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Reflection Paper

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This paper is aimed at reflecting upon the chapter IV of the Collins’ (2002) groundbreaking piece of literature; MAMMIES, MATRIARCHS AND OTHER CONTROLLING IMAGES. He attempted to explain various themes in this chapter however one of his ideas compelled me to reflect my thoughts, feelings and opinions; in a society where one group is dominant to the other, objectification of subordinate group is a must. He argued that black working women in American society are treated as “objects” particularly in the workplace because subjects are free to define their realities, possess desired identities and name their history themselves, which is not true in case of African- American working women. I personally agree his argument because I have inspected various instances where black women were treated like objects; both in attitudinal and behavioral terms. For example, they are made to work like heavy-duty machines that might not have “fatigue” element at all or as if they are mere extensions of their machines. Moreover, when it comes to be professional with African- American women in the field setting, instead of calling them with specific professional names, they are called as “girls” which is something ethically more jaded than treating them like robots. Treating black women as children, inexperienced workers and treating them like they are non- existent are some real-life depictions of race- driven- stereotyping which undoubtedly threatens their sense of self-concept and develops imminent identity crisis. It must also be noted that this lopsided attitude is not necessarily learned rather this thing has become so much incorporated into the culture that it runs throughout the generations aversively and persistently both at personal and institutional level. The need of the hour is to make practical attempts in mitigating the negative attitudes of majority towards African American working women because they not only strive hard to give better life to their children but also nurture their self-esteem that is destined to shatter nearly every day.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Reflection Paper 1

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Reflection Paper 1


When we observe a person or community feeling difficulty or inability to meet the basic needs of life due to financial scarcity of resources, we call it poverty. International institutions like the United Nations and the World Bank have defined some basic needs for individuals that must be fulfilled, if any individual or group of individuals lack the resources to fulfil their basic needs, they are considered poor. This segment of humankind falls under the poverty line marked by international institutions. Functionalists believe that poverty is a reality and unavoidable, whereas, the Conflict Theorists believe that poverty is the result of the struggle between different segments of society who fight to grab more resources. Symbolic Interactionist belief is different from these both claims in a sense that it holds the interaction between different segments of society responsible for poverty.


Poverty is an economic state where a person or a group of individuals face economic setbacks in their lives and appear unable to fulfil their essential needs. Society is divided into many segments in terms of ethnicity, religion, beliefs, and social status. Social status of people is determined by their economic background. People are divided into three major classes according to their social status: rich/elite, middle, and poor. People with an abundance of resources to enjoy luxuries of life are called rich or elite; Marx also calls them Haves (Colomy, Paul. N.p.). The middle class comes under this segment and it has two further types: lower and upper-middle class. This is considered the most struggling social segment of society. They have enough resources to meet their needs, but they need to keep working to maintain or update their social status. Poor class lags behind the mentioned segments and it faces the deadliest scarcity of resources.

Poverty is one of the gravest issues of society and many scholars attempt to identify the reasons for this factor to address the issue, but unfortunately, it is still insoluble. Poverty can be called the mother of many crimes as many people use unlawful means to meet their needs when they do not feel it possible to pursue their goals or fulfil their essential needs because of financial setbacks they face in their lives. This rule applies to both individuals and societies as the regions where people face dire economic circumstances, have a higher crime rate than the prosper regions in the world. For instance, Brazil and India have the highest crime rate in the world and they both are developing countries with millions of poor people, whereas, Switzerland and Japan are developed countries and they have the lowest crime rate in the world. In my opinion, poverty is a curse for a society that gives birth to many crimes, injustices and anarchy in society.

Social Theorists’ view on Poverty

Three social theories are popular which are explained by scholars. These theories include Functionalist theory, Conflict Theory, and Symbolic Interactionist theory (Homans, George Caspar. P.p. 51-69). All the mentioned theories have different views about different aspects of society and their different attitude is apparent also apparent while explaining the causes of poverty.

Functionalist theorists always attempt to justify the status quo of social structure. They claim that this structure is natural therefore it cannot be and should not be altered. According to their belief, poverty is also the ultimate result of the way society is structured. Moreover, they claim that poverty is a natural phenomenon and it cannot be alleviated entirely as the poor class is also an important and essential segment of society. Theorists like Hebert Spence (1820–1903) and Émile Durkheim claim that if there were no poor class, we would not have to work (labour) class in society which was instrumental for the global development.

A Conflict theorist Carl Marx claims that society is divided in an unjust way and it is the result of poverty. He argues that a certain segment of society (Bourgeoisie) has created its hegemony over the resources of society and it keeps increasing its resources by exploiting the other segment (proletariat). Moreover, Bourgeoisie, also called Haves, do not let Proletariat, also called Have-Nots (poor class) to access the resources. Eventually, one segment of society becomes highly poor and the other extremely rich (Baron, Robert S. P.p. 1-40).

Symbolic Interactionist theorists like Herman and Reynolds (1994) claim that social circles of people are responsible for their economic state. According to this group of theorists, the human being is always influenced by his/her surroundings and he/she struggles according to the motivation he/she receives from society (Popper, Karl. N.p.). In simple words, poor individuals of a society are poor because they live and interact with poor and same is the case with the rich individuals. Poor individuals who enter rich zones (cities, friend/relationship circles) get motivated to work hard and become rich; the majority of them achieve their goals.


Inability to achieve one's goals or fulfil basic needs due to economic setbacks is known as poverty. Poverty is one of the most serious issues every society, or the world in general, faces. Many social crimes are born because of poverty. It has many causes, and different scholars have different views about those causes. Functionalists believe that poverty is a natural and unavoidable aspect of society. Additionally, they believe that this is both boon and bane for society. Conflict theorists believe that poverty is the result of unjust division among different segments of society. Symbolic Interactionists, on the other hand, claim that poverty is the result of social circles’ different individuals mingling in each other’s lives, as in, the rich socializing with the poor.

Works Cited

Popper, Karl. The poverty of historicism. Routledge, 2013.

Homans, George Caspar. "Contemporary theory in sociology." Sociological Methods. Routledge, 2017. 51-69.

Colomy, Paul. Functionalist sociology. Edward Elgar Publishing, 1990.

Baron, Robert S. "Distraction-conflict theory: Progress and problems." Advances in experimental social psychology. Vol. 19. Academic Press, 1986. 1-40.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Reflection Paper 2

Globalization and Commercialization in Sports

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Globalization and Commercialization in Sports


Globalization of sports is considered to be the method of expansion of sports idea all around the globe. Commercialization is referred to the exposure of media for the sports. The sports field in the last two centuries was influenced naturally by the method of globalization and commercialization. It not only impacts the method in which sports are organized and conducted but also determines their meaning in today's world.


As a result of commercialization and globalization, the value of any sports is considered to be determined through the size of the available audience for sponsors, advertisers, and media. It can lead to the decrease in the sporting heritage and the diversity in sport. It also creates the possibility of several types of criminal activities. Referee corruption and match-fixing are also raising threat due to the growth of international gambling and betting on such events of sports (Gems, Borish, & Pfister, 2017).

Banned performance of athlete by enhancing the drugs and money laundering is another dark side of commercialization and globalization of sports. Such globalization and commercialization of sports reach to its highest point due to some mega-events like Olympic games and world cups which is considered to be the true exhibition of race, culture, and money (Shank & Lyberger, 2014).

I am very much clear about my career that I would not sell my soul for the interest of big business. My only focus will be on my sporting skills and abilities which can help me to achieve success in my life. Moreover, I can also use some organizations of voluntary sports for promoting the sports as the government in many countries have decreased the funding for the sports, globalization, and commercialization of the sports in such countries is only the solution for the financial problems (Gems, Borish, & Pfister, 2017).


So, it is concluded that globalization and commercialization can be harmful to sports as it reduces the interest and faith of the people in sports. Hence, it should be handled in such a way that the beauty and value of sports should not be destroyed.


Gems, G., Borish, L., & Pfister, G. (2017). Sports in American History, 2E: From Colonization to Globalization. Human Kinetics.

Shank, M. D., & Lyberger, M. R. (2014). Sports marketing: A strategic perspective. Routledge.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Reflections On Education Policy

Reflections on Education Policy

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Reflections on Education Policy

What is your reaction to the concepts and perspective presented in the video?

The concepts and perspective presented in the video are correct to a considerable extent as there is no longer a guarantee for students with a qualifying degree in getting a good job. Thus, my reaction to the information visualized is not surprising as the recent economic recession turmoils were predictable.

What are the current major issues relating to education?

The problem with public education is the benefit that is gained by academic intellectuals and not the non-academic ones. The system of economic and intellectual has driven and differentiated this category which has created chaos amongst the education sector. These are the major issues that are identified in the video.

Do you think every individual has the right to the same kind of education (i.e., academic versus vocational)? Explain why or why not.

I believe that every individual has the right to receive the same kind of education because every student can perform equally well in academics. Intellectuals are not the only ones who should be provided with all sorts of opportunities, whereas a student with ADHD can perform better.

In your informed opinion, who should be responsible for the provision of education: the federal or local government, or individual citizens? Explain why.

The government itself regardless of whether it is federal or local should be highly responsible for the education it provides to its students. Education systems should not be based on industrialism or economic eccentric but rather on intellectual ability. The production line mentality should be driven out of the government system.

In your opinion, what needs to be done currently to improve our educational system?

What needs to be done is to shift the academic system from standardization towards creativity so that more children can get educated with the same standard of education. Moreover, changing paradigm involved divergent thinking, a concept that should be focused. This would improve the educational system (Robinson, 2010).

Discuss one policy that you feel has been instrumental in making positive changes in the provision of education either nationally or locally.  Be sure to explain your position in detail.

Many significant policies have played an instrumental part in making a positive change, such as the No Child Left Behind Act (Williams, 2019). It comprises of equal opportunity and commitment towards making a significant effort as every child is capable of divergent thinking. Such a position has produced a positive change, nationally or locally.


Robinson, K. (2010). Changing education paradigms. RSA Animate, The Royal Society of Arts, London, http://www. youtube. com/watch.

Williams, J. (2019). An Evaluation of no child left behind act in its representation of special education programs (Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Northridge).

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Reflective Project

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Reflective Project

Mate selection is a process in which an individual chooses a partner with whom he or she wants to form either a marriage bond or a long-term marriage-like relationship. In the process of mate selection, personal preference plays a major role however, several other structural influences also exist. The first and foremost social factor that plays a vital role in mate selection is social status. Although the social status description varies from culture to culture, yet males who are considered culturally successful, will be preferred as mating and marriage partners (Brackett 2). This is because it is a general perception that successful men can wield social influence and have control over the resources that females can use for themselves. This will ensure a feeling of a safe future. Additionally, several studies show that females prefer dominant males as their long-term partner. The reason for choosing dominant males is that in many cultures, dominant males are considered to be a source of protection from danger and are expected to able to provide high-quality food.

According to the social exchange theory, social behavior is influenced by the exchange process. The main aim of the exchange is to maximize the benefits while minimizing the cost. Therefore, every social relationship is made up of a certain give and take. Social exchange theory suggests that valuing the benefits and costs of every relationship determines our association with our peers. If an individual thinks that he or she can attain maximum benefit from their significant other, then they are more likely to continue the relationship.

Another factor that influences the mate selection process is the culture and ethnicities. In many cultures, it is preferred that people choose their mates within their groups (Cook 62). Specifically, in Indian culture people are forced to choose a partner that has the same social and racial status. The caste of an individual is considered an important factor while choosing a mate. In contrast, in Western culture, the rule of exogamy suggests that an individual must go outside the family to select partners. Thus, people belonging from Western culture tend to choose to mate outside their families. However, racial difference is also crucial to them in mate selection. Although, this trend is changing yet it is considered ideal that a white male chooses a white female and a black male chooses a black female as their significant other.

While discussing the mate selection process of the individuals in bi-cultural families,several different trends have been observed. Specifically, immigrants that are residing in the US are the ones that are more influenced by the social factors while selecting their mate for marriage. Individuals belonging to bi-cultural families are the ones that have to maintain a balance between their native culture and the culture of a country where they are living currently.

The author Jason Autin along with his fellow researchers conducted a study to determine the mate selection process across cultures. According to the author, Latina individuals residing in Mexico where family values matter the most, are less likely to date and choose partners for themselves on their own will (Nesteruk 42).

In many cases, parents are the ones involved in the mate selection process. The author Olena in her research paper, also highlighted that parental influence, gender roles and length of the residency are the factors upon which mates are selected by the individuals belonging to bi-cultural families (Olusola 57). However, one factor that is common in both bi-cultural and the residents of the US is choosing mates based on their social status. In many cultures, it is perceived that choosing a partner that can provide financial support is an ideal decision. As many immigrants faced difficulties while migrating to the US, they often influence their children’s mate selection by forcing them to indulge in a long-term relationship or marriage with a wealthy individual. Additionally, religion plays an important factor in mate selection as well. Typically, immigrants from India and Pakistan are bound to select a mate that belongs to the same religion as they are.

According to the social assimilation theory, assimilation is described as a linear process through which one group becomes similar to the other over time (Depalo 2). Thus, many immigrants are more open to choosing mates outside their native culture.

While reflecting on my experience, social factors influenced my mate selection as well. For me, personality is far more important than social status. However, my mate preference is based on my perspective that is highly influenced by the community where I used to live. According, to the structural-functional theory, a society is an interconnected complex system where each part works together to function as a whole. The community where I used to live was very connected with each other. Every community member used to interact with each other politely regardless of their different cultural backgrounds. Due to this reason, I never discriminated against people based on their ethnicities and thus I dated people regardless of their cultural background. My mate selection was based on the family values that I learned from the people of my community. So, I always choose people who are more connected to their family and respect their families. In the context of feminism, people associate feminism with a group of angry women trying to dominate men. However, in reality, feminism is a perspective that strives for equality between men and women. So being a feminist, I like to date people who do not discriminate against women. Man is a social animal and cannot live without interacting with other people. This interaction with other people greatly impacts the way we see society and thus also influences our mate selection process.

Works Cited

Brackett, Kimberly P. "Mate Selection." Encyclopedia of Family Studies (2016): 1-7.

Cook, Karen S., et al. "Social exchange theory." Handbook of social psychology. Springer, Dordrecht, 2013. 61-88.

Depalo, Domenico, Riccardo Faini, and Alessandra Venturini. "The social assimilation of immigrants." (2006).

Nesteruk, Olena, and Alexandra Gramescu. "Dating and mate selection among young adults from immigrant families." Marriage & Family Review 48.1 (2012): 40-58.

Olusola, Owagbemi Gabriel, and Elem Maduawuchi. "Appraisal of factors facilitating mate-selection among university under-graduates in Ondo state, Nigeria." European Journal of Research in Social Sciences Vol 3.4 (2015).

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 3 Words: 900


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Reflection Paper

Karl Marx is known as the founder of anti-capitalist literature in the social sciences. His work has mainly included a critique of the capitalist economic system, which he believes is exploiting the poor classes. Being an idealist, Marx believed that as the poor classes have resisted the charm of industrial revolution they could then persist in the worst social condition. Among the social scientist, Marx was the first unlike Max Weber and Durkheim to critique on the unequal system of economic opportunities. Others have focused on the institutional weaknesses and lack of support for the social system.

McClellan writes that Marx addressed the pressing causes of social inequalities, which he believed arises from the division between capitalist classes and oppressed working classes ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Psow8Jak","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(McLellan)","plainCitation":"(McLellan)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":878,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/T9S26C5L"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/T9S26C5L"],"itemData":{"id":878,"type":"book","title":"The thought of Karl Marx: an introduction","publisher":"Macmillan London","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"The thought of Karl Marx","author":[{"family":"McLellan","given":"David"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1971"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (McClellan). The only solution in his social development theories, he presented is the revival of a communist system. On one side, Marx's ideas have brought revolution in social development theories, and on the other side, he has addressed the root causes of an unjustified economic system of the world. The term global inequality is a kind of late addition to the world of social sciences, but it has been referred to in one way or another by many social scientist theorists. The following paragraphs will now focus on how the present social inequality trend could be traced perfectly from the works of Marx.

Social inequality in the present world could be observed in many ways. As it is not the economy alone, which in the present world can serve the interests of any social class, rather many other phenomena are also the prerequisites of forming a balanced society. #Globalinequality trend shares the tales of poorly divided resources. The major focus of this twitter trend has remained over the African continent ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"kEjIDZQz","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(TricksR4Kids)","plainCitation":"(TricksR4Kids)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":879,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/2D3PZ7LQ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/2D3PZ7LQ"],"itemData":{"id":879,"type":"post-weblog","title":"Africa will have 4 times the amount of people as the European countries that make up EU in the next century #GlobalInequality","container-title":"@_monroedoctrine","genre":"Tweet","URL":"https://twitter.com/_monroedoctrine/status/732660797730652160","language":"en","author":[{"family":"TricksR4Kids","given":""}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016",5,17]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",5,27]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (TricksR4Kids). The forebearers of this twitter trend have shed light over the reasons such as poor health conditions, lack of working opportunities, unequal distribution of natural resources, deprived access to basic life facilities and lack of residential facilities. Compared to Marx inputs in social development theories, these problems are much enlarged and extended.

Marx's theories in comparison to the Twitter trend of global inequality appear narrow. The reason why Marx could not address in his theories such specific problems was his limited access, and his presence in times which have not seen any considerable success in terms of technology or manpower. But to some extent, Marx remained successful in identifying the root causes of such social injustices. For example, a thorough and unbiased analysis of #Globalinequality suggests that the capitalist class still persists today. Marx has critiqued mainly on the capitalist economic infrastructure already. For the application of his thoughts in this present scenario, Marx would just have needed to broaden his economic disparity lens.

This Twitter trend reveals many causes of why there is injustice mainly in terms of economic opportunities. The analysis of top tweets suggests that users have based their opinions on the basis of lack of access to primary health care facilities. Some has linked this lack of resources to the weak economic infrastructure of the countries and some base their opinion on the basis of negligence by the ruling elites in these countries. But there could be some disagreements with this twitter trend. For example, a country like India where the economy is booming, but there are millions of people who do not have access to the basic facilities of life ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Vo8C86N2","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Agarwal)","plainCitation":"(Agarwal)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":881,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/8QCWLJE8"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/8QCWLJE8"],"itemData":{"id":881,"type":"article-journal","title":"The state of urban health in India; comparing the poorest quartile to the rest of the urban population in selected states and cities","container-title":"Environment and Urbanization","page":"13–28","volume":"23","issue":"1","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Agarwal","given":"Siddharth"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2011"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Agarwal). Half of their population is forced to live under inhumane conditions ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"HZytCe5F","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}No Toilet in Half of Indian Homes})","plainCitation":"(No Toilet in Half of Indian Homes)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":884,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/HQ5VRTH6"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/HQ5VRTH6"],"itemData":{"id":884,"type":"article-newspaper","title":"No toilet in half of Indian homes","section":"India","source":"www.bbc.com","abstract":"Nearly half of India's 1.2 billion people have no toilet at home - fewer than have mobile phones - according to the latest census data.","URL":"https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-17362837","language":"en-GB","issued":{"date-parts":[["2012",3,14]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",5,27]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (No Toilet in Half of Indian Homes). Marx has although addressed some primary issues that can be the reasons of this present #Globalinequality, if Marx had been a person of this century, he would have to broaden his scope of ideas to support the theoretical findings.

Works Cited:

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Agarwal, Siddharth. "The State of Urban Health in India; Comparing the Poorest Quartile to the Rest of the Urban Population in the Selected States and Cities." Environment and Urbanization, vol. 23, no. 1, 2011, pp. 13–28.

McLellan, David. The Thought of Karl Marx: An Introduction. Macmillan London, 1971.

No Toilet in Half of the Indian Homes. 14 Mar. 2012. www.bbc.com, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-17362837.

TricksR4Kids. “Africa Will Have 4 Times the Amount of People as the European Countries That Make up EU in the next Century #GlobalInequality.” @_monroedoctrine, 17 May 2016, https://twitter.com/_monroedoctrine/status/732660797730652160.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Relationship Maintenance

Relationship Maintenance*

Duo Liu


Word count = 600

To maintain friendships requires effort. If neither partner in the friendship makes such an effort, even two close friends would eventually grow apart from one another. As social norms changed, people have started to rely less on friendships to lend each other social support or to enrich each other’s lives, as other means have taken its place. As part of the field research in this regard, I caught up with an old friend from high school that I had only maintained contact on Facebook but rarely met after I entered college. I will briefly outline my experience of our union lustrating the sociological significance of our meetup.

I managed to meet my high school friend, Wang, last night at dinner whom I had not met for a long time, feeling that our friendship needed strengthening. He was a smart and tech-savvy person whom I always thought would make into a Fortune 500 company when he graduated. It was perhaps our common interest in gadgets and technology that brought us closer in high school. After we enrolled in different colleges, we did not get the chance to meet up that often but retained some contact on Facebook. After getting in touch with him online, we agreed to meet up at the nearby restaurant to catch up with old times.

As soon as we met and started talking, it felt that a lot had changed in our lives. Yet at the same time, it felt as if we had only separated for a few days or so. He began to tell me about his activities at college, and we both agreed that it did not turn out the way we thought at high school. I was surprised to hear that he took up music and philosophy since I always imagined him to be technology-inclined. We discussed our career goals and our relationships, catching up for lost time. There were a lot of dreams and goals we shared in school that had not come true so far yet we agreed that it might not have been such a bad thing. It was quite fun remembering some of the silly antics we would engage in high school just for the thrill of it and laughed at ourselves for being so naïve at that time. We also discussed our relationships and confessed to each other about our new ones. As we laughed, I could not help but think that I really missed his company, and how much I enjoyed reminiscing about old times with him. As we finished dinner, he hired an Uber and went on his way promising to stay in touch.

Reflecting upon our brief reunion, I think that it truly contributed something special and significant to my life. It felt liberating and redemptive to catch up with someone who knew me for so many years, as I could open up to him in a way that I could not do so now with my friends in college. In a way, Wang served as a conduit to remind me of the earlier version of myself who I seemed to have lost. Moreover, I gained important insights about some useful career prospects, and discussing these matters with Wang showed me how we had evolved during all these years. I felt that having a friend like this serves as a guardian for your past memories, evoking a special form of happiness in me, the kind that is different from engaging with my family. I realized I needed someone in front of whom I could act carefree or even foolish, and it helped me laugh aloud, smile and relax and could feel that it served as a happiness booster for me. I could see that Wang apparently had the same feelings and realized how fulfilling it can be to connect with an old friend and laugh together about old times, picking up from where we left off. There was a mutual feeling that if we ever needed each other, we would be there to support and help out one another.

The experience I had, confirmed findings from different studies that the presence of friendship correlates with higher life satisfaction. As humans, we instinctively want to socialize, and a number of benefits are to be gained through these positive interactions that build a person's social capital (Amati, Meggiolaro, Rivellini, and Zaccarin 2018:15). These warm ties are very important to our individual happiness and thus require efforts and resources to be directed towards achieving these ties (Bok 2010:139). Meyers suggests that “a supportive network helps us evaluate and overcome stressful events…and can help bolster our threatened self-esteem” (1992:144). A friend's help, advise assurances, or even sharing an experience together can serve as a medicine for us.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Amati, Viviana, and Meggiolaro, Silvia, and Rivellini, Giulia, and Zaccarin, Susanna. 2018. "Social relations and life satisfaction: the role of friends". Genus, 74(7), 1-18.

Bok, Derek. 2010. "Marriages and Families". In The Politics of Happiness: What Government Can Learn from the New Research on Well-Being (pp. 139-156). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Meyers, David G. 1992. "The Friendship Factor". In The Pursuit of Happiness (pp. 142-154). New York, NY: Avon books.


Subject: Sociology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Research Article

Research Article

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Research Article

The research article found in The Boston Globe talks about how many migrant children have been separated from their families at the border. After Donald Trump got elected as the new President of the United States, his primary focus has been fixated towards building a wall on the U.S. – Mexico border. This decision has led to much social instability along with economic depression as much of the resources are being spent on building the wall. The science of sociology teaches human fundamentals through interaction and communication. As lenient as it may seem, the methods of social sciences illustrate independency and fundamental rights. The author of this article discusses these issues with emphasizing severe concern over the government's decision to separate families and children over at the border (Chavez, & Menjívar, 2017). However, later on, the federal judge ordered the reunification of the children with there families. With over two thousand children not been identified, serious concerns have been raised.

The research based on this article is useful because it provides the readers with awareness about social issues along with concerns that are being highlighted by the newspaper agency or the media. The author emphasizes on the concern being shared with the people in her article as the government’s inaccurate effort to provide the details about the missing children over the border stays hidden. The Trump administration places “zero tolerance” for anyone who crosses the border to enter the U.S. illegally, which is yet another social issue that is being highlighted a lot. Regardless of any potential challenges, the government tries to push congressional Democrats into providing trump administration with 5.7 billion dollars for a border wall. The unwillingness to provide these vast figures have dragged the matter for over a month along with the government being shut down. This author uses case studies and non-participant observation methods to accumulate the research over this issue.

This research over the social issue of the illegal Mexicans entry in the United States has become a serious matter for the government along with the people in the country. However, to some extent, a lot of people are supporting Mexican rights due to liberalism and global approach. Most of the people living in the U.S. demand entry of Mexicans in the United States because their country is underdeveloped and they have low standards of living. Providing them with opportunities would be a way to improve there living standards and future perspectives. It would also strengthen relationships between the Mexican and American governments. However, due to the current discretion, the only thing being noticed right now is the feud over the Mexican American wall. The Trump administration are doing everything in their power to build the wall and separate Mexicans from Americans, and during this pursuit, many children are being separated from there families.

The aforementioned critique over the social concern is the very reason why I think this research matters. It would create awareness and provide the knowledge that is needed for people to understand the whole situation. Moreover, I find this research very interesting as it provided me with some learning about the social attributes and concerns over at the Mexican wall. Furthermore, the research helped to learn about a more critical concern, and that is the separation of children from families, and furthermore, children not being found for reunification. This response to the article presents the overall reflections about the article. It defines the social issues while highlighting the concerns. The research method used in the article helped me with identifying the social context of this article and what the author is trying to emphasize upon.

First Response

Rebeca Bianchi discusses the change in food preference for Britons after the opening of American coffee shops. Going from puddings, tea cakes, and biscuits, the Britons now prefer having cookies, brownies, and muffins as there morning meals. Through research, it has become the fact that observational traits are being used in the article she is summarizing. She emphasizes the influence that is being made by the American chains on the Britons. The statistical context based on the British coffee shops and grocery stores seems to be losing sales with the opening of American franchises. The research methods being discussed by Rebeca are the interview and the participant or non-participant methods. The comparison made by Rebeca between the American and British dessert goods represents the quantity that is purchased. Based on that quantity, it is easy to analyze that British products represent a decline in overall consumption.

Second Response

The second summary made by Justin Mascioli discusses the negative impact of a government shutdown. Due to the externalities such as the diversion towards the funding needed to build the Mexican wall, the article explains that it may be a tactic. Justin mentions the negative aspects of a government shutdown, such as less economic growth, lack of funding for federal employees, lower spending rates, etc. The border security plan is obstructing the economy to an inconsiderable extent which the Trump administration is well aware of. This research is an interesting one as it involves all the negative externalities which come from the shutdown along with the effects on the government employees and small businesses. Justin summarizes that the article he talks about includes an emphasize towards the inadvertent effects and the role of federal government in all of this matter. The importance of people is undermined and left unsafe during this process to extract funding.


Chavez, L., & Menjívar, C. (2017). Children without borders: A mapping of the literature on unaccompanied migrant children to the United States. Migraciones internacionales, 5(18), 71-111. Retrieved from: https://www.bostonglobe.com/news/politics/2019/01/17/many-more-migrant-families-may-have-been-separated-border/DZCisLBYu4eQNeRh1837OP/story.html

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Research Paper

Research Paper

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Rwandan Genocide


The Rwandan Genocide also known as a genocide against the Tutsi, is one of the most severe ethnic conficts in history. The event was a mass slaughter of the Tutsi by Hutu militias in a country called Rwanda, which occurred from the 7th of April to the 15th of July in the year 1994, during a civil war in Rwandan. The genocide was actually designed by members of the Hutu Political Elite. A number of positions were occupied at the top levels of national government. There are a number of historians who believe that genocide was planned a year ago. The assassination of the president of Rwanda, Juvenal Habyarimana occurred on April 6, 1994, and it paved the way for the genocide. Many historians affirm that the genocidal killings were initiated the day the political leaders and military stakeholders were assassinated. However, the attack created a picture of sheer brutality that ensured a timeline of fear and shock everywhere. An analysis of the occurrence reveals that a number of victims were killed in their homes and in their villages, and many of them were killed when they were gone to visit their neighbors and other fellow villagers. (Joseph, et, al. 2018). Hutu gangs searched for the victims who were hidden in different localities in order to defend themselves in churches and school buildings. It is estimated that about 500,000 to about 1,000,000 Rwandans were killed and almost 70% of the Tutsi population was tormented. About 250,000 to 500,000 women were raped during this genocide. In a nutshell, it can be asserted that genocide has a profound and long-lasting impact on the inhabitants of the country, as well as those of the neighboring countries. Even today, two public holidays are announced in order to mourn the genocide, asserting historic revisionism and remembrance of the event as a criminal offense. (Joseph, et, al. 2018).


According to different historians and social activists it is asserted that the Rwandan Genocide is actually an event that laid the foundation of a new paradigm, as the assassination of President Juvenal Habyarimana was not the only cause, in fact, there was a long battle between the Hutu and Tutsi tribes. According to Terry George, the first ethnic division between the two ethnic groups arose in 1931, when Rwandan law began while mandating that individuals must carry their ethnic identification cards at all times. It is highlighted that there are two prominent issues to address within the whole event. (Simpson, et, al. 2019).  One of these issues is the analysis of the stakeholders and authorities who were engaged in the event and genocide. It was the reaction of the leaders, which enabled the wanton killing and destruction witnessed during the genocide, because it was a preplanned event and there was no analysis of the facts and figures. Another issue is the depiction of violence that is portrayed in the form of effect and impression. A number of people who were victims of the Rwandan genocide belonged to villages and they were killed because of lame reasons such as the moderate outlook of the Tutsi political affairs. It is apparant that personal vendettas lead those individuals to the height of destruction. A number of instances have highlighted that there was a tracking down and killing of Tutsi people that caused an emotional set back on old friends, colleagues and neighbors. The assissinators should be accused because of aiding the Tutsi people in escape and to conspire against the national party asserting that there was no proof of the individuals who are murdered. (Simpson, et, al. 2019). 

Anthropologist’s View

According to Jean Damascene Gasanabo, the genocide against the Tutsi was actually a planned event, taking into account the success of the perpetrators. It is asserted that neither the roving bands of Hutu Farmers nor the Hutu militias could exterminate the Tutsis just like the Nazis could not exterminate the Jews. According to Gacaca, the responsibility of the conflict lies on the shoulder of each of the habitants, as well as individuals who were currently living in the village. The officials estimate highlight that about 85% of the population, making 7 million Rwandans were engaged in the scenario. It is significant to note that about 3% of the Hutus were involved, both indirectly and directly and it makes up about 200,000 perpetrators. Other Hutus had nothing to do with the event and genocide. There were a number of Hutus who tried to contact the authorities in order to address the happenings and they were openly against the killing of the people. However, it is asserted that the overall population can be classified as both the protestors and promoters. (Simpson, et, al. 2019). Those who were against the killing of others were also murdered and some of them even attempted to alert the International Community but none of the demands of the people were honored. It is signified that the Rwandan Civil War made the things worse but at the same time, it was a cause due to which genocide was eventually stopped when the RPF (Railway Protection Force) won the war that it was waging against the FAR (Federal Acquisition Regulation) of the genocidal regime. MRND (National Revolutionary Movement of Development) is the actual director because it worked in accordance with its will and did whatever was supportive in making it win the election. The followers of this plan were extremists by nature, and they disguised their rhetoric under so called freedom of speech that spread dangerous ideas to the local population. The catch line highlights that Tutsi are the enemies of the country and they should be eliminated in order to maintain peace within Rwanda. They killed the president a part of their plan and during the next 100 days after his assassination, none of the Tutsi was actually spared, they were being killed as enemies of the country. (Simpson, et, al. 2019). 

Sociological Perspective

According to the perspective of the international community, it is highlighted that there is another justification of Rwandans Commemorate that was meant against Tutsi minority. According to the United Nations it is acknowledged that the incident was a huge failure to intervene adequately. When the genocide began, there was an already implanted peacemaker in the country. The United Nation Secretary prevented his troops from getting themselves engaged in the whole scenario. Over the course of about 100 days, 800,000 Rwandans mainly Tutsis were murdered by the Hutu Matias. Two months before genocide, there had been a lot of investigation regarding the actions of the international community and it is asserted that a lot of warnings were given for the genocide. (Donà, et, al. 2019). The head of United Nation Assistance Mission for Rwanda, Jacques Roger Booh Booh sent a cable to the headquarters of the United Nations in the New York, in which he highlighted that security situation is actually deteriorating on a daily basis and regular intervals, along with an increase in violent demonstrations, assassination attempts and nightly grenade attacks along with ethnic and political killings. The telegram was one of the indications that the incident was going to be catastrophic in nature and it was brewing Rwanda. The United Nation mission was actually on the ground since the end of 1993. The soldiers delivered numerous reports of the attacks on Tutsis along with the initiation of secret training camps and weapon stockpiles. According to Kinda Melvern, the Belgian government was very well aware of the happening in Rwanda, the president talked to the US and UK diplomat at the United Nation to reinforce the timeline of mission that was getting pathetic and ineffectual to peacekeeping when mandates were made for Rwanda. The United Nation peacekeepers were actually powerless and they were unable to address the peace conditions. It is also highlighted that when the genocide broke out, there were around 3000 Tutsis who sought safety at the base of a Belgium contingent in Kigali. When 10 commandos were killed, Belgium decided to pull the troops out of country and Tutsis were left with no occupation and a number of them were killed and slaughtered on the hillside called Nyanza. Many of the people think Nyanza is actually a failure of the international community where it is a description of the bankruptcy of whole humanity and mankind. (Donà, et, al. 2019). The International Troops in Rwanda were allowed to evacuate the foreigners only with the directions of commander of UNAMIR (The United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda). Canadian Lt General Romeo Dallaire made efforts for seeking permission to deploy the troops in order to stop killing but he was completely refused. The most pathetic fact is, Western politicians refrained from describing the events in Rwanda as genocide, in fact, they termed it as a “Tribal War”. In a nutshell, it is highlighted that the Rwanda incident was actually a failure because about 800,000 were threatened and killed. (Simpson, et, al. 2019). 

A report from African Studies Quarterly has inferred that the genocide of 1994 is commonly accepted and it is termed as an event that is used to propose solutions to inhumane act that horrifies historical contexts of the country. According to him, the Rwanda incident is a framework of variant ideologies. “Recognizing Genocide" is an ideology that affirms that the attack was actually a pre-planned action with certain well-defined objectives. It is significant to note that Organization of African Unity accused the United Nation of applying a double standard by reducing the number of troops and cutting their strength in Rwanda taking into account the strengthening involvement of Yugoslavia. Although a call for international support was to be sent on 28 April, still all the appeals in terms of genocidal slaughter were deconned. (Donà, et, al. 2019). The European coalition of the non-governmental organization also termed as Eurostep was recognized and identified as the cause of slaughtering of people. A series of vigils were organized by the nongovernmental organizations with an aim to drew and drift attention of the secretary general but unfortunately, the International Committee of the Red Cross termed it as a casual event. The International Committee asserted that the timeline of the world is plagued with such events and there is nothing new in it. It is just a massacre that can be forgotten very soon. Although the Secretary-General of the United Nations and the Red Cross identifies the tragedies and the ratio of deaths, still it was treated as diplomacy “as usual”. Rwanda Genocide is classified as an “extraordinary intervention” that was having unexpected displacement that was hard for the analysts to observe. Although everyone was willing to admit the slaughter of civilians as a serious issue, no one was willing to take steps ahead. The ambassador to Rwanda and the assistant secretary of the state of human rights and humanitarians traveled to the place of genocide and analyzed the event but there was no outcome. The travelingof delegations , accompanied by the visit of French Ambassador was more like a mobilization to the neighbors of African Government so that they can put pressure on the political parties but there was nothing practical. It is asserted that the poor Nigerian also tried to approach the Nigerian representatives but the process of conveying information was slow so the implementation of the actions was also bleak. (Donà, et, al. 2019). It was not unusual for the United Nation but it was a specified case for the genocide because there were a number of political reasons that highlight the significance of this event as planned destruction for the people.

Political Framework

Another point of view has highlighted that the genocide in Rwanda is more like a newly created post of the United Nations. In accordance with the request of various national governments and other non-governmental organizations, the interim government was allowed for the evacuation of growing concerns of death and demolition in Rwanda. It is asserted that the conflict can be traced back to an international inconvenience because initially, the United Nation refused to discuss the case of Rwanda in open session, in fact, it was directed to an emergency session on the direction of Canadian representatives. (Joseph, et, al. 2018). Although there were a number of statements from the United States and France who spoke of the genocide but the final resolution did not take any notice of the event and it was named as a rapporteur in order to investigate if the genocide has taken place or not This statement was more like a shock for the people because the initial reporting was denied and a delegation was designed to analyze the genocide in terms of its occurrence. After a series of events of analysis and verification, it was highlighted that Kantian Habimana declared that their international community had traced that there is nothing efficient that is done to punish the slaughterers and no one was convicted. In fact, it was concluded, “So for Rwanda, they cannot say anything that will worry us, let us continue to do our work and fight against the Inyenzi-Inkoyanyi that initiated the combat and killed more than one million people". (Joseph, et, al. 2018).

According to another source of information, the Rwanda Genocide is more like an event that has strong racial background. number of justification are given such as, the victims to murder were chosen on the basis of their ethnicity. It is inferred that the ambition behind the attack was the return of Tutsi refugees and to enforce Rwandan government for the inclusion of Tutsis in political decisions. It is asserted that the underlying basis of the massacre was to incorporate the ideologies that are in favor of Tutsi so that they can be given due position in both social and political paradigms of the country. (Joseph, et, al. 2018).


Rwanda Genocide, apparently an ethical incident is analyzed from different point of views. Different perspective highlight that there are a number of dimensions and causes of the conflict ranging from a pre-planned event to a sudden explosion of human misconduct that hampered the existing platform of the ethnicity. Others think it is a political action where United Nations played a significant role in concentrating the demolition and attack. It is also asserted that the genocide is referred to as a geographical conflict because of diversification while others think that the genocide is a social accident having its root in ethnicity because the populations belonging to different ethnic background where “they don’t belong to us” was a major catchline. In a nutshell, there are a number of perspectives each with its validity and strong argumentation. Whatever reasons are given for the genocide, it was an incident that shook the basis of humanity and human existence and the loss is also mourned today.


Donà, G. (2019). Rwanda 1994: genocide in the “Land of a Thousand Hills”.

Joseph, S. (2018). After the genocide in Rwanda: Humanistic perspectives on social processes of post-conflict posttraumatic growth. The Humanistic Psychologist.

Simpson, P. A. (2019). Art from Trauma: Genocide and Healing Beyond Rwanda. University of Nebraska Press.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 8 Words: 2400

Research Paper Genocide Holocaust

Genocide Holocaust

Your Name (First M. Last)

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)


Holocaust as genocide:

The word holocaust came from the Greek word "holos" (whole) and "kaustos" means burned. The word holocaust if seen from historical perspective was used for the sacrificial offerings that used to be done on the altar. By spinning the wheel of the history, it could be seen that since 1945, word holocaust turned into a horrible form, this word has been associated with the mass killing of 6 million European Jews by Germany.

Causes of the Holocaust:

There were many causes of the Holocaust that can be looked upon by taking a look at history. Holocaust is one of the most terrible and important events from the 20th century. It is probably most significant genocide in history till date. There could be witnessed various causes of holocaust and primary cause of holocaust genocide that took place in world for the first time, was the frustration and depression as Germany lost the value of its currency and was experiencing the high inflation because of the reparation payments that Germany had to pay because of the Treaty of Versailles. This frustration is considered as one of the root cause for setting the stage for the growth of ant-Semitism and Holocaust eventually. With the passage of time, this anti-Semitism led towards the Holocaust because it legitimized violence against Jewish in the eye of the German forces.

The next cause of the Holocaust was the promotion of idea of the master race and development of the eugenics. Eugenic is a cruel ideology in which through the selective reproduction some of the genetic traits are promoted while other traits are removed and this could be even seen in practice in modern age. Eugenic was most practiced by Germany and undesired people were forcefully removed from the land. For example, it could be seen that the first victims of the Holocaust were the disabled people (mentally as well as physically) because they were considered as a burden on society.

Next, there comes another major cause of Holocaust and that was the Social Darwinism theory. According to this theory, some races and ethnic groups were considered superior to others. This theory was given by a famous British scientist who was being credited for giving a theory of evolution in one of his famous book called Origin of Species. Though Darwin proposed this idea for biological studies, Germans implied Darwin's theory on humans. So it won’t be wrong to say that Darwinism was used in a wrong way by Nazi Germany for justifying Aryanism and policy of eugenics.

The next cause that could be considered as another important cause was the growth and popularity of ultra-nationalism. By keeping into account history, it could be seen that many of the historians and leaders preferred nationalism for expressing best form of patriotism. The scenario here, is little different as Hitler promoted ultra-nationalism (Lieberman,et,al,2018). Ultra-nationalism is quite different from the conception of nationalism as in ultra-nationalism various nations use violence against each other for showing patriotism persecution of Jewish people and other ethnic groups show ultra-nationalism.

Hitler claimed that any group who is going to kill more people of the other group would be more patriotic towards Germany. It won’t be wrong to say that Germans by the use of violence and power promoted nationalism of their own sense. Hitler considered Aryanism as a superior race than others and for him; they were the Northern Europeans with blonde hair, specific genetic traits, and blue eyes. Only the Aryan traits were promoted by Germans and the rest were restricted and eventually removed from society. So it could be said that ultra-nationalism led towards the Holocaust as Hitler and many Germans showed hatred for people who were considered as undesirable.

The final cause of the Holocaust was the fear of being killed as it was the furious ambition of Adolf Hitler as well as the Nazi Party. One of the major parts of their ideology was the promotion of anti-Semitism and Aryanism. Cruelty and inhumane killings were justified by the Nazi when they took shelter of eugenics and Euthanasia program.

One of the major causes of the Holocaust was Nazi racial discrimination in which they targeted specific people and races and for their ending they planned for this massacre killing that is commonly known as the Holocaust (Katz,et,al,2018). Jewish became the target of the Germans for various reasons such as they considered the Jewish as lower than Untermensch, killers of Christ, and copied Christians who must be exterminated through the massive killing of the Holocaust. This fact must be kept in mind that Hitler used to hate Jewish people and does not want them to stay with him.


So as a whole, by taking a look at the history and all the circumstances that were created at that time, it could be said that Hitler and Nazi found many reasons for Holocaust genocide as mainly Jewish were the target of Germans. There are many causes that have been mentioned by the scholars and Germans tried their best for justifying these killing that happened in the Holocaust, but this fact cannot be negated that holocaust is one of the inhumane and horrifying events of human history. There could be found no justification of this genocide at all as it has been seen that people were brutally killed without any reason. There could be found no such example of brutality in history, like the one being created by Hitler.


(2019). Nj.gov. Retrieved 16 April 2019, from https://www.nj.gov/education/holocaust/curriculum/NorthAmericanGenocide.pdf

American anti-Semitism | Holocaust and Genocide Studies | Oxford Academic. (2019). Academic.oup.com. Retrieved 16 April 2019, from https://academic.oup.com/hgs/pages/american_antisemitism

Americans - United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. (2019). Exhibitions.ushmm.org. Retrieved 16 April 2019, from https://exhibitions.ushmm.org/americans-and-the-holocaust/main

Katz, S. T. (2018). The uniqueness of the Holocaust: the historical dimension. In Is the Holocaust Unique? (pp. 55-74). Routledge.

Lieberman, S. (2018). After Genocide: How Ordinary Jews Face the Holocaust. Routledge.

The United States and the Holocaust. (2019). Encyclopedia.ushmm.org. Retrieved 16 April 2019, from https://encyclopedia.ushmm.org/content/en/article/the-united-states-and-the-holocaust

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Research Proposal

Research Proposal

[Author’s name]

Research Proposal

Homelessness Presented on Social Media


Today, homelessness is a major social concern that adversely impacts the functioning of societies. Research is one great instrument to recognise the actual magnitude of the issue of the homelessness. It is observed that young individuals are greatly influenced by the growing problem of homelessness. There is a need for examining the actual causes of this issue to offer better social reforms for all citizens. On the other hand, technology dramatically changes the standard of living in societies. The active role of technological advancement specifically in case of social media platform can never ignore when it comes to the examination of the problem of homelessness specifically in case of young people (Loader & Mercea, 2012). It is established that the medium of social media can effectively use to enhance social knowledge when it comes to the problem of homelessness (Woelfer & Hendry, 2010). The focus of this study is to utilise the approach of the research to examine how effectively social media can play its role to present the problem of homelessness.

Research Questions

•What is the exact role of social media to present the issue of homelessness?

•How the active involvement of homeless youth on different social media sites influence the approach of presenting the problem of homelessness?

Policy Context

Development of the proper policy is ranked as the critical practical measure to successfully address the issue of homelessness. Attaining valuable knowledge through the platform of research can be helpful for the policymakers to initiate new ideas according to the actual requirements of the homeless people. Detailed consideration of the involvement of homeless individuals on social media and the representation of the issue on the platform of social media will be effective for the policymakers to recognise the actual magnitude of this problem. The results of this study play role as the guiding domain to define the actual social and emotional concerns of the homeless young individuals. Stabilising of homeless people is only possible through the improved forms of shelter and healthcare services for this particular group (Best, 2010). The objective of the active evaluation of the issue of the homelessness can better apprehend by observing the trend of social media adopted by homeless people. The desired combination of the channels of social media and the policy development will be helpful to propose better solutions to the issue of homelessness.

Innovative Research

One of the major objectives for the researcher is to effectively contribute to the overall process of the research work on the specific issue. It is important to add some new form of knowledge to ensure better handling of the concern of homelessness. This specific research work focuses on the issue of homelessness, mainly in case of young individuals. Undoubtedly, a large portion of the young population is suffering from the calamity of the homelessness in different forms. It is crucial to focus on this certain age group and offer some effective practical measures. Identification of the actual problems of homeless youth is only possible through the assessment of the actual involvement of these entities in the entire process of issue handling. Comprehensive assessment of the former research work on the issue helped to figure out what areas are previously covered to research the concern of homelessness critically. It is observed that there is limited research approach to examine that how the active intervention of the young homeless individuals in the form of different social media channels can be helpful to effectively present the actual issues of the homeless people. The finding of this research study will be characterised as an innovative form of research when it comes to assessing the involvement of the young homeless people through their representation on social media.

Benefits of Research for Society and for Social Work

The problem of homelessness recognised as a complex social problem that is associated with different important aspects. There is a need for examining different dimensions relevant to this problem to find the most suitable solutions. Social stigma is established as the major aspect of concern that appeared for homeless people. The outcomes of this research work can be helpful for society to define the issue of the homeless as the actual social concern. It is important to enhance the communication channels between homeless people and the rest of the world to find out better solutions. The results of this particular study will benefit society to accept the presence of homeless young individuals and consider their problems seriously. This research work will also assistive for the people who involve the discipline of social work. The new information in case of presentation of the issue of homelessness on social media will help social worker to figure out the actual concern and provide them with better social services.

Proposed Research Methodology

Adoption of the appropriate research method is essential to ensure reliable outcomes in the end. There is a need for considering the most suitable form of research method to conduct this study. Mixed methods of research will be adopted by the researcher to assess the role of social media when it comes to the presentation of the issue of social media. The approach of mixed research methodology gives a chance to the researcher to utilise both forms of qualitative and quantitative research work. The qualitative research work will establish by adopting the domain of content analysis (Kothari, 2004). The option of content analysis will provide the opportunity to critically analyse the existing literature on the issue of homeless and utilise this information for further research work (Maxwell, 2008). Consideration of the qualitative research method is critical to assess what former research work is conducted when it comes to examining the influence of social media, particularly in case of issue of homelessness.

The convenience form of sampling is proposed in the form of a quantitative research method for this study. The collection of useful data through the medium of convenience sample will help the researcher to measure the numerical figures to identify the actual trend of social media in case of homelessness. Thorough consideration of the previous research studies on this issue revealed that the research technique of convenience sampling Is mostly utilised by the researchers to find desirable information. Proper evaluation of the actual appropriateness of the mixed method of research is important to ensure the reliability and the truthfulness of the outcomes. The approach of conducting interviews will consider attaining desirable responses from the targeted sample from the population. The web-based survey is another technique of data gathering that will be utilised by the researcher in case of this research study.

Potential participants will be selected for the approach of conducting interviews. These participants will consider homeless young individuals who use different modes of social media to interact with others and deliver their concerns to the rest of the world. Involvement of young homeless individuals will help to identify the actual perspective of social media when it comes to the role of social media in presenting the problem of social media. The research design of this study comprised of the selection of the participants for the approach of the interview. Secondly, the domain of web-based survey will provide useful information to the researcher to assess the actual trend of using different social media sites, specifically in the case of homeless individuals.

Analysis of Data

Proper analysis of the data is characterised as the important stage of the entire process of the research work. Selection of the appropriate techniques of the data analysis helps to attain factual-based outcomes. There are different domains available for the researcher when it comes to the approach of analysis of the data. It is crucial for the researcher to select suitable and convenient forms of data analysis to ensure delivery of the right outcomes in the end. The perspective of content analysis will be used in the case of qualitative research work. Adoption of this technique will assist the researcher to critically examine the results of the former research studies. Consideration of the previous research work on the issue will help to define the actual trend of social media when it comes to the presentation of the problem of homelessness.

Data in the form of semi-structured interviews and web-based surveys requires useful insights in the form of proper analysis of the data. The approach of the descriptive statistics will be used by the researcher to evaluate the overall central tendency and the spread of the whole data of the study. This form of consideration will help to identify the actual inclination of the respondents who considered for this specific research work. Basic features of the data can effectively identify through the data analysis technique of descriptive statistics. Consideration of the inferential statistics is also vital to use the sample of the study when it comes to generalising the results on the overall population. The outcomes of this study can establish in case of the entire relevant population. Furthermore, this form of information will be helpful for the policymakers to adopt better practical measures for the population who is recognised as the homeless young individuals in case of this research study. The statistical technique of hypothesis testing (significance testing) will be used by the researcher to find out the outcomes for this study. The approach of hypothesis testing help researcher to find out the answer for the research questions developed for this specific study. Hypothesis testing is one systematic process that requires consideration of different steps to get the proper answer to the research questions crafted according to the issue of the research study. The approach of linear regression will apply by the researcher to analyse the data of this study. The domain of the linear regression will assist in defining the prevailing connection between the independent and dependent variables of the study. Different platforms of social media and the issue of homelessness are established as the main variables of this study. The existing connection between these factors can better understand through the application of the regression.

Identification of Risks

There are many risks involves in the research procedures that play their role as complications. Prior identification of the risk factors is important to mitigate the magnitude of these potential obstacles. Identification of the potential risks assists to properly plan the process of research and minimise the adversities of these risk elements. Different forms of risks are associated with the research process. Loss of confidentiality is the major risk that might affect the implementation of this particular research. Failure of the approach of confidentiality in the form of breach of confidentiality can create the risks of invasion of privacy, and other social and legal concerns. These particular risks of loss of confidentiality and social concerns can effectively mitigate through the adoption of the proper research plan. Proper consideration of the consent can be helpful to develop a better communication level between the researcher and the respondents about the actual objective of this specific research work.

Ethical Concerns

It is important for the researcher to ensure the consideration of the ethical research that can never harm any stakeholders. As a researcher, there is a need to actively focusing on different moral obligations to achieve the high standards of the research. Application of ethical norms is characterised as the necessary factor at each stage of the research study. A thorough assessment of the principles of ethics reveals that research should be cautious about the aspects of integrity and honesty during the research work (Resnik, 2001). The second ethical question relevant to the aspect of informed consent. It is critical for the researcher to truthfully utilise the information given by the respondents only for the research purpose. The carelessness of the researcher about the personal information of the respondents can lead to serious ethical concern and eventually question the truthfulness of the research study (Schmidt, 2015). It is also critical for the researcher to never adopt the approach of any fabrication of the information at any stage of the research. The researcher has to play a role as the unbiased individual and present the reality in a most suitable manner.


In a nutshell, it is mentioned that consideration of the systematic research work is important to find better solutions for the issue of homelessness specifically in case of young individuals. The popular trend of social media usage can never ignore as it impacts the lives of people in many different forms. It is interesting to establish how the active form of social media can be helpful to provide better solutions to the problem of homelessness.


Best, R. (2010). Situation or social problem: The influence of events on media coverage of homelessness. Social Problems, 57(1), 74-91.

Kothari, C. R. (2004). Research methodology: Methods and techniques. New Age International.

Loader, B. D., & Mercea, D. (Eds.). (2012). Social media and democracy: Innovations in participatory politics. Routledge.

Maxwell, J. A. (2008). Designing a qualitative study. The SAGE handbook of applied social research methods, 2, 214-253.

Resnik, D. B. (2011). What is ethics in research & why is it important. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 1(10), 49-70.

Schmidt, K. (2015). Seeing the ‘homeless city’? Some critical remarks on the visual production of homelessness through photography. European Journal of Homelessness _ Volume, 9(2).

Woelfer, J. P., & Hendry, D. G. (2010, April). Homeless young people's experiences with information systems: life and work in a community technology center. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems(pp. 1291-1300). ACM.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 14 Words: 4200



Instructor Name


5 January 2020


Response # 1

Yes, most famous immigrants indeed had it easy while they lived in America. However, not every immigrant is a famous personality. I also think that this article presented a "one-sided picture" of the argument at hand. Diversity is good as long as you stay in well-lit offices and posh areas. Other than that, there are communities like the “Cancer Alley” that houses many African-Americans that are infected with horrible diseases since the age of ten. There are often small communities in different areas of cosmopolitan cities like New York and Los Angeles, so name a few. Others like Texas are openly hostile to people that are not “white”. What we need is a show or an interview that depicts the conditions of the average immigrant, not the famous ones. The federal government always protected the famous immigrants in the past, and will still protect them in the future due to their vested interests, which is normal for a government.

Response # 2

There is a reason why notorious celebrities like Arnold Schwarzenegger end up as politicians. These famous personalities command a lot of political clout in the US. This is one of the reasons that many celebrities are used nationally, as well as internationally, to promote the agendas of different governments as "Goodwill Ambassadors". As for the fact that only immigrants of European origin are favored, I would strongly agree with that. The existence of White Privilege is as clear as daylight. Many other immigrants are facing numerous problems, even though they have lived in the US for generations. The recent issue of Environmental Racism that is highlighted by some societal group is one of the examples of how different ethnic groups in the US are treated differently.

Works Cited

BIBLIOGRAPHY Laskow, Sarah. "' I'm An American' Radio Show Promoted Inclusion Before World War II." NPR History (2017). <https://www.npr.org/2017/10/16/557338355/im-an-american-radio-show-promoted-inclusion-before-world-war-ii>.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Rice, C (2017) Through The Mirror Of Beauty Culture.In N.Mandell & J.Johnson (EDS), Feminist Issues: Race, Class And Sexuality (6th Ed PP-147-174). Toronto: Pearson

“Through the Mirror of Beauty Culture”

Author Note

Key words: Beauty Culture, Sexism, Racism, Commercial Culture


The article “Through the mirror of beauty culture” is written by Carla Rice in reference to “Feminist Issues: Race, Class and Sexuality”. The paper will provide the reader with the summary of the article, annotation, Critical evaluation, self-reflection and conclusions. The annotation for the given article will describe, how society perceive a woman’s body as an impression of cultural and social essence of beauty and morality. The critical evaluation of the article will reflect whether the author’s views on feminism is clearly persuaded what he thinks about the solutions to racism and sexism if a woman do not attain the levels of acceptable beauty.

The self-reflection on the article will then present my vision that there is no discrimination on the basis of color weight and hairs but only on the basis of knowledge and hard work. Women of every race are equally reputable and should not be discriminated just because of their skin color and the imperfect body structure.


The article is written about various standards of beauty culture set up by the society for a woman in order to avoid sexism (gender biasness), sexuality and racism. It provides the reader with an in-depth analysis of people’s considerations about of women of different race, regarding her color, height, hairs and breast ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"cXyYqSY2","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Hobbs and Rice 2018)","plainCitation":"(Hobbs and Rice 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":164,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/55bqtMd8/items/FHJMESK6"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/55bqtMd8/items/FHJMESK6"],"itemData":{"id":164,"type":"book","title":"Gender and Women's Studies, Second Edition: Critical Terrain","publisher":"Canadian Scholars","number-of-pages":"784","source":"Google Books","abstract":"Now in its second edition, Gender and Women’s Studies: Critical Terrain provides students with an essential introduction to key issues, approaches, and concerns of the field. This comprehensive anthology celebrates a diversity of influential feminist thought on a broad range of topics using analyses sensitive to the intersections of gender, race, class, ability, age, and sexuality. Featuring both contemporary and classic pieces, the carefully selected and edited readings centre Indigenous, racialized, disabled, and queer voices.With over sixty percent new content, this thoroughly updated second edition contains infographics, original activist artwork, and a new section on gender, migration, and citizenship. The editors have also added chapters on issues surrounding sex work as labour, the politics of veiling, trans and queer identities, Indigenous sovereignty, decolonization, masculinity, online activism, and contemporary social justice movements including Black Lives Matter and Idle No More.The multidisciplinary focus and the unique combination of scholarly articles, interviews, fact sheets, reports, blog posts, poetry, artwork, and personal narratives reflect the vitality of the field and keep the collection engaging and varied. Concerned with the past, present, and future of gender identity, gendered representation, feminism, and activism, this anthology is an indispensable resource for students in gender and women’s studies classrooms across Canada and the United States.","ISBN":"978-0-88961-591-5","note":"Google-Books-ID: CLlaDwAAQBAJ","title-short":"Gender and Women's Studies, Second Edition","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Hobbs","given":"Margaret"},{"family":"Rice","given":"Carla"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018",5,3]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Hobbs and Rice 2018).

Author’s focus point is that if a woman of any race is not meeting the desired standards of beauty, she will automatically be hassled to attain that level of beauty. This is because women’s freedom, social mobility and status in society depends upon her beauty and physical appearance. There are different stereotypes and notions towards women in the society e.g. if a woman seems attractive to the men, it will improve her image in society, the white skin will help her to attain an admirable social status. Hence the only option for a woman to consider a life worth living is to maintain the socially decided canons of desirable look and a perfect appearance.

Throughout her research she focused on the views of women that why they always need to modify their bodies and why they have always been judged by their natural undesirable body structure and the skin color. For writing this paper author has reviewed the literature and other researches, as well as conducted original interviews with participants of feminist movements, and then discussed their views on beauty culture comprehensively. She provides several evidences on how women of different races changed their physical appearance just to avoid sexism and racism, and to beatified themselves to be chased by men. The participants told her that they have been through different types of cosmetic surgeries, and put their best efforts for maintaining their weight, figure, skin color and hairs, so as to avoid the isolation from those who are naturally desirable by the men.

Carle Rice states that, there are two idiosyncratic concepts in the society, i.e. “racial Stereotypes and Material Culture of “Beauty”. She argued that racial stereotypes are dominant because in most of the countries Black women are isolated from Whites because their physical appearance never matched with the outlined beauty cannons of the culture and society. These women are always targeted for racism and sexism and are convinced to chase the customs of beauty.

The concept of “Material culture of beauty” describes, an attractive physical appearance is immensely needed for the women of this materialistic society. They are always expected to chase the beauty standards through cosmetic surgeries, and beauty products. Women usually think that by consuming these products they can change them living standards and status in the society.

Furthermore, the author discussed that, beauty and ugliness is also highlighted by the cosmetic companies who takes benefit of beauty culture. Promote their products by differentiating the women in terms of beauty, and suggest them various products and surgeries to achieve desirable appearance.

Critical Evaluation

Carle Rice has well presented the issue of beauty culture in a persuasive manner. She is very clear in her thoughts on whether enhancing the beauty anyway is the only available solution for women to achieve higher status and respect in the society. Carle argued that skin color, hairstyles weights and breast are considered as the problematic sites woman’s body and they always try to improve them according to the set standards of beauty culture. She quoted a response from a presenter that she as a Black female attorney is not allowed to wear “political” hair styles.

Carle also gives an evidence from an ad of a bleach cream which claims to change the skin color from Black to five shades lighter. This shows how the commercial culture affects the choice of women to look attractive, and how the cosmetic companies are prioritizing white skin color over Black as a symbol of beauty. These companies just aimed at their profit maximization by selling their product without bothering the negative impacts on societies.

Furthermore, Rice also presented the evidence on beauty from a presentation called “The Dos and Don’ts of Corporate Fashion” which depicts the views of women that, they need body modifications for prejudgment by the group of people in the society and their emotions and feelings instead of just an attractive physical appearance. All the evidences presented by the author are knowledgeable and convincing to the reader.

Some of the points which I think are not so convincing includes, his arguments on social media, effecting the choice of women on beautification and body modification. I think there is no point in combining capitalism with accessibility of online pornography to influence the choice of women from where and how to depilate for body-baring fashions. I also find an error in one of his arguments that the custom of hairlessness is an example how commercial culture is of negatively depicting the values of beauty-culture. I think that the author does not supported the arguments with any evidence.

In my opinion, Carle Rice has made conclusions very early without bothering what actually endorses the beauty culture in society. For example, in the above-mentioned arguments she said that commercial culture is responsible for racism in society, but later she argued that physical appearance plays vital role in mental satisfaction by upgrading the social status, inspiring personality. There is a question that how a commercial of skin bleach can set a standard for a woman’s self-respect and womanly spirit.

Along with the above unpersuasive arguments he also said that if women try to improve their living environment, their physical appearance will also be improved. I am unable to understand that how a changed living environment gives you an attractive look just according to the standards of prevailed beauty culture. The argument is not validated by any supporting evidence.

Moreover, he claims that early entrepreneurs brought to advertise that women can improve their worth in the society through body modifications and personal transformation. However, the evidence she provided advocate that entrepreneurs are just trying inspire the customers by telling successful stories. What I found from the evidence is, the entrepreneurs want to promote hard work instead of body transformation for improving the status.

Over-all, the arguments he presented to reflect the beauty culture, are strong and clear. Reader can easily get into what message he is trying to convey. However, to improve the unpersuasive arguments she should try to communicate with more women of different race to persuade the argument that women in west are facing more racial stereotypes in improving their status in the society.


After reading this article I comprehended that Beauty Culture has ruined the confidence of women of our societies. I feel bad to state that women in our society is considered a show piece, who keeps on embellishing herself to be admirable achieve the set standards of a desirable appearance. Many talented and hard-working women unable show their competency in job market just because of Racial stereotypes.

However, for the question that the cosmetic companies are endorsing the norm of body modification, I would say that it’s a bitter reality. I have personally experienced that how cosmetic companies advertise their products to make women conscious about their skin color, weight, and breast. This means that the only choice for a woman to be acceptable is to transform their bodies or remain isolates as “Others”.

At last I would say that everyone living in this society is more or less influenced by some evil norms of the society such as obsession with white skin. Women should realize that they are misled by the society. I believe that these products may improve their appearance but cannot upgrade their status in the society until they work hard for a better future.


As a whole, the article describes the Beauty Culture and the norm of body modification to look perfect, as a standard for achieving an admirable status. The only option for woman to avoid sex discrimination and racism is to maintain their body structure according to the standards of the society. Along with the discriminating behaviors of Whites in the society, this culture is also promoted by the cosmetic companies. I would like to conclude by catching the eye of the reader towards an immense need to aware the women about the side-effects of cosmetic products and surgeries. Women should stand for themselves to wiped out this culture from society.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Hobbs, M., & Rice, C. (2018). Gender and Women’s Studies, Second Edition: Critical Terrain. Canadian Scholars.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 5 Words: 1500



The sources of knowledge not valued in the discipline of epistemology are belief. This reflects that knowledge is more significant than just a true belief. A belief according to philosophers cannot be proved so it is of no significance in epistemology (Riggs, 2002). It is also important to identify if the belief can provide value for the knowledge. It reflects the need for considering the value of reliability. Another claim states that it is not possible to support belief with facts that make it an unreliable source (Plato, 2017).

The discipline of epistemology stresses on the sufficient conditions of knowledge and its sources. Sources that lacks justification cannot be considered as a reliable source of knowledge. A belief that lacks adequate evidence or fails to justify claims is an invalid and unreliable source of knowledge. A belief cannot be considered as a source of knowledge because it is based on one’s mental assumptions (Hawthorne & Stanley, 2008). Similarly, the justification that is limited to one's mind also undermines the value of the source. True beliefs require evidence that is difficult to provide. This makes belief as an unvalued source of knowledge in epistemology. The discipline of epistemology emphasizes on factual information that means logic (Feldman, 2000).

However, belief lacks factual information because of it the product of one's thinking. People lack a high degree of control over beliefs that also make them invaluable. The concept of rational logic is also required for proving the value of knowledge. The beliefs are not supported with rational logic in most of the cases that make it an invaluable source of knowledge. False beliefs rely on irrational reasons and cannot be constituted as a source of knowledge. Similarly, it is also supported by weak claims that don't fulfil the conditions of valuable knowledge.


Feldman, R. (2000). Comments: Kvanvig on Externalism and Epistemology Worth Doing. Southern Journal of Philosophy.

Hawthorne, J., & Stanley, J. (2008). Knowledge and Action. The Journal of Philosophy, 571-590.

Kvanvig, J. L. (1998). Why Should Inquiring Minds Want to Know?: Meno Problems and Epistemological Axiology. The Monist, 426-51.

BIBLIOGRAPHY Plato. (2017). Epistemology. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Riggs, W. D. (2002). Reliability and the Value of Knowledge. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 64 (1), 79-96.

Talisse, R. B., & Aikin, S. F. (2008). Pragmatism; A Guide for the Perplexed. London: Continuum. Warfield, T. (2005). Knowledge from falsehood. Philosophical Perspectives, 405-16.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300


Full Title of Your Paper Here

Your Name (First M. Last)

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)

Scholarly Journal 4:

Uncontrolled Rise in Population

In this era, uncontrolled rise in population has been one of the biggest social problems that our discipline (sociology) is facing. The world population in 2019 is recorded at 7.7 billion as of April 2019. Compare that with the population number in 2000, it was 6.1 billion giving us an increase of 79% over the last decade only (Cohen, 2003). This uncontrolled bang in population is usually accredited to the rise in birth rates and the decrease in mortality rates (McKeown, 1978).

Social Factors Responsible for Uncontrolled Rise in Population:

Uncontrolled rise in population did not just happen overnight but was an effect of different social factors operating within the society. These include how a culture is designed in a certain area, what type of religious beliefs they have, economic situation, family structure and sexual practices (Rizzuto et al., 2012). In a culture, where it is enthralled to have a big family and is an indicator of a man’s virility. Whereas, religions around the world do not think highly of use of contraceptive drugs that help in lowering birth rates. Also, families in dire economic situations also prefer having more children and become an economic resource (Sundquist, 1995).

How Sociology Can Help:

Sociology can help in reducing this uncontrolled rise in population by using its different theories and define the effect of overpopulation growth on society as a whole (Turner, 1989). Functionalism, a sociological theory thinks that population growth is necessary and essential for processes in any society. Problem occurs if this growth is too little or too much and cause various problems. Conflict theory does not consider overpopulation as a problem because the world has enough resources to deal with it but it’s the corporations and regulations that are causing negative impacts on society. Furthermore, symbolic interactionism states the relationship between social background and their perception about population growth (Green & Ritzer, 1976).


Cohen, J. (2003). Human Population: The Next Half Century. Science, 302(5648), 1172-1175. doi: 10.1126/science.1088665

Green, D., & Ritzer, G. (1976). Sociology: A Multiple Paradigm Science. Contemporary Sociology, 5(2), 210. doi: 10.2307/2063000

McKeown, T. (1978). Fertility, mortality and causes of death an examination of issues related to the modern rise of population. Population Studies, 32(3), 535-542. doi: 10.1080/00324728.1978.10412813

Rizzuto, D., Orsini, N., Qiu, C., Wang, H., & Fratiglioni, L. (2012). Lifestyle, social factors, and survival after age 75: population based study. BMJ, 345(aug29 2), e5568-e5568. doi: 10.1136/bmj.e5568

Sundquist, J. (1995). Ethnicity, social class and health. A population-based study on the influence of social factors on self-reported illness in 223 Latin American refugees, 333 Finnish and 126 South European labour migrants and 841 Swedish controls. Social Science & Medicine, 40(6), 777-787. doi: 10.1016/0277-9536(94)00146-k

Turner, B. (1989). Ageing, Status Politics and Sociological Theory. The British Journal Of Sociology, 40(4), 588. doi: 10.2307/590890

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300


Scholarly Journal 5




Scholarly Journal 5

Research in the field of social sciences is quite important as well as tricky, in the way that it has to take care of the ethics and ensure the privacy of the research participants. There is a general conception in the society that the ends justify the means (Hughes, & Sharrock, 2016). However, it is not relatable to the research in the field of social sciences which claims that the end never justifies the means, specifically when it is concerned with the human beings (Orcher, 2016). The wrong means may be utilized in the process of research to provide better outcomes to the society, however, that will never justify the wrong done to the people.

In the field of sociology, the research is done to explore the root cause of the problem, the factors adding trouble to some social matter, explore the impacts of the social issue on the life of the human beings and then devise the solution accordingly (Bryman, 2016). Researchers have to take special care of not hurting the privacy of the research participants. For example, if a research study is conducted about the drug-related issue, the researcher cannot reveal the names of the participants who provided the drugs to others. The researcher may think that revealing the name of such people may help the society to stay away from them or they can be caught by the law enforcement authorities and the society will be saved from their tormenting presence (Schutt, 2018). The researchers may think that if the end is right, it would justify the means, however, it is completely wrong (Van den Hoonaard, & Van den Hoonaard, 2016). The researchers are liable to use the ethical means and never reveal the personal information of the respondents, without their knowledge or permission. So, the end never justifies the means where research with humans is concerned (Lacey, Howden, Cvitanovic, & Dowd, 2015).

Social research is done for the sake of the benefits and ease of human beings. If the wrong means would be utilized to get a right end, that end can never be justified. Researchers have to take care of the privacy of the participants and the ethics of research, in order to ensure it proves beneficial for society.


Bryman, A. (2016). Social research methods. Oxford university press.

Hughes, J. A., & Sharrock, W. W. (2016). The philosophy of social research. Routledge.

Lacey, J., Howden, S. M., Cvitanovic, C., & Dowd, A. M. (2015). Informed adaptation: ethical considerations for adaptation researchers and decision-makers. Global Environmental Change, 32, 200-210.

Orcher, L. T. (2016). Conducting research: Social and behavioral science methods. Routledge.

Schutt, R. K. (2018). Investigating the social world: The process and practice of research. Sage Publications.

Van den Hoonaard, W. C., & Van den Hoonaard, D. K. (2016). Essentials of thinking ethically in qualitative research. Routledge.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300


Scholarly Journal and Reflection


Institutional Affiliation(s)

Scholarly Journal and Reflection

Marxism is the name given to the philosophy of Karl Marx. He was the German sociologist who focused on the ill-side of capitalism. He wrote Das capital CITATION Kar67 \l 2057 (Marx K. , 1867) and Communist Manifesto CITATION Fri48 \l 2057 (Marx F. E., February 1848) to raise the voice against the injustices perpetrated by the rich bourgeoisie class. He and his friend Friedrich Engels worked to make working class more assertive in demanding socio-politico rights for the poor masses. This was an attempt to introduce the socialism and communist system for the rights of the poor labor class. Later on, some feminist made appearance on the world scene and the world witnessed the ushering of feminism, and the feminist theory. Notable feminists were: Michel Foucault, Judith Butler and Simon Debonair. Michael Foucault and the Judith Butler were among the radical feminists that challenged the existing patterns of heterosexuality in the world. Judith butler wrote Gender Trouble that highlighted the wrong notions of reality CITATION Jud90 \l 2057 (Butler, 1990). In addition, Michel Foucault who was her contemporary also highlighted the term sexuality in his book CITATION Mic76 \l 2057 (Foucault, 1976). Simon debonair in her book the Second Sex CITATION Sim49 \l 2057 (Beauvoir, 1949) also voiced her concerns for the rights of woman that have been subjugated on the basis of their gender and sexuality.

After such radical movements in the past, it is the era of post humanism which is creating the buzzword in this modern technological age. It establishes that an entity can exist in a form other than being human. CITATION Ros13 \l 2057 (Braidotti, 2013) and also illustrates the genetically modified food and the dawn of artificial intelligence in the world. Similarly, the age we are living in is about post colonialism. It is the age where states are sovereign, and there is no existence of colonies in the world where the right of self-determination rules.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Beauvoir, S. d. (1949). The Second Sex.

Bhagwati, J. N. (2004). In Defense of Globalization.

Braidotti, R. (2013). The Posthuman.

Butler, J. (1990). Gender Trouble.

Foucault, M. (1976). The History of Sexuality.

Marx, F. E. ( February 1848). The Communist Manifesto.

Marx, K. (1867). Das Kapital.

Sumner, S. (n.d.). Globalization is not the problem, it's the solution. Retrieved from https://www.econlib.org/archives/2016/09/globalization_i.html

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Self In Society Term Paper

Your Name

Instructor Name

Course Number


Title: Self and Society Term Paper

The coffee shop industry business in the United States includes more than 20,000 stores with an annual revenue of about $11 billion. The major companies are Coffee Bean, Starbucks, Tea Leaf, Dunkin’ Donuts and Diedrich (Gloria Jean’s) ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>ÖZTOPÇU</Author><Year>2017</Year><RecNum>1211</RecNum><DisplayText>(Öztopçu)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1211</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="axzrwpxxqvwtw5evsf3xrer2arfwsa5f0e5d" timestamp="1573232121">1211</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Öztopçu, Aslı</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Evaluation Of Competitive Strategies Of Coffee Retailing In Aspect Of Market Economy</title><secondary-title>Business &amp; Management Studies: An International Journal</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Business &amp; Management Studies: An International Journal</full-title></periodical><pages>246-267</pages><volume>5</volume><number>2</number><dates><year>2017</year></dates><isbn>2148-2586</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Öztopçu). We are living in a time where everything is changing such as the nature of work, leveling of power between organizations and employees, and the rise of technology. However, most of the organizations that we operate within today, consist of outdated control and power. These organizations are lethargic to survive in a rapidly evolving environment. I want to open a coffee shop that can offer my visitors a new style of a coffee shop and will offer favorable coffee drinks and a comfortable and healthy environment where my staff and visitors can socialize and relax ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>White</Author><Year>2018</Year><RecNum>1209</RecNum><DisplayText>(White)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1209</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="axzrwpxxqvwtw5evsf3xrer2arfwsa5f0e5d" timestamp="1573232004">1209</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book">6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>White, J Chris</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Structured for Success: What Leaders Need to Know to Build and Sustain Effective Organizations</title></titles><dates><year>2018</year></dates><publisher>CRC Press</publisher><isbn>1315153599</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(White). To maintain a healthy environment in my coffee shop, I will take a closer look at some of the aspects such as:

Are my employees cooperative?

Are they working on a creative project and are productive?

Do my employees enjoy working in my coffee shop or do they wish to work somewhere else?

I will make the best efforts to create a unique place where my visitors can socialize with each other in a relaxing and comfortable environment while enjoying the best coffee in city. I will be committed to values such as passion, integrity, leadership and excellence. The design of my coffee shop will be both visually attractive to my customers and also ensure efficiency and fast operation. I will create a community gathering and lounge area for my employees with access to coffee and food. By this my employee will spend their time in the office and can also work in a relaxing environment. I will create a warm and inviting aura in my coffee shop to make it ideal for my employees to work in. I will provide my employees with a variety of spaces where they can work based on their needs and preferences while maintaining a connection with their colleagues and organizations.

Workplace culture is the beliefs, shared values, set of assumptions and attitudes that people in the workplace share. This is shaped by the social, cultural and individual context. In any coffee shop, leadership and strategic management and organizational direction will influence the workplace culture to a large extent. A positive workplace environment improves teamwork, increases productivity and efficiency, raises morale, workforce retention, collaboration, job satisfaction and enhances work performance. Most importantly a positive work environment also reduces stress in the employees. A positive workplace is the one in which all the employees are valued, nurtured and supported irrespective of color, sexual orientation and gender. All employees have an equal opportunity to progress and have equal access to all rewards and offers. Work rules if properly implemented and executed, maintain and create a positive work environment for all employees. For my coffee shop, I will form some work rules that will be flexible and can easily be adopted by my employees. I will hire those individuals who will match the culture of my organization. I will administer a personality test during the selection and recruiting process to determine whether candidates make a good match for my coffee shop or not. I will develop workplace ethics training programs for my management and employees. Training programs will not only focus on applicable rules and laws but also the workplace values and principle behavior. I will conduct training programs for my management team that will teach my managers how to become transformational leaders.

Encourage Mental Break

According to different studies, it is reported that mental breaks are very important for creativity and productivity. Those employees who do not take breaks end up being more exhausted and stressed. I will encourage my employees to take more breaks and give them space so that they can mentally recharge and come back with improved focus. According to the 2011 survey by risk management, it was found that less than half of the employees take a break. Taking regular breaks can help the person relax and the task seems less tedious. Those employees who do not take breaks commit more mistakes, are less efficient and less engaged in the work they are doing. It is found that those employees who take regular short breaks are more creative and productive. Breaks keep the employees focused and engaged in their work and helps them to complete their tasks more efficiently and accurately. Breaks also reduce stress. Any stressful issue at work can lead to negative behavior such as irritability. In my coffee shop, employees have direct contact with the customers, therefore, employees should be in a good mood with a smile on their faces. Providing them relaxation in the form of breaks will help to keep my employees more energized and satisfied with the work environment ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Kühnel</Author><Year>2017</Year><RecNum>1212</RecNum><DisplayText>(Kühnel et al.)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1212</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="axzrwpxxqvwtw5evsf3xrer2arfwsa5f0e5d" timestamp="1573232282">1212</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Kühnel, Jana</author><author>Zacher, Hannes</author><author>De Bloom, Jessica</author><author>Bledow, Ronald</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Take a break! Benefits of sleep and short breaks for daily work engagement</title><secondary-title>European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology</full-title></periodical><pages>481-491</pages><volume>26</volume><number>4</number><dates><year>2017</year></dates><isbn>1359-432X</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Kühnel et al.).

Job Satisfaction

The social environment of any organization is dependent on the satisfaction level of the employees. Those employees who are not happy with their jobs will frequently become noncooperative which leads to poor interpersonal relationships and in turn poor working environment. On the other hand, if the majority of the employees are satisfied and happy with their job then they will be more likely to contribute positively to the organization's culture and will create an environment where everyone strives for the betterment of the organization. I will try to create an environment in my coffee shop where all my employees will be satisfied and happy with their work. To achieve this, strategies will be adopted in which the progress of every individual will be recognized. Constructive criticism will be given to employees which will guide them in the right direction. Other than this, in my coffee shop, I will plan some team building activities that will not be related to work. As there will be different positions in my organization, therefore, this strategy will help me gather different expertise under one umbrella. For new employees, I will plan some games and social gathering activities which will help build a relationship. In my coffee shop, I will create such an environment where the higher management team will have full trust in employees. Employees will have the full right to share their ideas and opinions for the betterment of the company. I will try my best to create a friendly competition in my office. This will help in more productivity and will offer the chance to evaluate the performance of other employees. My main priority will be to create an environment where my employees get training to balance health life and good work. In my coffee shop, I will always be receptive to employee preferences. As employees will be in direct contact with the customers, they will always have a good suggestion for improvement in different areas. This will also motivate them and they will work harder and perform their duties well. I will set common goals so that my employees can work together to achieve them. This will increase teamwork and also enhance productivity. In my company, strategies will be formulated to monitor the progress of the employees and different rewards and bonuses will be given to those who accomplish their goals on time. This will build positive competition among my employees and in turn help in improving the performance of my company. Engaged and motivated employees have clear goals in their mind on which they can work together. For this, I will create a transparent policy for the promotion and progression of my staff to measure their performance. Measurable performance indicators are those that create healthy competition. When the goals of an organization are positively reinforced and employee’s achievement is recognized and celebrated, then it leads to the establishment of a positive environment at the workplace ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Ahmad</Author><Year>2015</Year><RecNum>1208</RecNum><DisplayText>(Ahmad and Ibrahim)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1208</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="axzrwpxxqvwtw5evsf3xrer2arfwsa5f0e5d" timestamp="1573230325">1208</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Ahmad, Hadijah</author><author>Ibrahim, Badaruddin</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Leadership and the characteristic of different generational cohort towards job satisfaction</title><secondary-title>Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences</full-title></periodical><pages>14-18</pages><volume>204</volume><dates><year>2015</year></dates><isbn>1877-0428</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Ahmad and Ibrahim).

Another strategy that I will adopt to improve job satisfaction among my employees will be to create innovation. By allowing this my whole team will work together and my business will flourish. Another approach which I will use is consistency. To run my business properly I will act like a boss. Besides instructing my employees to do work, I will also take interest in knowing my employees. This will help me to understand my employees as individuals and the main areas in which they can excel. This will also tell me how their passion can be utilized in favor of the growth of my business. I will create a safe environment for my employees where they can express their thoughts and ideas. I will specifically focus on providing a consistent schedule to my employees while respecting everyone's time. To keep business flowing smoothly, all the tasks must be completed on time while on the other hand, it is also important to show flexibility. Therefore, at my workplace, I will create some flexible workplace policies by keeping in mind that my employees also have a life outside the workplace.


Cooperation in the workplace is very beneficial to create a supportive social environment. When people will work together on different projects instead of competing, they will learn better. Best interest will be shared and what will benefit their coworker can also benefit them. I will create strategies that will foster teamwork among my employees. This will create a social environment that will be conducive to good work ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Siddique</Author><Year>2019</Year><RecNum>1214</RecNum><DisplayText>(Siddique, Procter and Gittell)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1214</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="axzrwpxxqvwtw5evsf3xrer2arfwsa5f0e5d" timestamp="1573234093">1214</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Siddique, Muhammad</author><author>Procter, Stephen</author><author>Gittell, Jody Hoffer</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The role of relational coordination in the relationship between high-performance work systems (HPWS) and organizational performance</title><secondary-title>Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance</full-title></periodical><dates><year>2019</year></dates><isbn>2051-6614</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Siddique, Procter and Gittell). Good teamwork will help to build morale among my employees which will make them more productive and ultimately increase the profit of my coffee shop. I will create a handbook for all members of my coffee shop in which detailed objectives and roles of the project will be clearly defined. I will encourage good quality teamwork by rewarding groups for their team performance. I will provide incentives to those who will work well as a team this will boost teamwork among my employees. I will boost teamwork abilities by defining the clear roles for every employee of my organization ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Lacerenza</Author><Year>2018</Year><RecNum>1207</RecNum><DisplayText>(Lacerenza et al.)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1207</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="axzrwpxxqvwtw5evsf3xrer2arfwsa5f0e5d" timestamp="1573230255">1207</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Lacerenza, Christina N</author><author>Marlow, Shannon L</author><author>Tannenbaum, Scott I</author><author>Salas, Eduardo</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Team development interventions: Evidence-based approaches for improving teamwork</title><secondary-title>American Psychologist</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>American Psychologist</full-title></periodical><pages>517</pages><volume>73</volume><number>4</number><dates><year>2018</year></dates><isbn>1433891735</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Lacerenza et al.). Before the commencement of any project, I will work with my higher management team to outline all the skillset and deadline charts as well. I will assign responsibilities according to the ability of the employee. To identify the existing problem such as any kind of conflict or clash on how to complete the project, personality clash, one member of the group being unresponsiveness and inability to meet deadlines, I will try my best to make such policies so that issues can be resolved at the moment they arise. I will encourage my employees to discuss the issues they have collectively instead of letting them grow larger. I will give my employees enough time and space to interact and know each other on a personal level. For this, I will organize some team building activities and give my employees a chance to know each other.

One of the ways which I will adopt to create a social dynamic environment in my coffee shop will be to recognize the social leaders. I will recognize those people who help their team to change and innovate whether or not they have a formal title and formal authority. I believe that strong social leaders can emerge from anywhere within an organization. I will motivate my employees by highlighting the success stories and will give some kind of formal awards to recognize social leaders. I will build an appealing customer environment at my coffee shop. For this, my focus will be on the seating arrangement at my coffee shop. I will divide the area into different subsections where my customers will sit and enjoy their coffee. For example, I will place cozy sofas for friends who want to catch up over a cup of coffee. Whereas my sitting arrangement will be different for those who want to sit quietly and want to read a book. To create a relaxing environment, I will prefer to use soft lighting in my coffee shop that will emphasize relaxation. To facilitate my employees and customers, I will offer internet connectivity to all visitors ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Kumar</Author><Year>2015</Year><RecNum>1206</RecNum><DisplayText>(Kumar and James)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1206</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="axzrwpxxqvwtw5evsf3xrer2arfwsa5f0e5d" timestamp="1573230143">1206</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Kumar, R Renjith</author><author>James, Rajani</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Is Teamwork Effective in the Work Place? An An Analysis of Team Work Environment in the Banking Sector, Sultanate of Oman</title><secondary-title>International Business Research</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>International Business Research</full-title></periodical><pages>173</pages><volume>8</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>2015</year></dates><isbn>1913-9004</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Kumar and James).

In conclusion, in my coffee shop, I will try my best to ensure that higher management adopts effective management and leadership styles that encourage team work. Honest and open communication will be made vital to create positive feelings in the workplace. Regular assessment will be conducted to evaluate how my employees interact with each other. Feedback from every employee will be welcomed and opportunities for social interaction will be promoted. This will include morning coffee and family weekends. Procedure for complaining and preventing workplace bullying will be a crucial part of my company policy.

Work Cited:

ADDIN EN.REFLIST Ahmad, Hadijah, and Badaruddin Ibrahim. "Leadership and the Characteristic of Different Generational Cohort Towards Job Satisfaction." Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 204 (2015): 14-18. Print.

Kühnel, Jana, et al. "Take a Break! Benefits of Sleep and Short Breaks for Daily Work Engagement." European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology 26.4 (2017): 481-91. Print.

Kumar, R Renjith, and Rajani James. "Is Teamwork Effective in the Work Place? An an Analysis of Team Work Environment in the Banking Sector, Sultanate of Oman." International Business Research 8.3 (2015): 173. Print.

Lacerenza, Christina N, et al. "Team Development Interventions: Evidence-Based Approaches for Improving Teamwork." American Psychologist 73.4 (2018): 517. Print.

Öztopçu, Aslı. "Evaluation of Competitive Strategies of Coffee Retailing in Aspect of Market Economy." Business & Management Studies: An International Journal 5.2 (2017): 246-67. Print.

Siddique, Muhammad, Stephen Procter, and Jody Hoffer Gittell. "The Role of Relational Coordination in the Relationship between High-Performance Work Systems (Hpws) and Organizational Performance." Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance (2019). Print.

White, J Chris. Structured for Success: What Leaders Need to Know to Build and Sustain Effective Organizations. CRC Press, 2018. Print.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 7 Words: 2100



I was engaged in a charity service program that aimed at providing donations to the poor and deserving in black neighborhoods of New York. In the program, I was assigned the duty of collecting donations by visiting the public places and churches. After the collection of charity I had to buy food and clothes for the poor and distribute with fairness. The act of kindness allowed me to attain inner satisfaction and peace. This reflects the act of kindness. I volunteered for the charity program for the local community. The service of charity contributed to the happiness of the people because it provided them with relief against hunger and deprivation. I realized that giving donations is linked to happiness and satisfaction. Through the personal experiment, I learned that money does not bring happiness if one doesn't contribute to the welfare of society. I realized that my contribution to the welfare of people allowed me to attain inner satisfaction.

The activity of charity benefited the others and is linked to their state of happiness. Charity allows people to focus on their present state. Happiness can be defined as, “people who thought more about the present were happier, but people who spent more time thinking about the future or about past struggles and sufferings felt more meaning in their lives, though they were less happy” CITATION Atl13 \l 1033 (Atlantic, 2013). After receiving charities people exhibited happiness and it reflected that they are thinking about their present only not the past. I learned through my experience that helping society is linked to greater satisfaction and peace. When we involve ourselves in charity and other practices of kindness we spread a positive message. Supporting human beings in their hard times has a significant correlation with inner happiness. People who disengage themselves from acts of charities or kindness lacks true happiness.

I believe that an act of charity offer benefits to the community because it supports people in their difficult times. “This creates a strong current of love and happiness because a heart overflowing in love is continually being filled with more love" CITATION Shi08 \l 1033 (Shimoff, 2008). Charity is linked to positive feelings of love and happiness. When I volunteered in the charity program I attained peace and happiness. This indicates that an act of kindness is not only linked to others happiness but it also leads to self-contentment. All participants who received charity from the service exhibited happiness. On receiving food and clothes they expressed joy. This indicates that people who find kindness forget their misery. Their enjoyment reflects their state of happiness.

My experience of charity service allowed me to learn its relevance with Happiness is "about gradually eliminating those factors which lead to suffering and cultivating those which lead to happiness" (Lama and Clutter 1998). Charities benefit the deserving and the poor because it allows them to overcome their miserable state. They know the value of food and money. On receiving charity these people express happiness because it provides them temporary relief from hunger and deprivations.

My overall experience of charity service permitted to attain peace and happiness. Before such an experience, I always wondered why I lack inner happiness. Irrespective of all the blessings I used to feel sad and dissatisfied. However, my experience of charity allowed me to attain true happiness. I learned that one's personal happiness is linked to the collective happiness of society. To acquire real happiness one must help human beings. There is a positive connection between service and happiness. This is because service towards human welfare is linked to positive feelings.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Atlantic. (2013). What is a good life? The Atlantic Media Co.

Lama, D., & Cutler, H. 1998. The Art of Happiness. Riverhead Books.

Shimoff, M. (2008). Happy for No Reason 7 Steps to Being Happy from the Inside Out. Free Press.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

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