 8 mL 10% NaHCO3(aq) 10 mL HNO3, H2SO4 Labeled Na2SO4 weighing boats / scoop were used to complete the experiment. It is essential to note that sulphuric acid, nitric acid, flask, methylbenzene, spoon, and plate are very important component of the experiment. The reagent was added step by step to ensure that appropriate reaction is allowed. First, all the flasks, spoon, plates and other equipment were cleaned before any chemical or reagent is added. Heming, Litao, Xuehai, & Guangfu (2015) pointed that it is important to clean the equipments for experiment to remove any residues or remains which can interfere with the chemical reaction to give an incorrect result or errors.

First, methylbenzene was added to the flask (cleaned flask) and then the flask was moved to the stir plate. After that the sulphuric acid was added to methylbenzene. It was then stir and left for reaction to occur. The reaction was monitor through the TLC and every events or reactions monitored for the purpose obtain accurate process which occurs when sulphuric acid is added to the methylbenzene. It is important to note that the benzene, nitric acid and sulphuric acid reaction were conducted under temperature of lower than 500C. This is because an increased in temperature during the experiment can result to getting of more than one nitro group into the rig. For example, it can result to the form of NO2 to be substituted into the ring. The sulphuric acid is used as a catalyst to ensure that the reaction is faster and efficient to obtain a good result. The process of reaction of reagent was repeated twice and the detailed information is recorded to ensure that the result is accurate and the objective of the study is meant.


The experiment indicates that the reaction of nitric acid, methylbenzene in the presence of sulphuric acid result to the formation of nitrobenzene and water. The nitric acid accepts a component of proton. In the case of reaction, the catalyst was found to amorphous and therefore, showing high dispersion. The increase of temperature was noted from 1000 to 3000, as the temperature increases the conversion also increase. When the temperature increases 2000 the formation of unidentified products started to be recognized in the traces. It is also established that the temperature of the reactant changes at every point when a reagent is added and therefore, it is important to point that the reaction as a point of conversation at the experiment shows that the point of conversation has a temperature of 2000C.

The result indicates that hydrogensulphate ion was formed during the reaction of electrophile nitronium ion, when the hydrogen attached was removed in the nitro group where the carbon is contain. The observation of the flask indicates that the color changes from colorless to yellowish color. The vapor was also produced from the flask at interval at every point of change of temperature. At above 3000 V the vapor reduced slowly and diminished.


Effect of WHSV on Nitration of Benzene

From the experiment it is established that WHSV has influence on the nitration of benzene when the temperature reaches at 2000 C when a catalyst is used and diluted nitric acid and benzene molar at the ratio of 1.2 as illustrated in the diagram below. It was also noted that increase of WHSV reduces the conversion and the rate at which the product is being yield and therefore, the oxidation process increases to form a dinitro products. It established that at a lower WHSV of (0.087/h-1), the conversion was higher at around 86% and therefore, it means that the optimum resident of reactant is achieved for maximum conversion.

The influence of Nitric acid to Benzene Molar Ratio

The influence of benzene was established at 2000C and therefore, it is the point where the catalyst is used. The variation conversion of benzene with the stream of reaction used for the nitric acid to benzene at the ratio of 0.6 to 1.2 to establish the best reaction. The result shows that the reaction of benzene and the nitric acid can be achieved without the use of concentrated sulphuric acid. It was established that reaction of nitric acid, methylbenzene in the presence of sulphuric acid result to the formation of nitrobenzene and water. The nitric acid accepts a component of proton. In the case of reaction, the catalyst was found to amorphous and therefore, showing high dispersion. The increase of temperature was noted from 1000 to 3000, as the temperature increases the conversion also increase. When the temperature increases 2000 the formation of unidentified products started to be recognized in the traces. It is also established that the temperature of the reactant changes at every point when a reagent is added and therefore, it is important to point that the reaction as a point of conversation at the experiment shows that the point of conversation has a temperature of 2000C. The hydrogensulphate ion (HSO4–) which was formed during the formation of electrophile- nitronium ion, removes the hydrogen attached with the nitro group containing carbon. This hydrogen (H+) leaves the electron to the benzene ring. Thus the positive charge of the ring neutralized and delocalisation reestablished. By taking hydrogen ion, hydrogensulphate ion (HSO4–) becomes sulphuric acid as it was before (catalyst) CITATION Mic152 \l 1033 (Benard, 2015).

The result indicates that hydrogensulphate ion was formed during the reaction of electrophile nitronium ion, when the hydrogen attached was removed in the nitro group where the carbon is contain. The observation of the flask indicates that the color changes from colorless to yellowish color. The vapor was also produced from the flask at interval at every point of change of temperature. At above 3000 V the vapor reduced slowly and diminished.


It is established that nitration of benzene (BZ) using nitric acid is promoted by catalysts for reaction to be effective. The change of temperature is identified through the process of reaction until the formation of nitrobenzene. It is also important to point that the nitrobenzene was formed from the reaction of nitric acid and benzene in the presence of concentrated sulphuric acid. During the experiment it was noted that the temperature changes from 1000 C to 3000 C. It is also pointed that the concentrated sulphuric acid provides a higher conversion at 2000 C. The major advantage realize from this reaction is the use of nitric acid. It is also obtained when methylbenzene reacts with nitric acid in the presence of concentrated sulphuric acid to establish a nitrobenzene and it is formed because nitric acid donate proton. The result of experiment also indicates that formation of nitrobenzene is established is facilitated by the use of sulphuric acid and when it reaches a higher temperature the conversion starts and the heat started to reduce. The reaction does not require heat because the concentrated sulphuric acid. It is also important to point that the experiment was conducted using the H2SO4 (conc.) 1.0 mL HNO3 (conc.) 1.0 mL Toluene 1.0 mL Diethyl ether 8 mL 10% NaHCO3(aq) 10 mL HNO3, H2SO4 Labeled Na2SO4 weighing boats / scoop were used to complete the experiment. These components made it possible to conducted experiment without a lot of difficult. It wqs therefore, established that several products are formed when benzene reacts with nitric acid


BIBLIOGRAPHY Benard, M. (2015). Nitration of Benzene. https://chemdictionary.org/nitration-of-benzene/ , 2-15.

Heming, X., Litao, C., Xuehai, J., & Guangfu, J. (2015). A theoretical study on nitration mechanism of benzene and. Journal of bioscience , 2-15.

Mane, V., Mane, V., Dongare, M., & Jadhav, K. D. (2014). Nitration of Benzene Using Mixed Oxide Catalysts. IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry (IOSR-JAC , 2-15.

Subject: Chemistry

Pages: 6 Words: 1800

Cellular Level Of Organization

Cellular Level of Organization

Fernando Garcia

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Author Note

Cellular Level of Organization

Passive Transport/ Active Transport

Passive and active transport are two biological processes that involve the transport of water, nutrients, and oxygen into cells, and the removal of waste material. Active transport requires chemical energy to transport biochemicals to areas of higher concentration from the lower area, whereas, passive transport moves them to areas of lower concentration from higher, without requiring energy.

To learn the concept, I initially focused on acquiring a grasp of the fundamental concepts related to the topic. Once I gained a better understanding of the different chemical concepts involved, I spent time memorizing its details, in order to master it.

Transport across the Cell Membrane

The cell membrane determines movement within and across the cell. In the membrane, a concentration gradient lets polar molecules and ions diffuse into the cell. The hydrophobic parts of the membrane repel these materials. Transport across the cell membrane uses the process of facilitated diffusion to move substances across these hydrophobic parts, through creating a hydrophilic pathway through the plasma membrane.

I learned the concept through note taking in class and organizing my notes to review the lectures again. After that, I participated in study groups to contribute my understanding to the entire group.


Diffusion refers to the phenomena in which molecules and atoms move from higher concentration regions to lower concentration ones, as a result of random particle movement, which changes the sample environment’s concentration gradient CITATION Clu00 \l 1033 (Clugston & Flemming, 2000).

I learned the concept by listening to the lectures, pondering deep about the concept and asking repeated questions about each of the processes involved. Inquiring about the ‘what and why' about the topic helped me review different related concepts back and forth, to develop a solid understanding.


Osmosis refers to the process in which two solutions with varying concentrations, which are separated by a semi-permeable membrane, allows a solvent to diffuse across that membrane towards a higher concentration solution from the lower concentrated solution.

I understood the concept through the process of reverse classroom technique. I first read through the concept before going to the class and familiarized myself with it. The lecture, subsequently, became easier to follow, and I was able to grasp the concept quickly.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Clugston, M. J., & Flemming, R. (2000). Advanced chemistry (1st ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Subject: Chemistry

Pages: 1 Words: 300


Student’s Name:

Instructor’s Name:

Class Name:

Date when Due:

Works Cited

Lab Report

Llesson10 lab determine absolute zero value

Pressure mm Hg

Temperature C











Question 1

The two sources of error include instrument resolution and failure to check the instrument to zero.

Instrument resolution-Every instrument has infinite precision which limits the capability in resolving the differences in the small measurements.

Failure to zero check instrument- failing to calibrate a device will provide wrong data during an experiment

Question 2

Ways to improve

Solving instrument resolution: One of the best methods of obtaining the precise measurement is utilizing null difference procedure rather than measuring the quantity directly. Balance and invalid process involved in the usage of instrumentation in measuring the difference between two much similar amounts one that is adjustable and known accurately (Radojevic & Bashkin, 2007). The amount that is adjustable is varied until the gap is lowered to zero. The two quantities are balanced, and the unknown quantity magnitude is found through the comparison of the sample for reference. Using these procedure issues of source instability is eliminated and the instrument for measurement could be very sensitive and will not even need scale.

Solving the calibration of the instrument- If possible, the instrument calibration needs to be checked before the collection of data. When the calibration standard is not present, the instrument accuracy needs to be corrected through comparison with a different instrument which is the least précis or through consulting the technical information given by the manufacturer (Skoog et al., 2013). During taking of measures with any device be it pressure or temperature, the instrument should be zero checked firsts. Recalibration needs to be done before making any measurements.

Lab Titration

The unknown value of the volume of 0.1m NAOH used is 25.4cm3


Sources of errors

The causes of errors in titration includes the endpoint error and misreading the value of the volume

Endpoint error: The titration end point is when the chemical reaction of the two solutions stops. Indicators that convert their color to show that the reaction process is complete do not convert straightaway. In the titration of an acid-base reaction, the indicator might lighten first its color then convert finally wholly (Skoog et al., 2013). Additionally, every person previewed the color differently, that influence the experiment outcome. When the color turns slightly because of using too much titrant that comes from the burette and presented into the solution will exaggerate the results.

Misreading Volume: The titration accurateness needs a precise measurement of the volume of the solutions used. However, the markings on the burette could be misread easily. One method of misinterpreting the volume is through looking at the angle of measurement (Radojevic & Bashkin, 2007). From above the amount will appear to be lower whereas from below the value could be greater. The other source of reading error is through looking at the wrong point. The solution produces a concave curve, and the curves bottom is read when measuring the volume. When the reading is taken from the more high areas of the meniscus curve, the measurement of the amount will have an error.

Question 2

Ways to improve

. Endpoint error: Endpoint error could be eliminated by stopping the flow of the solution on the burette immediately a change in the solution on the conical flask is detected. When the flow is not stopped immediately, an error will occur.

Misreading Volume- misreading of the volume of solution could be eliminated by reading the value of the solution on the lower meniscus on the surface level. When reading the value, the eye should be maintained straight and parallel to the level of the volume on the burette.

Work Cited

Radojevic, Miroslav, and Vladimir Bashkin. Practical environmental analysis. Royal society of chemistry, 2007.

Skoog, Douglas A., et al. Fundamentals of analytical chemistry. Nelson Education, 2013.

Subject: Chemistry

Pages: 2 Words: 600


Reflection Statement: (2 points)

Use the information you found and calculated to write an essay (1 or 2 complete paragraphs) about the amount of sugar in the foods you purchase (or avoid purchasing).


Does the list of ingredients on food labels in grams, provide Americans with enough information to make healthy food choices? Did the amount of sugar calculated into teaspoons surprise you?

A standout amongst the most testing and eager objectives that Public Health is endeavoring to accomplish worldwide is the advancement of healthy ways of life and nutrition. Nutrition-related health issues including weight, diabetes and metabolic disorder markedly affect current society. The predominance of such ceaseless illnesses has been quickly expanding amid most recent years, both in western nations and in creating ones. Since financial expenses would be unnecessary and unsustainable to restorative frameworks, Public Organizations are taking specific consideration in urging the populace to receive healthier ways of life and to agree healthy dietary propensities, since eating regimen is one of the most punctual modifiable hazard factor everybody could actually deal with to ensure his very own health. Until now, three primary nutritional objectives are emphatically prescribed to lessen the danger of getting to be large and creating diabetes just as cardio vascular sicknesses: to decrease salt, immersed and trans fats admissions, while expanding the utilization of foods grown from the ground. We additionally remind that this should be joined to suitable physical movement.

So as to make individuals feel progressively mindful about their eating routine, and to prompt them to settle on educated decisions, ideally deciding on top notch food, a few correspondence methodologies have been taken. One of the easiest arrangements with food labels, which can give some valuable components helping us to control our diet.7-10 To further help the shoppers in this difficult assignment, another label conspire utilizing shading coding framework has been as of late concocted and tried. Green, golden and red signs show whether an item is high, medium or low in fat, soaked fat, salt, sugar and vitality (in calories), consequently permitting a faster distinguishing proof of healthier choices. Additionally, this methodology makes comparative items simpler to think about.

Additionally, we ought to think about that nutrition/health claims and now and then front-of-pack labels may demoralize the best possible utilization of the label in choosing an item, since they more often than not are well unmistakable on the front side of the bundle and they set aside a briefest effort to be perused. Regardless of whether they by and large allude to a solitary or several nutritional highlights, they may be viewed as sufficiently enlightening to decide the last buy decision. That is might be genuine particularly for those individuals who have constrained capacity to process data or potentially have a low contribution.

Regardless of whether health approach producers firmly support the utilization of food labels underlining their useful and defensive job, we saw that they are not utilized totally intentionally by the most. We trust that up-stream endeavors ought to be done above all else on the instructive front, to improve overall population fundamental learning about nutrition and the connection among eating routine and health status, so as to make the shopper progressively worried of changing dietary patterns. Furthermore, label organization might be disentangled to be effectively perused likewise by non-master individuals. At long last, in the event that we go for food labels to altogether influence overall population conduct, a more extensive utilization of them ought to be supported. To this end, the consciousness of label handiness among every one of the customers classes ought to be raised. Besides, since it works initially and shading codes are effectively interpretable by everybody, this sort of arrangement might be a fruitful methodology for Italian populace too, so as to accomplish two additional objectives at any rate: support a customary conference of labels and draw in likewise the consideration of less educated/instructed individuals.

Subject: Chemistry

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Chemistry Final

Joy Littlejohn

Instructor Name

Course Number


Chemistry Final

Man has explored other planets, yet settling and inhibiting is the next goal of mankind. For decades, scientists have been interested in this mission. They have explored the possibilities and presented the theories of how mankind would be able to live on other planets. A group scientist from different government agencies, universities and technology industry, have stated that a manned trip to MARS led by NASA will be possible by the 2030s. The need for a human to be able to live on other planets is due to the risk of extinction on Earth because of environmental conditions. As humankind, as well as other species, have begun to experience global warming and extreme climate change, the government and scientists and governments are searching for other means to survive (Pabila). One of the possible solutions is to find another planet where life is possible. Till now, scientists have not found any other planet in space where human life is possible. It is an understood fact that for settling on Mars or any other planet, it will be important to learn how to develop suitable conditions for human life. Comparing all the planets, Mars seems the most suitable fit for this kind of mission. The ongoing researches to develop suitable conditions to make life sustainable is mainly focused on three habitation features including pliability, intellect, and sovereignty. This researches aim to establish smart and advanced habitats that will be able to respond and adapt to deviations and emergencies, yet can maintain the safety of the people inside. 

           Instead of considering the tough conditions as challenges, with appropriate strategies and ample technology, it is possible to start human life on Mars. In this way, Mars can be the next place in our solar system to sustain human life.

           The temperature at Mars is lower than Earth as it is farther from the Sun as compared to Earth. The atmosphere of Mars is not as thick as the atmosphere of Earth and also it receives lesser heat from the Sun. Thus, at noon one would be able to experience a cold day of winter. While at night the temperature can drop lesser four times the temperature of Antarctica. However, this temperature condition is much better than other planets. With special habitats and modified clothing, which will be able to keep residents warm, it is possible to live on Mars.

           Scientists have found evidence of water on the soil and in the atmosphere of Mars. With advanced technology, the extraction of water may be possible. Water is most essential for any form of life and without it, life cannot be sustained. A specific type of salt that contains perchlorate is found on Mars in abundance. This salt absorbs the water molecules and the astronauts can find a way to extract it. Nasa scientists with help of an infrared telescope have confirmed that once the land of Mars contained more water quantity than the Arctic Ocean. It has been discovered that the polar caps of Mars still contains some of it (Can We Survive on Mars?). The extraction of water trapped within ice seems critical and decisive for the survival of life on Mars, however, the discovery of flowing water suggests that it may be an easier process. For this purpose, current NASA is working on an excavator machine known as RASSOR (Regolith Advanced Surface Systems Operations Robot) which is designed to extract water, fuel, ice from the soil.

To survive on another planet without no food resource yet can be hard but now with technological advancement has made growing plants without sunlight possible, Mars’s natural resources may be sufficient to grow food. The plants grown can be then used to produce oxygen for humans. In this way, humans will become less dependent on artificial oxygen and other breathing devices. One of the scientists claims that a bank of photosynthetic organisms like green algae can also be utilized for this purpose.

Plants require carbon dioxide to grow and there is plenty of it present in Mars’ atmosphere. Also, the soil contains the chemical on which the growth of the plant depends. However, not all soil of Mars is the same, so depending upon the landing site, fertilization may be required. The human waste of habitants of Mars can be utilized as nutrients for the plants. In addition to water, nutrients and carbon dioxide, other factors like temperature need to be controlled too. 

Nasa and Systems & Material Research Corporation (SMRC) are working together to develop a 3d printer which can convert starch, protein, and fats into shapes and microjet in nutrient and flavors. According to David J Irvin, director of SMRC, it will contain 25 to 50 basic food substances which also includes bread and pastries.

The human explorers on Mars will have to sort out a way to deal with the enhanced radiation level present on its surface. Certain measures will be required for ensuring that the exposure level to the radiations is lessened if there are any attempts to take over Mars. Mars provides raw materials like regolith, which cover the land surface, can potentially be used as a substitute for concrete. It can be used to build the underground caves where the habitants can stay to avoid the radiation. Many long-term and short-term solutions have been presented by scientists to deal with such issues. 

The mass loss due to lower peak temperatures is more insignificant on Mars as compared to the earth. The surviving particles help in the preservation of organic material. The cometary resultant particles should be improved on Mars due to the lesser probable entry velocities. A higher survival rate of extraterrestrial organics is suggested by the larger surviving particles, lower peak temperatures and cometary material (Wilson and Genge).

Man’s wish to expand its reach into the universe and settle on another planet now seems to be fulfilled. Elon Musk announced that SpaceX aims to design rockets, landers and such other devices to help humans land on Mars. He wishes to build a colony where around one million people will be able to reside. The scientist is putting massive struggle into realizing the dream of living on Mars. From recent technological advances, it is safe to say that soon this concept will turn into reality.

Works Cited

Can We Survive on Mars? - Reader’s Digest. https://www.readersdigest.co.uk/lifestyle/technology/can-we-survive-on-mars. Accessed 18 Dec. 2019.

Pabila, Jagmeet. The Martian Manual. A Guide to Surviving the Process of Becoming a Multiplanetary Civilization through the Habitation of Mars: Examining the Architectural Narrative in Design. Carleton University, 2019. curve.carleton.ca, https://curve.carleton.ca/cc9673cb-d00c-4d66-89d1-c122b0858849.

Wilson, A., and M. Genge. “Peak Temperature Distribution of Micrometeorites on the Earth and Mars: Implications For the Survival of Organics.” AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, vol. 53, Dec. 2018. NASA ADS, http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018AGUFM.P53F3036W.

Subject: Chemistry

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Climate Change

Reown, Whitney

[Due Date]

ACHEM105 Report #


Large scale shift in the climate is very much evident today as we see on the news how many fires are ongoing and how the lungs of the earth are under fire. Climate change can basically be described as the massive shift in temperature of the world as well as the change in usual pattern of weather. Since the year 1800s, as humans started to become advanced climate change has been a big part all around the world. Human beings have played a great role in destroying the ozone layer by releasing more and more carbon dioxide as well as other greenhouse gases in the air. It resulted in a major change in temperature as well as the overall weather of Earth (Pfeiffer, 2011).

If we take a look back at 11,000 years then it is visible why the world was a better place back then. The temperature of the world at that time was around 14℃. This temperature was pretty much stable as well. However, with the passage of time as the Industrial Revolution took place in the mid of 1800s, things started to change. Human beings learned how to use fossil fuels for their own advantage. As they started burning these fuels like oil, gases and coal for the production of more and more fuel; carbon dioxide and greenhouse gases were released in the air ("What is climate change? - Met Office", n.d.).

Now, it was estimated that the overall temperature of the world has increased by almost 1℃. Even though it feels like a minor change for us, but for the world climate system, it is a major change. In early years, this change was considered normal because it used to occur after many years. The time period of climate shift used to happen after long periods of time. In addition to this, one thing which we need to keep in mind is that the change which is happening in the world temperature is not even all around the world. Rather, some countries are getting warmer than other countries. Therefore, the rise in temperature is uneven (Pfeiffer, 2011).

Moving further, climate activists and scientists talked about these climate changes many years back. However, now this climate change is happening. Glaciers are now melting with more speed, lakes are breaking up, and the loss of so much ice is resulting in high sea level and intense tides. The rise in sea level is resulting in more floods. Scientists claim that this rise in global temperature is not going to slow down even in decades rather it will continuously increase. All of this is because humans are so much dependent on fuels that they are not backing down from using fossil fuels. As long as greenhouse gases are continuously released in the air, the global temperature will keep rising. Over the next century, it is said that the temperature will increase 1℃ more due to all these industrial usages (Jackson, n.d.).

It is important to understand that all this climate change and effect of the greenhouse is very critical for the life which lives on earth. Due to all the natural fibers which are continuously going on in Amazon Rainforest, so many animals have lost their lives, so many species had to shift and so many trees are lost which was a big part of emitting oxygen for this planet. The loss of this oxygen very negatively impacts the planet Earth (Jackson, n.d.).


Jackson, R. The Effects of Climate Change. Retrieved 4 November 2019, from https://climate.nasa.gov/effects/

Pfeiffer, A. (2011). The Effects of Climate Change on Public Health and the Healthcare Provider 's Role in Addressing Climate Change. Senior Honors Projects, 216, 1-29.

What is climate change? - Met Office. Retrieved 4 November 2019, from https://www.metoffice.gov.uk/weather/learn-about/climate-and-climate-change/climate-change/index

Subject: Chemistry

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Conducting A Training Needs Analysis

Conducting a Training Needs Analysis

Student’s Name


Course Code


Description of training needs analysis

The training needs analysis is the collection of data to identify the employees’ talent gap and the kind of trainings needed among employees. It is done in four steps to ensure that it is successful. First, the Human Resources (HR) professionals are required to indentify the context and also assess the current and the long term needs in order to express the needs among employees. It is helpful since it ensue that employees can be able to understand their goals, challenges and objectives. Secondly, it is important to conduct depth research to identify the requirement of the training, which could be identified by the components goals and capabilities.

Based on the time and resources, which are available, it can be achieved efficiently through interviews with managers, employees and other key stakeholders of an organization. However, the use of observation, survey and shadowing among the focus group, analysis of the job descriptions could be also important factors in gaining deep understanding of an anticipated change. The third step is regarded as training analysis, which provides insights of training and used to fill the deep gap in skills required among employees. It is applied to recollect information in the previous steps to make sure that short, medium and long term training needs are assessed. The assessment is conducted focus on individual and the entire department, which have been identified. However, the last step in the needs assessment process, which involves the application of various alternatives and then the recommendations are made for the type of intervention and strategies, which are applicable. The strategies and intervention, which can help in bridging the talent gap so that employees can have skills, which are required in the future and also equip them with needed skills in the current market.

The gap an individual might expect to uncover in a training need analysis

The main objectives of the training needs analysis is to discover the talent gaps and find the best way of bridging those gaps and especially situations where employees need trainings. According to Jain (2012), talent gaps involve the skills, knowledge and core competencies required by employees. In order to make sure that employees can be able to meet performance, every employee must have skills, knowledge and core competencies, which are required for specific job. Therefore, analyses the gap, which exist help in enhancing the capability of individuals, departmental teams and project to obtain their respective goals. It is also provides help to an organization to realize its overall goals. The training needs analysis is an important factor in realignment of the jobs with the strategic goals of an organization and therefore, training analysis is a key to success of most organizations. It also helps in mitigation of hiring issues, which attract most qualified candidates.

Based on the high cost of hiring and retaining qualified employees, the performance assessment is the ability of a company to ensure that employees’ rate of turnover is very low as possible. However, attracting qualified potential employees is very helpful in understanding organization’s culture, vision, and objectives and branding. The gap analysis involves the use of workforce data, which includes competencies, salaries, skills, turnover rates, number of employees and demographics. The analysis conducted projects the future of needs of employees and the organization based on the core competencies and what occurred in a wider spectrum. The data collected would provide the clear view of the type of gap, which is very critical and can support the strategy of the business.

Assess the strategic impact that training on a selected topic would have for the organization

Training has several impacts on a business because of its essential for the success of business and the help it provides to foster job satisfactory and employee engagement. It ensures that business is operating well at its peak levels through the use of performance improvement plans, which are designed, based on technological, cognitive and process related. The programs identified help in getting the sources of not acceptable outcomes and also create very effective practices, which include interventions. The intervention to be involved in the process include the feedback, employee communication, work studies, team building exercise, procedures and on the job counseling process. The skill training and other trainings provided by the company helps to improve personal and the productivity of the team. Most times, when an organization made a decision that additional training is needed, they usually refer to an expert or training consultant. It is therefore, evident that the use of specialized and trained professional in development and training is helpful in increasing employees’ work productivity and skill level.

The development training of employees is essential to both employees and the organization. As stated by Kane (2017) it can help employees to improve their carrier and move to the next level in the job market. And therefore, when change happen employees have the training needed to thrive and the tools within the organization structure. Therefore, it is important for all organizations to invest in leadership training and employees’ development. It is can benefit the organization in the future and therefore, investment in employees is critical to the profitability of a business. And therefore, when change occurs within the organization, the employees have the tools, which are needed to help them prosper to the next level in their carrier within the organization. And therefore, it is important for all organizations to invest in employees’ leadership training and employee development as well. It is important to point that several organizations have invested a lot in training and therefore, some have invested in learning management system (LMS) (Kane, 2017). The LMS is where employees can take online courses for free to enhance their areas of need. Some of the areas, which are essential, are technical writing, software management and other essential field for the efficient delivery of services. It is therefore, important for employees to continue with education for their own carrier development and success of the company.

Asses the way training needs have an impact or effect on the organization’s expansion plan

The best strategic impact of training is getting commitment and support from the management of the organization. It helps to draw on knowledge of group dynamic, change and motivation. It is noted that training help to allocate resources and address issues as they arise. In most organizational expansion stage, employees are willing and ready to be challenged and therefore, search for training and development opportunities and upward mobility. It is also essential for employees to know where their careers are headed for them to work hard for the benefit of the company (SHRM, 2018). Without efficient information regarding the direction of their careers employees cannot perform and therefore, training and other mode of motivations are importance for the success of a company. The management cannot refuse to have those kinds of conversations, and they refuse then the best employees will have to leave the company. Therefore, training is very resourceful when maintaining, building, and measuring employees’ performance.

Analysis of the performing training needs analysis (gap analysis) to determine what trainees know or can do prior to training

It is important to conduct SWOT analysis to understand the problem and be able to view issues at an angle to find out the root cause (Cardenas, 2018). The analysis allows employees to focus on their strengths and seriously reduce the effect of weakness of an individual employee. The SWOT analysis will help the organization to identify strength and weakness, and the career path planning to make it possible to grow within an organization. It allows employees to have a good use of their skills at the same time; they work to improve some of their weaknesses. And therefore, a major threat is the uncertainties regarding the performance improvement. The benchmarking could also be an important factor, which is used to determine the needs of employees. Therefore, several aspects are used to collect enough data analyze and apply them in order to address the deficits at work for the prosperity of a company.

Justify the SMEs selected to interview and the questions asked for the training needs analysis

The use of SME was selected to help determine how employees would benefit from Capra Tek after a period of time. From the report, experts, which have been with Capra Tek for a long period are expected to look for a better opportunity within the organization. However, some subjects have been reorganized to reflect the previous achievement. Majority of the experts have formal education while some other experts rely on their years of experience and job training, and technical skills each has acquired. Many employees have great communication and interpersonal skills, which are essential for the growth of the company. And therefore, the transfer of their knowledge and skills is a subject matter for success. The training can therefore, be benefiting to employees and the organization. It improves the ability of workers to deliver and therefore, the success of companies depends on how much they invest into the employees. Failure to adhere to the changes, an organization would continue to be left behind and eventually fail in the market (Cardenas, 2018). The SMEs selection process was made based on the individual’s skills, knowledge and abilities. The question of the use f SMEs is to gain an understanding how an individual will evolve around training gaps for both short and long term.


Cardenas, H. (2018). Chron. What Can Be Learned from a SWOT Analysis? Retrieved from https://smallbusiness.chron.com/can-learned-swot-analysis-20816.html.

Jain, P. (5, September 2012). Forbes. 3 Steps to Identify The Analytics Training You Need. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/piyankajain/2012/09/05/3-steps-to-id-analytics-training-need/#5f3a4900875d.

Kane, S (17, October 2017). Managing and Motivating a Multigenerational Workforce. Retrieved from https://www.thebalancecareers.com/the-multigenerational-workforce-2164698.

SHRM. (2018). How to Conduct a Training Needs Assessment. Retrieved from https://www.shrm.org/resourcesandtools/tools-and-samples/how-to-guides/pages/conduct-training-needs-assessment.aspx.

Subject: Chemistry

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

Expermint 1 Simple And Fractional Distillation Of A Binary Mixture

Your Name

Instructor Name

Course Number


Title: Simple and Fractional Distillation of a Binary Mixture


The experiment of simple and fractional distillation of toluene and cyclohexane was performed. The difference in volatility will enable us to separate the liquids. There are two types of liquids ones which easily vaporize are called volatile whereas others are nonvolatile liquids. The vapor pressure of a liquid is a state of the pressure of gas while it's in a liquid state. The boiling point is a temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to external pressure. Distillation is a process that depends on the vapor pressure of the liquid. The liquid having higher vapor pressure would be distilled initially as the concentration would be greater ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Uq97as92","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Santos et al.)","plainCitation":"(Santos et al.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":501,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/qnvKw9vm/items/Q8ZJAYUR"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/qnvKw9vm/items/Q8ZJAYUR"],"itemData":{"id":501,"type":"article-journal","container-title":"The European Physical Journal E","issue":"4","page":"40","title":"Isothermal molecular diffusion in mixtures containing toluene, cyclohexane and methanol","volume":"40","author":[{"family":"Santos","given":"Cecília IAV"},{"family":"Shevtsova","given":"Valentina"},{"family":"Ribeiro","given":"Ana CF"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Santos et al.). Through simple distillation, liquids having a greater difference in the vapor pressures would be separated. The fractional distillation process utilizes a fractioning column and various condensations and vaporizations would be collected to separate the liquids. This procedure is effective for liquids having less difference in their boiling points. According to Raoult's law, the mole fraction of solvent when multiplied by the vapor pressure gives the vapor pressure of the solution. Dalton's law states that every gas in a container will exert equal pressure as if it is present separately ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"1PP5Wxb1","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Santos et al.)","plainCitation":"(Santos et al.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":501,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/qnvKw9vm/items/Q8ZJAYUR"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/qnvKw9vm/items/Q8ZJAYUR"],"itemData":{"id":501,"type":"article-journal","container-title":"The European Physical Journal E","issue":"4","page":"40","title":"Isothermal molecular diffusion in mixtures containing toluene, cyclohexane and methanol","volume":"40","author":[{"family":"Santos","given":"Cecília IAV"},{"family":"Shevtsova","given":"Valentina"},{"family":"Ribeiro","given":"Ana CF"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Santos et al.). Or the mixture of gases will exert the same vapor pressure on the container as they would exert when no other gas is present. Azeotropes are those mixtures of liquid having constant boiling points and composition through the distillation process. For example, disopropyl ether, and isopropyl alcohol.

Experimental Section 

Simple Distillation 

Fractional Distillation

Table of Contents

Table 1. General information about the chemicals used.







Molar Mass

84.16 g/mol

92.14 g/mol

Melting Point

6.47 °C

-95 °C

Boiling Point

81 °C

111 °C


Systematic IUPAC name


Methyl benzene


It causes skin irritation, drowsiness, and may be fatal if swallowed.

It causes skin irritation, drowsiness, and suspected of damaging fertility.


Highly flammable liquid and vapor.

May cause damage to organs through prolonged exposure.


Table 2. Fractional and simple distillation data for toluene and cyclohexane

Simple Distillation

Temperature (°C)

Drops ml

Fractional Distillation

Temperature (°C)

Drops ml



0.8 ml



3.1 ml


1 ml


1.1 ml


1.5 ml


1.8 ml


2 ml



1.4 ml


2.2 ml


2.5 ml


3 ml



0.5 ml


1 ml


1.1 ml


1.2 ml


1.4 ml

Figure 1. Distillation curves for simple and fractional distillation

Percent recovery = Amount of pure product recovered amount of crude material used x 100

Simple distillation percent recovery for cyclohexane

Percent recovery = 2 mL3.0 mLx 100=66.6%

Simple distillation percent recovery for toluene

Percent recovery = 2 mL3.0 mLx 100 = 66.6%

Fractional distillation percent recovery for cyclohexane

Percent recovery = 3.1 mL3.2 mLx 100 = 96.0%

Fractional distillation percent recovery for toluene

Percent recovery = 2.1 mL3.0 max 100 = 70%


The purpose of the experiment was to perform fractional and simple distillation to separate a mixture of cyclohexane and toluene. The percent recovery was performed after the experiment as 96% cyclohexane and 70% toluene (Anokhinaa et al.). Fractional distillation has produced a slightly higher percentage of cyclohexane and toluene as compared to a simple distillation process. Also, the graphical representation has described that the simple distillation curve was steady slightly and the fractional distillation curve was not linear. The graphical representation was slightly different as when performed in the lab ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"9VZAm6nF","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Santos et al.)","plainCitation":"(Santos et al.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":501,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/qnvKw9vm/items/Q8ZJAYUR"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/qnvKw9vm/items/Q8ZJAYUR"],"itemData":{"id":501,"type":"article-journal","container-title":"The European Physical Journal E","issue":"4","page":"40","title":"Isothermal molecular diffusion in mixtures containing toluene, cyclohexane and methanol","volume":"40","author":[{"family":"Santos","given":"Cecília IAV"},{"family":"Shevtsova","given":"Valentina"},{"family":"Ribeiro","given":"Ana CF"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Santos et al.). The boiling temperature of toluene was 111 °C and cyclohexane has 81 °C. After half of the time in the experiment, the number of fractions collected was gradually increasing.


Distillation is a process based on the vapor pressure of the liquid that can help in the separation of liquids. The liquid having higher vapor pressure would be distilled firstly as the concentration would be better ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"lvQpnbkp","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Santos et al.)","plainCitation":"(Santos et al.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":501,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/qnvKw9vm/items/Q8ZJAYUR"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/qnvKw9vm/items/Q8ZJAYUR"],"itemData":{"id":501,"type":"article-journal","container-title":"The European Physical Journal E","issue":"4","page":"40","title":"Isothermal molecular diffusion in mixtures containing toluene, cyclohexane and methanol","volume":"40","author":[{"family":"Santos","given":"Cecília IAV"},{"family":"Shevtsova","given":"Valentina"},{"family":"Ribeiro","given":"Ana CF"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Santos et al.). Through simple distillation, liquids having a greater difference in the vapor pressures would be separated as we observed in the experiment. The fractional distillation process utilizes a fractioning column and various condensations and vaporizations would be collected to separate the liquids.

Work Cited:

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[["http://zotero.org/users/local/qnvKw9vm/items/8YMFKY6J"]],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Anokhinaa, Elena A., et al. “Energy Saving Schemes for Separation of Benzene-Cyclohexane-Toluene Mixture with Different Initial Compositions by Extractive Distillation.” CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, vol. 69, 2018.

Santos, Cecília IAV, et al. “Isothermal Molecular Diffusion in Mixtures Containing Toluene, Cyclohexane and Methanol.” The European Physical Journal E, vol. 40, no. 4, 2017, p. 40.

Subject: Chemistry

Pages: 2 Words: 600

IR Spectra Of Known Organic Compound

IR spectra of known organic compound

Student’s Name


Course code


IR spectra of known organic compound

Infrared radiation is regarded as the kind of radiant energy, which is not visible to the human eyes, but it can be felt as heat. It is the kind of electromagnetic radiation known as a continuum of frequency, which is produced when the absorption of the atom occurs. It is also regarded as the lowest and the highest to the lowest electromagnetic radiation. Therefore, the IR is meant to heat compound. Infrare4d radiation is used by infrared (IR) spectroscopy to electrify the molecules of a compound. It is also being utilized by infrared spectroscopy to generate infrared spectrum, which is used to absorb energy utilizing molecules as a function of the wavelength of lights. It is therefore, evident that IR is used to heat the bond or for the breakage of the bond.

The IR operates by heating at the compound or the bond which exists in the molecules in order to absorb the energy, which presents in infrared. The infrared then responds through vibration. The infrared radiation then acts by splitting the molecules or compounds into component of wavelengths. However, in the process then IR spectroscopy is applied to identify these molecules based on how each group functions. It is worth mentioning that in the process the compound bond is broken. Therefore, the main function of IR is to provide assistant in breaking down of the unknown compound. In brief, IR heats the atom or molecules with the energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation to initiate the absorption of energy split the compound into various components. It is also important to note that the absorption of energy occur at room temperature and pressure. And the two stakes must be equal for the absorption to occur as required.

Subject: Chemistry

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Lab Report

Lap Report


Student’s Name




In order to conduct experiment effective several equipment are needed. The experiment was conducted to determine the melting point of substances.

Experiment requirements

Laboratory thermometer


Electric melting point apparatus


Liquid gas

Procedures of the experiment

The experiment will be conducted using dry the apparatus to prevent any early substance reaction. First, the set up for substance burning will be done to ensure that everything is available for chemistry experiment. Then, the substance to be melted will be measured and then placed into the tube. The substance to be burned is weighed to follow the changes which will occur. Burn the substance on fire for a while noting the changes which takes place. After burning the substance, cool it again and then weigh it to determine the changes which have occurred. Record the weight of the burned substance and then calculate the differences or changes which occurred.

Subject: Chemistry

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Lab Report

Lab report

Student’s NameInstitution

Course Code


Materials Required

Thermometer port

Capillary sample port


Melting tube



Cinematic acid


First, the capillary sample is prepared for pure urea and cinematic acid and other mixtures which will be used for the experiment. The substances or mixtures are measured in ratio to ensure that appropriate volume is taken for the experiment. The melting point of each substance to be used for the experiment is then measured. The values obtained are then recorded on a clear sheet because they will be needed later for the calculation of the changes which occurred. Get the unknown substance and then get the range of weight of the substance. After that, the unknown substance is then mixed with pure sample. The mixture of the pure sample and unknown substance are burned to determine the melting range of the mixture. Record the range of measurements obtained on a fresh sheet for unknown substance, pure sample and the mixture of pure sample and unknown substance. The melting point of the different substances is then calculated to determine the range of difference in the melting point under different conditions.

Subject: Chemistry

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Project 1 Cybersecurity For OPEN Data

Project 1 Cybersecurity for Open Data

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Project 1 Cybersecurity for Open Data


Open data is the data that can be accessible to anyone and can be freely used anywhere for any purpose by anyone. It can be used by anyone for personal use or commercial use as there are no restrictions on who can use open data. Open data is available free of cost to the people and can be downloaded easily through the internet. Many federal agencies have designed open data to improve the safety and security of the people by providing them information on different events. Open data also has been a valuable tool for researchers and engineers. However, there are certain laws, regulations, and policies which federal agencies need to identify about the open data.

The privacy policy of Open data website includes that it does not collect personal information when someone visits the open data website. However, Data on the open data websites by the government should be offered free and without any restriction. It is important that data on open data websites is not plagiarised. There are certain regulations for the non-federal and federal data that non-federal data can be identified with the name of the publisher, but federal data should not include the name of the publisher. All the data and information must not contain any confidential data of federal agencies which is accessible to the public on websites. These are some laws, regulations, and policies which needs to be ensured by federal agencies when publishing data and information on open data government websites (Data.gov, 2019).

The role of the executive branch is to analyze and evaluate the data before making it available to the public. They will examine the security, privacy, confidentiality or other valid restrictions which are applicable to law, regulation or policy. The executive branch is responsible for forwarding data generated by the government while making sure the security of the data. They will launch new services via Data.Gov that will improve visualization and provide better context to help and understand the open data.

Benefits of Open Data

Open data is very important because it can contain usable and discoverable data which can have a huge impact on businesses. The open data helps in increasing transparency and accountability. It allows the public to stay connected and up to date with the operations of the government. Open data develops trust, credibility, and reputation among public and government. It helps the government to prove to the citizen that they are continually working to deliver their promises and making decisions which are best for the public interest.

Open data provides new opportunities to the public for commercial applications and help in enhancing the business. The information provided in open data can be significant for several sectors which include academic, public and industry. These sectors can utilize open data to improve brought innovation and improve economic growth. Open data stores and preserves data over time which means that current and historical data is easily available for the public use at an easily accessible location. There are several organizations which are using Open data provided by the government for their businesses. However, the general public is also using Open data for several purposes in their daily life. Different open data websites by the government are providing information for every sector.

For example, city data provided by the government includes detail information of all the cities in the United States. The detail information includes data about crime rates, weather patterns, cost of living, etc. This data is very useful for the general public to provide them information about the different cities (Data.gov, 2019). Similarly, hdscores is another example of open data provided by the government which help the general public in finding restaurants, schools, hospitals, stadiums, etc. (Data.gov, 2019). One of the most popular open data source provided by the government is LinkedIn which is helping both businesses and the general public. It allows companies to advertise their products and find employees easily. LinkedIn helps organizations to connect with colleagues and learn about potential opportunities. It is not only helping organizations but also to the general public in finding jobs easily according to their qualifications (Data.gov, 2019).

Security issues

There are certain security issues which can impact the availability and usefulness of open data. As the data is open to the public, there is a wide range of security threats regarding the confidentiality of data. There are threats to the federal government that how they can protect their confidential information away from the unauthorized people. Open data is accessible by anyone so it can be modified easily, so data integrity is also another major concern for the government currently. Another major security issue which currently federal government has addressed is how they can protect their websites confidential data from unauthorized persons.

Hackers try to access the confidential data of open data websites using different methods. SQL injection is one of the most commonly used methods hackers are using to destroy the database or hack the website. Hackers inject malicious code in the SQL statement via web page input to make changes in the web pages. Similarly, DDoS attacks have become very common and popular which are being addressed by federal agencies. They aim to deny users to access the website which can be very costly sometimes. DDoS attacks will have a huge impact on the availability of data.

Natural disasters are common and can have a huge impact on the availability of data. It is important to have a backup of the company data to make sure that data can easily be recovered in case of any natural disaster. Authentication issues are also very important which are being addressed by the federal government. Usually, users don't create strong passwords because they think they only know about the password. However, they don't have any idea that there are several techniques which hackers can use to easily identify weak passwords and get access to the confidential data of the user. These are some of the factors which are addressed by the federal government currently.


The most important thing to ensure data security is to apply authentication technology to digital government information. The government is using several techniques that can help them in user authentication. Cryptography is one of the most important security measures for the authentication of users. It helps in encrypting the confidential data of the users such as login information and passwords. Digital certificates are also another measure to ensure the integrity of content (Coggins & HOLTERHOFF, 2011).

There are several cybersecurity frameworks which are recommended as the best option to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, availability, authenticity, and non-repudiation of Open Data. NIST SP 800-53 is one of the cybersecurity frameworks that represents security controls and associated assessment procedures for federal information systems and organizations. It was published by the National Institute of Standards and Technology who has created a lot of frameworks and standards which are being used by federal agencies (Ross, 2009).

The NIST SP 800-53 provides a description of controls that provide assistance in the development of secure federal information system. These controls are the technical and management safeguards utilize by the information systems to provide the integrity, availability, confidentiality, and security of FIS. NIST SP 800-53 works alongside NIST SP 800-37 which was built for the risk assessment of information systems for federal agencies. However, NIST SP 800-53 focuses on providing measures which can be used with the old risk assessment frameworks NIST SP 800-37. The controls provided by the SP 800-53 is further divided into three parts which include low impact, moderate impact, and high impact. The main function of this framework includes access control, configuration management, maintenance, media protection and risk assessment (Ross, 2009). NIST SP 800-53 is the best-recommended technique for federal agencies to ensure the security of their Open Data. This is one of the fundamental need for Open Data websites and helps in improving the security of organizations Information systems.


Open Data provided by the government is one of the essential needs of the general public and businesses these days. It is providing assistance to almost every sector and is becoming very important for everyone. However, there are some security threats which are major concerns for federal agencies because Open Data is accessible to everyone and any information which relates to federal agencies in that data can be a huge threat to these agencies. There are also security issues such as integrity, confidentiality, availability, and authenticity for Open Data websites which needs to be addressed. Many solutions are available which can help to ensure the security of Open Data websites. Different governance frameworks and mitigation techniques can be used to make sure the security of Open Data websites. However, the Executive branch is the one who is responsible for all these issues, and it is their responsibility to apply security measures to the Open Data websites. They also have to analyze the other problems related to the website and make sure the availability of information to the public.


Impact - Data.gov. (2019). Data.gov. Retrieved from https://www.data.gov/impact/

Privacy and Website Policies - Data.gov. (2019). Data.gov. Retrieved from https://www.data.gov/privacy-policy#data_policy

Coggins, T. L., & HOLTERHOFF, S. G. (2011). Authenticating Digital. Government Information Management in the 21st Century: International Perspectives, 133.

Ross, R. S. (2009). Recommended Security Controls for Federal Information Systems and Organizations [includes updates through 9/14/2009] (No. Special Publication (NIST SP)-800-53 Rev 3).

Subject: Chemistry

Pages: 10 Words: 3000

Redesign Solar Panel

Redesign Solar Panel

Author Name

[Name of the Institution]

It is required to develop an innovative technique for the installation and packaging of solar cells to make solar energy extremely affordable. It is also required to enhance the power output of solar cells as the current solar cells output power is low. The task of the solar panel is to absorb the sunlight and produce electricity. The sun gives enough amount of energy which can easily fulfill the energy requirements of the whole world. But the limitation in extracting solar power is related to our ability to transform it into electricity cost-effectively and efficiently. As solar energy does not produce greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere when the solar panel is used to generate electricity. So, the solar energy source is considered as the most efficient source for generating clean energy. It is the power source that is free from carbon dioxide, as well as its environmental impacts, which are also lesser as compared to the other power sources. Solar panels' environmental impacts are mostly based on the supply of metals and materials which are needed in the production of the solar panels the water as well as the location used in solar panel cleansing also harm the environment. So, it is required to find some of the alternative procedures for cleaning solar panels ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"2t0UH0se","properties":{"formattedCitation":"\\super 1\\nosupersub{}","plainCitation":"1","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":247,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/vDOrLj7p/items/KNJW2MQE"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/vDOrLj7p/items/KNJW2MQE"],"itemData":{"id":247,"type":"webpage","title":"Solar energy - facts and advantages about solar power | Fortum","URL":"https://www.fortum.com/about-us/our-company/our-energy-production/solar-power-unlimited-source-energy","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",11,18]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} 1.

Our goal is to develop a solar panel that can produce more power for which everything is going to be enhanced in the new model from its cells' packaging, junction boxes as well as various other electronics. As they are the major factors in solar power increased cost i.e. about 60%. The cost of the solar system is almost 3.40$/watt power and the systems which are present on the houses roof cost twice. As previously, 26 cents/watt cost used in materials such as protective coating and glass, this cost is now reduced through cutting the cost of the inverter which is now reduced to 22 cents/watt. The new model power generation capacity is observed theoretically but most of the installation techniques of solar panels are stuck with the older techniques. This new design will change the installation perspective. As the previous solar cells gather sunlight from the whole surface but they convert it with almost 15 to 19% efficiency which means almost 85% energy loss in the entire process. There are also some of the efficient cells in the market but they are mostly expensive and few of them utilize exotic materials in their production. There are some cells on various satellites that are efficient but are not cheap ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"W94sf5kV","properties":{"formattedCitation":"\\super 2\\nosupersub{}","plainCitation":"2","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":249,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/vDOrLj7p/items/UJLAJFXB"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/vDOrLj7p/items/UJLAJFXB"],"itemData":{"id":249,"type":"webpage","title":"These hyper-efficient solar panels could actually live on your roof soon | TechCrunch","URL":"https://techcrunch.com/2019/02/19/these-hyper-efficient-solar-panels-could-actually-live-on-your-roof-soon/","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",11,18]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} 2. But this model is based on the highly efficient cells which are placed at grid it has a lense array similar to honeycomb which extracts light and then this sunlight is distorted into the narrow beams then it is concentrated only at tiny cells. When the sun moved the layer of cells also moved slightly and continuously targeting the beams. These cells are 37% efficient while testing and 30% in the customer-oriented designs. Which means extracting twice the power from the similar area as compared to the previous panels. This resulted in solar panels which are not much different from the previous panels in shape and size as well as do not need special hardware which includes special platforms and concentrators. These new panels are continuously monitored and they also keep on working without the hitch of heatwaves, winter weather, and storms. The hybrid approach of this model is also effective specifically when the weather is cloudy as well as the sunlight is least concentrated. As the most efficient ability of this new model is that it keeps on generating power even in the diffuse rays of light.

There are some of the benefits which are common in current and older solar panels as they both are the sources of renewable energy, they also reduce electricity bills and its maintenance cost is also low. But the advantages of the current solar panel are more and diverse as compared to previous ones as the current solar panels' marginal cost is zero ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"XWcg05tx","properties":{"formattedCitation":"\\super 3\\nosupersub{}","plainCitation":"3","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":251,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/vDOrLj7p/items/TUMYM6MT"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/vDOrLj7p/items/TUMYM6MT"],"itemData":{"id":251,"type":"webpage","title":"Pros and Cons of Solar Energy in 2019 (updated)","URL":"https://www.solarreviews.com/blog/pros-and-cons-of-solar-energy","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",11,18]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} 3. The current solar panel advantage is that people only required to invest in the installation then the rest of the energy is free as in previous solar panels the main issue was related to the cost of residential solar panels as it is greatly reduced now. Solar panels are the environmental friendly source of energy they are also widely available. The solar radiation level when reaches at earth varies concerning various geographical locations. The locations which are closer to earth equator receive more solar energy as compared to the other areas but solar power is viable in almost every location. In the solar system, there is no need for equipment shifting so, it does not produce noise as well as its maintenance cost is also low. Though most of the current and previous solar panels drawbacks are also similar such as high installation cost, energy storage is expensive, most of the solar cells used exotic materials and it also requires more space.

The cost of the solar panels is mostly based on the installed number of panels but solar power is continuously becoming more and more affordable with each passing year. The importance of solar panels can only be increased when they become inexpensive economically as well as more efficient. The current model price significantly drops down and it is efficient as compared with old solar panels. The average solar panel costs are almost $2.99/watt. The cost of installation of the solar panel is dropped significantly in the previous years as the older solar panel installation cost was more than 50,000 dollars, however, the new model of solar panel cost of installation ranges between 16,200 to 21,400 dollars that are reduced by 62% on average.

Reference List/Endnotes

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Solar energy - facts and advantages about solar power | Fortum. https://www.fortum.com/about-us/our-company/our-energy-production/solar-power-unlimited-source-energy. Accessed November 18, 2019.

2. These hyper-efficient solar panels could actually live on your roof soon | TechCrunch. https://techcrunch.com/2019/02/19/these-hyper-efficient-solar-panels-could-actually-live-on-your-roof-soon/. Accessed November 18, 2019.

3. Pros and Cons of Solar Energy in 2019 (updated). https://www.solarreviews.com/blog/pros-and-cons-of-solar-energy. Accessed November 18, 2019.

Subject: Chemistry

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Special Incentive Project/Critique

g bjbj 7XvXv@8z0(@@@2@@4@@@-yRJ0zz L Students Name

Course Title

Instructors Name


The type of article chosen was a journal article. Some of the significant points covered in the journal include techniques of producing fuels from biomass-derived lignin, hemicellulose, and cellulose. This is because fuel is required everywhere in the society as it used as a source of energy by the heat produced in the combustion. This indicates that the author was trying to help conserve the environment. In most community, the need for fuel has led to environmental degradation as a result of deforestation because most people in the community use charcoal and firewood as a source of fuel. Therefore, the production of fuel from biomass could help in conserving the environment. Other significant points in the article involved the replacement of non-renewable sources of fuels by renewable portable fuels. The article also aimed at transforming useless fossil products into useful products.

I decided on the article because it provides the ways for the production of chemicals, fuels and other products from biomass-derived lignin, hemicellulose, and cellulose. The methods for producing by-products like polyhydroxyalkanoates from lignocellulosic biomass were as well covered in the article. Besides, techniques of ethanol production from fermentation of polysaccharides were also explained in the article. The article also provided the literature review of biomass and every steps and reaction, as well as the process involved, was clearly described.

The article was understandable to me because every step of the reaction that led to the production of fuel and other products were clearly described. The article taught me a lot of things including the products that can be produced from biomass. Also, the article also made me understand the methods that could be used in producing ethanol in addition to the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates from lignocellulosic biomass by treating the lignocellulosic biomass with an alkaline compound to produce an aqueous liquor. This also led to me getting to understand some facts concerning organic compounds. The article provided balanced information to some extent by clearly describing every step in the production of the organic compounds. The article did not give enough information in terms of diagrams by explaining levels of involved in diagrams without the diagrams being drawn. The article also did not include the chemical reaction of the steps. Instead, it only explains using word equations.

The article made me have the desire of learning more concerning the organic compounds. I felt I needed to understand more concerning the chemical equations involved in the organic reactions. More so in the reaction that leads to the production of fuels from biomass in addition to the chemical reaction that results in the production of by-products from biomass. I also felt I should learn more on then diagrams because somehow I did not understand when the explanation was being made concerning the steps in the diagrams which were not also involved in the article.

The knowledge from the article reminded me a lot of terms regarding the organic compounds. Some of the process like the fermentation of polysaccharides to yield ethanol, as well as the catalyst used to quicken the reaction, were involved in the article. It also reminded me of some of the organic chemical formulas like that of polyhydroxyalkanoates. The article is related to what we had discussed in class. The implication I drew from the article is that we can obtain useful substances from the wasteful fossil. In the synthesis of fuels and chemicals from biomass, lignin is naturally burned in the presence of heat because of its inherent heterogeneity and recalcitrance make it challenging to upgrade the monomers to value-added products selectively. The subject is a specific example of a more general problem. There were no identified errors in the article.

Some of the names of the chemical structure used in the article include polyhydroxyalkanoatesand ethanol. The formula of polyhydroxyalkanoates

INCLUDEPICTURE https//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8d/Poly-28R29-3-hydroxybutyrat.svg/1200px-Poly-28R29-3-hydroxybutyrat.svg.png MERGEFORMAT

The formula of ethanol is

INCLUDEPICTURE https//study.com/cimages/multimages/16/ethanolpicture2a.png MERGEFORMAT

Works cited

BECKHAM, Gregg T., et al. Lignin conversion to fuels, chemicals and materials. U.S. Patent Application No. 10/266,852.


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Subject: Chemistry

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Structure,bonding,soluility And Properties


Author name



Institution name

City & State




NAME_______________________________________________________ CLASS _________

We are going to compare the behavior of water, ethanol and hexane as solvents.


SAFETY: WEAR LAB COAT and SAFETY GLASSES. If in doubt, ask the lecturer!

Stations are already set up containing: burette, deionized water, ethanol, hexane, polythene rod + wool for rubbing (electrostatic charges), corks for hexane tubes.

Other materials: test tubes, powdered graphite, iodine, calcium chloride. Make appropriate tables for the results.


Stations 1-3. Charge a polythene rod by rubbing it on a piece of wool; hold the rod about 1cm from a jet of fluid issuing from a burette and note what happens:

(1) water (2) ethanol (3) hexane

Q1 What sort of particles does each contain?

Water is composed of hydrogen and oxygen particles. Ethanol consists of particles of hydroxyl and ethyl. Both of these molecules have a dipolar effect. Hexane, on the other hand, is an alkane containing 6 carbon atoms.

Q2 Are these particles polar?

Water is a polar molecule, containing partial negative charge near oxygen atoms and positive one near hydrogen atoms due to an uneven distribution of electron density. Ethanol, on the other hand, is a very polar molecule due to the presence of hydroxyl group. Hexane has even distribution of positive and negative charges and is thus non-polar.

Q3 Explain the effect of a charged rod on each jet?

The charge in the rod only affects the polar liquid because the polar liquid contains molecules with an unequal charge distribution (a dipole moment). For example, a water molecule has a significant negative charge concentration on its oxygen because a majority of the molecule's electrons are around the oxygen molecule.

The charge in the rod attracts either a positive or negative charge and repels the other. In nonpolar liquids, the positive and negative charges are spread evenly throughout the individual molecules, and the resulting attractive and repulsive forces balance each other out. In polar liquids, however, the uneven charge distribution in the liquid's molecules means that the attractive and repulsive forces will not balance each other out, and the liquid will deflect upon encountering an electric field (such as the charged rod).

Q4 What might happen with a rod of opposite charge? (Ask for a glass rod + cloth)

It is dependent upon the texture of cloth used. Glass rod rubbed with silk creates a positive charge and with fur will give a negative charge. These variant charges are created due to the presence of electric force.

Q5 Explain the behaviour of liquids with the charged rod to the nature of particles?

The behaviour of liquids depending on the polarity of liquids. If they are polar like water or ethanol, they will align with the electric field created by the charged rod. If the liquid is non-polar like hexane, it will not be attracted to the electric field of the charged rod.

Q6 Look up the boiling points and relative molecular masses of water, ethanol and hexane; compare their values in terms of polarity?

Generally, it is believed that higher the molecular mass, greater the boiling point is. But sometimes, this does not happen. For instance, take the case of water, it has a low molecular mass of 18.0 g.mol−1 but has a high boiling point. In such cases, another aspect of intermolecular forces existence is taken into consideration. In the case of water, the intermolecular force of hydrogen bonding operates which keep the molecules strongly intact that it requires high temperature to change the state of matter. Ethanol has relatively high molecular mass as compared to water which is 46.0 g/mol and a boiling point of 78 degree C due to the presence of strong hydrogen bonding. Hexane has high molecular mass of 86.176 g/mol and boils at 154 degree C. This is also due to strong intermolecular interactions. Though water and ethanol are polar molecules and hexane a non-polar one, yet their boiling patterns are different which means polarity is not directly related to their boiling points and masses. Inter-molecular forces and their masses are their contributing factors.

Test tubes 4-6. Observe and note the solubility, colour etc. of one crystal of

calcium chloride (b) powdered graphite (c) iodine in test tubes (9 tubes) containing 4cm depth each of:

(4a, b, c) water (5a, b, c) ethanol (6a, b, c) hexane

Q7 What sort of particles do calcium chloride, powdered graphite and iodine contain?

Calcium chloride is an ionic molecule of calcium and chloride ions. Powdered graphite is a crystalline form of carbon element arranged hexagonally. It is considered to be highly stable form containing carbon. Iodine is a chemical element containing iodine and is known to be heaviest of stable halogens.

Q8 What forces hold these particles together in the solid?

Calcium chloride has ionic forces created due to the presence of chloride and calcium ions which keep them intact. Powdered graphite has strong covalent bonding between carbon atoms and an additional van der Waals dispersion forces due to the presence of delocalized electrons. Two atoms of iodine are covalently attached to each other, overall iodine molecule is held intact due to the existence of weak van der Waal interactions also known as London dispersion forces, which are strong enough to keep the molecule together as solid.

Q9 Explain the relative solubility of each solid in each of the three liquids?

Calcium chloride being an ionic compound has the ability to get dissolved in water which is a polar compound. Powdered graphite is insoluble in water, ethanol as well as hexane for the reason that graphite is intact due to such strong covalent linkages that attractions between solvent molecules and carbon atoms are weaker than it to help them in dissolution. A very little amount of iodine gets dissolved in water, like just one gram of it dissolves in 3500 ml of water. Water molecules have strong hydrogen bonding which does not allow iodine molecule to interrupt the normal bonding pattern. Therefore, relatively calcium chloride readily dissolves in water due to ionic properties and polar nature of water. 'Like dissolves like', so the solubility of iodine in ethanol is also less, but it is readily dissolved in non-polar solvent which is hexane. Ethanol is less polar than water and is therefore unable to break the ionic lattice of calcium chloride completely so dissolution is less. While hexane being non-polar cannot dissolve calcium chloride at all.

Q10 Try to explain the colour of iodine in different solvents. Make a brief plan of another experiment you could do to test your idea.

In polar solvents like water and ethanol, iodine gives a brown colour to a solution. In non-polar solvents like hexane, iodine is readily dissolved and forms a violet colour solution.

Take three conical flasks and name them A, B, C. Put water, ethanol and hexane respectively in three of the flasks. Add iodine in A, B and C and observe the colour change.

Test tube 7. Miscibility of water and hexane: Dispense into one test tube in order:

(7) 2 cubic cm water then 2 cubic cm hexane, then one crystal of iodine; replace cork and gently mix. Note your observations, replace in the rack.

Q11 Which solvent do you think forms the upper layer. Explain!

Hexane is a non-polar and water is a polar compound. They are immiscible in each other. Hexane is less dense than water, therefore, hexane forms the upper layer and water the lower one.

3 (.a) Use your periodic table to complete the table below


Atomic number

Number of protons

Number of electrons

Electronic configuration (s, p, d, f notation)

C Carbon





Ca Calcium




1s2, 2s2,2p6,3s2,3p6,4s2

Ca2+ Calcium ion




1s2, 2s2,2p6,3s2,3p6

Br Bromine





S2- Sulfide





Mn Manganese





Cu Copper





(Periodic Table of the Elements, 1998)

b) What is the meaning of ''atomic number'' and how was it obtained?

A number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is defined as its atomic number. The atomic number identifies how many protons an atom possesses. It never changes.

Henry Moseley worked in Rutherford's team. He was investigating X-rays given off by metals. He fired an electronic beam at various elements and examined the spectrum of X-rays which followed a simple rule. X-ray spectrum's frequency depends upon the position an element possess in the list of elements which is now termed as the periodic table. He called this place of an element its atomic number which is always a number of positive charges on the nucleus.

c) Define the term 'atomic orbital' and draw and describe the shapes of the s and p orbitals.

An atomic orbital is a mathematical equation that explains the discrete, quantized energy levels of atoms. It represents the most likely location of an electron around an atom. These atomic orbitals are 1s, 2s, 2p and so on. Each atomic orbital has a maximum of 2 electrons with opposite spins. S orbital is a sphere, in 2-D, we can draw it as a circle. p orbital is drawn as figure 8.

d) List the orbitals in the first four shells in order of increasing energy. (If you prefer, you can show it in the diagram)

As per empirical theory, orbitals and shells exist around an atom. Within each shell, a certain combination of orbitals exist. Following is the pattern followed:

n=1 shell has s orbital

n=2 shell has s and p orbitals

n=3 shell has s, p and d orbitals

n=4 shell has all four types of orbitals (s, p, d and f) (Magnasco, 2013).

Access to Science

Chemical Bonding

Task 1

1.1 Explain the factors which influence ionization energy

1.2 Interpret ionization energy data to predict electronic structures

1.3 Explain s, p and d electronic configurations for given atoms and ions.

1. The values of the first ionization energies of neon, sodium and magnesium are 2080, 494 and 736 kJ/mol-1, respectively.

(a) Explain the meaning of the term first ionization of an atom.

First ionization is the energy required to remove valence electron/most loosely held electron from 1 mole of an atom or molecule.

(b) Write an equation to illustrate the process occurring when the second ionization energy of magnesium is measured.

Mg+ (g) -> Mg2+ + 2e-

(c) Explain why the value of the first ionization energy of magnesium is higher than that of sodium.

Magnesium has a high nuclear charge, it has one extra proton than sodium that is 12. It creates more force of attraction for the valence electron. With this increased attraction, it becomes difficult to remove electrons from the outermost shell in case of magnesium than in sodium. That is why it is said that the first ionization energy of magnesium is higher than that of sodium.

(d) Explain why the value of the first ionization energy of neon is higher than that of sodium.

Neon has 7 more protons than sodium, which means that former one has higher nuclear charge. This is the reason for higher first ionization energy of neon than that of sodium.

1.1, 1.2

2 (a) The table below shows the first successive ionization energy values for an element.

Ionization energy












Use this data and the periodic table to suggest an element which could have produced these results. Explain your answer.

The table shows the first successive ionization energy values for 'Aluminium'. Referring to the periodic table for the value of Z (atomic number) and a number of electrons (which are same until and unless any loss or gain of electrons has occurred), the ionization energy is determined by squaring Z and multiplying it with 13.6.

(b) Explain the factors which influence ionization energy.

The ionization energy of an atom depends on the following important factors:

a. Size of an atom

Size of an atom is basically the distance of outermost electronic shell from the nucleus. More is this distance means the size of an atom is large and ultimately electrons are lesser influenced by the force nucleus exerts on the electrons to remain intact. This indicates that it will be easier to remove an outermost electron when the size of an atom increases. Thus, it can be said that ionization energy and size of an atom are inversely proportional to each other.

b. Charge on nucleus

Charge on nucleus means that an attractive force exists between nucleus and electrons. More is the attractive force, more is the ionization energy required.

c. Half-filled & completely filled sub-levels

Such atoms which have half and completely filled sub-levels are more stable and it becomes difficult to remove electrons due to these stable configurations. Therefore, more ionization energy is required (BrainKart, 2019).


Periodic Table of the Elements, (1998). Periodic Table. Available at: https://www.tabulka.cz/english/elements/configuration.asp?id=29. [Accessed 12 Feb 2019].

Magnasco, V. (2013). Atomic Orbital. Elementary Molecular Quantum Mechanics (Second Edition). Science Direct. pp. 467-481.

BrainKart.com. (2019). Factors influencing Ionization Enthalpy. BrainKart.com. Available at: https://www.brainkart.com/article/Factors-Influencing-Ionization-Enthalpy_2697/. [Accessed 12 Feb. 2019].

Subject: chemistry

Pages: 3 Words: 900

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