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Depression Diagnosstic And Treatments

Depression

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Depression

History and Title Applied

The term depression was first used in the 19th century. It was derived from the ancient concept of melancholia, which was used for various forms of quiet insanity. This term was derived from a Latin verb deprimere. Hence, Depression was previously known as Melancholia while now known as clinical or simply depression. This commonly refers to as a major depressive disorder by several healthcare professional. The concept has a long history while the main concept and some of the concepts have been described as far back as classical times (Gilbert, 2016).

This specific disorder is called depression as a person often feels depressed due to some circumstances.

Theorists

Several theorists are there who and whose theories are related to depression, but the most common and highly related ones are;

Freud’s

Brown and Harris

Beck

Abramson

Seligman

Causes of Depression

The main causes of depression are but not only;

Physical, emotional and sexual abuse

Medications and drugs such as isotretinoin and corticosteroids etc.

Personal and family or other conflicts and issues in one’s life

Death or loss of someone special and its impacts on the individuals

Genetics such as family history of depression that increases depression risk.

Serious illness and/or any other personal problem such as social isolation because of mental illness (Marina, et.al, 2019).

Symptoms

There are number of symptoms of depression but the most common are;

Thoughts and feelings of hopelessness

Loss of involvement and interest in things and routine activities

Weight and sleep changes

Increase in ager, loss of energy, and increase of reckless behavior

Common concentration issues/problem like problem in focusing, and making decisions etc. (Iyer, & Khan, 2012).

Physical complaints such as unexplained pains etc. like headache or back pain.

Types of Depression

Below are the main types of Depression

Atypical depression

Post-partum depression

Catatonic depression

Seasonal affective depression

Melancholic depression

Dysthymic depression

Manic depression

Prevention of Depression

There is fully sure method or way that prevent depression but some crucial strategies that may help are; 1) taking steps to control and overcome stress which can be done through resilience and boosting self-esteem, 2) reaching to friends and family particular at the time when you face time crisis, and 3) getting treatment at the very early stage and signs of depression so that the impact can be keep far from going to the worst condition (Iyer, & Khan, 2012).

Treatment Plans

The treatment plans for a patient with depression regarding short term goals can include be out of bed by a certain time, get a healthy weight, communicate with someone loving, finishing a household task, and watching something funny. On the other hand, the long terms goals can include getting rid of depressive thoughts by maintaining a positive relationship with every person.

Tips and Suggestions for Overcoming Depression

Reach out to all emotionally near to you and keep yourself connected with them as much long as much possible

Involve in the activities that makes you feel fine and good

Try to keep moving and make exercise a habit

Try and prefer to eat healthy and depression fighting diet or food

Keep negative things challenged and never forget getting a daily dose of sunlight.

Parenting Skills

Parenting skills does not play a very huge role in overcoming and managing depression but have a little but significant effect on development of depression in individuals. Hence some crucial parenting skills that can help individuals are;

Finding happiness and joy by parents in the small things and activities

Finding help and assistance for themselves from others who overcame depression

Teach and enable the children to keep his or herself saved from depression as well as teaching them how depression inversely impacts them (Marina, et.al, 2019).

To my field, the mentioned skills applied in the way that I also assist patients in the way similar to how parents assist their children.

Controversies to Depression

In the current time, huge controversies exist while depressed people are previewed by others in a negative way like;

They are proving that they are struggling and need help

Their bad times as unbearable and they do not have the required energy

Do not perform to the best of their abilities (Marina, et.al, 2019).

They are consistently faking things and realities

References

Gilbert, P. (2016). Depression: The Evolution of Powerlessness. Routledge.

Iyer, K & Khan, Z. (2012). Depression – A Review. Research Journal of Recent Sciences. 1. 79-87.

Marina. M, Taghi. Y, Mark. O, Dan. C, & Shekhar, S. (2019). DEPRESSION: A Global Public Health Concern. WHO. Retrieved 7 October 2019, from https://www.who.int/mental_health/management/depression/who_paper_depression_wfmh_2012.pdf

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Explain Symptoms Of Stress

Explain Symptoms of Stress

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Explain Symptoms of Stress

Symptoms of Stress

The stress causes specific physiological and psychological changes in the body, so it is easily identifiable when a person is in stress. First of all, it triggers the sympathetic nervous system, and that causes many physiological responses in the body to get triggered. These responses change or alter from one moment to another. One of the responses of the sympathetic nervous system caused in the body is fight-or-flight; it prepares the body for either to combat back or just run away or avoid the situation. It makes a man alert and focused on its target. The adrenal glands start releasing stress hormone, along with cortisol and adrenaline. These hormones help in getting a person to the safest place. However, stress affects each and every organ of the body from muscles to stomach or feet. The stress causes emotional responses in the body such as depressed mood, irritability, insomnia, chronic anxiety, and difficulty in learning, focusing or concentrating. It also urges in a person the feeling of loss of sex drive and eating disorders.

According to the survey of American Psychological Association people are usually awake at night due to stress. Therefore, stress is detrimental to the well-being of our personal and professional life and also health. The effect of stress is adverse on the body, as the body starts acting deviant to the standard procedures of life which in turn affects the biological, psychological and social life of a person. Therefore, in the result of this prolonged condition of stress a person is not able to eat well, sleep well and even communicate or socialize well. All the symptoms of stress are interrelated, starting from early onset to the prolonged occurrence of stress. Also, the connection of stress response in interlinked as well, because it is seen that lack of sleep disrupts the food cycle and it, therefore, ruins the functioning of a person.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

A Memoir Summary About Tiana Carrero

Psychology

Martin Gutierrez

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Author Note

A memoir summary about Tiana Carrero

Women either earn higher salaries than their partners or assume the role of "breadwinner" of the household. Taina Carrero is a passionate medical assistant at a physical therapy office. She is married, and she has three children of different age: 10, 8 and 5. She lives in Bronx, New York with her family. She is not only a fervent worker but also a caring mother of three children. It is one of her hobbies to take kids to the dance class. Her other hobbies include reading, cooking, baking, and working out. She is concern about her health and keen to live a healthy life. She is working as a medical assistant, but she has got some career objectives too. Carrero is interested in counselling and social work. But the confusion of deciding the ultimate career goal is there in her mind. She went to school to get a nursing degree, but it was difficult for her as she is a working woman as well as the mother of children. She wanted to give equal time to her children and work. As she has younger children so, she decided that she will think about the nursing degree in future. On being questioned about why taking nurse? She replied, “I am trying to expand my knowledge in the field of psychology to see if it is the direction I want to continue.” Her major is psychology so she expects herself to get familiar with the research method used in psychology and how one can apply them.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Adolecent Psy, Assigment 1

Adolecent Psy, assigment 1

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Adolecent Psy, assigment 1

Introduction

Piaget theories of child development presents standardized rationale into decision making of children. He examined children’s attempt to problem solving, reaction to failure and success and resultantly stages of growth of cognition in children. Piaget noticed that children observe difficulty in problem solving prior to age seven and called it preoperational stage, where childrens face difficulty in conservation tasks to focus on more than one aspect of a structure ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"La3WLw8j","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Bronfenbrenner, Morris, Lerner, & Damon, 2006)","plainCitation":"(Bronfenbrenner, Morris, Lerner, & Damon, 2006)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":9,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/DqTTedP9/items/C6P75X3B"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/DqTTedP9/items/C6P75X3B"],"itemData":{"id":9,"type":"article-journal","title":"Theoretical models of human development: Vol. 1. Handbook of child psychology","author":[{"family":"Bronfenbrenner","given":"U."},{"family":"Morris","given":"P."},{"family":"Lerner","given":"R. M."},{"family":"Damon","given":"W."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2006"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Bronfenbrenner, Morris, Lerner, & Damon, 2006). However, when the operational stage starts, childrens are able to think cognitively and make decicions.

Discussion

Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development explains and comprehend each stage of child development where different growth steps takes place. Some of them are discussed below.

Differences between Concrete Operations versus Formal Operations

Concrete operations take plac from 7 to 11 years where the thought are logical but the decions are more concrete. The are base on sudden thoughts and not on rationale, childrens believe that their actions will produce the desired results. Formal operations starts at approximately the age of 11 years to adulthood where childrens are capable of making logical reasoning. They think hypothetically and develop reasoning for their thoughts ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"3P3rYNmk","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Piaget, 2013)","plainCitation":"(Piaget, 2013)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":11,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/DqTTedP9/items/C6TQ4EJS"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/DqTTedP9/items/C6TQ4EJS"],"itemData":{"id":11,"type":"book","title":"The moral judgment of the child","publisher":"Routledge","ISBN":"1-136-31775-9","author":[{"family":"Piaget","given":"Jean"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2013"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Piaget, 2013). The thoughts tends to be more abstract and have the ability of making right deccions. The reasons are based on quantitative thinking which explains the probility of each decision taken by the child. However, in the formal operation, readiness is very important as the childrens are at time pressurized to make decicions that are outside of their capacity. The main difference is that in concrete operations the child is presented with some objects to think rationally, however, formal operations are not base on objects but abstracts and hypothetical thinking.

Differences between Metacognition versus Epistemic Cognition

Epistemic cognition refers to the thought processes of the individual which is dependent on ones knowledge and its validation. It is not developed at an individual but a societal level, where the parameters of subjects can be changed. Whereas, metacognition refers to the intelligence of young childrens. It is more likely based on ones’s awareness and understanding of certain circumstances, and to think thoroughly on their decisions ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"d5ZBLpiF","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Piaget, 2004)","plainCitation":"(Piaget, 2004)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":10,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/DqTTedP9/items/SHCUJL3Q"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/DqTTedP9/items/SHCUJL3Q"],"itemData":{"id":10,"type":"article-journal","title":"4. Piaget and Cognitive Development","author":[{"family":"Piaget","given":"Jean"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2004"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Piaget, 2004). The main difference between the two is Epistemic cognitions individuals are influenced to understand problems and come up with appropriate solutions, while in metacognition, the thought process is developed in childhood and is used throught life.

Conclusion

Piaget believe that all stages are important for child development, in concrete operations childrens learn and develop, where they directly interact with the natural environment to perform an ordinanry activity. He beleived that toddlers are little scientists who perform better and learn more easily through experimentation. However, formal operations are also necessary for logical decisions. Both the operations are necessary from early stage of infant as they are exposed to new opportunities and cognitive development takes place.

References

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Bronfenbrenner, U., Morris, P., Lerner, R. M., & Damon, W. (2006). Theoretical models of human development: Vol. 1. Handbook of child psychology.

Piaget, J. (2004). 4. Piaget and Cognitive Development.

Piaget, J. (2013). The moral judgment of the child. Routledge.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Albert Eistei

Albert Einstein

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Albert Einstein

Introduction

Autism is a neurobehavioral disorder that entails obstruction in social interaction and communication (Baio, 2018). Autism is also characterized by limited and repetitive behavior (Baio, 2018). Autism is now termed as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) because there are multiple symptoms of the said disease. There are a number of symptoms and different types of impairments that comes with ASD. The impairment and disability that ASD causes may vary from person to person. In some cases, there is a minor disability that limits the physical movement (Baio, 2018). On the other hand, ASD has caused severe disability that required healthcare assistance (Baio, 2018). Over the years, many famous personalities from different walks of life suffered from Autism. Albert Einstein was perhaps the most famous person that coped with Autism

Discussion

Brief Biography

Albert Einstein was born on 14th March 1879 in Germany. In 1896, Einstein joined the Swiss Federal Polytechnic in Zurich to become a teacher in physics and mathematics. Einstein received various honorary degrees from multiple universities. Einstein is most famously known for the "Theory of Relativity" he developed. In the year 1921, Einstein won the Noble Prize in physics.

Einstein and Autism

Ever since his birth, Einstein’s family remained worried about him. Einstein was born with a huge head. In early childhood, children of his age began to mumble, however, Einstein did not utter a single word. Einstein began to speak after his third birthday. Einstein had Asperger syndrome that caused autism. Asperger syndrome restricts social interaction, narrows interests, produce a desire for uniformity (Simpson,2018). Asperger syndrome tends to produce focus and persistence to a great extent (Simpson,2018). Einstein coped with autism by working on the strengths of the disorder. He developed uniformity in his daily routine. Additionally, Einstein narrowed his interests to only physics and mathematics.

Conclusion

There is divergence on the view among scientists that Einstein suffered from Autism. However, this can be verified since his brain has been preserved.

References

Baio, J., Wiggins, L., Christensen, D. L., Maenner, M. J., Daniels, J., Warren, Z., ... & Durkin, M. S. (2018). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years—autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 11 sites, United States, 2014. MMWR Surveillance Summaries, 67(6), 1.

Simpson, D. (2018). Asperger’s syndrome and autism: Distinct syndromes with important similarities. In The many faces of Asperger's syndrome (pp. 25-38). Routledge.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Autism Spectrum Disorder And The Transition And Adult Years

Autism Spectrum Disorder and the Transition and Adult Years

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Autism Spectrum Disorder and the Transition and Adult Years

Introduction

Autism Spectrum disorder is the psychological disorder range of the neurodevelopmental type including Asperger syndrome and autism. In America, about one percent of total people are affected by the autism spectrum. In addition, men face ASD more than women. ASD affects communication and social skills, developmental course and behavioral characteristics. The causes of the disorder are uncertain, however, genetic conditions or family history is one of the main factors causing autism spectrum disorder. The main purpose of the research is to analyze the crucial information about the autism spectrum disorder and its transition in adulthood.

Pathophysiology of the disorder indicates that autism involves the uneven growth of the brain. It means some part of the brain get enlarged than the other parts due to which some areas hold various neurons while some areas get few neurons. Autism spectrum disorder also causes disabilities in the temporal lobe, frontal lobe, corpus callosum, limbic system, and mirror neuron system. Although the disorder can be identified as early as eighteen months to three years, however, its symptom expression varies at different stages of life. ASD impacts development and social skills but it does not mean that individuals with ASD do not have any skills. Reports indicate that many adolescents have extraordinary skills related to music and art without proper training and education. It indicates that ASD does not make an individual totally dependent on others. However, proper education and training are required for a positive transition during adulthood.

Discussion

Adulthood is the stage of life when numbers of changes occur which affect the physical, psychological, and emotional development of the individuals. Adulthood brings new opportunities and responsibilities for the individuals. For instance, an individual gets admission in the college for higher education or an individual starts his first job to become financially independent. However, transitions in adults suffering from autism spectrum disorder are different than the normal person. Autism spectrum disorder can be recognized at the age of two or three. Since childhood, individuals with ASD face difficulties in the daily task and adopting normal life. This is why their struggle get increased when they enter into adulthood. Various research on different domains including education, employment, housing, training, social support, and community involvement indicates that the people suffering from ASD show poor outcome during the transition to adulthood ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"OoN2iw6H","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Coming of Age: Autism and the Transition to Adulthood | Interactive Autism Network,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“Coming of Age: Autism and the Transition to Adulthood | Interactive Autism Network,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":865,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/XVV32C5K"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/XVV32C5K"],"itemData":{"id":865,"type":"webpage","title":"Coming of Age: Autism and the Transition to Adulthood | Interactive Autism Network","URL":"https://iancommunity.org/ssc/autism-transition-to-adulthood","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",7,8]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Coming of Age: Autism and the Transition to Adulthood | Interactive Autism Network,” n.d.).

Education

During 2009 to 2010 about 37 lac students of age three to twenty-one years with ASD got special education in America. Autism impacts the social and learning skills of the individual. Due to the issue like anxiety and depression, these students find difficult to connect with others that result in the potential problem. The potential problem makes it difficult for students to learn and enhance their skills. This is because students with ASD also face difficulties related to language and speech. Therefore, special education is failing to prepare individuals with ASD during the transition to adulthood. As autism spectrum disorder impacts the growth of the brain therefore, it also affects the intelligence level of the young adults as compared to the normal individuals. It is observed that the brain of a 4-year old child exhibits a decline in brain growth. His brain operates as the brain of a 2-year-old child. This is the reason that young adults with ASD have the lowest enrollment in colleges or high schools. Only 38.8% completion rate is estimated for post-secondary schools and 57.1% for the graduation with a diploma. It implies that ASD impacts the learning skills of the individuals during the transition in adulthood and individual find difficult to acquire higher education for better future or good employment ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"szYArTHc","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Taylor & Seltzer, 2011)","plainCitation":"(Taylor & Seltzer, 2011)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":860,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/D29WMLMF"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/D29WMLMF"],"itemData":{"id":860,"type":"article-journal","title":"Employment and Post-Secondary Educational Activities for Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders During the Transition to Adulthood","container-title":"Journal of autism and developmental disorders","page":"566-574","volume":"41","issue":"5","source":"PubMed Central","abstract":"This report describes the post-high school educational and occupational activities for 66 young adults with autism spectrum disorders who had recently exited the secondary school system. Analyses indicated low rates of employment in the community, with the majority of young adults (56%) spending time in sheltered workshops or day activity centers. Young adults with ASD without an intellectual disability were three times more likely to have no daytime activities compared to adults with ASD who had an intellectual disability. Differences in behavioral functioning were observed by employment/day activity group. Our findings suggest that the current service system may be inadequate to accommodate the needs of youths with ASD who do not have intellectual disabilities during the transition to adulthood.","DOI":"10.1007/s10803-010-1070-3","ISSN":"0162-3257","note":"PMID: 20640591\nPMCID: PMC3033449","journalAbbreviation":"J Autism Dev Disord","author":[{"family":"Taylor","given":"Julie Lounds"},{"family":"Seltzer","given":"Marsha Mailick"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2011",5]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Taylor & Seltzer, 2011).

Employment:

Low capability to acquire higher education leads to the problem of unemployment. Unemployment is a crucial issue for any nation. They try to increase employment, however, continues unemployment for individuals with any kind of disability is an additional issue for them. In America, only twenty-seven percent disabled individuals were employed. Individuals with ASD are unemployed in the majority. This is because they face the problem of communication skills. They find difficult to adjust in the new environment or job. Depression or anxiety makes it difficult for them to take work stress which results in less productivity as labor. However, the poor outcome in jobs does not indicate that individuals with ASD cannot work. They can work in different businesses and firms with appropriate support. Supported employment can increase cognitive performance along with the improved quality life ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"YB0Sw2C5","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Thompson, B\\uc0\\u246{}lte, Falkmer, & Girdler, 2018)","plainCitation":"(Thompson, Bölte, Falkmer, & Girdler, 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":858,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/35Y8Z5YI"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/35Y8Z5YI"],"itemData":{"id":858,"type":"article-journal","title":"To be understood: Transitioning to adult life for people with Autism Spectrum Disorder","container-title":"PloS One","page":"e0194758","volume":"13","issue":"3","source":"PubMed","abstract":"INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to explore the viewpoints of parents of young people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in relation to their child's transition to adulthood.\nMETHODS: Data were collected during four structured focus groups with 19 parents of young people with ASD with average to high intellectual capacities. Condensed meaning units were identified and checked during focus groups, and were subsequently linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF).\nRESULTS: Three major themes emerged: to be understood, to understand the world and to succeed. The ICF domains of activity and participation and environmental factors emerged as having the greatest potential to influence transition outcomes.\nCONCLUSIONS: Policies and services should focus on strengths to maximise participation in higher education, employment and independent living amongst young people with ASD. Interventions targeting environmental factors could be effective in improving participation in adult life. Person-centred and individualised approaches could further complement this approach supporting the transition to adulthood for people with ASD, ultimately improving outcomes in adulthood.","DOI":"10.1371/journal.pone.0194758","ISSN":"1932-6203","note":"PMID: 29579089\nPMCID: PMC5868819","title-short":"To be understood","journalAbbreviation":"PLoS ONE","language":"eng","author":[{"family":"Thompson","given":"Craig"},{"family":"Bölte","given":"Sven"},{"family":"Falkmer","given":"Torbjörn"},{"family":"Girdler","given":"Sonya"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Thompson, Bölte, Falkmer, & Girdler, 2018).

Community Involvement:

Autism Spectrum disorder impacts the social functioning of individuals. For instance, they get limited social and emotional reciprocity, feel hard to eye contact and they cannot read facial expressions. When a normal person moves from childhood to adulthood, he often faces issues of mood swings or become more aggressive. Individuals with ASD feel even more aggression and when they move towards adulthood their aggression becomes dangerous for themselves and people around them. They are not good in explaining their issues and thoughts to the other which develops frustrations and aggression. Therefore, self-injuries behavior is really prominent in young adults with ASD. Communication gap creates a problem in the development of a high-quality social relationship. This is why adults with ASD have no friends at all that results in isolation and loneliness ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"4xvm4Ejt","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Anderson, Sosnowy, Kuo, & Shattuck, 2018)","plainCitation":"(Anderson, Sosnowy, Kuo, & Shattuck, 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":871,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/JDJ3QQ2S"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/JDJ3QQ2S"],"itemData":{"id":871,"type":"article-journal","title":"Transition of Individuals With Autism to Adulthood: A Review of Qualitative Studies","container-title":"Pediatrics","page":"S318-S327","volume":"141","issue":"Supplement 4","source":"pediatrics.aappublications.org","abstract":"Many young adults with autism spectrum disorder experience poor transition outcomes in key areas, including postsecondary employment, higher education, health care, social connectedness, and independent living, yet we lack a clear understanding of the specific factors that impact these outcomes. We reviewed qualitative research in which the perspectives of youth and young adults with autism spectrum disorder, parents, services providers, and other stakeholders were gathered to identify barriers and facilitators to optimal outcomes. Findings revealed that poor transition outcomes are influenced by several factors, including poor person-environment fit, uncertainty about the roles of parents, and the lack of comprehensive or integrated services. These findings also revealed the aspects of familial, organizational, and policy contexts that may be targeted for interventions. Finally, stakeholders emphasized that supports should be individualized and focused on the changing aspects of the young adult’s social and physical environment rather than behavior change. We discuss implications for policy and practice and provide recommendations for further research.","DOI":"10.1542/peds.2016-4300I","ISSN":"0031-4005, 1098-4275","note":"PMID: 29610413","title-short":"Transition of Individuals With Autism to Adulthood","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Anderson","given":"Kristy A."},{"family":"Sosnowy","given":"Collette"},{"family":"Kuo","given":"Alice A."},{"family":"Shattuck","given":"Paul T."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018",4,1]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Anderson, Sosnowy, Kuo, & Shattuck, 2018).

Housing

Individual face difficulties in studies, employment, and social life, however, they often show positive response towards their families. They enjoy the company of their parents and siblings. Though, during the transition in adulthood, they continue to stay at home depending on their families. Due to the lack of education and suitable employment, they become unable to be independent in adulthood. In adulthood when normal individuals look towards higher education and a good job, individuals with ASD totally rely on their families. Numbers of studies indicate that below 10% of young adults with ASD live independently during post-secondary school. This is because they feel difficult for completing easy and daily tasks. In addition, they have difficulty with processing complex information and dealing with new situations which result in the need for support and supervision.

Financial Consideration and Healthcare:

Dependency on others results in financial issue for an adult with ASD. Individual during the transition to adult seeks for new opportunities that can make them financially strong. Some individuals work to support their families while others for carrying their education expenses. With age and transition to adulthood individuals with ASD need educational, medical, behavioral services and therapeutic. These medical and non-medical services require a high cost for the well-being of autism patients. Reports indicate that the medical cost for a disabled individual is six times greater than the consumption for normal individuals. Health insurance can be helpful to reduce the healthcare cost however it does not cover intense service that autism patient requires. This is the reason that 14% of total income is lost from the families whose family member has autism ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"niXQgZ6k","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Friedman, Warfield, & Parish, 2013)","plainCitation":"(Friedman, Warfield, & Parish, 2013)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":870,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/AWHR2R8J"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/AWHR2R8J"],"itemData":{"id":870,"type":"article-journal","title":"Transition to adulthood for individuals with autism spectrum disorder: current issues and future perspectives","container-title":"Neuropsychiatry","page":"181-192","volume":"3","issue":"2","source":"DOI.org (Crossref)","DOI":"10.2217/npy.13.13","ISSN":"1758-2008","title-short":"Transition to adulthood for individuals with autism spectrum disorder","journalAbbreviation":"Neuropsychiatry","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Friedman","given":"Nora DB"},{"family":"Warfield","given":"Marji Erickson"},{"family":"Parish","given":"Susan L"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2013",4]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Friedman, Warfield, & Parish, 2013).

In addition to the transition to adulthood, healthcare becomes more complicated and challenging. Different hormonal, physical and psychological changes occur due to which it become difficult for the individual with ASD to adjust with the changes. The demand for specialized care for common co-morbidities in young adults' increases. Individuals with ASD face unusual sensory responses which lead to compounding transition challenges. Special healthcare is needed to control issues like anxiety while entering a highly stimulating or a new environment.

Conclusion

Autism Spectrum disorder is a psychological disorder that includes Asperger syndrome and autism. During the transition to adulthood individuals with autism face new challenges as adulthood results in ending of entitlements of children's service system. It results in a fragmented healthcare system for their families. Individuals with ASD show poor outcome in various domains including education, employment, educational and behavioral training, social support, housing, financial consideration, and healthcare. Various researches indicate the disengagement of service and policies are needed to control and monitor for the betterment of the individuals with ASD. ASD creates a problem in communication and learning skills of the individuals due to which they become unable to get higher education and good jobs. However, it does not indicate that young adults with ASD are unable to do anything. Proper training for their behavioral changes and to enhance their skills can help them to work in different industries and fields. These adults sometimes get extraordinary skills in art and music without training. Therefore, social support is required so they can adjust in the new environment. Otherwise, individuals with ASD find difficult to adjust to a new job or institute. During the transition to adulthood, dependency on others results in financial issues. The bottom line is that young adults with ASD require special care and programs for training. Proper training and efficient school-based transition planning are required so that young adults can cope with the new changes during the transition to adulthood.

References

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Anderson, K. A., Sosnowy, C., Kuo, A. A., & Shattuck, P. T. (2018). Transition of Individuals With Autism to Adulthood: A Review of Qualitative Studies. Pediatrics, 141(Supplement 4), S318–S327. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2016-4300I

Coming of Age: Autism and the Transition to Adulthood | Interactive Autism Network. (n.d.). Retrieved July 8, 2019, from https://iancommunity.org/ssc/autism-transition-to-adulthood

Friedman, N. D., Warfield, M. E., & Parish, S. L. (2013). Transition to adulthood for individuals with autism spectrum disorder: Current issues and future perspectives. Neuropsychiatry, 3(2), 181–192. https://doi.org/10.2217/npy.13.13

Taylor, J. L., & Seltzer, M. M. (2011). Employment and Post-Secondary Educational Activities for Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders During the Transition to Adulthood. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41(5), 566–574. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-010-1070-3

Thompson, C., Bölte, S., Falkmer, T., & Girdler, S. (2018). To be understood: Transitioning to adult life for people with Autism Spectrum Disorder. PloS One, 13(3), e0194758. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0194758

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

Exercise: ASSIGNMENT FIVE

Exercise: Assignment Five

Your Name (First M. Last)

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)

Exercise: ASSIGNMENT FIVE.

Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences:

Howard Gardner proposed eight types of intelligence. According to the theory, traditional psychometric views are limited while people have different types of intelligence ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a1ivp8us0ma","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf (\\uc0\\u8220{}Multiple Intelligences | Thomas Armstrong, Ph.D.,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)}","plainCitation":"(“Multiple Intelligences | Thomas Armstrong, Ph.D.,” n.d.)"},"citationItems":[{"id":1293,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ccgWoSRn/items/QBDF5JGN"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ccgWoSRn/items/QBDF5JGN"],"itemData":{"id":1293,"type":"webpage","title":"Multiple Intelligences | Thomas Armstrong, Ph.D.","URL":"http://www.institute4learning.com/resources/articles/multiple-intelligences/","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",2,6]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Multiple Intelligences | Thomas Armstrong, Ph.D.,” n.d.). He categorized his theory in eight types of intelligence which are:

Intrapersonal:

It defines the people who are well aware of their own feelings, emotions, and motivations. For example, students who know their aim and carrier that they want to achieve in the future. They understand every difficulty and ease that comes in their way to achieve something, and they respond these with wise decisions.

Interpersonal:

These are the people who understand others and make good relationships. They assess other’s feelings and emotions and can give meaningful suggestion to them. For example, psychologist, they listen to your problems and help you to overcome from it.

Spiritual:

Spiritual intelligence refers to the qualities of the person. For example, it tells us person's capabilities on the basis of love, peace, wisdom, and integrity.

Visual:

These are the people who are good at visualizing things. These people do a great job in puzzle solving, reading graphs and charts, drawing, recognizing patterns, etc.

Musical:

These people show their interest in music and different rhythms. For example, musician and dancers, they develop different steps and lyrics on the beats of music.

Kinaesthetic:

These people have command over their physical action and movement. They perfectly control their physical activities. For example, sportspersons and actor. They understand what physical activities they have to do and when.

Linguistic:

These people have a strong command of their words. They can impress others through their communication skill. For example, the salesman in the shop they easily bring out your interest in the product that they want to sell.

Mathematical:

These people have command on subjects like mathematics, computer science, and other logical activities like experiments, analyzing and recognizing different ideas. For example, scientists who perform the different experiment and analyze its results ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a6fh71ur8v","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf (\\uc0\\u8220{}Gardner\\uc0\\u8217{}s Theory of Multiple Intelligences,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)}","plainCitation":"(“Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences,” n.d.)"},"citationItems":[{"id":1294,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ccgWoSRn/items/LSTAIFC5"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ccgWoSRn/items/LSTAIFC5"],"itemData":{"id":1294,"type":"webpage","title":"Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences","URL":"https://www.verywellmind.com/gardners-theory-of-multiple-intelligences-2795161","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",2,6]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences,” n.d.).

Emotions, Fear and Anxiety

Emotions are the complex state of feelings which create our thoughts and behavior. Positive emotions bring positive attitude and behavior in the individual while negative emotions can lead to behavior that is not only harmful to the individual himself but also for the people around him. This change in behavior can be psychological as well as physical.

Emotions have a high impact on the learning process. Negative emotions like fear and anxiety can directly affect learning power and memory of the individuals. These negative emotions can be due to the environmental elements, internal element or combination of both. To eliminate all negative emotions, it is essential for the psychologist first to identify the factors that are developing it in the brain of students.

Internal factors:

Genetic predisposition and imbalance of hormones can cause fear and anxiety disorder in the children. This shows up their impact with the passage of time. It slowly makes learning power slow in the students. Other internal factors that can cause fear and anxiety in students include medication side effects and usage of drugs. Many students start smoking and other drugs which take away their attention from the studies. Drugs make them isolated from the people around them, and students lose their interest from society and education. Proper medication is also a crucial factor, due to the wrong medication many harmful results come. Imbalance of hormones and impact on different body parts create stress, anxiety, and fear in the students ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a2p0oh99l9l","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf (\\uc0\\u8220{}How to Deal with Chronic Fear and Anxiety | Taking Charge of Your Health & Wellbeing,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)}","plainCitation":"(“How to Deal with Chronic Fear and Anxiety | Taking Charge of Your Health & Wellbeing,” n.d.)"},"citationItems":[{"id":1299,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ccgWoSRn/items/F7ID2RSP"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ccgWoSRn/items/F7ID2RSP"],"itemData":{"id":1299,"type":"webpage","title":"How to Deal with Chronic Fear and Anxiety | Taking Charge of Your Health & Wellbeing","URL":"https://www.takingcharge.csh.umn.edu/how-deal-chronic-fear-and-anxiety","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",2,6]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“How to Deal with Chronic Fear and Anxiety | Taking Charge of Your Health & Wellbeing,” n.d.).

Environmental factors:

These are the factors that mostly happen in the surrounding of the individual which leads to an enormous impact on the brain of the individuals. Many individuals grow up within an anxiety and fear-provoking conditions like abusive, disorganized, poor environmental circumstances. Home, peer, school, and culture make our environments.

Students with low background family with lack of sources face more fear and anxiety at school than the students who have a strong background. Peer pressure and school stress slow down the learning power. Basic elements of anxiety and fear at the school include the relationship with the teacher, peers, and other staff of the school. Diversity in the background, language, and emotional growth put an impact on the student who decides whether students are comfortable in it or not. Students who are not comfortable in the school environment become rejected, bullied, and isolated. The rejection and bullying in the school develop the fear and anxiety in the student, and slowly they become isolated in the school.

Positive relation with classmates and other peers develop positive emotions and thus help in enhancing the learning power of the students. The students who face bullying from seniors, as well as students of their own class or peers living around them, make them more stressful and full of fear and anxiety. Sometimes, students who admire their peers who are well achieved and have academic excellence create pressure on other students. All these conflicts and peer pressure results in low learning power.

Every student has different learning power, and some students understand difficult things in less time while some students take time while understanding straight and straightforward things. In such case when teachers give assignments, tasks, and projects to the whole class, students with low learning power get pressure which leads to weak performance in the class ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a2kgqf3ajrh","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf (\\uc0\\u8220{}Teens and College Students | Anxiety and Depression Association of America, ADAA,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)}","plainCitation":"(“Teens and College Students | Anxiety and Depression Association of America, ADAA,” n.d.)"},"citationItems":[{"id":1297,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ccgWoSRn/items/DDW5VKK7"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ccgWoSRn/items/DDW5VKK7"],"itemData":{"id":1297,"type":"webpage","title":"Teens and College Students | Anxiety and Depression Association of America, ADAA","URL":"https://adaa.org/living-with-anxiety/college-students","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",2,6]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Teens and College Students | Anxiety and Depression Association of America, ADAA,” n.d.).

References

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences. (n.d.). Retrieved February 6, 2019, from https://www.verywellmind.com/gardners-theory-of-multiple-intelligences-2795161

How to Deal with Chronic Fear and Anxiety | Taking Charge of Your Health & Wellbeing. (n.d.). Retrieved February 6, 2019, from https://www.takingcharge.csh.umn.edu/how-deal-chronic-fear-and-anxiety

Multiple Intelligences | Thomas Armstrong, Ph.D. (n.d.). Retrieved February 6, 2019, from http://www.institute4learning.com/resources/articles/multiple-intelligences/

Teens and College Students | Anxiety and Depression Association of America, ADAA. (n.d.). Retrieved February 6, 2019, from https://adaa.org/living-with-anxiety/college-students

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 3 Words: 900

How Do You Reduce Stress? Explain (one Page)

Name

Instructors’ Name

Course Title and Code

Date

How Do You Reduce Stress?

Stress is an inevitable part of the life of every person and specifically the students. However, we can make the effort of controlling and managing the stress, by utilizing the skills of self-awareness and self-management. In addition to it, the four A’s of stress reduction, also prove greatly beneficial in the cause. The four A’s include avoid, alter, adapt and accept. Completing the course assignments is one of the most important parts of the academic requirement; however, it causes great stress to me. I utilize the adapt A of stress reduction, in order to achieve my motive.

Being a procrastinator in studies, I keep delaying my course assignment till the last day of submission, and then I become stressed, thinking that I would not be able to submit it on time. I do not purposely delay my work; however, I am able to work under pressure. Adapting this fact has provided me with the opportunity to become comfortable with it. This is my strategy for coping with stress. I keep working on the assignments by searching for helping notes and make a list of the important point. I complete the background research of the assignments beforehand and then compose the assignment on the last day of submission. I do not leave the whole work on the last movement, but adapting the strategy of stress reduction has enabled me to manage my work.

In addition to it, I have made some activities part of my lifestyle, which significantly reduce my stress level. I regularly exercise, as well as listen to music. I also take a healthy diet, which not only keeps me energized but fresh as well. Moreover, I keep my work station organized, which greatly helps me stay focused, composed and concentrate on my work. I try my best to deal with stress in a healthy manner.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Mood Disorders And Life Stages

Mood Disorders and Life Stages

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Mood Disorders and Life Stages

Question Number 1

After reading both the case studies, the case of Mark identifies more with the mood disorder than in Jeff’s case. According to the most recent criteria of DSM-V, symptoms for mood disorder indicate the total loss or interest in the deeds which once the person enjoyed,

loss or excessive gain of appetite, insomnia or sleeping disorder, anxiety, fatigue, crying, no energy for taking care of things, feelings of sadness, isolation, worthlessness and hopelessness, decision making problems, guilty feelings, irritability and suicide ideation (Goodday et al., 2017). These symptoms are more or less present in Mark and indicate the presence of a mood disorder.

Question Number 2

For diagnosing the mood disorder, above mentioned symptoms should prevail in the patient for at least two weeks, and then they should be diagnosed by a healthcare professional (Zarate Jr, 2017). These symptoms most obviously affect the everyday working of life as it has affected Mr. Mark’s.

Question Number 3

The causal factors may include hereditary or biological, environmental or psychological factors. The causes of mood disorder are still unknown to the scientists, and many theories have been produced regarding this issue, but none has been verified yet, i.e., neurotransmitter imbalance theory (Lozano, & Mayberg, 2018).

Question Number 4

The treatments strategy includes psychotherapy and medication. Anti-depressants and anti-anxiety medicines are given to the individual to alleviate the psychological distress along with the psychotherapies. Cognitive behavioral therapy is also one of the most effective therapy for patients of mood disorder. In severe mood disorders, patients are often hospitalized after they inflict any harm on themselves.

Question Number 5

The mood disorder is aggravated in old age due to resistance and stubbornness with one’s own issues. As in the case of Mark, the causal factor for mood disorder is chronic depression which he got due to psychological and environmental issues. The treatment strategies would differentiate for Mr. Mark as he would need anti-depressants along with CBT to get an effective treatment.

References

Goodday, S. M., Preisig, M., Gholamrezaee, M., Grof, P., Angst, J., & Duffy, A. (2017). The association between self-reported and clinically determined hypomanic symptoms and the onset of major mood disorders. BJPsych open, 3(2), 71-77.

Lozano, A. M., & Mayberg, H. S. (2018). U.S. Patent No. 9,931,500. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Zarate Jr, C. A. (2017). An Update on the Diagnosis, Treatment, and Research of Mood Disorders.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Personal And Work Stress (

Name of Student

Name of Professor

Name of Class

Day Month Year

Personal and work stress

Work Stress:

Work stress can be defined as emotions or physical tension due to work problems. There are various factors that can cause work stress. The average person in America works 46 hours a week. With the advancement in technology, employers expect the availability of their employees on the weekend as well. It decreases the time to engage in the personal and social circle. Besides the shortage of time, discrimination and harassment at the workplace may lead to work stress. When people feel insecurity from their jobs and think they are not getting reward or acknowledgement for the hard work they are doing for the organization, they start feeling stressed at workplace. When people have to face strict management, their work and office policies make it worst to stay calm and relax. Therefore work stress becomes inevitable.

Personal Stress:

Personal stress is more important to consider because if a person gets personal stress, then it is obvious that the job will also be affected. Personal stress can be caused due to many reasons. If routine gets disturbed due to unknown reason, it leads to stress. For instance, you are on the way to the job, and you left your bag or mobile at home. The whole schedule will be disturbed now, and therefore you will feel personal stress. Personal personalities can also cause stress. A person with confidence will give less stress than the person who is not confident. Another reason for personal stress can be a life change. The scientists have found forty-three types of life changes which can cause personal stress. Lastly, there should be balance in work life and personal life. The people who failed to balance work-life balance may lead to personal stress as well as work stress at the same time.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Psycholinguistics

Psycholinguistics

[Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees]

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Author Note

Psycholinguistics

‘First Language Acquisition’ or commonly identified as the Child Language Acquisition is a procedure whereby kids from the early period through initial school years acquire their 1st language. The term 1st Language Acquisition can be talked about as the field that explores the procedure through which kids grow to use small words and sentences in their 1st language, to converse with other individuals.

A number of theories and methodologies have been established throughout the course of previous years struggling to study and investigate how do youngsters acquire their mother language. Here we will identify 2 major concepts that elucidate the learning procedure of the child’s 1st language: Behaviorism and Nativist or Innateness theory. These two theories are also referred to as nature versus nurture theories.

Behaviorist theory of language is a psychology based educational way of thought, founded on the notion that conduct can be studied scientifically devoid of deliberation of mental conditions. The principal assumption is that learning is influenced exclusively by bodily variables, for instance, ecological or substantial fortification. By terminating the effect of cerebral variables, scientists that belonged to the behaviorist school of thought suggest that self-determination is a delusion and that answers can be found and habituated. Significant facts important to the growth of these theories take account of Ivan Pavlov, John B. Watson and B. F. Skinner ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"JlE1pVX6","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Reimann, 2018)","plainCitation":"(Reimann, 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":195,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/CyMh1xNF/items/C3CCIWMW"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/CyMh1xNF/items/C3CCIWMW"],"itemData":{"id":195,"type":"chapter","title":"Behaviorist Learning Theory","container-title":"The TESOL Encyclopedia of English Language Teaching","publisher":"American Cancer Society","page":"1-6","source":"Wiley Online Library","abstract":"Behaviorist learning theory is a psychology-grounded pedagogical line of thought, based on the idea that behavior can be researched scientifically without consideration of cognitive states. The primary hypothesis is that learning is influenced solely by physical variables such as environmental or material reinforcement. By dismissing the influence of mental variables, behaviorist theories propose that free will is an illusion and that responses can be determined and conditioned. Key figures essential to the development of these theories include Ivan Pavlov, John B. Watson and B. F. Skinner.","URL":"https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/9781118784235.eelt0155","ISBN":"978-1-118-78423-5","note":"DOI: 10.1002/9781118784235.eelt0155","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Reimann","given":"Andrew"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018"]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",6,22]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Reimann, 2018).

The behaviorist theorists believe that babies acquire spoken linguistic from other human role models by a method including imitation, rewards, and practice. As soon as a youngster endeavors verbal language or replicates the sounds or speaking patterns they are frequently acclaimed and given love for their hard work. As a consequence, admiration and love turn out to be rewarded. On the other hand, the behaviorist theory is analyzed for a diversity of motives.

The mentalist learning theory gives emphasis to the part of the mind in the linguistic acquisition by arguing that human being is born with an instinctive and natural capability to learn languages. The theory was headed by Noam Chomsky and ascended in reply to B. F. Skinner's fundamental behaviorism. The fundamentals of this theory can be found in the origins of the mentalist learning theory back to psychology and illuminate how it is unlike the behaviorism ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"XpaIF5Zl","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Spino & Loewen, 2018)","plainCitation":"(Spino & Loewen, 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":197,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/CyMh1xNF/items/6UAENLLB"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/CyMh1xNF/items/6UAENLLB"],"itemData":{"id":197,"type":"article-journal","title":"Mentalist Learning Theory","container-title":"The TESOL Encyclopedia of English Language Teaching","collection-title":"Major Reference Works","page":"1-6","source":"onlinelibrary.wiley.com (Atypon)","abstract":"The mentalist learning theory emphasizes the role of the mind in language acquisition by arguing that humans are born with an innate and biological capacity to learn languages. This theory was spearheaded by Noam Chomsky, and arose in response to B. F. Skinner's radical behaviorism. This summary traces the origins of the mentalist learning theory back to psychology, and explains how it is different from behaviorism. Although the mentalist learning theory was not designed to have pedagogical implications for second language learning, this summary also includes suggestions for language teachers that are compatible with the theory.","URL":"https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/9781118784235.eelt0156","DOI":"10.1002/9781118784235.eelt0156","ISSN":"9781118784235","author":[{"family":"Spino","given":"Le Anne"},{"family":"Loewen","given":"Shawn"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018",1,18]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",6,22]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Spino & Loewen, 2018). Youngsters learning how to speak do not ever make grammatical mistakes, for example, having their subjects, verbs, and objects in an erroneous manner. If a grownup intentionally said a grammatically inappropriate sentence, the kid would notice that. Kids every so often utter things that are not correct grammatically for instance ‘mama ball', which they cannot have learned submissively. Mistakes just like ‘I drew' as an alternative of ‘I drew’ display they are not learning by imitation only. Chomsky made use of the sentence ‘colorless green ideas sleep furiously’, which is syntactic even though it doesn’t seem sensible, to demonstrate his theory: he said it illustrates that utterances can be grammatically deprived of having any sense ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"JCor8paf","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Theories of the early stages of language acquisition,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“Theories of the early stages of language acquisition,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":199,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/CyMh1xNF/items/6FP7AR7X"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/CyMh1xNF/items/6FP7AR7X"],"itemData":{"id":199,"type":"webpage","title":"Theories of the early stages of language acquisition","container-title":"Khan Academy","abstract":"Read and learn for free about the following article: Theories of the early stages of language acquisition","URL":"https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/processing-the-environment/language/a/theories-of-the-early-stages-of-language-acquisition","language":"en","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",6,22]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Theories of the early stages of language acquisition,” n.d.). That we can point the dissimilarity between a grammatical and an ungrammatical utterance deprived of ever having caught the sentence in the past, and that we can generate and comprehend spanking new utterances that nobody has said in advance ever.

The new technology of brain imaging, just like MRIs and fMRIs have as well permitted researchers to look at the brains of youngsters and patients with disorders related to language-acquisition to apprehend this complex incident. An fMRI can trail at what point and at what times our brains use energy. If a specific fragment of your brain lights up during the time you’re learning a language, that fragment of the brain is consuming energy, and in this perspective could be connected to language-acquisition. Unquestionably we learn by the passage of time and not at the same time, consequently, there is a boundary to what we can learn by means of imaging which signifies the brain in a single instant.

The two theories of nature and nurture have presented some valid and some invalid or such points that cannot be proved. As in nature theory, scientists believe that the language is God-given and is a process that is solely inbuilt in the brain of a child since birth. This is purely a sweeping statement, and cannot be proved. Similarly, behaviorist theory also seems to have its drawbacks such as I say that language is the result of imitation, and no mental processing is involved, which proves to be wrong when it comes to wrong sentence structures produced by kids.

The theory of behaviorism or mentalism though have their shortcomings yet they cannot be totally denied. The reason is that many of the points that they make are evidence-based. Such as the behaviorists state that the child learns the language through his surroundings, this is true in a sense that the child hears the words in his surroundings and adopts them. When he makes the correct use of these words or the utterances, people respond to him and even appreciate him thus giving him a positive stimulus. This proves that language is learned by behaviorism to some extent. On the other hand, any of the modern researches have shown that the energy in the brain is traced while someone utters a word or makes an utterance. This depicts that some brain activity is involved in language learning. Though there has been going on lots of research regarding this matter, yet enough pieces of evidence are not found until today to support which theory is correct and which one is not.

References

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Reimann, A. (2018). Behaviorist Learning Theory. The TESOL Encyclopedia of English Language Teaching (pp. 1–6). https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118784235.eelt0155

Spino, L. A., & Loewen, S. (2018). Mentalist Learning Theory. The TESOL Encyclopedia of English Language Teaching, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118784235.eelt0156

Theories of the early stages of language acquisition. (n.d.). Retrieved June 22, 2019, from Khan Academy website: https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/processing-the-environment/language/a/theories-of-the-early-stages-of-language-acquisition

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 3 Words: 900

PSYCHOLOGY JOURNAL ARTICLE REVIEW

Title

Name

Institution

Psychology Journal Article Review

Introduction

Emergencies are part of life and also they are unavoidable but fortunately they do not exist on daily basis. It has been observed previously that when emergencies like murder or snatching something from people occur then at that time people prefer not to intervene in that situation. Previously it was noted that when murdering someone around a residential area a murderer came and easily killed the victim and then vanished. What is more surprising in this situation is that, most of the people in that vicinity were watching all that situation but all of the spectators prefer to stay away from it. There are multiple reasons that people choose to stay away from situation, the fear about what will happen to the person who will intervene, public embarrassment, police procedures involvement, lost work days and jobs and also some other unknown dangers. In other cases, when the observers feel that other people are also watching the incident then at that time the responsibility to interrupt and help the victim diffuses among all the bystanders and all of them start to think that other observers might help so this way they guilt is reduced and they become satisfied with their silence and not helping the victim. If there is only one observer in that scene, then the responsibility to take action is focused on that individual although he might choose to ignore the entire situation but at that time the pressure to interrupt only unique to him. When there are multiple observers then at that time it is no longer a unique one, the responsibility to help is shared thus no one helps. All the bystanders might think that the others might be doing something to help thus no one really plays their part in the entire situation. Such assumptions lead to the hypothesis that the more bystanders mean very little chances are there that anyone of them will take action and provide aid to the victim. More observers mean that the responsibility to help is no more concentrated in one person it is diffused among all the observers therefore help comes from nowhere ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"YIMGWypl","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Darley & Latane, 1968)","plainCitation":"(Darley & Latane, 1968)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":705,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/FFNESATT"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/FFNESATT"],"itemData":{"id":705,"type":"article-journal","title":"Bystander intervention in emergencies: Diffusion of responsibility.","container-title":"Journal of Personality and Social Psychology","page":"377-383","volume":"8","issue":"4, Pt.1","source":"Crossref","DOI":"10.1037/h0025589","ISSN":"1939-1315, 0022-3514","shortTitle":"Bystander intervention in emergencies","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Darley","given":"John M."},{"family":"Latane","given":"Bibb"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1968"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Darley & Latane, 1968).

Methodology

To proof this hypothesis a situation was created in which a realistic emergency could plausibly occur. During the emergency each one of the participant was blocked to communicate with others to find out their behavior during the emergency situation. So for this experiment a college student was ushered into a room where with the help of a communication he was allowed to talk to other participants. He was directed to discuss personal problems in college life with others and the discussion was carried out on intercom to hide the identity of the participant. During the discussion one of the participant had seizure similar to epilepsy. During the process it was difficult for the participant to find out that what the other correspondents are doing about the emergency. In this case the dependent variable was the speed with which the participants reported the situation to the ones who were conducting the experiment and the independent variable was the number of participants who were present in the discussion room. A total of fifty-nine females and thirteen males participated in this experiment. All of them directed to communicate each other on phone so when a person was talking only his microphone was on and the rest of them could only listen to him for two minutes so when the participant had seizure that time only his microphone was on therefore it was impossible for the rest to determine that what each one of them was doing. They were also unable to discuss that might have happened and how to find out a way to help the affected person ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"PDhlxi7l","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Darley & Latane, 1968)","plainCitation":"(Darley & Latane, 1968)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":705,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/FFNESATT"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/FFNESATT"],"itemData":{"id":705,"type":"article-journal","title":"Bystander intervention in emergencies: Diffusion of responsibility.","container-title":"Journal of Personality and Social Psychology","page":"377-383","volume":"8","issue":"4, Pt.1","source":"Crossref","DOI":"10.1037/h0025589","ISSN":"1939-1315, 0022-3514","shortTitle":"Bystander intervention in emergencies","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Darley","given":"John M."},{"family":"Latane","given":"Bibb"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1968"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Darley & Latane, 1968).

Results and Conclusion

Although the fit was not real but it was stimulated in the participant but by judging the participant’s nervousness when they reported the situation to the experimenter it can be concluded that all of them perceived as the situation was real. The total number of bystanders the participant felt that are present in the room had a major impact with which the participant will report the entire situation to the experimenter. Among the participants 81% of them realized that they are the only ones who know about the situation reported the incident but 31% of those who knew that other people also know about the situation kept silent thinking that others will respond to the situation. Having said that it is not right to say that they are being indifferent or insensitive rather they are indecisive while other participants resolved the conflict by reporting the situation but they chose to retain the conflict by simply keeping silence. Such people are often referred to as insensitive or unkind but the reality is they do not understand the nature of the entire situation therefore they become indecisive. Or they become confident that it is not only their responsibility to handle such situations others can do as well therefore they do not intervene ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a9DyXzFl","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Darley & Latane, 1968)","plainCitation":"(Darley & Latane, 1968)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":705,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/FFNESATT"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/FFNESATT"],"itemData":{"id":705,"type":"article-journal","title":"Bystander intervention in emergencies: Diffusion of responsibility.","container-title":"Journal of Personality and Social Psychology","page":"377-383","volume":"8","issue":"4, Pt.1","source":"Crossref","DOI":"10.1037/h0025589","ISSN":"1939-1315, 0022-3514","shortTitle":"Bystander intervention in emergencies","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Darley","given":"John M."},{"family":"Latane","given":"Bibb"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1968"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Darley & Latane, 1968).

Limitations

The number of male and female participants are not uniform in this experiment, as women are mostly quite indecisive in certain situation while males are quite responsive and they take decisions under pressure instantly, therefore the results of this study would be quite different if uniform number of male and female participants were involved. Another limitation of this study is the time taken by the participants to report the fits situation, the experimenter estimated the based on his own calculation, therefore the response time is highly doubtful which are included in this experiment. As the participants are seated in rooms that are located close to each other so it may be possible that they heard about the response of other participants and therefore some of them chose to stay quite because somehow they might have the idea that others are taking action. So based on these points it is not appropriate to conclude that around 31% of the participants were insensitive. For future experiment to have more reliable and realistic results it is important to choose equal participants and then to create more realistic situation only then realistic and reliable results will be obtained.

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Darley, J. M., & Latane, B. (1968). Bystander intervention in emergencies: Diffusion of responsibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 8(4, Pt.1), 377–383. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0025589

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 3 Words: 900

"Online Dating Profile

Online Dating Profile

Your Name

Institutions

Online Dating Profile

Name

Samantha Wright

Age

55

Height

5’3”

Ethnicity

White

Occupation

Owner of Antique store

Education Level

Graduate

Religion

Catholic Christian

Political views

Democrat

City and State

Bonney, Texas

What I’m most passionate about:

Traveling across the globe, I want to explore new places and meet new people

Activities I enjoy:

I love to sew, dance, listen to old rock, and folk music

Physical description:

Slender physique and good height

My friends describe me as:

My friends describe me as an honest, polite and organized person who loves to help others.

The most important things I’m looking for in a person:

The most important thing I am looking for in a person is courage. My partner should have the courage to ask me out, courage to challenge me, courage to talk about the hard stuff, courage to forgive me, and courage to love

Ideal physical qualities of a potential partner:

Physical appearance doesn’t matter much to me, but my partner should not be paunchy.

Deal breakers:

Smoking, drugs use, and abusive behavior

Post Profile Wrap-up

Describe the social psychological theories of attraction you see reflected in online dating profiles like this one.

According to the psychological theory of attraction, profile attractiveness depends on many factors such as; quality of a photograph, physical appearance or attractiveness, and free-text component CITATION Fio08 \l 1033 (Fiore, 2008). Online dating services help an individual to evaluate his partner before investing his effort, time, and emotional energy in a face-to-face meeting. It is difficult to be certain that the information provided in the profile is accurate. This is because the user has self-portrait him/herself. In an online dating profile, people assess attractiveness by confirming physical appearance and paying attention to the quality of a text. According to the psychological theory of attraction, more information provided in the dating profile may result in disliking.

Describe at least three concepts related to mating and attraction that are used in online dating profiles.

The concept of natural selection is related to mating and attraction in online dating profiles. According to the concept of natural selection of an evolutionary psychologist, women prefer to mate with a person who has a tendency to be a good provider and a good father. Similarly, men prefer to mate with a person who can give birth to healthy babies CITATION Llo79 \l 1033 (Lloyd, 1979). The second concept that can be related to attraction in online dating profiles is a sexual attraction. According to the concept of sexual attraction, women are attracted to men who are potential provider. Moreover, men are physically attracted to women’s appearance. The third concept that can be related to attraction in online dating profiles is the ideal mate theory. According to the ideal mate theory, the attraction is based on one’s perception of ideal partner CITATION AJF06 \l 1033 (AJ Figueredo, 2006).

3.Reflect on the choices you made in completing this profile. Why did you make the choices you did? Connect your profile back to the social-psychological concepts related to mating and attraction.

Dating profile of Samantha Wright is precise and specific. In Samantha’s profile, it is written than she is a travel enthusiast. She likes to explore new places and meet new people. When a viewer will review Samantha’s profile, he will immediately feel welcomed because she likes to make new friends. According to the concept of ideal mate theory, Samantha will be an ideal partner for an enthusiast person. Although at this age Samantha would not able to give birth to a child, it is written that she owns an antique store. This shows that Samantha is a strong independent woman. Moreover, Samantha has a good height and maintained herself. According to the concept of sexual attraction, Samantha’s physical appearance makes her a good candidate in a dating site.

References

BIBLIOGRAPHY AJ Figueredo, J. S. D. J., 2006. The ideal romantic partner personality. Personality and Individual.

Fiore, A. &. T. L. &. M. G. &. A. H. M., 2008. Assessing Attractiveness in Online Dating Profiles. s.l., s.n., pp. 797-806.

Lloyd, J., 1979. Mating behavior and natural selection. The Florida Entomologist.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

(Autismo Spectrum, Assignment 2)

Autismo Spectrum, Assignment 2

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Autismo Spectrum, Assignment 2

Q1 response: Classic autism and Asperger’s diseases are different in terms of there symptoms. Asperger’s symptoms are less severe than that of autism as the children can show some emotions and react to certain situations. They do want to communicate with others but they lack the ability to express what they feel unlike that of children with autism.

Q2 response: Although there is no medical test to determine the ASD but there are certain steps. The first one is the pediatrician. They ask different questions regarding eating habits and baby behavior like how many times the child smiles, etc. The other method use tools like a diagnostic interview for social disorders and a diagnostic interview-revised. These tools give a better insight into child behavior but this should be done in the supervision of the parents in order to avoid any distress (Dover & Le Couteur, 2007).

Q3 response:

Language deficit: repetitive use of words, improper sentences including the delayed response. Difficulty in expressing the situation in words.

Social differences: Lacking interests in doing conversations, playing or other public activities.

Behavior: every person has a different personality but most of the time people with often show the same behavior like eating the same food over and over again, moving in circles, and extreme reaction to touch, etc.

motor deficit: Some children with ASD difficulty in walking or moving while some face extreme difficulty in understanding blocks or making drawings.

Q4 response: The IEP process starts with checking the eligibility of the patient that he is eligible or not. The next step is pre-referral where the teacher tries to maintain a connection with the ASD student if this does not work the next step will be identification. After the team identifies the child behavior they will evaluate the results and try to find a method suitable for the learning requirements of the child.

Q5 response: The evidence-based teaching approaches include is NCLB 2002 which is a scientifically based approach which was carefully reviewed by peers and shows positive results. The other approach is review and synthesis by Simpson 2005 which is based on different learning programs for every individual having ASD (American Psychiatric Association.,2013).

Q6 response: The difference between the comprehensive treatment model focused treatment model is that a comprehensive model uses structural approach and conceptual framework to achieve larger goals while the focused treatment targets directly the behavior of the patient that includes communicational skills, etc.

Q7 response: Students with ASD require more of a structured learning approach that includes repetitive learning trials, opportunities to apply the skills they have, maintaining relevant stimuli, and visual structure, specialized curriculum, etc.

.

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5®). American Psychiatric Pub.

Dover, C. J., & Le Couteur, A. (2007). How to diagnose autism. Archives of disease in childhood, 92(6), 540-545.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

2 Papers Details In The Word Document

Name

Professor name

Subject

May 20, 2019

Psychology paper

My three academic goals are; to develop an assertive personality, doing things efficiently and managing stress. My goal is to see myself as a person who is capable of doing things efficiently. I think these three goals will allow me to become a better student and a better worker. These three goals are important for me to survive in the academic world because today it has become an extremely competitive place. Students need to develop extraordinary skills for attaining better outcomes. I intend to meet these goals by using a WOOP framework. I will identify the need for fulfilling these goals and then create outcomes. This will permit the top focus on specific areas that require work. I would develop a strategy and plan because it will be easy to follow it. I will focus on addressing each goal independently by following a clear plan. I believe that if I fail to attain these goals I would remain a struggle in my academic career. I, therefore, aim to attain these goals because they are crucial for my academics.

WOOP for Goal 1

Wish: I wish to develop an assertive personality that will allow me to speak for myself and sharing my concerns on my personal beliefs, feelings and views. This will allow me to stand for my rights and express desires appropriately that I consider as an important interpersonal skill.

Outcome: The best outcome of this goal is to become a highly expressive person.

Obstacle: The obstacles that would affect my goal attainment process include low confidence, emotional issues and lack of communication.

Plan: The action involves overcoming my three obstacles; low confidence, emotional issues and lack of communication.

To overcome my low confidence I will try to develop an open personality. I will try to make more friends and talk to them.

I will cope with my emotional issues by developing stress management mechanism. I will learn to handle my emotions of anger, discomfort and try to appear normal on the campus.

I will handle my third weakness by developing appropriate communication skills. I will try to communicate with my friends and class fellows as much as possible. This will help me in developing adequate communication skills. I would learn how to talk with others and convince them about my viewpoint.

WOOP for Goal 2

Wish: I wish to become a highly efficient person by managing things on time.

Outcome: This will allow me to stay organized and also prevent me from becoming procrastinated.

Obstacles: The three obstacles that I face include; procrastination, high level of distraction and lack of interest.

Plan: To deal with procrastination I will try to convince myself to complete work on time. I will change my habit by realizing the need of completing work on-time and for attaining better results.

To overcome distractions I will remove unnecessary things from my daily routine. I will prioritize tasks and activities and remove the ones that waste time. This will allow me to do important things at first and on priority.

Lack of interest is another problem that I face so I will add interest in my studies. I will think that it is not only about by academics and will change my approach towards learning.

WOOP for Goal 3

Wish: I desire to become self-sufficient in managing stress and becoming a composed person.

Outcome: This will allow me to manage work appropriately and appear as a calm person in the outer world.

Obstacle: The obstacles that prevent me from attaining my goal of stress management include overthinking, unnecessary worrying.

Plan: To overcome my obstacle of overthinking I will try to change my thinking pattern. I will try to convince myself that it is useless to overthink because it only undermines one's ability to handle things. I will also develop the capability to avoid worrying about think unnecessarily.

Deviation from personality

I scored extremely low (2) in extraversion due to the fact that I was not sociable or talkative. To improve my score I worked on changing my personality. I wasn’t interacting much with the people and maintained a safe distance from them. To change my personality and overcome mu extraversion I intended to improve my communication with others. I focused on becoming sociable by going out and communicating with as many people as possible. This allowed me to overcome my issue of low confidence and introvertness. I changed my pattern of thinking by convincing myself that it is important to interact with others and to find out their viewpoints.

I scored high (6) on the trait of agreeableness. I didn't have to do much for changing this trait. This is because I was friendly and cooperative with the people. I had a positive approach towards others and also was capable of trusting them. This indicates that I possess adequate skills in agreeableness. I scored high (6) on the trait of neuroticism. This reflects my high level of emotional instability. I realized that this can be dangerous for my overall personality development. Also, I had to formulate a strategy for getting rid of this behavior. I decided to develop a stress management ability. I used to become tense easily on little things. to overcome my problems of stress and anxiety I decided to change my thinking pattern. Whenever I encounter a difficult situation, I trained to accept the challenge. This approach allowed me to develop a capacity for coping with the tense conditions.

I also scored high (5) on conscientious because I was extremely cautious and dependable on others. Because this is a negative personality trait so I had to overcome it, I decided to deal with this issue by relying on myself and trusting my capabilities.

Be an everyday hero

Prosocial behavior stresses on doing things and choosing actions that result in benefits of the others. I experienced this behavior by developing a positive approach to society. This is focused on the concerns of rights, feelings and the welfare of others. Prosocial behavior allowed me to develop a positive attitude towards others. I practised this behaviour by developing an empathetic approach and by treating others with respect. My encounter with anyone at the street was responded with positive energy. I displayed gesture of smile and it made others feel good. To practice this behavior I volunteered my services for the people at hospice care. I managed to build a prosocial behavior by choosing the best interest of the elderly people who were living in hospice care. I treated them with empathy and dignity. This allowed them to establish a sense of self-worth.

I experienced prosocial behavior during my encounter with a road accident. I witnessed an accident occurred at the roadside that hit a young boy. I rushed to the place and called the ambulance. I was trying to comfort the boy by encouraging him to stay conscious. Although I had an important class on that day I missed it for the sake of others. Another thing I did for practising my prosocial behavior was to visit the charity institute and gave a donation for the poor. This was due to my concerns for society and the people. My prosocial behavior is also apparent in my decision of planting trees because I wanted to do something for the people. I realized that plants are much required for overcoming the issues of pollution and global warming. The acts of kindness, help to the people and good deeds are all examples of prosocial behavior. This allows us to think about others.

Do we see reality

I agree with the viewpoints of Hoffman on TED provides answers to the basic question of ‘who we are?’ It is crucial to determine the relationship between the brain and conscious experiences. I think that consciousness is the result of irritating nervous tissue. This indicates that whatever we choose or do has a relationship with our brain. It is due to the functioning of the nervous tissue that we engage in different experiences. Brain activity and conscious experiences are interlinked. This means any act chosen by a human being is the result of brain activity. What we believe about different things like tastes, odours, smell and colours is also the product of our brain consciousness. It is thus possible to misinterpret our experiences because we may see things differently. I agree that the same thing may appear different to different people due to the difference in their consciousness. It becomes difficult to assess which one is right.

I agree with Hoffman's claims that human beings construct what they see. This does not prove that they are constructing of seeing the things in the right way. Neuroscientists present a different view by claiming that we reconstruct reality. The experience of red tomato that was a meter away was also a reconstruction. I think we all use this same concept in defining our experiences or in seeing things. when we see something we are inclined to make it a reality that impacts our other experiences. This also reflects that what we see or the way in which we see becomes part of our consciousness and convinces us to recreate that thing in the same manner.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

2. Horizontal Relationships Are More Important To Healthy Development Than Vertical Relationships During Adolescence? Drawing On Evidence, Debate The Impact Of Relationships With Peers And Parents On The Healthy Social And Emotional Development Of The You

Argumentative Essay

Name

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Author’s Note

Horizontal Relationships for Healthy Relationships

Development research has offered a concept that adolescents-parents and adolescent-peers relationship is very crucial in the developmental process. The literature has suggested that connections between adolescent-peers and adolescent-parent are unidirectional. The development of a child is strongly dependent on society. A society is a place where a person is born and lived. An environment of society is strongly associated with the development of children and adolescents. Various cultural studies have been conducted in this regard to identify the exact relationship between adolescent and peers and adolescents and parents. Parents re the first person with whom a child interacts. According to the concepts of Piaget's theory of development, a child learns from the people around him. Children and adolescents are strongly influenced by the environment of society and schools. Developmental stages of a child are affected when a person lives in a bad society. The environment of schools and the interaction of a person with his peers is also significant in undemanding his behaviors. This paper will evaluate how the horizontal relationship is healthier and important in the development of adolescents through evidence-based studies and research.

It is undoubtedly true that support from family is an important part of the life of a person. As children grow and become adolescents, parents remain important support for them. Parents provide the essential strength for adolescents but siblings and relationship of peers is also important for the development. The relationship between adolescents and parents is similar to a relationship between a martial partner for a parent. Family interactions are identified as a vertical-horizontal relationship. Almost all relationships have horizontal and vertical constituents. Some are truly horizontal and some relationships are truly vertical.

Child to parent and parent to child are more vertically related and asymmetrical in the relationship. This is because parents have additional knowledge as compared to their children and have more understanding regarding social life. Therefore, an adolescent expected more warmth, support, and security from his parents. Child to parent relationship become more horizontal when a child grows to adolescent age. It is also decided by the parents such as marital relationships are horizontal based on symmetry and equality. A strong horizontal relationship means a parent would be able to understand the needs of adolescents and in turn, they would be able to discuss their issues based on symmetry.

Concerned parents argue with the researchers regarding the bidirectional relationship between adolescents and peers. They have suggested that the relationship of a person is directly affected by his interactions with his peers. Support from the parents is perceived in all forms such as financial support, caring atmosphere and provision of a supportive environment to encourage the child. However, psychologists have also proposed the concepts to these parents that the relationship of a person with his family is just not observed in the form of financial support. A person learns from his parents and peers. He observes every behavior of his parents and interprets it in his way. For example, single parenting often results in frustration for the parent to manage home and therefore, a child living with these conditions would develop his thoughts both positively or negatively.

A person living in low socio-economic conditions would most probably develop the habit of lying and stealing. Psychologists have recommended that parents should be very careful while managing their homes or interacting with each other ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"WIClTflL","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Prinstein & Giletta, 2016)","plainCitation":"(Prinstein & Giletta, 2016)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":53,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Y5tcviDw/items/DAFUNSTC"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Y5tcviDw/items/DAFUNSTC"],"itemData":{"id":53,"type":"article-journal","container-title":"Developmental psychopathology","page":"1-53","title":"Peer relations and developmental psychopathology","author":[{"family":"Prinstein","given":"Mitchell J."},{"family":"Giletta","given":"Matteo"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Prinstein & Giletta, 2016). Parents fighting for financing and their clashes would ultimately result in adverse effects for their children. Children and adolescents learn from every single behavior of their parents therefore, the argument is true that parents are directly linked with their children in the developmental process.

The theory of attachment by Bowlby has described that attachment of a person with another person is a reciprocal relationship. One person attached to someone may learn behaviors from them such as counseling, sharing, and interaction with people. This relationship because of attachment is related to his cognitive development by which he learns sharing and caring behaviors from others. These attachments can be identified based on a relationship of a person with his siblings, parents, and peers. Loss of a person from the life of adolescent result in negative consequences such as his positive energy would be lost. He may develop negative feelings and thoughts as the consoling partner is lost from his life. The developmental theory of Piaget has provided significant information that the social environment and interaction of parents are strongly associated with the cognitive thoughts of a person. A person living in a negative social or living with single parents would ultimately have to suffer from financial crises. These children may develop negative behaviors in life ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"oA4SLtWw","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Branje, 2019)","plainCitation":"(Branje, 2019)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":54,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Y5tcviDw/items/ARJZ4A9T"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Y5tcviDw/items/ARJZ4A9T"],"itemData":{"id":54,"type":"article-journal","container-title":"The Encyclopedia of Child and Adolescent Development","page":"1-10","title":"Parent Conflict Resolution","author":[{"family":"Branje","given":"Susan"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Branje, 2019). The behaviors acquired in the early stages of life would be retained with a person throughout his life.

According to Piaget's theory of development, three elements are important in a person's life including awareness and knowledge, adaptation behaviors from a transitional stage and cognitive developmental stages. According to the concepts of Maslow's hierarchy, when a person's needs are met, his motivational level increases. This theory is based on five tiers of human needs. It includes psychological needs such as food, air and things for survival, second is safety needs such as stability and freedom to live. The third is belongingness and love which is related to interactions and relationships and it includes relations with peers, parents and partners and attachments are based on trust, love, and intimacy. Esteem needs that are achievement, dignity, and desire for respect from others is also a human need. Lastly, self-actualization needs which involve the desire to become capable and seeking personal growth. Relationships of peers and parents are important in the fulfillment of motivation and attainment of desires of different needs and adolescents.

A relationship of an adolescent can be described as peer adolescent relationship as aggressive, victimization or attachment. Similarly, a parent-adolescent relationship may be authoritative and permissive ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"mVUTR9Yo","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Boele et al., 2019)","plainCitation":"(Boele et al., 2019)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":52,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Y5tcviDw/items/N4FUJNQ4"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Y5tcviDw/items/N4FUJNQ4"],"itemData":{"id":52,"type":"article-journal","container-title":"Journal of youth and adolescence","issue":"6","page":"1033-1055","title":"Linking parent–child and peer relationship quality to empathy in adolescence: a multilevel meta-analysis","volume":"48","author":[{"family":"Boele","given":"Savannah"},{"family":"Van der Graaff","given":"Jolien"},{"family":"De Wied","given":"Minet"},{"family":"Van der Valk","given":"Inge E."},{"family":"Crocetti","given":"Elisabetta"},{"family":"Branje","given":"Susan"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Boele et al., 2019). Parenting styles considering the level of sensitivity such as control, warmth and affection con result in the development of a child with aggressive or responsive behaviors. Parenting style also interacts with the development of adolescents for example parents promoting the autonomy of their children will be able to develop good interactions with their peers. These relationships also affect a child's performance in academics and social interactions.

Conclusion

A complementary relationship of a person with his peers and parents is essential for its optimal growth. Therefore, studies have argued that horizontal relationships of peer=adolescent and parent-adolescent are important for the development of a person. A vertical relationship is usually observed affecting the cognitive development of adolescents and hence, evidence-based researches have shown the importance of the horizontal relationship of adolescent-peers and adolescent-parents. It has been evaluated that the psychological, emotional and mental growth of a person is strongly associated with his relationships with peers, parents, and societies. A person directly learns and adapts behaviors form his interactions considering them as his mentors. The contribution of friendship in the developmental processes of a person cannot be denied as it helps them to resolve their conflicts ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"yLc0C3oU","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Hartup & Stevens, 1999)","plainCitation":"(Hartup & Stevens, 1999)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":56,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Y5tcviDw/items/9B5EHJD5"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Y5tcviDw/items/9B5EHJD5"],"itemData":{"id":56,"type":"article-journal","abstract":"Friends foster self-esteem and a sense of well-being, socialize one another, and support one another in coping with developmental transitions and life stress. Friends engage in different activities with one another across the life span, but friendship is conceived similarly by children and adults. Friends and friendships, however, are not all alike. The developmental significance of having friends depends on the characteristics of the friends, especially whether the friends are antisocial or socially withdrawn. Outcomes also depend on whether friendships are supportive and intimate or fractious and unstable. Among both children and adults, friendships have clear-cut developmental benefits at times but are mixed blessings at other times.","container-title":"Current Directions in Psychological Science","DOI":"10.1111/1467-8721.00018","ISSN":"0963-7214, 1467-8721","issue":"3","journalAbbreviation":"Curr Dir Psychol Sci","language":"en","page":"76-79","source":"DOI.org (Crossref)","title":"Friendships and Adaptation Across the Life Span","volume":"8","author":[{"family":"Hartup","given":"Willard W."},{"family":"Stevens","given":"Nan"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1999",6]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Hartup & Stevens, 1999). The studies have identified that the relationship between adolescent-parents and adolescent-peers is bidirectional, developmental and integrative. Therefore, a relationship of an adolescent with his peers and parents should be horizontal instead of vertical for its optimal growth and development.

References

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[["http://zotero.org/users/local/Y5tcviDw/items/EPDWSL85"],["http://zotero.org/users/local/Y5tcviDw/items/IN4VQJTL"]],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Boele, S., Van der Graaff, J., De Wied, M., Van der Valk, I. E., Crocetti, E., & Branje, S. (2019). Linking parent-child and peer relationship quality to empathy in adolescence: A multilevel meta-analysis. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 48(6), 1033–1055.

Branje, S. (2019). Parent Conflict Resolution. The Encyclopedia of Child and Adolescent Development, 1–10.

Dixon, V. K. (2011). Western Feminism in a Global Perspective. Inquiries Journal, 3(02). http://www.inquiriesjournal.com/articles/395/western-feminism-in-a-global-perspective

Hartup, W. W., & Stevens, N. (1999). Friendships and Adaptation Across the Life Span. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 8(3), 76–79. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8721.00018

Malala Yousafzai. (n.d.). Biography. Retrieved February 1, 2020, from https://www.biography.com/activist/malala-yousafzai

Prinstein, M. J., & Giletta, M. (2016). Peer relations and developmental psychopathology. Developmental Psychopathology, 1–53.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

2nd Assignment

2nd Assignment

Your Name (First M. Last)

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)

2nd Assignment

Introduction:

Cognitional development refers to the development of mental processes that are involved in gaining knowledge, in thinking, comprehension, and recalling of events, and problem-solving skills. All these higher level skills are responsible for language development and developing imagination, and perception abilities in humans. Many theories have tried to explain how cognitive changes develop in children in terms of social, emotional and cognitive growth. Following are the few examples to understand the cognition development in individuals ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"QxtKhkQK","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Cognitive Development - Lisa Oakley - Google Books,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“Cognitive Development - Lisa Oakley - Google Books,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1428,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/KD8L6X6W"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/KD8L6X6W"],"itemData":{"id":1428,"type":"webpage","title":"Cognitive Development - Lisa Oakley - Google Books","URL":"https://books.google.com.pk/books?id=DI5ZvK3q_ogC&printsec=frontcover&dq=cognitive+development+psychology&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiLuZywv_zgAhVb6nMBHScNDMwQ6AEIJTAA#v=onepage&q=cognitive%20development%20psychology&f=false","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",3,12]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Cognitive Development - Lisa Oakley - Google Books,” n.d.).

Discussion:

Different views exist in psychology regarding cognition in humans. According to Nativist view, certain cognitive abilities are native in human bodies that are hardwired into the brains, by birth. Many human’s capabilities like moral intuition and color preferences are innate in humans. Nature has provided the human mind its learning abilities as its default function. But according to Empiricist states that all the human knowledge and cognition development comes from its sensory experiences. They believe that the formation of ideas and thought is a result of empirical process. You see things around you that you learn.

However, Interactionists believe that social interactions are the result of cognitive development, i.e., language. When social interaction happens between child and adults, children learn new linguistic skills. Vygotsky, a social constructivist, laid the basis for the Interactionist view that considers adults as the key role player in the development of child’s linguistic skills ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"4KNqjhUX","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Theory of cognitive development,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“Theory of cognitive development,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1416,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/MSBQUYTW"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/MSBQUYTW"],"itemData":{"id":1416,"type":"webpage","title":"Theory of cognitive development","container-title":"ScienceDaily","abstract":"Although there is no general theory of cognitive development, the most historically influential theory was developed by Jean Piaget, a Swiss Psychologist (1896-1980). His theory provided many central concepts in the field of developmental psychology and concerned the growth of intelligence, which for Piaget, meant the ability to more accurately represent the world, and perform logical operations on representations of concepts grounded in the world. The theory concerns the emergence and acquisition of schemata - schemes of how one perceives the world - in \"developmental stages\", times when children are acquiring new ways of mentally representing information. The theory is considered \"constructivist\", meaning that, unlike nativist theories (which describe cognitive development as the unfolding of innate knowledge and abilities) or empiricist theories (which describe cognitive development as the gradual acquisition of knowledge through experience), it asserts that we construct our cognitive abilities through self-motivated action in the world.","URL":"https://www.sciencedaily.com/terms/theory_of_cognitive_development.htm","language":"en","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",3,12]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Theory of cognitive development,” n.d.).

There two main theories regarding cognitive development in humans. In Piaget's theory of cognition, development focus is on the development of the thought process. This theory studies the influence of thoughts on understanding and interactions with the external stimulus. He explains the four stages of mental development that influences the way we understand the world. These four stages became the basis for understanding the children's developmental stages. These stages were based on the biological growth of the child. ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"CjXGxvI6","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(January 19 & 2019, n.d.)","plainCitation":"(January 19 & 2019, n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1418,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/7Y4KTNU3"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/7Y4KTNU3"],"itemData":{"id":1418,"type":"webpage","title":"Influential Theories About How Children Grow and Develop","container-title":"Verywell Mind","abstract":"Learn about some of the best-known theories explaining the factors that influence children's mental, emotional and social development.","URL":"https://www.verywellmind.com/child-development-theories-2795068","language":"en","author":[{"family":"January 19","given":"a board-certified physician | Updated"},{"literal":"2019"}],"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",3,12]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (January 19 & 2019, n.d.).

However, Kohlberg’s Theory of moral developmental was inspired by the Piaget's work but the developmental dimensions that they studies are completely different. Kohlberg’s theory has six stages of moral development that are divided into three sections. He studies the development of morals according to different age progressions. Kohlberg’s theory is interested in the features of the community and it is considered as important in making the new morals, while parget's theory is purely based on the thought process at an individual level. Piaget's theory solely deals with the internal changes that happen in a child at the thought level, and how his responses change with his age. While all the development explained in Kohlberg's theory is based on the change in thinking and actions as a result of the surrounding community. In terms of social order and social contract ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"zfS5h12o","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Kohlberg and Piaget: differences and similarities: Journal of Moral Education: Vol 20, No 1,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“Kohlberg and Piaget: differences and similarities: Journal of Moral Education: Vol 20, No 1,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1422,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/S8YV6BW9"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/S8YV6BW9"],"itemData":{"id":1422,"type":"webpage","title":"Kohlberg and Piaget: differences and similarities: Journal of Moral Education: Vol 20, No 1","URL":"https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/0305724910200104?journalCode=cjme20","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",3,12]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Kohlberg and Piaget: differences and similarities: Journal of Moral Education: Vol 20, No 1,” n.d.).

Conclusion:

So we can say that all of these theories and point of views regarding cognitive development are different ways of thinking about human development from a young age. All of these theories are used today in modern studies to understand the child's behavior. These have paved the way for modern researchers to explore all various dimensions of human personality, growth, and interactions with its communities.

References

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Cognitive Development - Lisa Oakley - Google Books. (n.d.). Retrieved March 12, 2019, from https://books.google.com.pk/books?id=DI5ZvK3q_ogC&printsec=frontcover&dq=cognitive+development+psychology&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiLuZywv_zgAhVb6nMBHScNDMwQ6AEIJTAA#v=onepage&q=cognitive%20development%20psychology&f=false

January 19, a board-certified physician | U., & 2019. (n.d.). Influential Theories About How Children Grow and Develop. Retrieved March 12, 2019, from https://www.verywellmind.com/child-development-theories-2795068

Kohlberg and Piaget: differences and similarities: Journal of Moral Education: Vol 20, No 1. (n.d.). Retrieved March 12, 2019, from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/0305724910200104?journalCode=cjme20

Theory of cognitive development. (n.d.). Retrieved March 12, 2019, from https://www.sciencedaily.com/terms/theory_of_cognitive_development.htm

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

300 Word Essay Https://youtu.be/zDZFcDGpL4U

The Critical Thinking Discussion

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

The Critical Thinking Discussion

Sir ken Robinson is a speaker, his areas of expertise include education reforms and diverge thinking. He claims that our current education system does not meet today’s requirements and is still based on an industrial paradigm of education. According to him, the education system is following the same standardized approach and methods of teaching which acts which hinders the children creative thinking.

Nowadays due to an immense increase in the technology the children are easily distracted. They have access to TV, internet, mobile phones, and laptops which is the main reason for their distraction. According to the typical thinking of parents, when a child is having trouble focusing on his education he needs medication to pass the school as they think it’s their child fault that he or she is not coping with the system rather than changing the system that is actually faulty.

Sir ken in his talk particularly focused on divergent thinking. In his opinion, our education system is responsible for killing the creative thinking of a child. Children are boxed in different levels according to their ages, batches, and etc. Their opinions and point of view are not given much importance. He heavily focused on divergent thinking that allows a person to interpret things differently.

Children in kindergarten have the ability to see things in their own way but as they reach adulthood their thinking is more standardized and they are forced to think in a similar way. Their thinking also depends upon the environment they are living for instance child living in a broken family is different from a child living in a happy and balanced family. Parents influence a lot of child decisions. Likewise, we have certain professions that are considered respectable and every parent wants their child to choose from those professions to become successful which kills the creative mind of a child as they are not even allowed to pursue what they like (Kuther, 2018).

Divergent thinking is especially helpful for people with ADHD. As they can share their opinions without any fear which will reduce their anxiety level causing them to be an active part of the discussion and learning process (Robinson 2010).

It is therefore important to change the stereotypical approach that our education institutes are following by focusing on different collaborative programs for children where they are free to share their thoughts and opinion in a more natural environment rather than the typical robotic environment. (Tomozii & Topală 2014).

References

Kuther, T. L. (2018). Social Relationships: Family and Peers. In Lifespan Development in Context: A Topical Approach (1st ed., pp. 505-542). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Robinson, K. (2010). Changing education paradigms. RSA Animate, The Royal Society of Arts, London, http://www. youtube. com/watch.

Tomozii, S. E., & Topală, I. (2014). Why do we need to change the educational paradigms?. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 142, 586-591.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

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