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Critical Project

Spinning the wheel of history, one could come across many philosophers who are having different perspectives and philosophies about life. It has been seen that different philosophers have given their philosophy depending on their own life experiences. Socrates is one of the most influential philosopher of all times whose philosophy is still followed and practiced. He is the most unique individual of his time and he is known for making a profound impact on an individual’s mind through his wisdom, intelligence, power of the critical thinking and moral strength. Critical evaluation of most of the studies shows that his philosophy is based on discovering the truth. One of the most evident factors of his philosophy is “Socrates quest”. One of his main claims is "All I know is that I know nothing” and this gives a clear insight of his philosophy, the practice of having critical thought about all the things that he found in his surroundings.

Though there are various characters in books and movies that follow Socrates philosophy of exploring everything, Sherlock Holmes is one of the most suitable characters who go hand in hand with Socrates’s philosophy “The unexamined life is not worth living. One commonality that has been found in Socrates philosophy and Sherlock is that both encourage exploring the undiscovered (Marshall & Mason). He is a famous fictional character of the 19th and 20th century. Sherlock became famous among the readers for having powers of using the logics and his keen observation that he used to solve his cases. It has been witnessed that despite being one of the most knowledgeable people of his time, he used to believe that he knows nothing. His quest for knowledge led him to explore more and more and likewise, the character of Sherlock could be seen as one who wanted to know all the secrets of the world. Analysis of character “Sherlock Holmes” shows that the author of this character, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s portrayal of this character shows that his ideology, while sketching this character was based on Socratic ideas.

Analysis of Socratic philosophy shows that one must consider that there is a sea of knowledge and he/she only has a drop out of that knowledge sea. Sherlock’s curiosity of exploring and discovering things by using his logics shows that he was inspired by the Socratic philosophy (Weiss & Roslyn, 165-183). Another interesting factor that could be noticed in Sherlock’s character is that after his fake suicide, he was remembered as the wisest person that people ever knew, as he was master in solving the cases (Fitzpatrick, 153-208). Since then, it has been portrayed in many Sherlock shows that crimes during that time were not all solved by using science and generally superstitions were highlighted and people used to wait for wrongful confessions. At that time, even the investigation methods were very simple and non-scientific. Doyle purposely inculcated in Sherlock an instinct to search for truth by using logic and deductive reasoning which sheds light on the fact that this character was a follower of Socratic philosophy.

Taking a look at the character of Sherlock it could be said that he was quite consistent with the decisions that he made. He was the one who wanted to solve every misery considering that there is much in this world that is hidden from him and his quest for exploring more was the driving force that inspired him to go into the depth of the mysteries. His struggle for knowing the unknown and solving mysteries shows the consistency of his decisions. Sherlock didn’t show lack of overriding philosophy as he was just following his nature and his quest for knowledge could be viewed as part of his nature.

His actions and keen observation skills show that he got into his cases so deeply that he used to remain immune to all the distractions until he solved the mystery. His actions spoke a lot about his nature that for him, this world was a puzzle that he had to explore by using his power of logic (Heifetz & Carl). His extremist nature of digging the bottom of things and truth concealed by mountains of trifles and deception made him a true follower of Socratic philosophy: “All I know is that I know nothing” which pushes him to uncover the hidden facts of life. Socratic philosophy claims that one who once starts believing that this world is full of mysteries and needs to be explored cannot rely on other’s justification, rather they start exploring the other side of the world that remained unknown to others.

Sherlock’s actions depict his belief that matches Socratic philosophy. Sherlock believed that the world around us has hidden meaning and many secrets are there and one who realizes this fact would look for the secret and would not rest unless he/she finds answers. It won’t be wrong to say that people are obsessed with the characters because somewhere in his character, they could see a reflection of their curiosity and anxiety for life. Being more logical, analytical and rational is the only way of gathering all the desired knowledge. So as a whole, it could be concluded that Sherlock Holmes is one of the characters who spends his life on Socratic principles and beliefs. The central idea of Sherlock and Socratic belief are that no one could claim that he knows all, rather it is better to accept that unexamined life is not worth living.

Work Cited

Fitzpatrick, P. J. "The legacy of Socrates." Socratic Questions. Routledge, 2018. 153-208.

Heifetz, Carl. Sherlock Holmes through the Microscope. Andrews UK Limited, 2018.

Marshall, Mason. "Socrates’ defensible devices in Plato’s Meno." Theory and Research in Education (2019): 1477878519862544.

Weiss, Roslyn. "Free to Care: Socrates’ Political Engagement." Socrates in the Cave. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham, 2019. 165-183.

Subject: Philosophy

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Descartes Believes That There Exists Both 'mind' And 'matter' (or 'body' - Same Thing). Smart Believes That There Is Only 'matter', Or The Material/physical World, And Everything Else, Including Thoughts, Sensations And Other Apparently 'mental' Processe

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Philosophy of Descartes

I would start the argument, that there exists both Mind and Body/Matter, and that both are exclusively distinct from each other, because of the functions. The argument can be established through inspecting both mind and matter through their properties. First, “Matter” by the virtue of its existence always requires physical qualities to exist, whereas “Mind” is intangible.

Mind and Matter are two distinct entities, which have existence in and of them self and that both are mutually exclusive of each other ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"OkSgStiW","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Ariew)","plainCitation":"(Ariew)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":337,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/smYQhi21/items/GWMTUZ9M"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/smYQhi21/items/GWMTUZ9M"],"itemData":{"id":337,"type":"book","title":"Descartes and the last scholastics","publisher":"Cornell University Press","ISBN":"1-5017-3324-9","author":[{"family":"Ariew","given":"Roger"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Ariew). He further posits that Mind by its own virtue has distinct and separate entity with proper functions and properties, whereas body has its own. One can also question his notion on several instances?

For probing his argument, take a look at non-living bodies, which lack the thinking capacity at all like mountains, and mineral deposits on the plane and they do not possess the same properties as humans. There remains no room for doubt that, it is possible for bodies to exist without thinking ability. Taking his argument other way round i.e. is it possible for thinking to exist without or outside substance/matter? or making it simple is it possible to think without the help of brain? Thus, the answer which I am getting while writing this academic piece of paper is No, if it would be known than by proxy it also posits that it is not possible for body to exist without mind. As we do not have any observations and instances in human history of mind without bodies as in the case of bodies which are everywhere without having thinking capacities or minds ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Um0oRwDo","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Gibson)","plainCitation":"(Gibson)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":331,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/smYQhi21/items/JFVJANFW"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/smYQhi21/items/JFVJANFW"],"itemData":{"id":331,"type":"book","title":"The philosophy of Descartes","publisher":"Routledge","ISBN":"1-315-46808-5","author":[{"family":"Gibson","given":"A. Boyce"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Gibson). As a matter of fact, that Mind being intangible or without any physical properties we cannot know its existence as human senses operate on only those bodies which have matter.

Works Cited

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Ariew, Roger. Descartes and the Last Scholastics. Cornell University Press, 2019.

Gibson, A. Boyce. The Philosophy of Descartes. Routledge, 2016.

Subject: Philosophy

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Evaluating Arguments

Evaluating Argument

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Evaluating Argument

To evaluate an argument, the first and the foremost way is to assess it logically and find out all the possible factors that either support or negate the argument. Once you are through it, then it is not difficult for the person to give a valid answer (Night, 2018).

While considering the case 1 the increment in the popularity of the fish oil tablets has been rapidly increased as it gives a chance to the people to improve their health and it is massively used all across the globe, and people are getting benefit from it. These factors have been a valid reason for the increase in its popularity and the growth

While focusing on the second case regarding the care for hospices from the non-profitable organization is not convincing because in the private sector, the more you pay to them the more the better services you are going to avail from them. All these services have helped the people to enhance their health and as per the argument is given to the service providers, and they make sure to prevail the justice as well (Govier, 2002).

While considering the third case, both the universities are similar to each other, and there is no such difference as the qualities, traditions, colleagues, atmosphere, everything is almost the same, and there are such issues as mentioned by the authority as both are at different places moreover the syllabus is different.

I agree with the case 5 where the depressed workers are facing much more issues than that of the other people. The reason for giving an agreement to this issue is because the depressed worker is already not active neither in the state to bring more activity and happiness back in their life. This is one of the prime factors due to which the people may face more negativity even in the minutest issue, whereas happy people are always good to go (Noddings, 2018).

References

Govier, T. (2002). The philosophy of argument. Informal Logic, 22(1), 73-84.

Noddings, N. (2018). Philosophy of education. Routledge. 018).

Light, A. (2018). Reel Arguments: Film, philosophy, and social criticism. Routledge.

Subject: Philosophy

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Mackie’s Argument

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Art 101

19 November 2018

Mackie’s argument

The branch of philosophy that asks the question of what morality is, known as Metaethics. It asks question in mind philosophy, language philosophy, epistemology, and metaphysics. It raises questions that if ethics are true or false if there are any moral properties as right or wrong, and if there are ethical truths, then how a person can discover them ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"8ZEyKq0R","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Olson)","plainCitation":"(Olson)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":496,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WcSf8WB9/items/2YI29WLQ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WcSf8WB9/items/2YI29WLQ"],"itemData":{"id":496,"type":"book","title":"How to Understand Mackie’s Argument from Queerness (I)","publisher":"Oxford University Press","source":"www.oxfordscholarship.com","abstract":"This chapter considers the argument from queerness and identifies non-naturalist moral realism as its target. A distinction is made between the argument from queerness and the queerness arguments. The first step of the argument from queerness is to identify ways in which moral properties and facts are queer; the second step is to offer debunking explanations of moral belief. Four queerness arguments are identified, concerning supervenience, knowledge, motivation, and irreducible normativity. This chapter examines the first three. The first two arguments generalize beyond the moral and the normative to more general issues in metaphysics and epistemology, or reduce to more basic worries about the queerness of non-natural properties. The third argument rests on problematic assumptions about moral facts. It is concluded that the first three queerness arguments are unconvincing.","URL":"https://www.oxfordscholarship.com/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198701934.001.0001/acprof-9780198701934-chapter-5","ISBN":"978-0-19-177162-0","language":"en_US","author":[{"family":"Olson","given":"Jonas"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2014",1,23]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",11,21]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Olson). According to moral realism, wrong and right are the properties of actions, and bad and good are properties of situations. Mackie begins with the shared observation that moral rules differ from one society to another; that is, there is a relative morality in societies ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"q4aTb6aN","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Olson)","plainCitation":"(Olson)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":496,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WcSf8WB9/items/2YI29WLQ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WcSf8WB9/items/2YI29WLQ"],"itemData":{"id":496,"type":"book","title":"How to Understand Mackie’s Argument from Queerness (I)","publisher":"Oxford University Press","source":"www.oxfordscholarship.com","abstract":"This chapter considers the argument from queerness and identifies non-naturalist moral realism as its target. A distinction is made between the argument from queerness and the queerness arguments. The first step of the argument from queerness is to identify ways in which moral properties and facts are queer; the second step is to offer debunking explanations of moral belief. Four queerness arguments are identified, concerning supervenience, knowledge, motivation, and irreducible normativity. This chapter examines the first three. The first two arguments generalize beyond the moral and the normative to more general issues in metaphysics and epistemology, or reduce to more basic worries about the queerness of non-natural properties. The third argument rests on problematic assumptions about moral facts. It is concluded that the first three queerness arguments are unconvincing.","URL":"https://www.oxfordscholarship.com/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198701934.001.0001/acprof-9780198701934-chapter-5","ISBN":"978-0-19-177162-0","language":"en_US","author":[{"family":"Olson","given":"Jonas"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2014",1,23]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",11,21]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Olson). Rendering to one society, slavery is allowed under specific circumstances. Similarly, all people should be treated as equals and sometimes people should be treated according to their caste. Mackie argues that there are no objective moral facts, but the argument is indirect. ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"UrxXhODh","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Loeb)","plainCitation":"(Loeb)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":500,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WcSf8WB9/items/5K4NJWHG"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WcSf8WB9/items/5K4NJWHG"],"itemData":{"id":500,"type":"article-journal","title":"Moral Realism and the Argument from Disagreement","container-title":"Philosophical Studies: An International Journal for Philosophy in the Analytic Tradition","page":"281-303","volume":"90","issue":"3","source":"JSTOR","archive":"JSTOR","ISSN":"0031-8116","author":[{"family":"Loeb","given":"D."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1998"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Loeb) The fact that there is a moral difference between societies does not in itself show that there is anything wrong with moral realism. Societies also differed in empirical realities; for example, some thought the earth was flat, others were round, or again, some people could magically convey things by thinking against magic, etc. The fact that societies have disagreed about morality still opens the option of having objective moral truths, but some societies have held false beliefs about what is good and morally correct. When we think about the way we should understand and explain moral differences between societies is where the argument of moral realism comes. The realist must reason that diverse societies, with their dissimilar moral values ​​and practices and values, are all trying to come to reality about morality. According to the relativist, morality should be understood as a reflection of its way of life.

Mackie goes on to point out that realism can answer to the fact that there are general ethical principles shared by diverse societies. For instance, most communities prohibit theft, lying, murder, and encouraging the care of the weak. If the dispute chains the view that there is no objective moral truth, then the agreement will say there is. Mackie argues that the response to the argument of relativity is weak. At the finest, it appears only that essential moral principles are objective. Other moral judgments are tied to certain situations; for instance, "stealing is wrong" is true in some societies, but in others, it may be wrong. Mackie's assertion that any moral judgments relating to the conditions of society are not objective ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"y1YPss7b","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Ap)","plainCitation":"(Ap)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":495,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WcSf8WB9/items/ZLULXLZB"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WcSf8WB9/items/ZLULXLZB"],"itemData":{"id":495,"type":"post-weblog","title":"Wrestling with Philosophy : The Arguments from Queerness and Relativity (Mackie Part 2)","container-title":"Wrestling with Philosophy","URL":"http://missiontotransition.blogspot.com/2012/03/arguments-from-queerness-and-relativity.html","title-short":"Wrestling with Philosophy","author":[{"family":"Ap","given":""}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2012",3,3]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",11,21]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Ap). This misinterprets the nature of moral reality, as we can say, as well as the nature of truth. For instance, some plants grow in hot countries but not in cold countries. So "chili plants will grow well" is a relative fact - it's a fact in one country but not in another. But that does not make it less objective. Mackie offers a second argument against moral realism, which he calls an argument of "queerness" ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"zPPJzk93","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}Moral Anti-Realism > Mackie\\uc0\\u8217{}s Arguments for the Moral Error Theory (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)})","plainCitation":"(Moral Anti-Realism > Mackie’s Arguments for the Moral Error Theory (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy))","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":494,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WcSf8WB9/items/QKRBCGYB"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WcSf8WB9/items/QKRBCGYB"],"itemData":{"id":494,"type":"webpage","title":"Moral Anti-Realism > Mackie's Arguments for the Moral Error Theory (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)","URL":"https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/moral-anti-realism/moral-error-theory.html","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",11,21]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Moral Anti-Realism > Mackie’s Arguments for the Moral Error Theory (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)). The strangeness of moral characteristics and how one can know them if they do make it unreasonable to believe that there are any moral characteristics. The argument has two aspects, epistemological and metaphysical. Mackie argues that if there are moral characteristics, they must be completely diverse from anything else in the universe. His argument for this claim is based on the relationship between motivation and morality. Moral judgments motivate us - avoid actions that we think are wrong and try to do the right things. But that means, if there are moral characteristics, knowing what is wrong or right, bad or good, will be enough to motivate us to act in firm ways ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"rdCvn1Od","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Loeb)","plainCitation":"(Loeb)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":500,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WcSf8WB9/items/5K4NJWHG"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WcSf8WB9/items/5K4NJWHG"],"itemData":{"id":500,"type":"article-journal","title":"Moral Realism and the Argument from Disagreement","container-title":"Philosophical Studies: An International Journal for Philosophy in the Analytic Tradition","page":"281-303","volume":"90","issue":"3","source":"JSTOR","archive":"JSTOR","ISSN":"0031-8116","author":[{"family":"Loeb","given":"D."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1998"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Loeb). Mackie's argument is contingent on his understanding of what claims moral realism. In specific, he takes moral realism to be dedicated to the idea that moral properties are part of reality and independent of reason.

Work Cited

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Ap. “Wrestling with Philosophy : The Arguments from Queerness and Relativity (Mackie Part 2).” Wrestling with Philosophy, 3 Mar. 2012, http://missiontotransition.blogspot.com/2012/03/arguments-from-queerness-and-relativity.html.

Loeb, D. “Moral Realism and the Argument from Disagreement.” Philosophical Studies: An International Journal for Philosophy in the Analytic Tradition, vol. 90, no. 3, 1998, pp. 281–303. JSTOR.

Moral Anti-Realism > Mackie’s Arguments for the Moral Error Theory (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy). https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/moral-anti-realism/moral-error-theory.html. Accessed 21 Nov. 2019.

Olson, Jonas. How to Understand Mackie’s Argument from Queerness (I). Oxford University Press, 2014. www.oxfordscholarship.com, https://www.oxfordscholarship.com/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198701934.001.0001/acprof-9780198701934-chapter-5.

Subject: Philosophy

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Paper Topic Examples: 1. Drawing On The Articles We Read In Class, Discuss Some Of The Major Issues Surrounding Health And Disease Classifications In Medicine. Is There An Area Of Medicine Where These Debates Are Particularly Relevant? (E.g., Cosmetic Su

Teddy Ofosu

Instructor Name

Course Number

15 May 2019

Topic 2: Central ethical principles of clinical research involving human Subjects

In patient-care today, the idea of paternalism is not accepted today. The idea of the doctor deciding a course of treatment thereby eliminating the patient’s right to make a choice regarding their own treatment violates the key ethical principle of autonomy and is thus not acceptable today in medical practice. Clinicians and care staff are expected to promote patient autonomy and empower them to make autonomous decisions as much as reasonably possibleCITATION Rho12 \p 508 \t \l 1033 (Rhodes and Schiano 508). However, such ethical clarity is not as probable when it comes to clinical research. Clinical research often involves testing new medical interventions within the laboratory to observe important findings and information, often by first subjecting animals to the same trials and eventually testing them in humans. The practice raises critical ethical and bioethical issues, and because many physicians are themselves involved in clinical research today, any misinterpretation when it comes to boundaries between care and research can have potentially serious consequences. It is therefore important to engage in an ethical analysis of clinical research to arrive at an answer. In the paper, I will be discussing various key ethical principles of clinical research that involves human subjects, highlighting important ethical and philosophical concerns raised by bioethicists and physicians associated with human recruitment in clinical research, and finally attempt to arrive at an appropriate ethical model for the protection of human subjects.

The goal of clinical research is to determine which medical intervention is most appropriate to a disease and whether one form of intervention is more adequate than the other while offering a greater clinical benefit than risk. Yet, the human subjects on which these medical interventions are tested are themselves prone to risks regardless of preceding animal trials. It is thus evident that subjecting the participants to risks in order to collect useful health and clinical data is to seek benefit for future patients. Nevertheless, the practice is still ethically problematic since it can potentially lead to an Individual being possibly harmedCITATION Tom03 \p 24 \l 1033 (Beauchamp 24). Many current regulations and guidelines attempt to address the issue by admonishing researchers to subject test participants to risks only when the value of the study can sufficiently justify it, yet, there are no easy answers. Several observers are of the view that the ethical principles of clinical care govern the ethics of clinical research, utilizing methods that are deemed acceptable within clinical care while exposing participants to only as much risk as is acceptable within a clinical setting.

These concerns by bioethicists and physicians regarding the ethics of clinical research are not without context. Clinical research history is rife with abuses which continues to influence how ethicists and policymakers perceive clinical research-related concerns. Numerous guidelines were developed to prevent the recurrence of horrific abuses, such as the hypothermia experiments conducted by Nazi scientists during the Second World WarCITATION Rob90 \p 1435 \l 1033 (Berger 1435). The Nuremberg Code was one such formal guideline developed in response, which was also later deemed inadequate to address the ethical issues related to clinical researchCITATION Dav07 \p 372 \l 1033 (Buchanan and Miller 372). For instance, the requirement to have independent ethical approvals and reviews was not existent in the Nuremberg Code CITATION The96 \p 1448 \l 1033 (The Nuremberg Code 1448). The guideline was then followed by the Declaration of Helsinki to address the former’s shortcomings. The presence of informed consent was emphasized as a mandatory condition for clinical research testing various conditions and emergency situations in patients, even if the research posits minimal harms or risks, or offers the human subject certain compensationCITATION Dec96 \p 1449 \l 1033 (Declaration of Helsinki 1964 1449). The increased emphasis on informed consent was due to the fact that clinical research always relied on volunteer participation who would agree to assume certain risks to themselves. The informed consent process seeks to inform the test subjects of the benefits, risks, and their rights when they agree to participate in a clinical testCITATION Dav07 \p 384 \l 1033 (Buchanan and Miller 384).

Following the Helsinki Declaration, The Belmont Report of 1979 provided clear guidance to behavioral and biomedical researchers by outlining some key ethical principles that had to be taken into consideration to ensure the protection of human subjects, namely justice, beneficence, and respect for individuals. It followed after the abuses committed in the Tuskegee syphilis study came to light four decades after the research was initiated. The infamous study involved testing and documenting the natural course of syphilis among 400 African American males in Tuskegee countyCITATION Rot82 \p 5 \l 1033 (Rothman 5). Clinically proven treatments were withheld from the test subjects who were instead told that the processes involved were for therapeutic purposes. After the incident came to light, a U.S. National Commission was formed following public outcry, who were tasked to develop appropriate safeguards and re-evaluate ethical principles for clinical researchCITATION All78 \p 27 \l 1033 (Brandt 27). The Commission’s findings and recommendations created a code of conduct for future regulations surrounding clinical research

Even as improved guidelines started to govern clinical research, the philosophical and bioethical debate among ethicists and physicians continues in light of emerging ideas. Any misinterpretation between the boundaries of clinical care and research can lead to serious consequences, for instance, it can lead test subjects to believe that the research studies will involve the physician prescribing the best therapy, while the intervention provided within the test is governed by research protocol. Such issues have prompted many observers to assume the position that the ethics of clinical care should also govern the ethics of clinical research. Such a view finds it ethically unacceptable for a physician to support a research unless it stands consistent with the medical interests of the patient since the contrary view would violate their duty as a clinicianCITATION SEP09 \p n.p \l 1033 (SEP n.p). The view has been mostly applied to randomized controlled trials wherein the intervention received by a test subject is based on a random process instead of a proper clinical judgement deciding the most appropriate therapyCITATION Rob99 \p 532 \l 1033 (Levine 532). Another principle adopted by this camp is that the treatments selected for the trial must be the best currently available for that particular disease and that the test subject's interests must not be compromised when scientific information is collected. The position is based on the philosophical notion of virtue, which believes that clinical research must protect and reassure the test subjects as well as the public that they are protected, just as the norms of clinical medicine are. In turn, it is assured that any enhancements in clinical research and medicine are not achieved at the cost of exploiting Individuals.

However, the reality is that many procedures and studies which were crucial in developing or identifying enhanced methods for protecting health are not consistent with the medical interests of the test subjects. In this regard, classifying certain research as therapeutic or nontherapeutic is also problematic since nearly all clinical research involves some components that are nontherapeutic in natureCITATION Rob99 \p 531 \l 1033 (Levine 531). Similarly, an evaluation of the risk-benefit of many clinical studies would reveal that certain interventions and procedures are contrary to the norms of medical practice, for instance, studies that use healthy subjects to test a drug’s safe dosage level. Such a study clearly violates the position taken by ethicists who believe a trial should be consistent with the individual’s clinical interests. A prima facie view in this regard would be to view the physician’s responsibilities to exist only within the domain of clinical care for patients requiring treatment, which cannot apply to clinical research CITATION Tom03 \p 27 \l 1033 (Beauchamp 27). Moreover, most bioethicists have begun to recognize the former’s view’s limitation in ensuring that research subjects are not exposed to risks beyond that which falls within the risk threshold of clinical medicine, without obscuring the actual clinical research and its objectives.

One way to address the conflict between the two positions would be to find a reasonable justification for exposing the test subjects to overall net risks against the society’s benefitCITATION Tom03 \p 25 \l 1033 (Beauchamp 25). Moreover, it will also involve identifying certain protections for human subjects so that they can remain safe while not being as strict as to obstruct the necessary clinical research intended to bring benefit to a group or community. In such a case Rhodes and Alfandre (69) bring forth a set of principles that help decide which particular principle should have priority in a certain case, in a way that helps avoid the ethical dilemma. Such meditative methods have been applied by other researchers, for instance, in the case of defining the ethics of placebo-controlled trials. According to Emanuel and Miller (918), such trials are ethical only when they have compelling methodologic reasons, wherein a strict ethical assessment makes it clear that placebo-taking subjects will not be exposed to serious harm and at the same time, certain arrangements have been made to minimize any potential risks associated with receiving the placebo.

In order to arrive at an appropriate model for protecting the human subjects, the Belmont report (1979) is a useful guiding tool to understand the underlying principles which should govern the model. Among the principles, the first is that any study involving human test subjects should be necessary to improve the welfare and health of human beings. Secondly, a recognition that the ability to engage in research is not a right, but rather a privilege extended to the researchers by the subjects and the overall society itself. Thirdly, the costs and risks of the clinical research must not outweigh the potential benefits CITATION Ken79 \p 4 \l 1033 (Ryan, Brady and Cooke 4). Following these basic principles, some further governing principles to define a model includes ‘respect for persons’ which involves treating individuals as autonomous agents and entitling them to protection if their autonomy is diminished. The principle of beneficence and justice generally cover the aforementioned principles under the former’s doctrine of minimizing potential harms and maximizing possible benefitCITATION Tom03 \p 24 \l 1033 (Beauchamp 24). An injustice is said to have occurred if an individual is denied what is entitled to them as a result of some undue burden or without good reasonCITATION Tom03 \p 26 \l 1033 (Beauchamp 26). The principle of justice also applies in the case of selecting research subjects who have to be examined whether they have been selected owing to their manipulability, belonging to a certain class, or a compromised position, instead of the selection being governed directly by the requirements of the clinical research.

The important doctrines governing ethical principles in research lead researchers Buchanan and Miller (372) to define what makes clinical research ethical. These requirements include: informed consent, presence of independent review, a favorable risk to benefit ratio, a known scientific or social value, fair selection of subjects, scientific validity, respect for participants, and community collaboration. Together these fair terms would allow human subjects to be used in clinical research while avoiding potential exploitation and ensuring particular safeguards for them CITATION Dav07 \p 372 \l 1033 (Buchanan and Miller 372). Additionally, there must be uncertainty within the clinical community regarding which intervention or treatment is better, and the outcome should be helpful in determining the preferred treatment. Furthermore, since the objective of clinical research is to obtain knowledge to enhance human health, the findings and investigations of the research must be placed in the public domain.

In addition, the model should also consider the incentives offered to human subjects for participating in the research. In order to avoid concerns of exploitation, bias, inducement, any monetary compensation must be dependent on the time needed to complete the research procedures and activities, as well as the nature of the research CITATION Dav07 \p 382 \l 1033 (Buchanan and Miller 382). Incentives should be offered that minimize any potential conflict of interest. At the same time, the presence of IRBs is also necessary to protect the safety, well-being, privacy and rights of the vulnerable subjects CITATION Dav07 \p 373 \l 1033 (Buchanan and Miller 373). Furthermore, no study or procedure should be performed if it is not a clear part of approved IRB protocols, and other requirements such as maintenance of records and documentation, reporting adverse events, and obtaining prior approval before changes are initiated must also be followed, while ensuring that all applicable regulations are complied with CITATION Tom03 \p 30 \l 1033 (Beauchamp 30).

Appreciating the engagement of the research subjects is also useful to build a level of trust between the subjects and investigators, while ensuring that the complete requirements of informed consent are fulfilled and it is evident that the human subjects used an autonomous and voluntary choice to participate. The informed consent procedure must involve a descriptive statement of discomforts and risks in the study, a disclosure of alternatives, benefits to the test subject, statement of compensation and confidentiality, the availability of treatment in case of an adverse event, a statement outlining the voluntary nature of the participation, and contacts in case the subject has questions related to the risks, benefits, or their rightsCITATION Dav07 \p 384 \l 1033 (Buchanan and Miller 384). Additionally, any circumstances for exclusion, unforeseeable risks, potentially additional costs, information about other members of the study, and consequences to withdrawing during the research must also be outlined where appropriate.

To conclude, the adherence to guidelines are crucial for conducting ethical research to protect the vulnerable population while ensuring that all clinical research is conducted without undue influence, coercion, or through deceptive means. However, there is still a need to evaluate and examine other methods to further enhance the test subject's protection as well as retention, providing them with incentives that maximize positive outcomes and minimize conflict of interest. A careful assessment of risks, proper collection of informed consent and compliance with regulatory bodies is essential to minimize any potential harms to the vulnerable test subjects, who must be treated with concern, beneficence, justice and respect in accordance with the applicable codes of conduct.

Works Cited

BIBLIOGRAPHY Beauchamp, Tom L. "Ethical Theory and Bioethics." Contemporary Issues in Bioethics. Ed. Beauchamp and Walters. 6th. New York, NY: Wadsworth, 2003. 2-34.

Berger, Robert L. "Nazi Science - The Dachau Hypothermia Experiments." The New England Journal of Medicine 222.20 (1990): 1435-1440.

Brandt, Allan M. "The Case of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study." The Hastings Center Report 8.6 (1978): 21-29.

Buchanan, David and Franklin G. Miller. "Justice in Research on Human Subjects." The Blackwell Guide to Medical Ethics. Ed. Rosamond Rhodes, Leslie P. Francis and Anita Silvers. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2007. 373-393.

"Declaration of Helsinki 1964." BMJ 313 (1996): 1448-1449.

Emanuel, Ezekiel J. and Franklin G. Miller. "The Ethics Of Placebo-Controlled Trials — A Middle Ground." The New England Journal of Medicine 345.12 (2001): 915-919.

Levine, Robert J. "The Need to Revise The Declaration of Helsinki." The New England Journal of Medicine 341.7 (1999): 531-534.

Rhodes, Rosamond and David Alfandre. "A systematic approach to clinical moral reasoning." Clinical Ethics 2 (2007): 66-70.

Rhodes, Rosamond and Thomas D. Schiano. "Justice in Transplant Organ Allocation." Medicine and Social Justice. Ed. Rosamond Rhodes, M Pabst Battin and Anita Silvers. 2nd. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2012. 505-522.

Rothman, David J. "Were Tuskegee & Willowbrook 'Studies in Nature'." The Hastings Center Report 12.2 (1982): 5-7.

Ryan, Kenneth John, et al. The Belmont Report: Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research. Commission Report. Bethesda, MD: National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, 1979.

SEP. The Ethics of Clinical Research. 30 January 2009. 16 May 2019. <https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/clinical-research/>.

"The Nuremberg Code." BMJ 313 (1996): 1448-1449.

Subject: Philosophy

Pages: 7 Words: 2100

Whether Or Not Socrates Save Meno Life. How That Attempt To Steer Meno In The Difference Direction Relate To The Project Of Philosophy. How And Why?

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Philosophy

“The Meno” is one of the most important section of the book “Plato: Five Dialogue,” which sheds light on the discussion of Socrates and Meno on the topic of virtue. The great philosopher, Socrates tries to teach Meno what virtue is by elaborating its definition, details and the meaning of the concepts. Although Meno is educated and knowledgeable and tries to explain the concept of virtue to Socrates, however, he keeps rejecting all the claims of Meno by raising another concern. Socrates may have saved the life of Meno by explaining him the true meaning and concept of virtue and not letting him steer into different directions.

Meno poses a question to Socrates about what virtue is and it can be learned or not. Socrates tells him that he is not aware of the definition of virtue so cannot have anything to say about if it can be learned or not. Meno starts explaining the definition of virtue to him, which is rejected again. The two people then keep trying to explore the point by searching the definition, exploring that knowledge is innate, virtue can be taught or not and exploring the reason of the absence of the teachers of virtue (Jowett, 15). Socrates at the end, save the life of Meno by making him clear through his reasoning that virtue cannot specifically be taught because it is based on the innate knowledge. Attempt to steer Meno in the different direction relate to the project of philosophy in the way that Socrates wanted him to not just keep sticking to one position but explore all the other and reject them due to the solid reason (Platon, 85).

The discussion of Socrates and Meno is one of the most important in the subject of philosophy. It not only encourages the readers to go in the depth of the concepts and explore their deeper meanings but also encourage them to not settle for the superficial settings. Socrates saved the life of Meno by helping him to explore the deeper meaning of virtue.

Works Cited

Jowett, Benjamin. Meno. Dover Publications, 2019.

Platon. Plato: Five Dialogues. Everyman's Library, 1949.

Subject: Philosophy

Pages: 1 Words: 300

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Discussion: The Ethics Of Belief

Introduction

In this paper, "The Ethics of Belief” is discussed and analyzed critically to understand its relevance with the other theories of ethics. The theory discusses the structure and nature of the norms and the authoritative sources of intuition and inquisitive nature associated with the ethics of belief. The person who’s thought-process is synchronized with these principles, exhibits tendencies that are translated by either his belief system or by inner satisfaction. The scholars of ethics, philosophy, and normative sciences study such behaviors and determine its impact on a person and mental and psychological importance. William K. Clifford presented research and findings of this form of ethics by highlighting the importance of ‘duty of inquiry’ before taking action. He put forward a skeptic viewpoint regarding the actions taken by faith prior to confirmation from intuitive and logical sources. He gives the example of a boat owner and compares his mindset by considering alternate hypothetical outcomes of his actions. The thesis studies such actions governed by ethics of belief according to findings of William K. Clifford and compare it with other theories of ethics, including consequentialism and deontology. We will try to find whether ‘ethics of belief’ is more in line with deontology or with consequentialism by taking an overview of all these concepts to make a careful and critical judgment.

The Ethics of Belief

The Ethics of Belief is characterized by determining the norms that are responsible for governing the habits of belief relinquishment, belief formation, and belief maintenance. The simple idea is forming or developing a belief about matters of premium and important nature without obtaining enough evidence. Also, to believe in the authenticity of anything to a degree of firmness that is not relatable with the strength of evidence. “The “ethics of belief” refers to a cluster of questions at the intersection of epistemology, ethics, philosophy of mind, and psychology ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"3G9a01U2","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Chignell)","plainCitation":"(Chignell)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":264,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/5OlhLovK/items/8MQHL63W"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/5OlhLovK/items/8MQHL63W"],"itemData":{"id":264,"type":"chapter","title":"The Ethics of Belief","container-title":"The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy","publisher":"Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University","edition":"Spring 2018","source":"Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy","abstract":"The “ethics of belief” refers to a cluster of questions atthe intersection of epistemology, ethics, philosophy of mind, andpsychology., The central question in the debate is whether there are norms of somesort governing our habits of belief-formation, belief-maintenance, andbelief-relinquishment. Is it ever or always morally wrong (orepistemically irrational, or practically imprudent)to hold a belief on insufficient evidence? Is it ever or alwaysmorally right (or epistemically rational, orpractically prudent) to believe on the basis of sufficientevidence, or to withhold belief in the perceived absence of it? Is itever or always obligatory to seek out all available epistemic evidencefor a belief? Are there some ways of obtaining evidence that arethemselves immoral, irrational, imprudent?, Related questions have to do with the nature and structure of thenorms involved, if any, as well as the source of their authority. Arethey instrumental norms grounded in contingent ends that we set forourselves? Are they categorical norms grounded in ends set for us bythe very nature of our intellectual or moral capacities? Are thereother options? And what are the objects of evaluation in thiscontext—believers, beliefs, or both?, Finally, assuming that there are norms of some sort governingbelief-formation, what does that imply about the nature of belief?Does it imply that belief-formation is voluntary or under our control?If so, what sort of control is this? If not, then is talk of anethics of belief even coherent?","URL":"https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2018/entries/ethics-belief/","author":[{"family":"Chignell","given":"Andrew"}],"editor":[{"family":"Zalta","given":"Edward N."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018"]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",11,22]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Chignell)." To understand the discussion, one may ask questions like, is it rationally or morally wrong to construct a belief without adequate evidence? Is it always right to believe in the presence of evidence and to abandon belief without any proof? Is it always necessary and obligatory to find all the possible epistemic evidence to believe? And what if the evidence to believe in certain concepts or phenomena are irrational, immoral, and imprudent?

The answers to these questions are based on structure and the nature of the norms involved and on the sources of their authenticity and authority. Also, it is needed to determine whether the belief system is adopted under some compulsion or controlled process, or it is wholly a voluntary process. There are a variety of views among scholars of normative sciences regarding the norms of belief. Some of them give this concept a room if the evidence is very scars but one must use the deductive argument in making the decision. On the other hand, some scientists of normative sciences do not appreciate the need for ‘ethics of belief’ in any case and exert stress on the epistemic norms.

Clifford’s viewpoint

Clifford wrote an extensive essay on this topic and gave a skeptic overview of the concept of doing actions without proper evidence. The essay is comprised of a principle that is based on a story. The story is about the owner of a ship who allowed his vessel to sail in deep waters for the voyage across Atlantic. He had some reservations and concerns in mind about the soundness of the boat, but he did not pay much heed to those thoughts. Probably because it would result in expenses in maintenance and also would delay the voyage. By putting all concerns aside, sold tickets, bade farewell to the passengers, and collected the insurance money. He did so by believing in the strong conviction that the boat is safe and would complete voyage without any disaster. Unfortunately, the ship sank in deep waters, leaving the owner in great regret. Clifford argues that the owner had no right to believe in his conviction no matter how strong it was. In fact, this psychological satisfaction is only associated with himself and cannot account for the trust and satisfaction of passengers. He also possessed no right to base his action on such belief because he did not earn it by honest efforts in the shape of patient investigation. He rather acted upon his conviction by just merely stifling his concerns. So he states his principle as “It is wrong always, everywhere, and for anyone to believe anything on insufficient evidence (Clifford)."

It is reported Clifford himself survived a shipwreck once so he can easily relate such situations with behavioral aspects of philosophy. He also argues that if the outcomes were entirely different and the vessel could make her way smoothly across the Atlantic, it would not have changed the fact that the owner made a big mistake. He would be considered blameworthy and guilty in exactly the same way for believing in something without proper evidence that may result in loss of lives. The author believes that the duty of inquiry before each iteration of a process is necessary. It is not acceptable to remove doubt by just irrationally stifling it rather; it should be answered and tackled on the basis of an already made inquiry else it should be declared that the inquiry is incomplete.

Relation with ethical theories

We will now compare Clifford's proposed narrative with major theories of ethics, including consequentialism and deontology, and to determine which theory is more in line with his viewpoints. Consequentialism belongs to the type of normative ethics in which consequences of a certain act are the ultimate base for judgment about right or wrong. The theory is rooted in the concept of greater benefit for a greater number of people. If any outcome of an action is fruitful and beneficial for the majority, it should be considered as ethical and acceptable. If outcomes of a case are harmful for a fraction of the target and at the same time beneficial for a major section of the population, this ethical theory will second it and will allow harm to the minority.

Deontology is one famous theory of ethics, derived from Greek words deon and logos, deon for duty and logos for study. The theory belongs to the type of normative theories in which choices of action are determined as forbidden, required, and determined. In deontology, ethical requirements and choices are already determined and have nor relation with variation or diversity in situations. Once a rule is defined and considered ethical and acceptable, it is acceptable for all the cases and vice versa. In deontology, predefined rules and moral values may not allow harm to a smaller portion of the audience and may allow for the majority.

The narrative proposed by Clifford about the ‘Ethics of belief’ is more related and in line with deontology than consequentialism. To justify the claim, we will compare the story of boat owners with both the theories one by one.

Consequentialism suggests that if the boat is able to complete its voyage across the Atlantic without any disaster, the results are good and the action is justified. Clifford, on the other hand, still blames the owner of the ship for not grounding his action on the basis of adequate evidence.

According to deontology, the choices and moral grounds are already determined, so the defaulter is accused of not breaking the law even if consequences are good. Clifford also believes that the owner must have catered to the doubts and is guilty of not observing already existing ethical rules.

That already existing principle is defined in other words as “It is wrong always, everywhere, and for anyone to ignore evidence that is relevant to his beliefs, or to dismiss relevant evidence in a facile way (Inwagevann)."

Conclusion

In the normative study of behaviors, one may come across the scenario where he relies on the belief system based on assumptions. These assumptions may be rational, irrational, or may be dependent on a person's choice of ease and satisfaction. The other option is to enquire and strive to come out of the comfort zone and look for evidence. This is the best approach as described and exclusively explained by William K. Clifford. One must not trust merely on future experiences and abstain from stifling away doubts and concerns under the blanket of faith just for personal satisfaction and longing for ease. Also, the outcomes and consequences of an action cannot be considered authoritative license to include that act into moral premises rather basic principles must be abided. The skeptical analysis of Clifford is more relatable and coherent with the ethical theory of deontology rather than consequentialism, which relies on results and consequences of any act. The narrative does not suggest that we should become a universal skeptic and start doubting everything to a level that we are afraid to personally check the firmness of the road before stepping ahead for each step. Instead, we must strive to base our actions on logic, rational argument, and strong evidence by using our intuitive faculty and ever-increasing knowledge as much as we can.

Work Cited

Inwagevann, Peter. "It is wrong, everywhere, always, and for anyone, to believe anything on insufficient evidence." (1996).

Clifford, William K. "The ethics of belief." First published (1877).

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Chignell, Andrew. “The Ethics of Belief.” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, edited by Edward N. Zalta, Spring 2018, Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, 2018. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2018/entries/ethics-belief/.

Subject: Philosophy

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

(writers Choice)

My Aim of Life: What is most important in my life?

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My Aim of Life: What is most important in my life?

In this world, every human has priorities, aims, goals, targets and future concerns in his/her life. To choose a profession is not an easy task, aims vary from person to person according to their choice and personality, someone may want to be a doctor, engineer, or scientist while others aim to become bureaucrats, astronauts, businessman, or teachers. However, to choose any profession, we must be aware of our strengths and weaknesses. While choosing a profession, one must clearly know his direction or path to success is correct and achievable. Similarly, I have also goals and ambitions in my life to join the health care field. I am basically motivated by my father; he is a renowned doctor, dedicated and devoted professional with a spirit of helping mankind. I love people, meeting new people, and always want to help them out in problems, general as well as health related. So, because of my positive attitude for serving unhealthy people I want to choose health care industry. I have a strong aptitude in biology subject which motivates me to go in health field.

In health industry, I want to choose the physical activity field and want to be a physical trainer. My aim of getting physical education is because it displays a highly active lifestyle. Physical activities can initiate the member to develop a calm and composed personal attitude and can improve one’s emotional and mental wellbeing CITATION Kot16 \l 1033 (Kotecki, 2016). It develops social attitudes and conduct by emphasizing on ethical values required in Playing games, personal and social behavior in physical activity. It provides us a chance to move in groups for social contact and self-modification.

Generally, our thoughts, emotions, feelings and successes are significantly influenced by physiological development of the body. This development depends on selection of activities and then performing them to improve and develop the functions of the body. Adopting exercise and sports eliminates uncertainties, negative thinking and anxieties by developing suitable interests and habits. It supports in development and learning of motor skills that are applied on movement concepts and principles. It is a way to attain systematic health knowledge of physical exercise. It helps to boost energy and activeness level from a person’s tense, under confidence, nervous and short-tempered condition. Moreover, it promotes spirit of team, self-trust and discipline, leadership, patience, cooperation, social interaction and sportsmanship. In conclusion, my aim is to get physical education is to help people/children in developing their social, physical and mental health through proper guidance and instructions. It develops in him/her social and individual qualities that help him to live purposeful, happy and healthy life in the society.

What role does physical activity play in my life?

Physical Activity plays an important role in life of a person and have instant and long-term benefits for health. It is no doubt good for everyone, if starts from childhood, it has very positive effects on health and becomes persons habit of life. Exercise or physical activity can improve persons health and decrease the danger of developing numerous diseases like cancer, obesity, diabetes, and heart disease, anxiety and depression. If you do 30 minutes workout daily you can enjoy a healthy life CITATION Kot16 \l 1033 (Kotecki, 2016).

If you do regular physical exercise then it is very beneficent for health. There are many benefits of physical activity like it reduces obesity and maintains weight. It reduces the risk of a heart attack, maintains the level of cholesterol and normalizes blood pressure. The danger of type 2 diabetes and cancers reduces by regular exercise. Moreover, it prevents a person from osteoporosis and enhances the strength of muscles, bones and joints, which overall increases one’s ability to perform daily physical activities. Regular physical activity helps us to release stress, depression, anger and anxiety CITATION Bou12 \l 1033 (Bouchard, Blair, & Haskell, 2012). Exercise helps to control negative thinking and reduces your concentration from daily worries. It uplifts one’s mood and improves one’s sleep timings.

Furthermore, people feel relaxed by as their mood is enhanced; they feel energetic and sleeps well. If you are not working out then, with the passage of time, your body stamina, strength and functionality slowdowns. Regular physical activities eventually help a person reduce his/her medical bills. In contrast, a lazier and sedentary lifestyle can increase the risk of stroke and heart disease which, in turn, increases the number of hospital visits and medication bills. Exercise helps a person to become healthier, active, prevent long-lasting illnesses related to aging. Regular physical activity develops self-confidence and positive attitude in a person, which results in spending more time with family, friends and community people. Moreover, if a person is a smoker or any drug addict, a daily workout will help him to quit these habits.

Researchers and worlds health professionals recommend at least 30 minutes of workout daily to sustain health and reduce health risks. In order to get a healthy lifestyle, no need to do extra efforts or expanse, start from yourself, sit less, do walk or cycling, be active, participate in social activities and slowly build up your routine. If possible, you can join a gym for extra fitness and health. Finally, one must encourage himself and his family to be more active, play some outdoor games, hiking and picknick on weekends and try to achieve fitness goals.

What tools will I use to complete my health or physical activity field degree?

In physical activity field, a person needs to have many skills and learning abilities to accomplish their degree. He/she must be organized, analytical, good listener, active motivator, determined, encouraging, patient and consistent. These tools encompass teachers’ chances to interact and promote for physical activity in school as well as large communities. There are certain tools of understanding, to complete my physical health education degree:

Motivation

In a physical education degree, teacher uses individual and group motivation to create a safe knowledge environment that assures positive social communication, energetic collection in learning, and self-motivation.

Education Content

A physical education teacher must be able to understand physical education’s main contents, corrective concepts, and tools of examination required in growth of a physically educated person.

Development Process

Teachers of physical education must understand how persons can learn and develop, and create chances that support their social, physical, mental and emotional development. The main focus of this process is to integrate growth and development ideas into teaching activites.

Communication Behavior

Knowledge of real media communication, verbal and non-verbal methods must be used by teacher to substitute analysis, teamwork, and appointment in physical activity situations.

Learning Abilities

A physical education teacher first develops his understanding on how individuals vary in their ways of learning, and then develops suitable instructions according to those ways. Teachers demonstrate their ability through this tool, to design and implement learning practices that are complex to various learners.

Own Practice

In order to utilize this tool; physical teacher must be a thoughtful expert who can reflect his/her actions on others, to be successful professionally. He/she must be a role model for his delivery of knowledge.

Relationships

For individuals learning and growth, the physical education teacher develops a strong bonding with classmates, parents/guardians, and community activities.

Management Strategies

A physical education teacher device and implements appropriate instructional strategies to grow physically educated persons. He deals specifically with pedagogical information and data to substitute, physical, emotional and social development of learners.

Overall, to choose a health-related profession is a type of social work in the society. It helps mankind both morally and professionally. One must be efficient, quick learner, patient, intellectual, active, passionate and god-fearing person to eliminate flaws of physical activity in life. Moreover, when ethics are practical in a profession, it maps a value-oriented standard in professionals to improve their creativity and choose the objective of profession.

References

BIBLIOGRAPHY Bouchard, C., Blair, S. N., & Haskell, W. L. (2012). Physical Activity and Health. Human Kinetics.

Kotecki. (2016). Physical Activity & Health. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Subject: Philosophy

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

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Taoism

Introduction

Taoism has distinctive monstrous theories which for the normal individual can be difficult to get it. Precisely when all is said in done Taoism is a reasonable relation among individuals and nature. The most fundamental thought is Tao. This, at first insights the road growing one way. The Tao is concealed plus unnoticed, however the Tao is incredibly and ceaselessly beneficial, as the area in a vessel or a gap (Saso, n.p). Tao proposes the models supervising rehearses in people and things. To depict this theory turn as constantly vibrant, Taoism lures a Taiji Diagram: This is a twist dispensing float into two pieces, one half is in white watching out for Yang (the marvelous side) while the other is in dull, keeping an eye on Yin (the darkened side). There is a dull piece in the white part, while a white spot is working at leverage portion keeping an eye on the Yin and Yang of each other and can change into the frill (Saso, n.p). The standard name since no vulnerability two fish through and through is named as Diagram of Yin Yang Fish.

Discussion

There isn't any more evident advancement than fear, not any more colossal wrong than preparing to shield yourself, not any more irrefutable catastrophe than having an adversary. Taoism needs pleasantness and soundness like diverse arranged religions. Taoism figures people must execute as appeared by standards to get charming and successful proximity where everybody is comparable and nice to each other (Kirkland, n.p). By this conviction there is further the world must exist without combats; this sensible expedites tragedy and proceeding. Taoist's must live in congruity pleasingly with nature; they must in like way guarantee nature as opposed to wrecking it. Taoism is one of the hair-raising logical and religious ethnicities that started in China. Taoism and Confucianism started at around a commensurate time, around the 6th century B.C.E. The objective of Taoism is to attain tao, to discover the method (Kirkland, n.p). Tao is a completed authenticity, a closeness that occurred before the earth was enveloped and which endures dealing with the world and everything in it. Tao is a piece of the time evident as the Mother, or the wellspring of all things. That source isn't a god or a phenomenal being, as Taoism isn't monotheistic. Inside isn't to revere one god, yet rather on pending into appropriateness with tao. Tao is the exemplification of the whole thing that is right, and difficulties exist essentially in light of the way that people stupefy their own uncommon lives. Need, yearning, underwriting, and self-esteem are seen as squares to a heartfelt life. It is really when an individual liberates himself of all needs would tao can be created (Kirkland, n.p). The Tao has remained developed and Nirvana from its resemblances. Both have feelings in an inward light that will deal with a person into the right course. Taoism is, for the most part, seemed Lao-tzu. There isn't very seen as him and some analyst's lack of protection he occurred.

The Tao Te Ching is a legend among the most broadly perceived books in Chinese game plan and was undeniably made by Lao-tzu. The collusion that rings a toll first with Taoism is Hermetic hypothesis and how they fit. My captivation by this religion and hypothesis has been a long strategy for study. I welcome the path by which these plants look personality blowing and show how an individual can continue with a sensible and solid way of life by following essential contemplations of this present reality. This relates to my thinking since I see life as much as the Taoist. Another spellbinding bit of this religion is they kept up a key detachment from divinities in any case. The change searches for after various bits of Christianity with the Yen Yang be that as it may. The Tao despite does not see staggering and smarts. Unquestionable people would at first look seem to trust in this is a pulled back religion in light of the way that doing nothing about is clearly the standard goal. The key piece of the book examines basic bits of religion. I see how Taoism fits in with nature dears and familial love.

The favored outlook for society if Taoism is cleaned would be, in a manner of speaking, living in friendliness without war. The estimation of life itself, and living as one. The conviction of in regards to life itself has an amazing enthusiasm for general society. The ancient Taoist's aided sovereigns pick a nonviolent nation that was especially effective. I besides texture that the Yen Yang clarifies the equity of the life of humans. There is only a horrible memory without insidiousness or the alternate way, dimness, and shrewdness requires awkwardness, etc. Center living would take out one crucial issue of power out of condition for individuals (Izutsu, n.p). A definitive focus for the Taoist is to accomplish unlimited quality through reflection and balance. Chuang-tzu is a hero among the huge mediators of Taoism; his work is viewed as a victor among the complete creations of Taoism. Chuang-Tzu encouraged what can be understood of the Tao. Chuang-tzu is widely known for his record of his better half's passing. His understudies wanted to ease him in his period of regretting, in any case, discovered him whistling and whipping time on a woody bowl. He was in like way recognized for being the "virtuoso of the silly."

Conclusion

Today Taoism is commonly exhausted in China and Taiwan. It has additionally spread to different bits of Asia and even the world over. There are around 20 million supporters around the world. A considerable piece of them lives in Taiwan. Around 30,000 North Americans practice Taoism. One thing that keeps Taoism clearly comprehended is its adaptability (Izutsu, n.p). Different aficionados practice Taoism related to different religions. The differing arrangement is the veritable fortune of this religion. Incalculable old hand to hand doing combating besides total the Tao into their does and activities. The strategy for water, in addition, should be distinguished since this is an inside Tao conviction to make a most direct course of the move.

Works Cited

Izutsu, Toshihiko. Sufism and Taoism: A comparative study of key philosophical concepts. Univ of California Press, 2016.

Kirkland, Russell. Taoism: The enduring tradition. Routledge, 2004.

Saso, Michael R. Taoism and the rite of cosmic renewal. Pullman: Washington State University Press, 1972.

Subject: Philosophy

Pages: 3 Words: 900

2) Using Texts From Course, Along With Reference To The Historical Facts, Research An Answer The Following Questions: (1) Did The French Revolution Achieve Its Goals? (2) Why Or Why Not?

Arly

[Name of Instructor]

Philosophy

24 April 2019

French Revolution

Did the French Revolution achieve its goals? Why or why not?

French revolution was a consequent result of social and economic burdens on the masses while

the monarchs and aristocrats enjoyed lavish lifestyles. The ultimate goals of the French revolution,

the people in France wanted to achieve to get rid of the brutalities of the aristocrats and the

monarchy. They were based on Equality, Liberty, and Fraternity. Although the French revolution

was not successful in achieving most of its goals initially however it laid foundations for a

democratically stable France in the long run. The successful achievement of goals of the French

revolution can be recognized through a number of elements during the time.

Background

The French involvement in the American Revolution, the extravagant spending of the monarchs

and the poor conditions of the economy of the country u thoughts, cattle, and inflation caused the

masses who were poor and burned with taxes to rebel against the monarchs and aristocrats who

were exempted from the taxes.

Discussion

Taxation

Recognizing the gravity of the situation Charles Alexandar, in 1786 initiated a tax reform

package. Which suggested that there would an equal imposition law tax and responsibility of

payment on classes and the aristocrats would no longer be exempted.

Rise of the underprivileged

Aristocrats refused to accept any such proposals hence the King called in for a joint meeting of

the clergy noble to discuss their list of grievances. The middle class which comprised of 98% of the population wanted equal representation and a voice to represent their interest in the government. Their demands were left unanswered and hence they posed revolt around the country, ending the old order.

Constitution

French revolution resulted in achieving a milestone regarding human rights, equality, and

democracy. On 4th of August, the National constituent assembly composed of leaders of the public

adopted the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. the document promised a system

based on equality of rights, opportunities, sovereignty, speech and democratic system of

governance rather than monarchy or aristocracy. this highlighted the fundamental gaps between the

government and the clergy, the position of monarchy and the expanse of the French government.

On September 3 the constitution was formally written defining the powers of the members and

establishing constitutional monarchy limited to veto power and appointment of ministers.

Monarchy

While the legislative was more concerned with spreading the ideals of revolution across Europe,

by fighting wars in Austria an Prussia in April 1792. The radicals who wanted republican

democracy, a led by Jacobins attacked the Kings residence and arrested Louis XVI on 10 of

August 1792. The radicals formed the National Convention and replaced the legislative assembly.

They abolished the monarchy and executed King Louis XVI on the charges of treason and crimes

against the state on 21st January 1793.

Religious Tolerance

In June 1793, Jacobins and other radicalized full control of National convention and replaced

moderate beliefs into conservative radicalized ones. The calendar was hanged and Christianity

was abandoned. the people were permitted to follow the religion of their choice and institutions

like marriagae did not require religious authentication but the states.

Reign Of Terror

The National convention moved into a new phase known as the Reign of Terror. in this period

many enemies of the revolution were executed and tried by the Committee of Public Safety under

the the leadership of Robespierre.

Rise of Power

On the 22ndofAugust 1975, the National Convention composed of moderate and revolutionary

optimistic beliefs overtook the National Convention against the reign of terror. They were led by

Girondins, who introduced the first bicameral legislature in France. Under the legislature the

executive power by the directors appointed by the members of the parliament. Although radicals

rejected this and they, however, silence by the military led by Napolean.

Economy

The years of the new regime struggle with the economic crisis, inefficiency, and corruption. The

parliament became overreliant on the military to maintain and sustain France. The Directors relied

excessively on the army to maintain their authority power in the country. The National

The convention became hollow and ineffective in implementing the ideas they came with and

hence failed to deliver.

Napoleon

On 9th November 1799, the inefficiency reached the peak and the government was at the verge of

collapse. It was then the military gnarl of the time took in his own hands to govern the country by

initiating coup de etat. This ended the era of the French revolution. Napoleon is known to bring

wealth and prosperity to France through dominance in Europe.

Conclusion

The evidence shows that the French revolution was successful in attaining its goals of equality, l

librty, and fraternity. It significantly hanged the course of oppression and absolute power by

transferring it in the hands of the subjects of the state. The notion of equality was upheld

throughout the revolution. The revolution sought freedom of people from subservience and

dominance. The ideals of the declaration of the rights of man and the of the citizen are to date used

as the constitution of France. Although many may argue that French revolution was a failure as the

course of it kept changing during the years, in the long run, the French revolution is said to have

laid foundations for a democratically sound and serving medium of governance for the world.

Subject: Philosophy

Pages: 3 Words: 900

4) Examine The Social Philosophy Of Karl Marx. What Does Marx Say About How Social And Political Theories Are Determined By Forms Of Production? In Your Paper Explain, In Own Words, How The Marxist Theory Interprets Traditional Political Philosophy And Th

Name of Student

Name of Professor

Name of Class

Day Month Year

Marxism

Introduction

Change is the only constant of the world and this philosophy could be witnessed everywhere world at present time as this world is changing rapidly. Both types of changes are being witnessed i.e. social and political and both these change are inculcating changes in the shape of world. By looking at present, this fact cannot be denied that this world has entered into a new phase where, there could be seen a clear implementation of ideas that are presented by of one of the most important philosophers, whose work brought revolution in the world. Philosophy is the main thing on which a society base. By spinning the wheel of history, it could be witnessed that social and political philosophy is the main element that makes structure of a society and way of production determines the social political theories that operates in a society.

Discussion

According to Karl Marx, categorization of the society into class is important for studying the structure of a society. Class struggle is one of the main things that have been promoted by Karl Marx. Humans are competing with each other and are constantly valuing them in the hierarchy structure. Upper class is being placed at top and is served by lower class. Karl Marx is the philosopher who has given most value to the class categorization by saying that there is an unjust distribution of facilities, wealth and resources among people. (Qu, et, al. 2015)

Marx divided people in two classes, “haves and have not’s”. Class with have, represents people of upper class, who used to have all the facilities while on the hand, there comes other class that even don’t have basic necessities. People who are categorized as “haves” are known as bourgeoisie and people who are categorized as “have not’s” are called proletariat. Mostly debates are related to the sociological basis. In today's society, economy of world is based on capitalism. Capitalism is increasing gap between the haves and have not’s as it is making rich, richer and poor, poorer. Class conflict is the main thing that is inculcating in people a feeling so that they are the salve and going to be the slave forever. (Qu, et, al. 2015)

In his writings, Karl Marx through his theory of historical materialism that spots a light on the mode of production in this society argues that there is a specific combination of productive force that runs society. Forms of production include various figures such as labor power and the way products are being ma. Marx has categorized classes of society in two, lower class and the upper class. The upper class takes the position of the head in the society while on the other hand; the lower class is treated and declared as the hands. (Boix, et, al. 2019).

Forms of productions are the main things that make the social and political theories in a society. There are basically two forms of production that are productive forces and relation between the social and technical ways of production. It is important to note that production forces are the tools that are used for producing something, such as buildings, tools, human labor, and other infrastructure. By relation of production (social and technical), means that power and control relation is determined mainly by the productive assets and in simple words, it could be said that it is also about the relationships that exist there between people belonging to different social classes.

Marx claims that social and political theories that are made by the society looks at the above-mentioned points and by keeping these points in mind successful theories for making a society economically stable. it is important to keep this thing in mind that Marx claimed that for studying any society first of all the economic system and structure of that society must be considered. The form of the production is going to help the society in making of social-political theories that are going to run a society. It has been seen that societies consider kind of relationships exists there between different classes that are living together. (Boix, et, al. 2019).

Social and political theories are made by society by keeping all the facts in consideration that how people of different classes are cooperation with each other. Social theories are the theories that make distinctions and specification among different types of societies that are used for analyzing the modernity that is seen to emerge for the past the few decades. Political theories also determine what sort of political implements are going to be introduced in society. Political framework is one of the main things for running the political as well as the social system of a society. Way things are being produced and what kind of items or machinery is going to be used for making production is going to shape up the political theories of society. Social theories are based on the way how people treat each other. Social and political theories design the overall framework of the society and this fact cannot be denied that society is based mainly on two things one is social values and the other is exercising of the authorities. (Boix, et, al. 2019).

As far as, traditional political theory is considered it won’t be wrong to say that political institutions are the main figures that define and reflects few of the basic concepts that help in organizing the political life in a society. In a political framework that could be seen that justice, equality, liberty and protection of the rights of the citizens who makes a society. it has been seen that social sciences, economic, political and all other ideologies aim at the making of communist society where the system would be based on the socioeconomic structure of a society. This thing could be seen in action at the present time, as it has been seen that in today’s world communist and capitalist is in practice everywhere. (Peng, et, al. 2018) Marxism believes that political philosophy is going to make distinctions between the classless societies and considers that class struggle is essential for making political changes as the bourgeoisie class is going to make and implement only those rules and laws that are going to be beneficial for them only. Class conflict is the main things that spotlight on the notion that traditional political theory also favors the upper class who are contributing the most in increasing the gap between the upper and lower classes.

Conclusion

So as a whole, it could be argued that Marxism is very important at present as it is quite obvious that Marxism appealed to the world because it pointed towards the evolution of societies. Capitalism that is ruling the world today and it won’t be wrong to say that capitalism is not only applied but is also the most important working theory that is secular, democratic and equally promoting the human liberation. Capitalism is giving the entire individual an opportunity to earn as much as they can. By taking at the present situation, it could be witnessed that capitalism is giving providing chances to earn according to one’s own capacity. It is justified argument that there is a negative side of the capitalism as well and that is, only upper class is taking over all the fields such as education, technology as they are making more and more investments but still the lower class is being hired to work hard and earn for giving benefits to the owners ultimately. His ideas are still applicable in today’s world and his analysis is being used for interpreting the present world and situations for bringing a positive change in the world

Work Cited:

Boix, Carles. Democratic Capitalism at the Crossroads. Princeton University Press, 2019.

Peng, Gao. "A New Thinking on the Driving Force of Social Development." International Conference on Contemporary Education, Social Sciences and Ecological Studies (CESSES 2018). Atlantis Press, 2018.

Qu, Zhaoxia, and Jing Song. "Analysis of Human Needs under Basic Principles of Marxism." 2015 International Conference on Education Reform and Modern Management. Atlantis Press, 2015.

Subject: Philosophy

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

Abortion

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of Instructor]

[Subject]

[Date]

Abortion

“Abortion is part of being a mother and of caring for children because part of caring for children is knowing when it's not a good idea to bring them into the world." (Katha Pollitt)

Introduction

Right to life; is the basic and fundamental right of every human being. Every individual is born with this right and no one can snatch it from them. This right is gets granted to a person before he or she comes into this world, in fact, before that individual is not even a he or she. A person gets the right to life when it is a mere clump of cells when it has only been conceived and has not formed any shape. At this stage, no gender has been assigned or decided by nature for the newly conceived individual, and although it is still a piece of flesh it is a living soul. Many people all over the world try to finish it in these very initial stages, due to many reasons. This termination or elimination process is known as abortion in medical terms and is carried on all over the world.

The phenomenon of abortion is a huge controversy all over the world. Experts and scholars are hugely divided over the validity of abortion. It has been a topic of debate since a very long time among the scientists, experts, and religious scholars that whether it is ethically and morally correct to undergo an abortion. They also actively argue over the fact that whether the act of abortion should be conducted or not. Some researchers, give the reason that the act of abortion is completely immoral and unethical, but in some cases, it becomes necessary or even unavoidable to carry on with the pregnancy. In such cases, the best decision is to opt for terminating the pregnancy or aborting the fetus.

Discussion

Abortion is a very hot topic of debate for a long time and it is not limited to the circles of science. This debate includes opinions and views from various areas, which majorly include science, religion, and sociology.

Summary

The phenomenon of abortion is not a new one, in fact, it is being practiced from the days of 15th century BC. The first ever reported case of abortion was recorded in the Egypt Ebers Papyrus. Since the fields of science and technology were not much developed at that time, the methods of abortion used were mostly non-surgical. Since then, the topic of abortion is considered a hot issue and still considered a problematic practice among medical practitioners. The issue has become much more complicated due to the inclusion of religious, ethical and moral factors, which forbid the practice strictly.

Defense

As it has already been established that abortion refers to ending or terminating the pregnancy by finishing or expulsion of the fetus from the uterus before it has started surviving outside the mother's womb. Abortion is considered a serious issue near many scholars and experts as it includes finishing the life of a fetus, which was under development and was going to become a full-fledged human being (Summer). Many refer to the act of abortion as killing and even murder. In religious circles, the expulsion of a fetus from the body before birth is considered a serious sin.

Abortion is considered a serious crime according to the constitutions of many countries. As per the constitution of the United States of America, abortion has been declared illegal in many states, since 1900. Prior to 1973, abortion laws varied from one state to another and the act of finishing the baby or the fetus in the womb was pretty much legal in many states. In 1973, the Supreme Court passed on the decision to put a ban on abortion and all such practices, which provided a uniform framework for the designing of legislation of each state (Jones). The laws and legislation, in this respect, are very much flexible in Texas where the couples are allowed to decide whether they are ready to become a parent or not.

According to the Canadian law, abortion was completely illegal, in all cases, no matter what but according to the Criminal Law Amendment Act 1968-69, abortion was made legal, only in the case if a committee of Drs declared that it is extremely necessary to terminate the pregnancy. This kind of laws and regulation are much better than the other acts which pose to be strict and non-flexible in nature. The option of abortion should be open for consideration if the couple does not want a baby due to some economic issue or the failure of the preventive measures. This practice comes in handy when there are medical complications in pregnancy and the life of either the mother or baby or both are in danger. Socially, abortion is also a favorable option for the victims of rape.

Possible Objection

Many experts and researchers present the argument that the practice of abortion is completely immoral and unethical on various grounds. They are of the view that the fetus, being developed in a womb has a complete life and is a complete living being, and finishing it means killing a live and complete human being. Many people even consider it a murder (Potter).

Talking about the religious or spiritual aspects, almost all the religions strongly condemn it and declare it as an extremely unpleasant act. The religious scholars of various religions like Priests, Padris, and Fathers, in Christianity and Imams and Moulvis in Islam strongly condemn the act of abortion and state that it is a highly disliked procedure in the eyes of God.

Response

The objection presented by scientists, sociologists, and religious scholars is very much valid. If considered on the ethical and moral grounds, the act of abortion surely sounds very heinous and cruel and it is totally justified to put a ban on it under normal circumstances, But these laws and regulations should be flexible enough so that in exceptional cases, the option for abortion can be considered. The window of abortion should be kept open in very rare and exceptional cases but it should never be closed completely. The examples of such cases could be a medically complicated case of pregnancy, where the life of mother and infant is in danger. In such cases, the acts related to abortion should allow the couple, especially the mother to consider the option of giving up the baby or the fetus to secure the life of the mother.

Conclusion

In a nutshell, it can be clearly stated that abortion is a pure cruel and heinous act, which involves the killing of an innocent soul, who has not even stepped in this world yet. It robs an individual of its basic right of life and finishes it even before it has seen the sunshine outside its mother’s womb. The laws and regulation in various countries protect this basic right and have declared the practice of abortion as a serious crime, which is punishable in many forms. All these arguments are valid and hold authenticity but these laws and acts should be made flexible in case of exceptional cases where the abortion becomes medically or socially necessary and there is no option left.

Works Cited

Jones, Rachel K., and Jenna Jerman. "Abortion incidence and service availability in the United States, 2011." Perspectives on sexual and reproductive health 46.1 (2014): 3-14.

Potter, Ralph Β. "The abortion debate." Reaction to the Modern Women's Movement, 1963 to the Present. Routledge, 2018. 13-26.

Sumner, Leonard Wayne. Abortion and moral theory. Vol. 285. Princeton University Press, 2014.

Subject: Philosophy

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

According To Aristotle, In Order To Act Virtuously, One Must Become A Virtuous Person. How Does Aristotle Claim We Can Achieve This Virtuous Character?

Your Name

Instructor Name

Course Number

Date

Virtue: According to Aristotle

Aristotle, one of the profound philosophers of his time, considers virtue as an important and integral part of a person’s life. In his functional argument, Aristotle deems happiness to be the ultimate goal and attempts to explain how achieving this purpose would be possible. As he proves that good is to be found in engaging in rational activity, Aristotle is able to lay down a path to attain happiness. The notion of happiness is not just a state of mind but to explore what is good and what it is to be good. Critics question how a single description of what is good or best could suffice for every person, however, this confusion arises from seeing Eudaimonia as a mental state (Barlett). However, a proper understanding of the term can be acquired by translating the word to ‘living well,' which implies that happiness can be attained through the expression of reason, fulfilling one's function in an excellent or virtuous manner. Aristotle’s functional argument is more about performing activities that express rationality from an individualistic viewpoint.

The functional argument suggests that everything inanimate or animate has a specified function, and the ability to fulfill that function is a measure of its excellence. Therefore a blunt knife lacks excellence. Likewise, human beings are not perfectly rational creatures but have a non-rational part within their souls. It has an ‘animal’ side as well as rational features (Heinaman). Each virtue corresponds to its particular part of the soul, for instance, the excellence of the ‘animal' or ‘appetitive' component of the soul are moral virtues, whereas the excellence of soul's rational part are intellectual virtues. Therefore to flourish, humans have to achieve excellence at all those functions that make us distinctively human. People do not strive to be happy to attain another goal; instead, Eudaimonia entails achieving subordinate goals which promote well-being, not because these goals are what happiness consists in. Thus, not knowing what happiness consists in makes it futile to simply affirm that it is the ultimate end. This explains why Aristotle sought to explain or theorize about ‘ergon’ or function. An important component of Aristotle's argument is the distinction made between biological and psychological works when the human soul is described to be formed of connected components, the perceptive soul; the nutritive soul, and the locomotive soul. Human beings as a species have a rational soul as well as other ‘lower’ capacitiesCITATION SEP18 \l 1033 (Kraut).

Works Cited:

Barlett, R. C. "Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics. A new translation by RC Bartlett and SD Collins, with an Interpretive Essay, Notes, and Glossary." (2011).

Heinaman, Robert. Plato and Aristotle's ethics. Routledge, 2017.

Subject: Philosophy

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Addressing Spiritual Beliefs

Addressing Spiritual Belief

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Addressing Spiritual Belief

Case Study

A patient 67 years of age diagnosed with a Colon cancer which from past one year has affected her lungs and liver. She has been widower from the previous 3 years, with 3 children left behind. Her husband died because of Parkinson disease. He was 15 years older than her. Her children are grown and left the home getting married. She used to bathe her husband, take him to the toilet, and dress him. From his breathing, she gets an idea that he gets pneumonia. The doctor who uses to treat him inspects his lungs and wrote antibiotics as a prescription. She didn't fill the prescription. A few days later her husband died. She did not tell anybody what she had done or had not done. She told everybody who asked that he died because he slipped in the bathroom in the middle of the night.

She is a resident of a small town which is a birthplace of herself and her husband. They married in the same, town and in the same town they raised their children. She remained the member of Pentecostal church of that small town all her life. Her physician who is also her oncologist visits the town every week once to treat his patients. In the 50-bed hospital of the small town, he sees his patients in the clinic room. She gets diarrhea from previous some days. She waited for his visit to the hospital to tell him about the issue. She used to tell the nurse in his office about all her private matters and did not like calling him directly. The previous afternoon she fainted and passed out while trying to get into the bathroom. At that time his oldest son, who lives with her after his divorce which makes him penniless, took her to the small town hospital in his pick up as fast as he could.

The doctor in the emergency room who is an independent contractor comes every week to complete his shift of 48-hours, did not have access to her medical case history. The records were kept by her oncologist in his clinic office. Her doctor in the emergency room did not know that she was on bevacizumab and irinotecan. The only information he received from her son is that she had bad diarrhea. It could not be seen by the doctor without any aid from a computed tomography scanner that she had a perforated bowel because of bevacizumab. But he is sure that she was hypotensive and had a fever. He had a suspicion that she has got an infection, so he calls oncologist who suggests that it would be better to shift her to city cancer hospital as soon as possible. She arrived into the hospital by ambulance around midnight with disseminated intravascular coagulation clinical (DIC) signs. Fluids were hung, antibiotics are given, and the monitoring system has begun. After that vasopressor was given to her.

On the second day morning, at nurse station stood the respiratory therapist. The night nurse called her who is now gone off shift. In her call, she told him that the patient needs to be put soon on a ventilator. She had told him to come now as we are waiting for anesthesia and it would be arriving as soon as you come and act accordingly to the order. The therapist asked the day nurse of the patient who is going to make the decision whether to put the patient on the ventilator or not. The day nurse told that the night nurse told her that her son came after some time when she arrived. Patients other two children are on the way. So she has no idea who would make the decision.

At noontime, the condition of the patient worsens and the nurse called the intensivist. Intensivist inquired the nurse about when the family is coming and told her that without taking the consent of her family, he did not take the decision to intubate the patient. He told that we have to wait for the family.

After a while, her family arrived in the ICU directly. The eldest son who lived with mother looked to be in his 40’s, while his both younger sister and brother look to be in their 30’s. He told the patient family that they had a meeting with them to plan for further course of action. They all including family, intensivist, nurse, oncologist, and hospital chaplain all sit in the consultation room. All of them introduced themselves to the patient’s family. After that intensivist told patients family that their mother is not well. She had bowel hole which is because of the massive infection. And signs from her body show that due to bowel infection her brain is damaged. Her chance of getting recovered is very low. Her daughter ignored the intensivist and asked the oncologist that as you are her doctor, so you tell me about her condition, is there any chance of recovery? The oncologist replies that if we can recover her from this stage, there might be a chance but a slim chance it is.

She looks at the intensivist says that you know as the oncologist says that there is a chance of recovery, let do everything possible and let God heal her. The chaplain tried to influence her decision by leaning toward her and said that “I know you loved your mother and I know that you want to see her better, but it is a God’s greatest miracle to resurrect the body and also afterlife.” From her looks, her daughter looks to be of religious background and she told the chaplain that the God I believe in said that with His word we are all healed. She then told the intensivist and the nurse to do everything possible and then led her siblings out of the room headed towards ICU.

After the final decision, the intensivist said to nurse to call respiratory and anesthesia and put the patient on the ventilation. The nurse was very angry and asked the intensivist why not he told the family that there is no chance of her recovery.

Discussion

When we read this case history summary, three ethical issues may come in readers mind:

Issue related to direct decision making by the patient

The decision capability of the surrogates in advance directives absence

The religious belief-based decision that on the other hand may be thought by the physicians to be futile

We would cover the third aspect in detail here. First of all, have to address the problem that the patient is in a state of vulnerability. This means that the patient is not in sound health to make her own decision. She is dependent on her children and the health specialist to make a decision on her behalf. In such cases, it would be asked by the patients to tell the health care team their advance directives to lessen their vulnerability, but unfortunately, in this case, the patient does not have any advance directives. It might be possible if an advance directive is taken by the health care team, which might not be a possible solution for now, in this case, her daughter.

The Ethics Code by American Medical Association states that if no surrogate decision maker is chosen by the advance directive, and if there is a family member dispute about what to do, then it is the duty of the health care team to take a review of institutional ethics. But sadly, in this case, a sister made the decision and it cannot be known that what decision would the other two brothers would have made. The healthcare team should have poll the family who could make the decision from the family, by not doing this, the healthcare provider takes the brothers' sister as a unit.

Whenever patients are diagnosed with cancer or any other illness of the sort, they go through the phase of existential plight where they might ask them big questions of death and life. In this case, only her children are going through this phase. When the healthcare team, in this case, asked the children how they go through this phase, they would rely probably on faith. In one study, it has been noticed that when patients rely on their faith and the health care team, according to them, does not support their religious beliefs, more intensive end-of-life care is used by them. In other cases where it is reported by the patients that patients spiritual needs are supported, those patients used to agree more with doctors consent. While if look at this study, healthcare team uses the chaplain help to cater to the spiritual need of the patients' children. But is it the duty of health care provider to provide spiritual support? It is not included in their duty.

One can say that a healthcare team could provide this duty if there is a chance of reducing the cost of healthcare. It has been noticed that patients whose needs related to their spiritual belief are not supported, it results in more ICU care and consequently less hospice care. This has a higher cost related to end-of-life care than patients whose need for spiritual beliefs are supported. But the only financial outcome is not enough to reason the patients' spiritual needs.

It is the responsibility of the healthcare team to provide spiritual support to the patient and their family because it might help in lessen their vulnerability. Thus in order for the healthcare team to create an environment where decision making is easy and outcomes are positive, it would be better to support the patient religious needs. In case of spiritual support absence, the balance of morality bow towards healthcare team.

Conclusion

Now the question arises that if the healthcare team has decided to provide spiritual needs, how could they have to do it? A tool known as FICA could be used by the healthcare team which evaluates spiritual history. FICA is basically an open-ended conversation about the practices and beliefs of the patient and their family. In the present case study although it is noticed that the chaplain has provided the spiritual support but that support was without going into their spiritual history. Surely, the family, in this case, is felt unsupported spiritually by the whole healthcare team during the meeting, and no one in the team tried to re-address the issue. The healthcare team could have taken the religious history of the family after the family returned to the ICU and sing the religious hymns but they proved themselves incompetent, unreliable, and dishonest in patients' children eye by not redressing this issue. So it is a question that the children of the patient ask themselves why they put their belief in someone who is not trustworthy, while their mother is in a very vulnerable state? It is a moral question for the sake of the children. They seek their refuge in religion which would itself a trustworthy source for them.

References

Benner, P. (1997). A dialogue between virtue ethics and care ethics. Theoretical Medicine, 18(1-2), 47-61.

CEArticle. (2019). Nursingcenter.com. Retrieved 17 May 2019, from https://www.nursingcenter.com/cearticle?an=00129191-201508000-00003&Journal_ID=260877&Issue_ID=3139908

Subject: Philosophy

Pages: 6 Words: 1800

After Virtue

After Virtue

Your Name (First M. Last)

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)

After Virtue

Morality is defined by the actions and practice of individuals. The knowledge or understanding of how to live a good life also represents virtue. Alasdair Macintyre in his work “Virtue Ethics” have elucidated the notion of Virtue in Practice. According to the author practice of the individuals determines their morality or virtual. He identified three stages that define the core concept of the notion of virtue. The first stage is practice, the second stage is the narrative orders of human life and the third stage is moral traditions persistent in any society. In addition to this, the author has divided the idea of practice in two categories that are good practice and evil practice.

The profound analysis of the work by Alasdair Macintyre makes it apparent that he has rightly acknowledged the fact that not only practices of torture or sadomasochistic sexuality come under the category of evil practice but practices like painting or study which leads to neglect of other duties is also an evil practice. I believe that this is the strongest point of Alasdair Macintyre because this clearly elucidates the point that the impact of a practice on the personality and the society plays a vital role in labeling a practice as good or bad. With reference to this idea one point, this is confusing is that how one can label the practice as good or bad if the practice is beneficial or life-saving for the individual but it morally or traditionally wrong for the society and the best example of such situation is the practice of cross-dressing. Cross-dressings allows the people to express themselves and inability to do this causes depression which is detrimental for health.

So to cap it all, Alasdair Macintyre has rightly explained the notion of evil practice but has failed to throw some light on practices like cross-dressing.

Subject: Philosophy

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Already On The Paper

Santiago Rodriguez

Name of Professor

Name of Class

17 March 2017

Are We the Masters of Our Fate?

As human beings, we are confronted with good and evil actions on a daily basis. We find firefighters risking their lives to save innocents, peaceful protests turn bloody, people donating their hard-earned income to charity, etc. In each of these actions, an obvious question to ask is what leads people to act in the way they do. The answers to that question are, however, complex when carefully analyzed and may depend on our deeply held beliefs about the very nature of ourselves. In the paper, I will argue that human beings commit these evil or good actions out of a free will, hence inclining towards the idea of libertarianism being more plausible than determinism and compatibilism. The capacity of human beings to engage rationally between choices after deliberation and the moral responsibility that comes with it offer strong grounds to hold on to the libertarian view. For this purpose, various associated theories will be examined to argue for the plausibility of my view supported by scholarly arguments and information, as evidence to reinforce my claim.

Investigating moral responsibility for actions require an exploration of the main theories and arguments associated with determinism and free will. A key theory in this regard is that of libertarianism, which holds that all human beings have the capacity for free will and therefore free action by exercising that will. It opposes determinism which denies free will and holds that every action or event is determined by prior conditions or causes, as a result of which the outcome cannot be changed. It is easy to observe the conflict between the two theories, as the former sees not all events to be forcibly occurring due to causative conditions while the latter holds that actions cannot be free. The libertarian view revolves around the ability of the agent to decide or make a choice to do something other than what they did, thus, a free action. The existence of the capacity to reason and rationalize by a rational agent point towards the existence of something we call free will, which can only necessarily be exercised if we have the capability to reason. This occurs at two levels; the practical and the theoretical level. Theoretical reasoning occurs within our intellects and forms our will, whereas our practical reasoning determines what action we chose to do based on that will.

A ‘will’ refers to an individual's capacity or power to practically reason, deliberate, form practical judgments, decide or chose, create purpose or intentions, or to assess actions critically. Will itself is born out of our reason and rationalityCITATION The \l 1033 (Kane). As rational beings, our ability to reason (or will) has enabled us to freely perform our actions, allowing us to use our reason to determine the best course of action in any particular situation. A universe working on pre-determined events would thus render our capacity to reason as pointless.

On the other hand, the theory of determinism holds that there is no room for choice and decisions, as our lives' choices have been determined for us. Free will is incompatible with this idea and is only an illusion. The idea of determinism stems from causality holding that each event or action is the outcome of a cause, which is necessarily caused by another cause, eventually leading to the ‘prime mover' or the first cause. These causes have to be in accordance with natural laws. The laws of nature cannot be changed and thus the fate of mankind, as their past, is fixed and beyond control. This implies that if someone were to claim that if he had done such and such in the past, the outcome would have been different; implies that the laws of nature or the prevailing conditions would have been different, to allow the alternative event to happen.

Nevertheless, determinism has had various variations in the form of soft determinism and compatibilism. This view holds that free will and determinism can be understood to be compatible while remaining logically consistent. The argument is that freedom can either be absent or present in situations, and one’s determined motives can indicate whether one is acting free. David Hume was of the view that free will and determinism are compatible because the actions of the people are determined by their contemporary motives and personal histories, and not solely by an autonomous ‘will’ that could have been anything. These motives could be a result of our strongest desires and lead us to make seemingly free choices. According to d’Holbach, the process of making a choice, in this case, is rather a complex illusion which hides a pre-determined causative process CITATION 43C \l 1033 (4.3 Compatibilism). However, it can be inferred from the d’Holbach and Hume’s theories that they suggest only a restricted aspect of the real meaning behind a free choice and what it means to people. Both the soft and hard determinism is rejected by the libertarian or indeterminist view, since the latter strongly holds that some human actions exist in which freedom of choice and autonomy are possible. When human beings make a choice, they conventionally think of a process of examining multiple possibilities and then exercising deliberation that actively helps them will a choice. The action is much more than following our strongest desires. Thus, if an individual finds himself in the exact same situation, he or she may choose to act differently.

The case of the individual that finds himself in the exact same situation as before presents a good illustration to demonstrate the meaning, purpose and existence of free will. The libertarian view holds that if the same situation were to repeat for an individual, he would still be at autonomy to make a different choice even if he makes the same choice. Yet, it is possible for him to make the same choice because of prior experience of obtaining a desirable result out of making that choice. The determinist usually responds to this example by recounting how the individual’s cognition, emotions and perceptions work together with his past experiences leads him to project a certain goal and then strive towards it out of the necessity to achieve that goal. Moreover, these goals can be changed if other forces at play push us towards evaluating another outcome to be favorable and acting upon it. However, freedom of action is not necessarily the same as having a free will, rather, it has to do with the realization or prevention of a willed action. Therefore, for a prisoner who is restrained from visiting his home or a patient restrained from movement, not being able to act freely does not mean that the prisoner cannot be free to intend or try escaping or that the patient cannot try to move. Similarly, doing something morally irresponsible or illegal such as selling drugs will bring about consequences but does not mean that the drug dealer is not free to try and do so. Actions bring about reactions and consequences, yet these consequences do not restrict one from being able to try or intend that action. Therefore, a strong component of free will is intention. When individuals are faced with a choice, the various emotional and mental processes at play lead to the formation of an intent to either engage in an action or a non-action. Though past actions would encourage the individual to make a choice, they still cannot force him to make the same choice even if a severe punishment for making that choice were to exist, since consequences of a choice may interfere with an action but not the will behind an action.

The concept of ordained morality as held in determinism is incoherent. Firstly, because free will and moral responsibility are logically associated with each other. Denying any link between free will and moral responsibility would lead one to incoherence. There lies a clear distinction between causal responsibility and moral responsibility and free will has to do with the latter, while determinist arguments usually focus on the former. It is possible for someone to be held morally responsible for something despite not being responsible in the causal sense. It is possible for someone to be held morally responsible for a crime despite not being morally blamed for it as a consequence, and likewise being morally responsible for a good act despite not receiving acclaim for it. If this is true, then that also necessitates the existence of a free will, since no one can be hold morally responsible for their actions, good or evil, if they did not have free will. As an example, if Jack is forced to steal a car, the act of stealing makes Jack causally responsible for creating an adverse outcome for himself by landing into prison but that does not mean that Jack if morally responsible for committing the crime, since he did not do so out of his free will. Thus, moral responsibility and free-will are invariably connected. Secondly, the deterministic view refutes itself, because if everything is determined before-hand and free will is nothing more than an illusion, it also logically necessitates that the ones who make such a claim are already pre-determined to say so. Moreover, no belief could be held to be false or true, simply because of being a predetermined event.

In this regard, William James was of the view that indeterminism is a more rational view, which is based on the notion that a certain degree of freedom of choice exists. The argument against determinism was that no judgments of regret and approval could be possible since it does not fully capture the complete lived experience. Sartre further argues in this regard is that human beings, in fact, are condemned to be free that existence precedes essence, and ourselves, choices and actions also exist in a predetermined cosmic realm before birth. However, as we orient ourselves for the future, we carefully consider our choices, weight our options and apply our ability of rational deliberation in making a choice, which makes us free CITATION 44I \l 1033 (4.4 Indeterminism and Libertarianism). It, therefore, alludes to our view that we are completely and uniquely responsible for the choices we make regarding our actions.

In conclusion, my personal experiences also incline me towards the existence of free will and supplement my philosophical leanings towards libertarianism. In my view, we tend to believe people through their actions more than their sayings. We often tend to believe in something that we actually do not, such as a husband who thinks he treats his wife well yet cheats on her. It is impossible to make deliberations on actions without an inborn conviction that our choices are up to us to make, in order to resolve our issues. Therefore, a deep-rooted conviction regarding free will exist owing to our capacities to rationally deliberate, even if we subscribe to the determinist view. Thus, anyone who may think free will is an illusion still acts in a way which indicates that making an alternate choice out of a set of choices was a real possibility.

Works Cited

BIBLIOGRAPHY 4.3 Compatibilism. [online source], n.d.

4.4 Indeterminism and Libertarianism. (Online Source), n.d.

Kane, Robert. The Significance of Free Will. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Subject: Philosophy

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Alternate Possibilities And Moral Responsibility Response

Alternate Possibilities and Moral Responsibility Response

Alternate possibilities refer to the available possibilities that can be used in place of the normal ones that people are used to. Moral responsibility refers to the norms in society and duties that one is supposed to do based on the position that one holds in society. The philosophical essay talks about the possibilities and moral responsibilities of people within society. To understand this better, it has provided different examples of how opportunities exist for people. It has also shown the extent to which people follow the responsibilities they have in society. I support the thought if the writer. It is true that there are numerous alternate possibilities that people can use instead of using the normal ones that they are used to. Society has always made people think in a given way. It is the reason why it is not easy to make people find alternatives that they can use in certain instances.

It is through the search for alternatives that one is able to come up with new innovations and inventions that can help in defining the moral responsibilities of people. As time goes by, society keeps on changing the definition of certain aspects of life. There is always an alternative way that one can use to do something. As a human being, it is your duty to try and come up with ways that you can use to accomplish some of the things in life without using the conventional way that other people are always using. It is true that the difficulties we face in life sometimes contribute to the change we bring to society. The problems that we face provide us with the need to find a better way of doing things. This is what contributes to the school of thought where there exists a lot of alternate possibilities that can be used to accomplish different things.

Subject: Philosophy

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Analaysis

Name of Student

Name of Professor

Name of Class

Day Month Year

Analysis

Introduction

Utilitarianism is essentially one of the most influential and prominent moral theories. The fundamental concept of morality refers to make life better by enhancing the amount of good as happiness in the world and removing the number of bad things as unhappiness. They thoroughly reject the moral systems or codes which comprise taboos or commands that adhere to the traditions, customs or the directions given by supernatural beings or leaders. However, affirming the credibility and rationality in the utilitarianism is a challenging task. There exist a wide range of issues and ambiguities within the utilitarianism approach. The principle of utility assumes an instrumental role in the paradigm of utilitarianism school of thought which aims at maximizing happiness. Besides, it is defined as the principle which disapproves or approves of each action as per the potential to diminish or supplement the happiness in a particular context. The utility generates the maxim of the net utility. It assesses the balance of happiness over unhappiness or the balance of good and bad consequences of a result. The unhappiness caused by the action is subtracted from happiness. When an action generates more happiness than unhappiness, it manifests in positive net utility.

Discussion

Moreover, it is essential to offer a brief analysis of the measures which determine the course of action. For instance, the collective unhappiness and happiness of each action are scrutinized. The computations of net utility always count everyone’s happiness equally without any discrimination. Unlike egoism, utilitarianism aims at dispensing benefits to each individual regardless of their input or influence. It is a reflection of the mindset and perception of the people of the 20th century. A wide range of the public has advanced to adhere to the beliefs of utilitarianism to enhance social justice, establish quality, promote the essential welfare or create the happiness for a plethora of people ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"b9JH8It0","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}Utilitarianism, Act and Rule | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy})","plainCitation":"(Utilitarianism, Act and Rule | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":283,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/yvjivw9i/items/A2S4DW23"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/yvjivw9i/items/A2S4DW23"],"itemData":{"id":283,"type":"webpage","title":"Utilitarianism, Act and Rule | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy","URL":"https://www.iep.utm.edu/util-a-r/","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",5,7]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Utilitarianism, Act and Rule | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy). The utilitarian school of thought is obliged to decrease the unhappiness and enhance happiness in the world.

As discussed in the example, a teacher advances to give A to each student in the class regardless of their input or efforts in the exam. Primarily, the teacher aimed at creating a win-win solution for each child but there exist other reasons which may or not be included in the structure of utility. Several critical dimensions need to be assessed and investigated to determine the other reasons and factors which supplement the overall utility. First, it is imperative to highlight the manifestations of the positive aspects associated with the act of the teacher. The happiness for students of the class will be nothing else than clearing the exams with maximum grades. Since utilitarianism defies the principles of egoism, each student is granted equal grades. Thus, the happiness of each student of the class is maximized under the influence of the utilitarianism school of thought. Meanwhile, there exist several other aspects which ought to be assessed and measured to determine the utility and the net utility generated by the act.

Besides, utilitarianism advances to focus entirely on the outcome and maximizing happiness without paying any heed to the basis of the action to be right or wrong ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"QUn5JdE1","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}Utilitarianism | Philosophy Talk})","plainCitation":"(Utilitarianism | Philosophy Talk)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":285,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/yvjivw9i/items/5ZUXYJ3B"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/yvjivw9i/items/5ZUXYJ3B"],"itemData":{"id":285,"type":"webpage","title":"Utilitarianism | Philosophy Talk","URL":"https://www.philosophytalk.org/shows/utilitarianism","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",5,7]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Utilitarianism | Philosophy Talk). The value of happiness often gets overridden under several circumstances. For instance, the aspect of value is often different for several people. It is the desire of the people to deem happiness the way they want to. Some will prefer freedom while some will be inclined toward working under the supervision of a person regardless of the strict or lenient attitude. However, the case is not the same in the context of the grading. It will be rare that student may aspire not to have the best grades in the class.

In addition, the happiness of the teacher will also be maximum after grading the children with the maximum grades. One can postulate it can be the utmost desire of the teacher to teach the class in such an immaculate manner that each child manages to get A grade. To accomplish the desire, the teacher utilized the utilitarian principle to give the best grades to the student regardless of their performance is good or bad. Irrefutably, the act of the teacher maximizes utility to a significant extent. Had the teacher been prejudiced toward someone, he would have prevented from granting hi the maximum grades. However, the children never performed such act which is an explicit illustration of the act adhering to the collective happiness and thus is aiming at maximizing the net utility. A critical appraisal of the matter reflects there exist several contentious matters in the example. First, if the student is related to the nursing profession, giving them A grade without considering their performance may not prove productive to a maximum extent. The other members of the community may suffer from the consequences when the students treat the later in the future. Under these critical circumstances, the net unhappiness can outweigh happiness. It is an intriguing factor worth pondering.

However, the previously deliberated idea can be responded and argued based on the paradigm of utilitarianism that what if the student were already skilled and was equipped with medical knowledge. Numerous other limitations can be argued to potentially confront the contentious argument. Another aspect is considering the student will manage to have a plethora of opportunities in the schools, colleges or universities to learn and the grades of a specific class will not affect the overall health of the community ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"m9kfNn8i","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}Utilitarianism - New World Encyclopedia})","plainCitation":"(Utilitarianism - New World Encyclopedia)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":287,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/yvjivw9i/items/NJY8Y3YR"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/yvjivw9i/items/NJY8Y3YR"],"itemData":{"id":287,"type":"webpage","title":"Utilitarianism - New World Encyclopedia","URL":"https://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Utilitarianism","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",5,7]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Utilitarianism - New World Encyclopedia). This, by far, is the most striking argument to primarily aid the net utility. In addition, another reason can be the happiness of the parents of the students. One can argue the parents will never desire their children to be rewarded A grades without assessing their efforts and performance. For instance, parents wish to be aware of the routine, performance and grades of children. It raises a valid point against the net utility as it will be decreased once the parents become unhappy.

The onus lies on the teacher to decide whether or not to inform the parents. If the teacher decides not to inform the parents, the net utility will expand tremendously. Both parents and children will progress to be happy and maximize the utility in true letter and spirits. Thus, the previous argument of parents not being happy will never exist in the first place. In case the teacher decides to inform the parents, which is highly unlikely, the net utility will be ambiguous. The parents of competent children that their children would have got the best grades under other circumstances while the parents of below average children may not endorse the act. Such critical are the manifestations of the utility in this case. It can be established that the net utility lies at the very heart of maximizing happiness in the example derived from specific scenarios and assumptions.

It is worthy to mention the student may get potential assistance from the grades in future endeavors. Getting admission in the college or university and in the long-term, acquiring a job can also be associated with the practice for granting A grade to each student. It further maximizes the value of net utility by adding other possible variables with the outcome of happiness.

Conclusion

The principle of utilitarianism harnesses the act of the teacher by maximizing the net utility. The teacher advances to make all the students happy and also feels happy to have a class filled with intelligent students. A wide range of other reasons contribute to making it contentious but the critical assessment of the matter reflects the consolidation of the net utility. For instance, the students will have better opportunities to be enrolled in colleges or accomplishing a good job by obtaining top grades. Moreover, the parents will also cherish the success of the children if the teachers prevent from telling the parents about the grading scheme. All these values are an explicit illustration of the factors supplementing the utility. However, there also exists an instance where the value decreases and the act becomes impermissible in the context of utilitarianism. If all the students were not competent and were in the last year of their medical practice or college, it would have cast the worst impacts. The patients in the medical settings would have received the adverse impact as the students will be incompetent. It can be termed as a rare and worst case scenario. The guiding principle of utilitarianism in each kind has glorified the metrics of observing the utility and happiness ratio. The morality of the issue pertains to the manifestation of happiness produced from it. Irrefutably, the approach has received criticism because of entirely overlooking the morality and intention of the act. However, granting top grades to the children maximizes the happiness, supplements the net utility value and advances for the welfare of the community.

Works Cited

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Utilitarianism | Philosophy Talk. https://www.philosophytalk.org/shows/utilitarianism. Accessed 7 May 2019.

Utilitarianism - New World Encyclopedia. https://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Utilitarianism. Accessed 7 May 2019.

Utilitarianism, Act and Rule | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. https://www.iep.utm.edu/util-a-r/. Accessed 7 May 2019.

Subject: Philosophy

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

Analysis Argument

Analysis Argument

Your Name (First M. Last)

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)

Analysis Argument

A sanctuary city essentially denotes a local or state jurisdiction which refuses to assist with Federal immigration enforcement. The detainer requests from the United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) are rejected and sharing information is also prohibited pertinent to removable illegal immigrants or aliens. In the contemporary era, it has assumed a contentious role in the United States of America (USA). The Trump administration is facing adversities to confront them and cutting funds is not the ultimate solution. The primary problem is the promulgation of discrepancies in policies for neighboring states. The argument I made on the issue is as follows:

1. Sanctuary cities desecrate the law.

2. Sanctuary cities are discriminatory for legal immigrants.

3. Sanctuary cities are likely to raise further complexities in the future.

4. Therefore, they ought to be abolished throughout the United States of America.

To begin, sanctuary cities desecrate the fundamental provisions of law. For instance, sanctuary cities prefer not to comply with the detainer requests of ICE. The law enforcement advances to carry the immigration enforcement duties in residences, workplaces and streets. Under these critical circumstances, law enforcement is faced with grave consequences. They have to confront the detrimental environment to arrest criminal illegal immigrants. Moreover, several sanctuary cities officials enlighten the aliens related to the upcoming enforcement actions. It violates the law and provides the aliens with the privilege to prepare and to put the life of public, law enforcement and aliens at an increased risk.

Furthermore, the sanctuary cities are, irrefutably, discriminatory for the legal immigrants. The United States witnessed a humongous influx of both illegal and legal immigrants in recent years. The manifestations of paying taxes and contributing to the prosperity of America lie at the very heart of this particular concern. The legal immigrants are treated as per the laws and regulations of the states. However, illegal immigrants profoundly hide under the shelter of sanctuary cities. Such critical and radical are the manifestations of sanctuary cities. These cities often fuel dissent among the legal immigrants as they deem are prejudiced and discriminated because of the existence of sanctuary cities. Each immigrant, whether legal or illegal, ought to be treated with a definite and similar set of laws in true letter and spirits.

Besides, the sanctuary cities have the potential to cause further adversities in the future. American states must be made sanctuaries Americans, not for the criminal illegal immigrants. For instance, the reckless policies endanger the security of communities and impede the enforcement actions which are imperative to prevent crime. The criminal aliens are being released into American societies and are further adding to an increased crime rate. Had prudent sanctuary policies been promulgated, these aliens would not have exercised the opportunity to get a second chance. These occurrences are an explicit illustration that such problems related to crime will accelerate in the future.

To conclude, this analysis reflects that the argument I made was critical related to the ramifications of sanctuary cities. The argument could have been essentially improved. The inclusion of pertinent figures and crimes committed by the aliens would have certainly strengthened the argument. When the detainer requests were rejected, these illegal immigrants manage to commit the crimes again and again. A thorough inspection of this aspect would essentially substantiate the argument that the sanctuary cities are illegal, threatening for legal immigrants, can cause further complexities and thus ought to be abolished across the United States of America.

Subject: Philosophy

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Analytical Assignment

Name

Professor name

Subject

April 22, 2019

Analytical essay

Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous focused on the elements of nature. The dialogue exhibits the role of idealism and metaphysics. The book provides criticism to Berkeley’s discussion by explaining common sense. People don’t only consider their presence in the room, but also reflects on the things. If there was nothing in the room except the man he would be a lunatic. Human beings are independent in their thoughts and perceive things according to their individual mindset. The beliefs run that counter interact with the common sense possessed by humans. This also reflects the commitment of humans to share their perceptions and ideas about the world and its objects.

George Hardin Color and Illusion exhibits the concept of colour realism used by humans for representing their artistic skills. Color illusions depict that painters hold different visions for representing nature and its diverse ideas. Hardin explains how painters use simultaneous contrast for giving a deeper meaning to their artwork. Simultaneous contrast is a visual concept that involves mechanical, optical and electric components. Hardin says that “simultaneous contrast is consciously manipulated by painter” (p. 558). The reason for manipulating contrast is to capture all aspects of the artwork. This allows the painter to give a vivid appearance to his artistic work. The painter has thus adopted this technique for capturing nature including birds, sun and the gloominess. This is a technique used of giving a real illustration to the thoughts. The painter uses simultaneous contrast for representing their ideas and thoughts with the audience CITATION CLH90 \l 1033 (Hardin).

Some of these arguments/examples are stronger or more convincing than others. It reflects that color possesses physical characteristics that depend on visual experiences of the people. Colors are thus mental properties that represent an idea and is the product of human thoughts. The physical properties of color reflect the themes of physicalism. The disposition of the physical object gives experience and meaning to color. They convinced me that this view of color is correct because Hylas mentions, “I was discoursing of last night, that finding I could not sleep, I resolved to rise and take a turn in the garden” CITATION Ber13 \l 1033 (Berkeley). The encounter of human beings with nature and related objects have a significant influence on artistic work and creativity. The virtue of color experiences is used for expressing the ideas of the world. the properties of the physical objects are determined by the virtue of color. The properties of color when contrasted with nature is independent of human interests CITATION Ber13 \l 1033 (Berkeley).

Some concepts are given more attention such as the ideology if Hardin related to color and visuals. Colors have reflecting properties of objects that are determinable and identified as reflectances. The objections of Hardin emphasize the characteristics of physicalism. There is a profound difference between the perception of color that exists independently and its spatial properties. Physicalism explained by Hardin stresses on the physical properties of color. The discussion focuses on the element of contrast that is used by artists to manipulating their artwork.

Contrast effects encourage the view of an object relative to the surrounding. However, the reflectance object is distinctive from the independent object. The comparison of color contrast leads to the illusion of spatial perceptions that is again linked to physicalism. The perceptible properties of color also identify the perceptions of the object. The perceived properties are used for explaining the shape and relevant properties of the object. I am convinced with the feature of color contrast explained by Hardin.

Work Cited

BIBLIOGRAPHY Berkeley, George. Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous. 1713.

Hardin, C. L. Color and illusion. William G. Lycan (ed.), Mind and Cognition. Blackwell, 1990.

Subject: Philosophy

Pages: 2 Words: 600

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