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Business Impact Analysis

Business Impact Analysis

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Business Impact Analysis

Firms while creating business continuity plans, primarily use the Business Impact Analysis tool. It is also utilized to gather data to comprehend organizational functions that can help during risk management. With a Business Impact Analysis, a company can manage to create a foundation for an efficient Business Continuity plan. Using a BIA, the organization can identify and quantify business-related effects when a loss occurs or when any disruption affects the company (Kakade et al, 2019). With the effective application of the Business Impact Analysis and the Business Continuity Plan, a firm can recover its preliminary operations in any condition or circumstance.

Methods for Establishing Component priorities, Dependencies and Reliance

One primary means of establishing component priorities is by conducting surveys amongst individuals within a specific business unit. Much caution should be applied in such a case since if random employees are selected for the process may not comprehend the acute functions of the organization (Cook, 2015). The management can learn the operations that influential employees view as most important. It is eminent that the chosen operations form the basic component priorities in the organization. Another elaborate method is conducting interviews with individuals from each department. In this situation, careful selection is paramount to get the right feedback. The selected employees from the departments should comprehend the functions and the operational process in the company. After a decision is made on how the survey and interviews will be carried out, the Business Impact Analysis team should come up with proficient questions to ask the individuals, they include:

"What is the main role of your department? Which tools do you find most prerequisites in managing your roles in the department? If these tools were removed at your reach, could this affect your functions? Do you have alternative solutions on what you would utilize if the tools were not existent? How does the IT department aid in the integration of functions in your department?"

These basic questions help in obtaining valuable answers that can help in the establishment of component priorities. Business functions as carried out by employees may be easily outlined without the involvement of experts. The finance, as well as the audit department, enables the team in highlighting the financial and service effect of component priorities. The latter has all the valuable information when it comes to the organization’s accounting records thereby they should be involved during the process. Recovery time frameworks can be acquired through a multi-dimensional approach involving all stakeholders and individuals who ought to give suggestions on how time frameworks should be pulled through (Kakade et al, 2019).

Vast methods can be used in the identification of component dependencies and component reliance. Component dependencies help in outlining the bindings between varied components that are dependent (Schwarz et al 2015). Therefore, in this case, there should be two types of processes that are indicated as parent components. However, the two are bonded by different activities to make them one. Components that depend on the parent component are referred to as the component reliance. In a firm, some functions cannot survive solely whereas others can work independently. For instance, software programming requires the IT department whereas the Human Resource can run without the IT team. This means that software programming is the component reliance whereas; the IT team and the Human resource are component dependents.

The best means of identifying component reliance and component dependencies is using a survey method. In the process, it is suggestible that leaders and heads of departments are highly involved. These members of staff understand the components of the organization from a wide view hence they can elaborate on which teams are dependent and those that need the support of others. A thorough research can also be carried out to highlight which component dependencies and reliance are found within a company (Cook, 2015). Through the latter, the BIA team can identify the vital resources that can be used in the recovery of components in case of failure events. Resources that are important in the recovery process can also be identified through interviews with employees since they have much knowledge of the day-to-day tools that they utilize in the recovery of minor failures.

Human assets that are needed to recover components can be identified using the Human Resource team (Kakade et al, 2019). This department is in charge of hiring skilled professionals hence they have all the knowledge on the human assets that are functional and those that can help in the specific recovery of components. Head of Departments are capable of identifying the best performing individuals in their teams. Thereby, they can be examined on the probable human assets that are suitable in the recovery of components. Overall, the management is highly advised on the best employees hence they can suggest these individuals to the Business Impact Analysis Team. The leaders, human resource and head of the department should create a list of high performing workers that can help in the recovery process of components and other resources.

Recommendation

The fundamental role of a Business Impact Analysis (BIA) is comprehending the processes and components that are important to underlying operations and to also understand the effect that the disruption of the operations would have on the organization (Kakade et al, 2019). Looking at the analysis from an IT perspective, the BIA has the core purpose of correlating components with the functions that they offer. Based on that data, one can manage to categorize the consequences that may arise if a disruption occurs in the business. There are two vital parts when it comes to the creation of the Business Impact Analysis. The first segment is to comprehend the mission-critical business activities and the second is to correlate these to IT systems. The understanding of 'business functions' is a prerequisite to figure out how to identify how to use IT systems in the recovery of lost components (Cook, 2015). The BIA created should be able to serve the following purposes; Offer a piece of resource information that can help in developing an appropriate recovery strategy. The BIA should manage to obtain and outline the firm's most critical objectives and the essence of each of them. It should offer information about the management decision that can help in the recovery of each component. Lastly, it should be able to outline the specific dependencies that are found in and out of the organizations that help in the attainment of critical objectives ( Cook, 2015). The major steps involved in the creation of BIA include; identification of primary business functions, establishment of business recovery requirements, determination of interdependencies, highlighting of operations’ impact, development of business processes' classification and priorities, creation of recovery time requirements and lastly the determination of legal, financial and operation effects of disruption. The outcomes of carrying out these steps are the creation of mitigation strategies and the outcome of recovering the business. During recovery efforts, the company personnel should be educated and trained on the analysis-taking place. This helps them in making them resourceful in the whole process.

Resources

Cook, J. (2015). A six-stage business continuity and disaster recovery planning cycle. SAM Advanced Management Journal, 80(3), 23.

Kakade, P., Raman, S. B., & Sharma, R. (2019). U.S. Patent Application No. 10/255,574.

Radeschütz, S., Schwarz, H., & Niedermann, F. (2015). Business impact analysis—a framework for a comprehensive analysis and optimization of business processes. Computer Science-Research and Development, 30(1), 69-86.

Subject: IT

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

Cyberattack On HBGary Federal

Your Name

Instructor Name

Date

Cyber Attack on HBGary Federal

Question 1 Part A

A content management system was created by HBGary’s website ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"FksChgRm","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Olson)","plainCitation":"(Olson)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":147,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/sbFMNDWM/items/4HPAE4CN"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/sbFMNDWM/items/4HPAE4CN"],"itemData":{"id":147,"type":"webpage","title":"Anonymous Takes Revenge On Security Firm For Trying To Sell Supporters' Details To FBI","container-title":"Forbes","abstract":"Five members of group bring hack servers, emails, Twitter account and Web site, potentially ruining business.","URL":"https://www.forbes.com/sites/parmyolson/2011/02/06/anonymous-takes-revenge-on-security-firm-for-trying-to-sell-supporters-details-to-fbi/","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Olson","given":"Parmy"}],"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",10,18]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Olson 2) . The CMS has several vulnerabilities and attackers were able to exploit these vulnerabilities. Anonymous attackers were able to gain entry by using new passwords that were updated by the employees.

Question 1 Part B

The attackers were able to exploit local vulnerability because the passwords that employees were using were not strongly encrypted.

Question 1 Part C

The attackers were able to use the social engineering of a network administrator. After hacking it, they were able to access the rootkit.com webserver.

Question 2

The attack on HBGary Federal can be characterized as opportunistic. This is because it was the organization’s fault. They should have considered all security options by catering to the vulnerabilities of a new content management system. Also, they must have trained the employees to use strongly encrypted passwords.

Question 3 Part A

In any organization, employee data is always protected and is highly confidential. Hackers were able to retrieve not only the email addresses of employees but were able to retrieve usernames and passwords of the administrators for HB Gary Federal web servers as well. As hackers were able to access all the organization's data, they could have exposed confidential emails to the public which could cause HBGary Federal to lose lots of money and reputation.

Question 3 Part B

The anonymous hackers hacked into HBGary’s website and after gaining access, they replaced it with a message indicating that they would release all the findings that Barr investigation had been doing on them. This activity can be described as an integrity attack as hackers not only gained access to the website but were able to corrupt the data and rewrote them.

Question 3 Part C

Anonymous took control of the organization’s emails while also erasing 68,000 emails from the system. This activity can be considered as an availability attack.

Question 4 Part A

Gaining access to Linux computers with the help of social engineering, hackers were able to access web servers and Barr’s Twitter account as well.

Question 4 Part B

Action G was done first because after gaining access to the rootkit.com webservers, hackers were able to access all the data of an organization.

Question 4 Part C

Hackers need to gain access to the webservers to delete emails and other important data so action D was done first.

Works Cited

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Olson, Parmy. “Anonymous Takes Revenge On Security Firm For Trying To Sell Supporters’ Details To FBI.” Forbes, https://www.forbes.com/sites/parmyolson/2011/02/06/anonymous-takes-revenge-on-security-firm-for-trying-to-sell-supporters-details-to-fbi/. Accessed 18 Oct. 2019.

Subject: IT

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Data-Driven Web Analytics

Data-Driven Web Analytic

Student’s Name

Institution affiliated

Data-Driven Web Analytic

The concept of data analytics refers to understanding the behavior and nature of web visitors. Visitors are individuals exploring websites for information. Web analytics is crucial to businesses and organizations since it gives a better understanding of visitors to develop ways to attract, retain and increase the number of people visiting the website. Businesses can use different types of data analytics including behavioral analytics, acquisition, traffic source and user analytics (Ayanso and Lertwachara, 2014).

How Business Determine Analytics to Use

Choosing proper web analytics for a business is crucial since it determines the number of visitors. A business chooses analytics by determining the nature of targeted visitors, the information posted on the website, and the purpose of the website. A business also must determine the cost of analytics and the intended outcome. A good analytic must optimize on the outcomes i.e. it must derive optimum traffic to the website.

Benefits of Becoming a Data-Driven Organization 

Data-driven organizations remains competitive in the market because they accrue different benefits salient to competitors or other businesses. To start with, it enhances business efficiency and effectiveness (Moris, 2018). Accurate integration of data and analytics gives organizations special competencies to release hidden opportunities the targeted analytics provides increased efficiency and effectiveness as the business tailors information to specific customers. Importantly, data provides key insights to the organization, which are utilized by the management in making executive decisions, and push business to a higher level. 

Data-driven organizations can increase revenue and foster income (Moris, 2018). Relentless data analysis supports current and future decisions and predictions. It provides knowledge of when and where to make investments. By doing this, organizations can outsmart competitors and find innovative ways of increasing revenues. Lastly, data-driven businesses increase their flexibility and agility. It makes the organizations invest in the right people, infrastructure as well as governance to facilitate optimum utilization of available resources (Kanumuri, 2019). With the right people and infrastructure, businesses can develop critical insights.

Implications of Not Having Web Analytic Action Plan

Having dysfunctional web analytic tools gives a business a disadvantaged competitive environment. The business will lack long-term future projections hence failing to invest in appropriate infrastructure and human power. The business will not recognize opportunities making it difficult to maximize revenues. 

 

How Business Determine What Data Have Value 

Valuable data can positively influence the business. A business determines valuable data analyzing the benefits of each data to the organization. Data that accrue a higher value to the business is the most valuable. Valuable data should increase efficiency and effectiveness, increase revenues, provide current and probable future trends and optimize profits. 

References

Ayanso, A., and Lertwachara, K. (2014). Harnessing the power of social media and web Analytics. Routledge Publishers.

Moris, T (2018) Competitive Advantages of Data- Driven Organizations. Retrieved from https://www.microstrategy.com/us/resources/blog/bi-trends/6-competitive-advantages-of-data-driven-organization

Kanumuri, J (2019) Three Business Benefits of a Data-driven Organization. Retrieved from https://dzone.com/articles/three-business-benefits-of-a-data-driven-organization

Subject: IT

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Database Design And DDL

Database design and DDL

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Tables are used to store data in a database. There are many ways through which tables can be created and managed. The first method is using the create statement for example,

CREATE TABLE tbl_Students ([Studentid] [int] IDENTITY (1, 1) NOT NULL,

[First-name] [Varchar](200), [Last-name] [nvarchar] (200), [Email] [nvarchar] (100))

This query is widely and commonly used for creating and managing the tables in a database using SQL server. Another method of creating tables in the database using SQL server is using the select into statement (Hou, Hu, Liu, Qian, 2015). For example,

Select studentid, Firstname, Lastname into table_student_info from table_students.

This query will retrieve columns that are studentid, Firstname and Lastname from the table_students and add the data to a newly created table called table_student_info (Ramakrishna, Gehrke, 2000).

The reason for choosing these two methods is that they help the developer in speedy coding. The columns are easily created and defined with their respective data types. Using select into query allows the easy retrieval of data and putting it in a new table with a minimum amount of time. These query statements will enable the facility of built-in optimisation. An efficient way of resources is used through creating statement because in one statement we can provide the whole complete detail about the table, which includes the name of the table and columns, information about the primary key and the data types of the columns. Tables are easy to maintain through these query statements. Using the create statements allows the developer to use the facility of Granular security that is developer can assign the restricted permissions to the table. For example, grant CREATE View to user1. This query will only allow the user to view the data. The user cannot perform any functions on the data. Data recovery from these query statements is easy. We can easily update, insert or delete the data which provides ease in management of the tables (Ireland, Clegg, Meckler, 2007).

References

Ireland, E. P., Clegg, D. L., & Meckler, J. (2007). U.S. Patent No. 7,174,326. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Ramakrishna, R., & Gehrke, J. (2000). Database management systems. McGraw Hill.

Hou, X. Q., Hu, G., Liu, T., & Qian, Q. (2015). U.S. Patent No. 9,223,827. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Subject: IT

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Disaster Recovery Plan

Disaster Recovery Plan

Author’s name

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Author Note

Disaster Recovery Plan

Overview of Company

IBM is a data consulting corporation head-quartered in New York USA. It is the biggest technology-based company in the world and is the second most valuable IT brand in the world. IBM designs, develops and sells hardware and software solutions and offers, infrastructure services, hosting services and consultancy services in technology ranging from data science to nano-technology. IBM’s corporate mission statement states that,

“To lead in the creation, development and manufacture of the industry’s most advanced information technologies, including computer systems, software, networking systems, storage devices and microelectronics. And our worldwide network of IBM solutions and services professionals translates these advanced technologies into business value for our customers. We translate these advanced technologies into value for our customers through our professional solutions, services and consulting businesses worldwide.” ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"0McpRKHC","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(MSA, 2019)","plainCitation":"(MSA, 2019)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":170,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/DTmO0ro3/items/SGQFQXG3"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/DTmO0ro3/items/SGQFQXG3"],"itemData":{"id":170,"type":"post-weblog","title":"IBM Mission Statement 2019 | IBM Mission & Vision Analysis","container-title":"Mission Statement Academy","abstract":"IBM mission and vision statements help define what the company is working towards and how it remains to be one of the most successful companies in the world. Read on for a breakdown of the company's mission and vision statements and its core values.","URL":"https://mission-statement.com/ibm/","language":"en-US","author":[{"literal":"MSA"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019",7,15]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",12,12]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (MSA, 2019)

Through its mission statement, IBM ensures that the company makes its aim of becoming the leader in global market of information technology very clear. The main idea that differentiates IBM from its counterparts is its trust in the leadership abilities of resources from different developing nations. This makes the products introduced by IBM deliver in foreign communities as well as the developer are more considerate of the religious and cultural sensibilities in the region. There is another aspect in which IBM leads the world and that is its leadership ability, it affects and invests in fields and companies that are not directly related to it. This not only increases the influence of the company but also provides its employees necessary exposure so that if need be, that in the future, they introduce themselves in that specific field then they will have some employees with hands-on experience in that field.

Similarly, the vision statement of IBM states that,

“To be the world’s most successful and important information technology company. Successful in helping out customers apply technology to solve their problems. Successful in introducing this extraordinary technology to new customers. Important, because we will continue to be the basic resource of much of what is invested in this industry.” ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"5IzvB5Vg","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Lombardo, 2017)","plainCitation":"(Lombardo, 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":172,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/DTmO0ro3/items/KZ2AYENB"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/DTmO0ro3/items/KZ2AYENB"],"itemData":{"id":172,"type":"post-weblog","title":"IBM’s Mission Statement & Vision Statement (An Analysis)","container-title":"Panmore Institute","abstract":"International Business Machines (IBM) corporate mission statement & corporate vision statement are analyzed in this information technology business management case study.","URL":"http://panmore.com/ibm-vision-statement-mission-statement-analysis-recommendations","language":"en-US","author":[{"family":"Lombardo","given":"Jessica"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017",6,4]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",12,12]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Lombardo, 2017)

The vision statement of IBM represents its progress path as the corporate continues to maintain its position as one of the best players in the global IT market. The company, like any country emphasizes the development of its brand and its business globally. The vision statement also aspires to help the customers to solve their problem with the use of technology. It also aims to provide new, innovative and extraordinary technology to customers. Apart from this, the thing that can be determined for the vision statement is the idea that the company wants to be the basic resource of much of the investment that the industry receives.

In terms of size, IBM employs a total of 366 thousand employees globally. In terms of its organizational structure, the company has a product-type divisional organizational structure. The divisional organizational structure aims to decrease the company overhead by employing people around geographical, market or product and service groups. Thus, a company like IBM could be organized on divisional lines that could have operating groups based on geographical and production needs. The main characteristic that IBM’s organizational structure has, is the fact that the representation of the business processes involved in the conception, design, development and sale of a product is clear in nature. For example, there can be working divisions based on products that provide a primary structure to the company. The company’s organizational structure supports the use of tactics and techniques that pave the way for the design and development of competitive products.

Network Architecture

The network architecture that IBM uses is known as systems network architecture. The systems network architecture (SNA) is a network architecture used for data communications developed by IBM to determine the common conventions that will be used for communication in the wide range of IBM communication products and other platforms in the company that are based in both software as well as hardware. In the early years of the company, these protocols were developed and deployed. They ere maintained and developed by IBM for a couple of decades. A lot of other companies used the same conventions and it became a type of networking standard for its time. However, with the development in networking being a continuous process, this networking architecture became obsolete with the passage of time. New networking protocols were developed which were more robust and which are being used to this day, but the time is still far away when all devices using the SNA disappear.

Figure 1-IBM SNA architecture

Disaster Recovery Policy

Disaster recovery policy, in essence, is a policy based on a set of protocols, rules and procedure that will be implemented and adopted in the scenario of a disaster. The DRP explains in detail, the roles and responsibilities that will be given to certain individuals that are named as the Incident Response team which would only act in cases of emergency. The types of disasters and the responses are all clearly defined. The way that the company will recover form the incident after the disaster is also explained in great detail in the disaster recovery policy.

Disaster Declaration

In case of a disaster, the head of the incident response team will assess the situation and declare the disaster in terms of its types and severity. There will be two acronyms used for the declaration of the disaster. The first one will determine the type of disaster while the second one will represent its severity.

The first term will clarify whether the nature of the disaster. The acronym used for natural disasters is ND while the one used for cyber disasters is CD.

Severity will be determined by the use of a number from 1 to 10 with 1 being the mildest while 10 being the most fatal.

So, the head of the incident response team will declare the disaster as ND6, and the people will get to know that there is a natural disaster with a severity of 6. A severity of a natural disaster above five will automatically trigger the evacuation procedure.

Assessment of Security

The head of the incident response team along with 3 of its top members are then given the responsibility of security assessment. The security assessment has the following aspects.

The type of disaster answers the question of the type of security assessment that needs to be undertaken.

In case of a natural disaster, the area that is most affected will be recognized and all recovery procedures will be directed towards it.

In case of a blockade in communication and service, the assessment will include the security analysis of the areas of the facility that are the most affected and that need the most attention.

In case of spoofing, the assessment will include prioritizing the channels that are used for outward communication and those channels will be encrypted if necessary.

In case of a worm attack, the part of the facility where the data is stored will be temporarily isolated and the worm will be located by the cyber-security professionals and addressed immediately.

Potential disaster scenarios and action

The following disaster scenarios will be discussed and necessary action will be taken.

In case of fire, the company will try to limit the area which is being affected by evacuating the affected building and immediately calling the fire brigade. The company will also set up an immediate backup of any technical equipment in the affected area. In case of data centers, the company will send their data to the data centers which have less then needed data. The bandwidth issues will be discussed by the members of the intrusion detection team and resolved thereof.

Similarly, in case of earthquake, complete evacuation of all the buildings will be undertaken and a similar procedure of backup will be adopted if the earthquake is strong only in a locality.

For cyber security scenarios, the following scenarios will be seen and understood.

In case of a denial of service (DOS) or DDOS attack, the company will try to use its backup servers in order to mitigate effects of the attack on the server. The part of the server that is recognized in the assessment procedure as the most critically hit, will be shut down and rebooted using the backup machines, if necessary. There are several DOS mitigation and DDOS mitigation software that are developed and deployed by companies for such scenarios. Such software can be used for the complete security of a server from such attacks. The incident response team will be responsible for complete recovery of the servers and the systems.

In case of a spoof attack, all outward communication channels will be encrypted, as the person eavesdropping on our communication will have no idea about what is happening and will get his channel flooded with garbage. The members of the incident response team will then be given the task of analysis on the connected IPs to recognize the system from where the cyber-attack is being initiated. The cyber-security wing of the law enforcement agencies will then be contacted for further investigation of the matter, if the actions of the culprit are out of the law.

In case of a worm break-in, the malware research department of the incident response team will be given the task of researching on the worm that has broken in to the system. The intrusion detection and prevention systems come in very handy when talking about the pieces of code which attempt to weave its way past the network security architecture. One such example of an attack is the one carried out on the Iranian nuclear facilities.

Disaster Recovery Procedures

Emergency response procedures

The appropriate emergency response is required to a fire, natural disaster, or breach in order to protect lives and data and limit damage. The damage caused to assess also include loss of data at computing systems. It can be physical loss of data or at such vulnerable times, the hackers attack to steal data. It greatly effects the data security and business of numerous. For such incidents business emergency response procedures are prepared and implemented. These now also include plan to avoid security breaches during a catastrophe as there is huge need to address the issues of integrity and confidentiality of data.

Backup operations procedures

It is very important that essential data processing operational tasks can be conducted after the disruption. Backup solution might not be able to stop the loss of data but will provide means to recover the data quickly.

Recovery actions procedures

The recovery actions aim to facilitate the rapid restoration of a data processing system following a disaster. The data can be transferred to a secure location and be recovered in better conditions. It is arguable that Data security is a significant part of Business Continuity Plans for any organization. It sets parameters of authorized access to systems and information during disaster and recovery period. It also defines the measures which are essential to stop intrusions.

Incident response team charter

Executive Summary

From today’s reality and cybersecurity issues, it is evident that every organization needs a constant and vigilant solution against the breaches. Thus, this proves the significance of a vigorous incident response plan and team who executes this plan. IBM has a IBM X-Force® Incident Response and Intelligence Services (IRIS) team in place which helps minimize the damages and offers a detailed overview on the incident so that effective future strategies can be made accordingly.

Mission statement

The mission of an IRT team is to practice their collective knowledge, skills and experience to ensure a safer and more secure global electronic environment, even in case of a disaster. The team prepares for and respond to any type of emergency that may affect the business.

Incident Declaration

The incident will be declared by the head of the team. He will be the one responsible for the assessment of the threat and the declaration of the severity of the incident.

Organizational Structure

There are a number of ways that the organizational structure can be arranged and the one that will work best for this IRT is known as the central organization structure. The decision-making procedures of the company will be kept centralized so that the team moves and works in one direction and as a unit.

Roles and responsibilities

A team provides an incident response support in several ways. Firstly, an on-site incident response services are offered directly to the constituent. Secondly, the Incident response services are provided virtually through an email or telephonic conversation. In addition to this, coordinated incident response services which merge and assign the efforts of various incident response teams across several constituents.

Information flow and methods of communication

After an incident hits an organization’s IT substructure, the response team has to address internal as well as external communication requirements additionally to technical matters which include investigation, suppression and recovery. Communication strategy should also include agreement related problems, media communications and also internal communications. There must be suitable balance between directness and defense. If more information than necessary is revealed, it could outcome in excessive increase or revelation of an exploitable problem which was not yet resolved.

Methods and services provided by the IRT

The IRT can be seen as the emergency force of the company. It provides support and technical help in case of emergencies. The following services and products can be launched by the IRT in order to solve the problems related to incidents.

First aid training to employees to raise awareness regarding first aid and its deployment.

Utility based First aid kits.

Anti-fire blankets and fire extinguishers: Most of the time if a human being catches fire, the most appropriate response is trying to extinguish the fire by any means possible.

Facility evacuation drills.

Immediate data backup drills.

Authority and Operating procedures

In the IRT, there is a head of all departments who is the de-facto leader of the team. He is followed by heads of departments. Every head of department is responsible for performing the restoration action in its own department. They are then followed by the team which report to them.

References:

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Lombardo, J. (2017, June 4). IBM’s Mission Statement & Vision Statement (An Analysis). Retrieved December 12, 2019, from Panmore Institute website: http://panmore.com/ibm-vision-statement-mission-statement-analysis-recommendations

MSA. (2019, July 15). IBM Mission Statement 2019 | IBM Mission & Vision Analysis. Retrieved December 12, 2019, from Mission Statement Academy website: https://mission-statement.com/ibm/

Appendix:

Subject: IT

Pages: 6 Words: 1800

Investigation Considerations

Investigation Consideration

Chimene tchokoko diboma

Assignment

9 Oct, 2019

“Table of Contents”

TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u

Introduction 3

step 2 6

step 3 5

step 4 7 Toyata Motor 10

Organizational structure 11

CIA 12 Quality 15

Cyber threats 12

Solution 15

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Introduction

The initiation of a criminal case is the first stage of the criminal process in which the interrogating officer, the body of inquiry, the investigator and the prosecutor accept and verify the statement or report of a committed or preparing crime and, within the competence established by the criminal procedure code, decide on the need for a preliminary investigation on criminal case in connection with the availability of sufficient data indicating signs of a crime, or the refusal to initiate a criminal case, or the transfer of the application on jurisdiction and the criminal cases of the private prosecution - to the court.

The criminal prosecution stage precedes the preliminary investigation stage. Its main task is to provide a quick response to every crime and create the opportunity for a comprehensive, complete and objective study of all the circumstances of the incident. A criminal case should be instituted in every case where there is at least the smallest chance that a crime has been committed. From the moment the case is opened, the criminal prosecution the mechanism is put in place, and the body of inquiry, the interrogating officer, investigator or prosecutor are given the opportunity to use all methods and means prescribed by law to ensure the rights and legitimate interests of citizens and establish objective truth (Maguire, M. (2003).

The interaction of investigators (interrogators) with the bodies of inquiry is determined by objective premises, the most important of which, according to A.P. Derbeneva, are as follows:

the community of their tasks in the fight against crime;

the difference of authority;

the specificity of forces, means, and methods of combating crime;

the independence of the investigator and the body of inquiry, resulting from the lack of administrative subordination to each other

A prosecutor, as well as an investigator or interrogating officer, shall have the right to initiate a criminal case with the consent of the prosecutor. Moreover, the adoption of such a decision is not only the right of these bodies, but also their obligation: a case must be instituted in each case of detecting signs of a crime. The investigator has the right to petition the prosecutor to initiate a criminal case when information about the crime came directly to him or when he himself discovered signs of a crime (for example, during the investigation of another crime). Usually, they initiate cases under his jurisdiction on tribal and territorial grounds.

1.1 Purpose of the planning

The purpose of planning in its content is objective and at the same time it is recognized by the investigating authority in relation to the circumstances of a particular criminal case. In connection with the last situation in the forensic literature, attempts have been made to differentiate the goals of crime investigation (planning).

The principle of validity implies the existence of a sufficient basis for all that is outlined in the plan, based on the information available to the investigating authority. At the same time, the source of such information, for example, in the investigation of crimes committed using banking technologies, can be materials from the criminal case, operational services, government agencies, credit organizations, etc.

2.  Resources

The principle of planning dynamism, on the one hand, consists of the continuity of planning and ensuring the necessary speed, mobility and flexibility of planning as new information about the crime is received, the conditions and conditions of the investigation change. On the other hand, it is a manifestation of the pattern of development of the investigative version. In the process of checking investigative versions, new information about the facts appear, new assumptions about the circumstances of the crime are verified, some versions disappear, others appear, and this happens before the investigation is completed, until the truth of the case is established.

The logical dynamics of the investigation will inevitably cause dynamics in the planning, constant updating and changing the plan of the investigation, taking into account the newly received information. Thus, even the most perfect, deepest, a prospective investigation plan is undergoing continuous adjustment. It does not at all follow that when drawing up the initial plan of the investigation, one can neglect the requirements of the comprehensiveness and depth of analysis of the materials received, the detailed development of investigative versions, planned measures, etc. counting on the fact that the plan is "unstable" and will be changed and supplemented (Dean, G., Filstad, C., & Gottschalk, 2006).

The principle of dynamism of planning obliges the investigating authority to timely make the necessary additions and amendments to the plan of the investigation, taking into account newly received information and changes in the investigative situation. detailed development of investigative versions, planned events, etc. counting on the fact that the plan is "unstable" and will be changed and supplemented. The principle of dynamism of planning obliges the investigating authority to timely make the necessary additions and amendments to the plan of the investigation, taking into account newly received information and changes in the investigative situation. detailed development of investigative versions, planned events, etc. counting on the fact that the plan is "unstable" and will be changed and supplemented. The principle of the dynamism of planning obliges the investigating authority to timely make the necessary additions and amendments to the plan of the investigation, taking into account newly received information and changes in the investigative situation.

The reality of planning assumes that the investigation authorities have the necessary resources at their disposal. All planned procedural and other actions (measures) and / or their complexes should be feasible, planned taking into account the specific conditions and capabilities of the investigation body, which are predetermined by the availability of appropriate resources? In the investigation of crimes committed using banking technologies, these may be: the presence of a sufficient number of operational employees, as a rule, units of the FS ENP, relevant specialists, the possibility of forensic examinations, primarily forensic economics, computer technology, the possibility of using information in the investigation process resources (both computer hardware and related software products) of temporary resources, technical means (e.g. motor vehicles). Otherwise, the investigation planning process will be divorced from the specific circumstances of the criminal case.

In these conditions, the inevitable: errors in determining the only correct the direction of the investigation, distraction of the investigation body to useless measures, loss of the optimal pace of work in a criminal case. The reality of planning is also expressed in the practical feasibility of the planned activities, the possibility of observing their deadlines.

3.  Develop a Plan

The first stage of planning is to analyze the information available to the investigating authority due to the investigative situation at the time planning began.

The sources of information about the investigated event may be various documents contained in the criminal case materials at the time of planning. The volume of such sources depend on the stage (s) of the investigation. So, at the initial stage of the investigation (immediately after the decision to institute criminal proceedings), the sources of information for planning the investigation may be:

Reports of a crime (statement of crime, confession, report on the detection of evidence of a crime, media reports, etc.);

The protocol of explanations of eyewitnesses of the incident, victims, etc .;

acts of departmental official audits, tax audits, documentary accounting audits (inspections);

materials obtained in the course of administrative proceedings (for example, a protocol on an administrative offense, explanations of persons in respect of which an administrative offense was conducted, testimonies of victims, witnesses, expert opinions, other documents (copies thereof), material evidence, etc. .);

results of operational investigative activities;

materials submitted by competent authorities of other countries;

regulations governing the sphere of public relations that have been subjected to criminal assault. It should be borne in mind that the legislation is changing dynamically, so you should carefully compare the time of the investigated event with the period of the validity of certain regulatory acts;

 In addition to the main plan, and often even before its formation, the investigating authority, especially in complex and / or multi-episode cases, develops supporting planning documents:

1) Cards ("personal accounts") on suspects (accused), where episodes of criminal activity is introduced in which the suspect (accused) took part, and data collected for each episode confirming his guilt. “Personal accounts” are separate cards (sheets of paper) compiled separately for each accused, and a card file is a collection of all “personal accounts”;

2) Chess sheets ("chess"): a combination of a graph with a description, a set of "personal accounts", deployed on a single sheet, where each horizontal column represents one of the "personal accounts". The chess sheet gives clarity to all the data collected on the case. “Personal accounts” and “chess” can be compiled by the investigating authorities before the investigation versions are put forward, in the process of studying primary information as a means of analyzing and systematizing (logical ordering).

3) various schemes and graphs reflecting the criminal ties of the accused, the movement of material assets and money, document flow, the organizational structure of enterprises and associations, the territorial location of individual organizations, etc.

4. Step 4

All additional forms of planning help to better navigate the case materials, unload the memory, give greater visibility to the collected evidence and upcoming actions are a kind of accumulative fund, an information base for the investigation as a whole and its planning in particular. The modern level of theoretical ideas about planning an investigation of crimes allows introducing into scientific and practical use the concept of “working documentation”, which should be understood as the entire volume of documents that accompany the investigation of crimes, but which are not procedural, evidence, or other documents that are based on Criminal Procedure Law attached to the materials of the criminal case (Yinghui, 2000). These documents should include:

Orders and instructions on the creation of SOGs and investigative teams and changes in their composition;

criminal investigation plans and programs;

Schemes: investigated criminal activity, preliminary investigation, relations between members of a criminal group (criminal communities, etc.), the movement of criminal capital, banking technologies that were used to commit crimes, etc.;

If the investigation of crimes is carried out by SOG, then planning is carried out by a group method, i.e. the head of the SOG, with the participation of all its members draw up a general plan of investigation of the criminal case, and, in addition, each member of such a group draws up his own, individual plan of investigation.

It seems that the triad of “planning, programming, algorithmization” can be considered as a single organizational element of private forensic techniques in the modern sense of the latter. Under the investigation program, we can understand the data intended to manage specific components of the system - the process of investigating crimes, processing information in order to implement a specific investigation algorithm. The latter, in turn, is an exact instruction to the investigating authority (SOG members), a certain sequence of procedural and other actions (measures) or their complexes to achieve the goal in a finite number of steps. Thus, the plan of investigation contains the program and algorithm of the investigation, as well as other data of an informative nature, allowing the most effective investigation of crimes (for example, indicating the number of the criminal case, the date of the start of the investigation, a brief plot of the case, investigative versions, tasks of the investigation, target dates for the stages of the investigation, etc.). At the same time, the investigation program in some cases, as was noted, it is advisable to set out separately, which optimizes the process of planning the investigation and allows for the multi-episode and / or most complex criminal cases to effectively organize the production of the preliminary investigation.

5. Toyota Motor Corporation

“Toyota Motor Corporation is a Japanese multinational automobile manufacturer headquartered in Toyota, Aichi, Japan. In 2017, Toyota's corporate structure had 364,445 employees worldwide and, as of September 2018, was the sixth-largest company in the world in terms of revenue.

“The Moscow representative office Toyota Motor Corporation, Japan recommends TerraLink as a reliable partner”. The company "TerraLink" provides after-sales service of the local network, the supply of computer equipment and software to Toyota Company. In early March 2018, the Japanese auto giant Toyota announced the creation of a new unit that will focus on the development of unmanned vehicles. Its employees will create “fully integrated, production-friendly drone driving software, (Yamada, 2013).”

 6. Organizational structure

From April 1, 2013, Toyota Motor Corporation’s automotive business will be divided into 4 main structural divisions, in order to more clearly distribute areas of responsibility and make quick decisions. The changes were designed to enhance Toyota’s competitive advantage and contribute to the implementation of sustainable growth strategies at the global level. New organizational and managerial structures were proposed after a thorough analysis of business methods and management decision-making mechanisms in the company.

Organizational StructureChief executive

Directors

Manager sales and marketing

Manager finance

GM after sales

Manager body and paint

NAWEED HADI

CR Manager

MEHMOONA

Manager parts

Admin sales Coordinator

Deputy Manager sales

Service manager

Paint Technicians

KHURSHID

MEHRAJ

AZHAR

ADIL

SHAFEEQ

NADEEM

Dent Technicians

TANVEER

ABID (PEYA)

ASIF

WAQAS

Manager Parts

RASHID

Manager Body & Paint

SARDAR ASIF

NAWEED HADI

CR officer

Dent Technicians

Paint Technicians

NAWEED HADI

Service Advisor

Assistant manager

Cashier

Warranty advisor

7.CIA

The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a department of the US the federal government and the main foreign intelligence and counterintelligence agency in the United States.

“Confidentiality, integrity, and availability, also known as the CIA triad, is a model designed to guide policies for information security within an organization. The model is also sometimes referred to as the AIC triad (availability, integrity, and confidentiality) to avoid confusion with the Central Intelligence Agency. The elements of the triad are considered the three most crucial components of security. PHI is any demographic information that can be used to identify a patient)”.

8. Cyber threats

Toyota is the target of a new cyber attack after an initial intrusion reported in late February 2019. Several Japanese affiliates are affected this time. Attackers could potentially access data from 3.1 million customers

The automaker Toyota revealed on March 29, 2019, that it was the victim of a security breach impacting several of its Japanese subsidiaries. The personal data of 3.1 million customers are potentially affected (Yamada, 2013).

9. TWO ATTACKS IN TWO MONTHS

This is the second flaw reported by the manufacturer in two months. A first attack had targeted Toyota's Australian division in February. The same criminal group appears to be behind both attacks, according to FireEye experts. The Australian branch could have served them to have access to the servers of the Japanese divisions.

Toyota has not yet revealed the nature of the data that hackers could access, the investigation is still ongoing. The company is looking for the moment to determine if they have been downloaded. She nevertheless stated that the financial information of the customers was not concerned, because not stored on these servers. The manufacturer has also announced measures to strengthen its global security.

Toyota: victim of two cyberattacks in 5 weeks

At the end of February, the Australian division of automaker Toyota was the victim of a cyber attack targeting the personal data of users.

In late March the Japanese brand reported a similar intrusion into its computer system.

Hackers had access to data from more than 3 million consumers of the automobile builder.

This the attack has indeed affected a large number of subsidiary fu Toyota group such as: Tokyo Tokyo Sales Holdings, Tokyo Tokyo Motor or Lexus Koishikawa Sales.

9.1 Benefits

Toyota is determining exactly what information the hackers had access to and how many people were affected by the attack. However, the group has announced that no financial information has been compromised because it is not stored on the affected server. According to FireEye's experts, both attacks were allegedly perpetrated by the same cybercriminal group. Their intrusion into the Australian branch may have allowed them to break into the servers of the Japanese division.

Toyota has announced important steps to strengthen its global security and reassure consumers. For this, an internal audit will be conducted on all of the group's IT servers. Toyota Financial Services selects Ivanti Patch for Endpoint Manager (powered by Landesk), Ivanti Device Control (powered by Heat) and Ivanti Application Control (powered by AppSense), with the following key benefits:

Significant reduction in patching time

Reduced risk of errors in updates

Previous error correction

Enhanced mobile device security (USB sticks)

Mobile RGPD compliance support Helps meet

security audits annually

White List and Contextual Blacklists and Privilege Management.

Present in around 40 countries, Toyota Financial Services offers its clients a full range of financing and related services through its dealer network. As an international company, Toyota Financial Services supports its IT strategy on global solutions for all its locations, while maintaining a certain autonomy for each country, according to their local issues and constraints.

Thus, if networks, remote access, links and inter-sites and messaging are global, the core network, storage and virtualization systems, office tools or some business solutions are entirely within the IT competence of each in the context of global objectives, including security.

In response to these safety guidelines from the Japanese parent company, the IT France team has, for several years, processed patching manually, aided by a few sporadic tools that did not meet the needs of managing updates on the Internet. Entire IT perimeter administered locally. Because unfortunately, when patches are applied manually, it happens that malfunctions occur, preventing the update of some components. "This is a problem we had with VMware Tools," recalls Pierre NG, Toyota Financial Services' Information Systems Security Manager.

10. Solution

As of March, the solution is deployed on almost 300 devices spread over 2 sites: 20 physical servers, more than 150 virtual servers, 20 laptops, 100 virtualized workstations, etc.

In addition, Toyota Financial Services France also uses Ivanti's Application Control solution to complete the security of its IS, against the risks of Zero-Day operations or the execution of unauthorized applications, by associating whitelists. dynamic and fine management of privileges. To reinforce this precautionary approach, the Ivanti Device Control solution enables Toyota Financial Services to quickly identify each mobile device (including USB keys) and to make it more secure, so that no application can be installed or run from scratch. an unknown mobile device, thus reducing the potential attack surface of the enterprise.

Recommendations for Toyota Motors

Toyota is not at its first failure. Already February 12, the car company had to recall 1.9 million vehicles of its model Prius. "This company should focus the quality and treat it before it represents a risk for the consumer.

In parallel, the recurrent security audits made it necessary to have better control of the applications, while, in particular, to meet the new obligations of the RGPD, the use of mobile devices and USB keys should identify and encrypt became mandatory.

For RAV4, Land Cruiser, and Hilux models, the driver's airbag may no longer work. But the user would still be informed via the indicator light on the dashboard. As for the seats of the Yaris and Urban Cruiser, they will not lock, which would cause their displacement back and forth in case of shock.

References

Maguire, M. (2003). Criminal investigation and crime control. Handbook of policing, 2, 430-464.

Dean, G., Filstad, C., & Gottschalk, P. (2006). Knowledge sharing in criminal investigations: an empirical study of Norwegian police as value shop. Criminal justice studies, 19(4), 423-437.

Yinghui, S. (2000). An Approach to the Technical Investigation in the Criminal Procedures [J]. CASS JOURNAL OF LAW, 3.

Greenwood, P. W., & PETERSIUA, J. (1975). THE CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION PROCESS VOLUME I: SUMMARY AND POLICY IMPUCATIONS.

Leo, R. J. (1982). An Update of the Japanese Automobile Export Restraint. Brook. J. Int'l L., 8, 159.

Yamada, K. (2013). U.S. Patent No. 8,536,810. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Shu-jun, J., & Hui, L. (2013). Analysis on the Lean Production about Electronic Assembly Line. Control Engineering of China, S1.

Subject: IT

Pages: 17 Words: 5100

IT Security Policy Framework

Title page

IT security policy

Establishing an effective technology security policy framework is crucial for organizations. The fundamental purpose of an information technology system is to process the data. As every business includes some data processing, the IT security framework deals with critical information such as personally identifiable information. The IT frameworks face the risk of possible theft of its designs, test data, manufacturing and research support applications and its manufacturing capability by suspected foreign entities backing its research partners and civilian competitors CITATION Are14 \l 1033 (AlHogail & Mirza, 2014). This has encouraged the company to adopt an adequate security strategy that will allow companies to attain security control environment CITATION Gar02 \l 1033 (Stoneburner, Goguen, & Feringa, 2002).

Security framework of NIST and ISO/IEC 27000

The primary process in risk management performed according to NIST and ISO/IEC 27000 framework is risk assessment providing information about the levels of risks involved in the information systems. It reveals the information about the potential threats and the nature that helps the organization to reduce the level of risks by adopting the required measures. This also provides information about the internal control systems and its efficacy. NIST (SP 800-53) identify threats as low-impact, high-impact and moderate-impact.

Inventory assets

Potential impact

Mitigating risks

Hardware

High

HSM codes/ cryptology

Software

High

Applications testing

Cloud computing

Moderate

cryptology/ HTTP

Company’s data

Moderate

HSM code

Customer data

High

digital wallet/ merchant software

Solutions

Based on NIST (SP 800-53) and ISO/IEC 27000 it is critical to deal with important and confidential information so it will adopt certain security measures that are for minimizing the threats associated with the information systems. The activities involved in risk mitigation and integration process is explained below;

Phases

Strategies

Initiation

Expressing requirements for IT system.

Defining the purpose of system and documentation.

Identification of risks.

Developing and supporting systems.

Meeting security requirements.

Implementing the operational strategy.

Development/ acquisition

Effective designing of IT systems. Purchasing programs and constructing designs where needed.

After identification, it provides security analysis.

Developing appropriate architecture for IT systems.

Meeting database storage requirements.

Implementation

The security features are configured, tested, enabled and verified.

Effective assessment of risks.

Supporting systems implementation and modelling operational environment.

Critical decisions about systems operations.

Operation/ maintenance

Effective performance of system functions.

Modification of system including hardware and software.

Designing policies and recommendations for organizations.

Periodic systems reauthorization used for risk management activities.

Operational changes in IT systems when needed.

Operational enhancement of production environment.

Disposal

Disposal of effective information.

Controlled use of hardware and software.

Discarding confidential information when vulnerable.

Scrutinizing hardware and software capabilities.

System components disposed or replaced ensuring proper disposal of hardware and software.

Appropriate handling of residual data.

Secure conduction of systems migration.

Solutions for securing network administration

System characterization is the initial step for assessing the risks involved in organization systems operations. It determines the scope of threats and available resources and involves delineation of operational authorization. The operational environment is also analyzed in this stage. The system-related information involves the description of characteristics of hardware, software, system interfaces, data and information and using IT system including data criticality and systems information. The functions required for the IT system is also explained in this process and defining the system security architecture. The network diagram is also explained in this process and the technical controls include built-in and add on security products CITATION Gar02 \l 1033 (Stoneburner, Goguen, & Feringa, 2002).

Another important information asset for any organization is cloud computing and NIST and ISO/IEC 27000 attempts to provide maximum security related to cloud computing to protect it from breaches and misuse. It provides increased transparency for assessing the quantity and prevents exposure of sensitive data. e-Security measures are provided by NIST to minimize the risks linked with cloud computing. It also includes effective cytological use for confirming authentication. This will minimize the risks associated with the loss and theft of data and the data remains in safe hands. It maintains compliance and privacy environment for organizations and involves security applications. The migration of sensitive data to clouds remains safe and inaccessible by unauthentic sources CITATION Tha16 \l 1033 (Thales, 2016). The cloud computing security is linked to many organizational benefits as it allows migration of cloud customers to cloud services and enhances the security of cloud services that provide certain levels of assurance related to the security of an organization. Some of the effective applications used by ISO/IEC 27000 are SSL secure socket layer also used for data encryption and enhancing the level of security. SSL establishes a safe link between the main server and the interface thus minimizing the risks of unauthenticated access. HyperText Transfer Protocol HTTP is also used for establishing key encryption authentication and is used for supporting multiple security mechanisms CITATION Tha161 \l 1033 (Thanles, 2016). Hardware is one of the important information assets for any organization and there is a need for minimizing the risks associated with hardware breaches. Security framework will safeguard the intellectual property of organizations and it provides various features for securing the company’s hardware. Cryptology is an advanced feature that protects the confidentiality of information specifically in hostile environments. It involves high levels of integrity and authenticity that can be accessed through electronic document and message. The cryptographic protection uses encryption for maximizing security that reflects the transparent deployment. Network connections are protected via Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) capable of accessing remote locations also. Data- crypto is the backbone of the hardware systems that maximize the level of protection and allowing access only after authentication.

References

BIBLIOGRAPHY AlHogail, A., & Mirza, A. (2014). Information security culture: A definition and a literature review. IEEE.

Stoneburner, G., Goguen, A., & Feringa, A. (2002). Risk Management Guide for Information Technology Systems. National Institution of Standards and Technology.

Thales. (2016). Controlling Fraud and Protecting Intellectual Property: Today's Challenge. Retrieved 2016 йил 02-october from https://www.thales-esecurity.com/solutions/by-business-issue/controlling-fraud-and-protecting-intellectual-property

Thanles. (2016). Cloud Computing Security. Retrieved 2016 йил 02-october from https://www.thales-esecurity.com/solutions/by-business-issue/cloud-computing-security

Subject: IT

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Project Deliverable 3: Database And Programming Design

Project Deliverable 3: Database and Programming Design

Student’s Name

Institution

Date

Introduction

The main function of any business is to transform the data into information. The use of database warehouse and relational database has increased in recent times. It has gained recognition has the standard for the operation of most organizations. As stated by Laher, Surace, Grillmair, Ofek, and Levitan (2014) a quality database design makes the flow of business data to be seamless. However, the database schema is the beginning of the relation database and therefore, it is important for a business to have a quality database schema for it to have seamless flow of information in the company. The database schema defines the tables, relationship, views, fields, indexes and other elements of database. It is important for a company to create a quality schema for it realizes business, workflow and processes. Since the company is an internet based company the database should focus on designed towards the warehousing.

It is one of the viable strategies, which would give the company the competitive advantage in the market. It is therefore, evidence that database schema is a key component required for efficient database development and management. It is important to ensure that it is properly build to support an organization’s business goals and objectives. The report, therefore, presents a database schema, which presents the business idea of the company. It also illustrates the relationship entity and the rationale for establishing the kind of business schema. The table and other elements, which support the schema, relationship and the E-R Diagram, will also be provided as well to show the process of creating database for efficient and seamless flow of data. The company has variety of data and most of its data are online oriented and therefore, it is requires for an organization to have an efficient data, which can reflect the business nature of the company. It is therefore, important to look at the database Schema, relationship of the data and the tables and other fields, which form the database.

Database Schema

Enterprise data is comprehensive and can be used in-house and external system. Analysis of the company, established that there is a need to analyze the data across different organizational system by time, location and channel. The integration of data is needed here so that a company can be able to store and organize data in a single place. It would help for the business to cut time and the lengthy processes, which is involved in the creation and generation of business reports. Previously, it used to take businesses days and months to generate various reports. Time has changed and with advanced technology, reports and other important information are generate within seconds. The generation of reports involves series of steps that utilized the exact data from a source the sort the data and merges. Data warehousing therefore, serves the purpose of several platforms to make the data reliable and also facilitate easy data integration. According to Laher, Surace, Grillmair, Ofek, and Levitan (2014), the data which are stored in the data warehouse is completely integrated, no-variant, and also subject oriented. The data warehousing help the organization to get full view of the organization and its performance as well. However, by creating a database management system to be sued for data warehouse, the organization can be able to increase its level or operations and efficiency by using the data collected through internet enterprise resource planning. A lot of companies have integrated the EPR their major system with EPR to improve its performance in the market.

The efficient management of the organization requires understanding on how data flow in the organization. According to Chung and Paredes (2015), a successful deployment of ERP by using data warehousing is likely to help in reducing the production, shipping, and inventory expenses and therefore, it gives the company a competitive advantage in the market. The data warehouse allows the company to analyze some of its Key Performance Indicators (KIPS), which are used to measure the business track performance against the business objectives. KIP usually applied to measure a greater length of the organization performance and therefore, it informs the management whether the implementation of the system has deteriorated the performance or improved the business performance. And therefore, with efficient data management due to quality database, the performance of an organization is likely to improve. The essential element of quality of database is the database schema. Therefore, the existence, efficiency and better performance of a database depend on the nature of the database. The database schema is based on the nature of the business as well and therefore, the designing and implementation of database schema requires understanding of the nature of business being done by a company.

It is also important to note that large scale environmental problem is the difficult task to address. Business applies the use of database to address the management problem. According to Cox (2014), the data application in business impact performance hence most companies usually realize a huge profit. The type of data schema depends with the business structure and management level. And therefore, the data schema required for this business is based on the data flow in the organization. The database schema is based on the administration knowledge. It also illustrates how a real world entitles is structured into the system. The business is running a warehouse and therefore, the data schema should contain features, which would allow employees to enter data and process easily in the system.

Sales ID

Client’s Name

Phone No

SalesOrderDetails

Product Serial

Address

CarrierTrackingNumber

mber

Name

Product ID

Order Quantity

Number

Name

Diagram 1: Database Schema

Rational for the structure

The database schema in the diagram one (1), has four (4) sections, the Sales ID, Sales order Details Carrier tracking Number and Order Quantity. The nature of business being conducted by the organization is an online base and therefore, clients gives order online through its website, which is integrated with the ERP and therefore, it must have a way of tracking all its products to ensure that the products reaches the clients. Therefore, the table Carrier tracking ID is required since every order is issued with a tracking ID. Therefore, the kind of data, which will be entered into the system, includes sales details; cost of goods, selling price, data of submission and the clients also come from different regions. These must be captured by the system for easy processing and therefore, the data schema reflects what the database shall contain. The business would enter information related to sales, products, supplier or customers contacts, where they can from and data and month when the product was brought to the store (Laher, Surace, Grillmair, Ofek, & Levitan, 2014). This information would be captured best using the above data schema because of nature. The data nature contains four tables’ calendar, Fact table, customer and Bind Style. The Sales ID would contains information related to dates especially when the product was sold out and also when the product was product into the store. The information would be helpful in analysis sales and reporting the stocking as well. Since the database will capture when the products was brought into the store and the time it was sold. The information would be helpful in understating the sales report, stock report, and also purchase details of every client.

Entity relationship

It is important for the database to have graphic representation to indicate the functionality of the database. The data is required to have relationship for it to function well and therefore, it is important for the data to have the method to ensure that the system is protected. The entity relationship is the kind of relationship where graphical representation is used to illustrate the relationship between the tables or information. It describes the kind of information, which is stored (Rüegg, et al., 2018). The relationship is how the data is stored between tables, fields or entities. The data must have a proper link for it to work well and give positive feedback when processing queries or report. The business requires the relationship of one-to- many. This means that one table is linked to several other tables of the data. It means that the data entered at the warehouse of the company is associated with customer, and other data, which are closely related to the customer (Laher, Surace, Grillmair, Ofek, & Levitan, 2014). It is established this way to ensure that there is efficiently in data process across several departments. The image below shows an example of how entity relationship operates to ensure that it operates well across the company.

The entity relationship will be established by linking SALES ID, SALES ORDER QUANTITY, AND CARRIER TRACKING NUMNBER tables together. This will ensure that there is proficient communication within the data level and therefore, the processing would be easy and faster. It ensures that there is consistency and accuracy of the data, which is being processed. The diagram is therefore, just as example of how the entity relationship works.

Data Flow Diagram

The data flow indicates how the data flow in the organization. It begins from where the data starts and the end process, which could be report generation or queries and even storage of the data. It describes the process, which involve in the system for the transfer of data from the entry point to the exit (Chung & Paredes, 2015). The exit of the data processing could be either a report being generated or the data is stored for future use. It is described based on the logical data flow, which is required to established functionality of the system. The DFD is needed for processing, storage, manipulating, and the distribution of data to the system. It communicates with the system to ensure that the data flows from the beginning to the end. It is therefore, important to have a proper flow of data for the system to work well. And for this to be obtained the structure of the system must be well thought-out and clear. The data flow diagram is therefore, every essential for the operations of the database.

Database tables with appropriate field-naming conventions

The database table is an essential part of the database schema. The table provides the layout of the database and the way the data intends to interact or the relationship of the database with key elements of the system. A quality table for database must have a key and a better referential integrity for it to function well. According to Rüegg, et al. (2018) the key and referential integrity determines the performance of the database and therefore, it is required that the key and referential integrity should be properly defined so that the data can be understand and function as well. However, the table has SalesOrderID, SalesOrderDetails, OrderQuantity and ProductKey as its table. The primary key of the table is defined at the SalesOrderID and salesorderDetail columns. The primary key is located at the fact table in the first field of the table, which is the SalesOrderID. The SalesOrderDetails is used to identify every customer in the database and it is also describe the relationship between the tables to ensure that the database could function well. When customers come to the store, each customer is assigned a unique identification number when the product is processed to the warehouse. The customer’s products, sales, cost and the amount owned by the company could be established using he customer key and therefore, the primary key is the SalesOrderID and SalesOrderDetailsID.

The rationale for using the table is based on the demand of the company. The company is an online based company dealing with various products online. It has several sales daily and these sales are online based. The clients must be identified based on the sales items. The ID therefore, is issued to customers based on the sales. Therefore, each customer has a sales ID in the system. The sales ID are issued by the system when a client put an order. Therefore, the sales ID is the unique identification number, which is issued to all customers.

The Referential Integrity is the accuracy and consistency of the data. The referential integrity would be achieved by ensuring that there is a foreign key which is associated with one of the tables (Chung & Paredes, 2015). The foreign key can be established at the fact table to ensure that the four tables are connected. The parent table must have foreign key for success of complete processing of data when entered the system. Without foreign key the data can easily get lost and the incomplete information is brought back. From the database, the users would not be able to generate reports and queries cannot be sent as well. The referential key is therefore, important and it must be placed on the database to ensure that the system is having a proper relationship. Without it the database will not be able to communicate using tables and therefore, company will not be able to generate reports.

SalesOrderID

SalesOrderDetails

CarrierTrackingNumber

OrderQuantity

ProductKey

3421

1

421-351

3

78512

3422

2

421-352

2

78513

3423

3

421-353

3

78514

3424

4

421-354

1

78515

3425

5

421-355

5

78516

3426

6

421-356

6

78517

3427

7

421-357

7

78518

3428

8

421-358

8

78519

3429

9

421-359

15

78520

3430

10

421-360

10

78521

3431

11

421-361

11

78522

3432

12

421-362

13

78523

3433

13

421-363

13

78524

3434

14

421-364

14

78525

3435

15

421-365

15

78526

3436

16

421-366

114

78527

3437

17

421-367

17

78528

3438

18

421-368

14

78529

3439

19

421-369

24

78530

Diagram 4: Database tables with appropriate field-naming conventions

The security of the data base

Security policy is an important measure which is taken to prevent the access to the system. The best way to protect a system is derived a policy which can protect the system from unauthorized access. An organization can derive policies regarding login and accessibility of the system. The security policy can be including login password strength, active status and how clients can be able to log to the system and stay active after certain duration. The network administrator must come up with security policy to prevent people from login to the system. The policy would be able to prevent the system from external attack such as hackers and therefore, it is important to ensure that there is a proper security system based on the policy. For instance, the system can be set to require string password such word and letters, and at least eight. This is to make sure that nobody can easily guess the password and use to access a system.

Recommendation

For efficient operations of the company it is important to ensure that the database is designed based on the operations and the market demand of the company. It is therefore, recommended for a company to conduct research on the market and serious analysis of the company operations for efficient understanding of the operations and therefore, it would help in realignment of the company database to the demand of the customers and other stakeholders. Network security is an important factor for enterprises. It is therefore, important to ensure that the system is protected using policies, hardware and software to safeguard the integrity of the data. Security implementation should be done at the entry point and within the system to ensure that any network is protected from any unauthorized access. It is therefore recommended for enterprises to deploy some of the latest security system which require the use of bio for access to a building or a system. The firewall should e deployed as well at the entry and exists to make sure that the system is protected. In real world network security involve prevention detention and response. If the prevention techniques were perfect there would be no need to require detection and prevention. There are so many techniques, which are used to protect the system. Besides firewall, there are encryptions, passwords which are used to provide proper security to the system. Security of the network can be achieved only through proper installation of firewalls, which is at the entry and exit point of any system

Bibliography

BIBLIOGRAPHY Chung, K. S., & Paredes, C. W. (2015). Towards a Social Networks Model for Online Learning & Performance. International Forum of Educational Technology & Society , 2-35.

Laher, R. R., Surace, J., Grillmair, C. J., Ofek, E. O., & Levitan, D. (2014). IPAC Image Processing and Data Archiving for the Palomar Transient Factory. Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific , 2-35.

Rüegg, J., Gries, C., Bond-Lamberty, B., Bowen, G. J., Felzer, B. S., McIntyre, N. E., et al. (2018). Completing the data life cycle: using information management in macrosystems ecology research. JOURNAL ARTICLE , 2-35.

Subject: IT

Pages: 9 Words: 2700

Research Paper

Genetic Algorithms Improves School Transportations Performance

Student’s Name

Institution

Course Code

Date

Introduction

The school bus problem is associated with the class of vehicle routing problem. This problem includes the use of several vehicles to transport students from schools to their destinations. The problem could be solved through the extraction of school buses routes by reducing the total number of buses, distance covered by buses to pick students from various picking points and reducing the number of buses. The manual schedule of buses generates several routes of buses, many routes and the number of buses and therefore, it creates a lot of confusion leading to delay in the transportation of students. It also results in multiple buses transporting on the same route hence increasing the cost and time of the pick. As stated by Gen and Ida (2015), it is a major bottleneck in bus transportation and why the use of genetic algorithms system was established to address the bottleneck. However, the problem could be solved through the use of Genetic algorithms system. The genetic algorithms are integrated with the chosen route of each fleet of buses. The system would then be able to choose the route based on the routes integrated with the system and apply across the network. The route, which is chosen by the genetic algorithm are superior choose system and the current route and therefore, genetic algorithms would be able to evaluate and decide on the best route. The algorithms terminate when the maximum number is achieved and this ensures that there are less multiple transits in a given route.

Genetic algorithms are described as adaptive heuristic search strategies, which are based on the doctrine of population genetics. According to Gen and Ida (2015), genetic algorithms have been utilized before to solve several problems and obtaining successful results. Some of these problems, which have been solved using genetic algorithms, are the problem of a salesman traveling, job shops scheduling, telecommunication networks, and vehicle routing problem. In this paper, the generic router system used for routing school buses using genetic algorithms is availed. The genetic algorithms have been used by several schools across the district to improve the bus schedule and the pick to the routing point, which is the school in this case CITATION Olu18 \l 1033 (Oluwadare, Oguntuyi, & Nwaiwu, 2018). The genetic algorithms system is a solution to the problem of wastages being incurred by the school, which use a manual system to pick and drop students. The manual system results in multiple trips, which is a waste a lot of time and resources of schools. This paper, is, therefore, investigate how genetic algorithms improve school transport performance hence brings efficiency within the school transport system.

Statement of the problem

Most schools are experiencing a problem of picking and dropping students using a fleet of school buses. This is because schools within most districts use manual scheduling system. As stated by Kang, Kim, Choi, and Cho (2015), this results in multiple schedules hence a waste of resources and finances of the school. School bus routing problem is a complete set of problem, which are based on the way students are picked and dropped by a fleet of school buses CITATION Kan15 \l 1033 (Kang1, Kim, Choi, & Cho, 2015). In many occasions, the fleet of bus routing schedule is not well planned and it ends up scheduling several businesses in one route. This is because the bus network is a very difficult problem to solve because of the cost, bus lines, coverage, fleet size, transit travel time and frequency of buses. With several buses scheduled to pick students, it becomes difficult to optimize the use of time and therefore, genetic algorithms provide the best solution and therefore, improve the performance of school transport.

Purpose of the study

The main purpose of the study is to investigate how genetic algorithms are used to solve the problem of school bus transportation. It is noted that school bus transportation problem is majorly caused by poor scheduling, several fleets of buses in a route and poor plan for the routing. This study is, therefore, meant to establish the cause of the problem and how the genetic algorithms are used to develop transport network solution to the school bus transportation problem. The main goal of the study is to extra the best possible solution to address the problem of school bus transport system. The genetic algorithms, therefore, the best solution to the school transportation problem because it is able to select the bus stop, generate bus routes, and schedules the generated routes as well.

Methods and materials /Plan

The study was conducted through a descriptive and analytical research method. In this case, various journals, peer review and research papers were read and analyzed. These Journals, peer review, and other readings materials used were obtained through search from different databases. The databases used to complete the study were Google Scholar, EBSCO database and Pro-Quest database. It is, therefore, important to state that a search was conducted using keywords such as school bus transport problem, genetic algorithms improve school bus transportation performance. Several journals and peer review were obtained and analyzed. Out of 250 journals obtained only twenty (20) journals and articles were selected and only ten used to complete the proposal. Each article or journal used to complete the study was analyzed based on the author, date of publication and relevancy to the topic being addressed. The routing problem was analyzed and the way they have been solved to improve efficiency in

Finding

It is obtained that genetic algorithms are the best system, which can be used to solve the problem of school transportation. The genetic algorithms solve the problem through the use of subdivision of the transport system into groups. From the analysis of various studies, it is discovered that genetic algorithms help in solving the problem through the efficient allocation of buses based on the need and the route. It is done through the integration of the bus system with genetic algorithms system so that it could be able to select the route based on the data.

Diagram 1: School bus transportation schedule

Diagram 2: School transport problem and solution offered by algorithms

Discussion

Normal algorithms use a normal sequence to pick and drop schools. The school bus transport system, which still uses normal algorithms, utilizes a linear method of operation. However, it is likely that genetic and normal algorithms are associated with random and stochastic phenomena. As stated by Gen and Ida (2015) stochastic are defined as things, which happen periodically and independent but still exist. The stochastic search algorithms like genetic algorithms are controlled by rules, which are related to optimization and evolution. But in case of random search, we have to locate the error to find the best solution and therefore, this is the techniques, which is used by genetic algorithms to allocate bus stops and schedule of the routes. All normal algorithms have been used to try to address the problem of school transport with little success because of the multiple trips of busses on the same route. This is because the use of normal algorithms means that the bus is destined to use the linear route. And with linear route means that the buses picked students from point A, B, C and D and during dropping time, the same method is used. In this case, several buses are found to be on the same route and therefore, it leads to a waste of cost and time hence it become expenses to the school.

It is the reason the genetic algorithm was inverted to help in addressing the same problem. Research indicates that genetic algorithms use data integrated with the system CITATION Raf17 \l 1033 (Rafaa, Guedria, & Sayda, 2017). This means that the system is updated with a number of students, bus fleets, routes and time. The system then gets updated automatically after every few minutes and this allows every bus on the fleet to have a bus schedule, next bus, and updated routes. The genetic algorithms calculate the population of each station and update its system based on the availability of the next bus. And therefore, with the algorithm, it is possible for school transportation would be able to get the next available bus and reschedule buses based on the unpicked students. It helps to avoid having several buses in one route and therefore, it limits the cost and time being utilized in picking students. In this case, it is important to point out that genetic algorithms help in reducing expenses being incurred by the school in transportation.

Conclusion

It is, therefore; important to point that genetic algorithm is the most effective technique to solve the problem of the school transport system. And therefore, it enhances the school transportation system hence productivity of the school. The core reason for this approach is to solve the problem, which exists due to the available several buses, the poor scheduling techniques being used by many schools and because of nonsymmetric questions. It addresses the problem of several buses on one route to help in reducing the time being used for picking and dropping students. Genetic algorithms have a more improved solution to the problem, which affects the transport system of several schools.

References

BIBLIOGRAPHY Bögl, M., & Doerner, K. (2015). The school bus routing and scheduling problem with transfers. Network

New York, 2-14.

Gen, M., & Ida, K. (2015). An improved genetic algorithm for generalized transportation problem. Artificial

Life and Robotics, 2-35.

Kang1, M., Kim, S.-K., Choi, R. H., & Cho, M. (2015). Development of a Genetic Algorithm for the School

Bus Routing Problem. International Journal of Software Engineering and Its Applications, 2-38.

Oluwadare, S. A., Oguntuyi, I., & Nwaiwu, J. (2018). Solving School Bus Routing Problem using

Algorithm-based Model. I.J. Intelligent Systems and Application, 21 (5), 50-68.

Rafaa, M., Guedria, N. B., & Sayda, L. B. (2017). Solving School Bus Routing Problem with a genetic

algorithm. Conference: Advanced Logistics and Transport (ICALT), 2013 International Conference on, 2-14.

Sadrsadat, H., Poorzahedi, H., Haghani, A., & Sharifi, E. (2013). Bus Network Design Using

Algorithm. ://ageconsearch.umn.edu/record/207124/files/2012_155_Bus_Design_Gen_Algorithm.pdf , 2-21.

Vignaux, G., & Michalewicz, Z. (2014). A genetic algorithm for the linear transportation problem.  IEEE

Transactions on Systems Man and Cybernetics, 2-18.

Wang, W., Shuyan, C., & Haoyang, D. (2015). Genetic Algorithm for Multiple Bus Line Coordination on

Urban Arterial. Comput Intell Neurosci. 2015; 2015: 868521. , 2-35.

Subject: IT

Pages: 6 Words: 1800

SDLC Overview & Requirements

Compare and contrast SDLC and 2 other development models (give a brief description of the approach, cover the phases, and highlight the strengths and weaknesses).

Student’s Name

Institution

Date

Software development model

There are several SDL models, which are used to come up with the best software. Some of the software models are spiral, waterfall, and incremental. Waterfall development is the oldest method, which are used in the development of software. The best future, which this method has, is the sequence steps, which makes the software development faster. However, spiral development model is the development, which combines both prototyping and design methods. It is known as a Meta – model, which means that it can used in other model of designs. According to Alshamrani and Bahattab (2015), the Spiral model focuses on the project assessment and eliminates the risk as well and therefore, it is one of the best models for software designs. The Waterfall model of software design is the oldest and can used in the current design system. But it does not eliminate risk and therefore, the best model of software design which can be recommended is spiral model of software design.

The spiral design is the best since it helps designers to eliminate risk and also gives writers an opportunity to weigh in the life cycle of the project. It provides a clear plan of software development, which starts with planning, risk analysis and development and evaluation and therefore, it is the best method of software development compared to waterfall and incremental. In short, there are several existing models, which are used in software development clients decide based on their needs. The waterfall method might still be the oldest model, which are used in software development but still has fewer advantages compared to spiral model of software development. Research therefore, indicates that spiral method of software development is the best since it looks at the interest of the software and eliminates any risk, which may occur. It also looks at the future of the life cycle of the system and therefore, systems which are designed using spiral model have long life and less maintenance compared to either incremental or waterfall model of software development.

References

BIBLIOGRAPHY Alshamrani, A., & Bahattab, A. (2015). A Comparison Between Three SDLC Models Waterfall Model, Spiral Model, and Incremental/Iterative Model. JCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues , 12 (3), 2-25.

Subject: IT

Pages: 1 Words: 300

106436

Impact of social media on new product

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Impact of social media on new product

Introduction

One of the best inventions that have come out of the twenty-first century has notably been the rise of social media. Social media has become a mean for sharing thoughts and perspectives of people regarding a specific thing with the whole community. It has also lead to greater connectivity between people by removing the constraints that used to plague the different forms of communication in times of old. Furthermore, it has also provided tools and a platform for sharing multimedia content and also provided such interfaces that are easy to use and understand. Over the years social media has become a powerful tool for improving the relationship between new products and consumers. Companies have used social media to create strategies regarding customer demands, their likes and their dislikes. Social media has greatly influenced the world in the business sense as well and this effect can be seen in small MNC’s to large corporations. In accordance with different resources and even common observations, it is found that there are different facts and figures that are responsible for directing marketing or consumer behaviour. Under the impact of social media, it is highlighted that the relationship between different brands and the attitude of consumers have changed over the course of time. It is found that companies and brands are using social media as one of the marketing strategies that can help them get more customers.

Moreover, this platform act as a platform that helps an organization to build its marketing portfolio in the long run, taking into account that the same product is used for the justification of the unsatisfactory response about the product. It is asserted that when a consumer buys a product online, feedback is taken which is then posted, it acts as a guideline for the other people such as consumers and audience to know if the product is good or not. There are a lot of people who made their decisions according to the responses that they get when they visit online or media profile of the brand. Moreover, it is highlighted that the same approach is used for knowing the negative approach of the people and consumers towards the products because it is found that there are a lot of people who do not prefer a brand because of the negative reviews. companies use social media to market their product, brands and services directly to their customers.

In a nutshell, social media is playing a central role in guiding and bringing people on the same platform of understanding and analyzing a brand from a different point of view that can guide either a positive or negative attitude towards that product. It is also asserted that social media is given specific significance in the justification of the facts that can help to increases consumer behaviour. The purpose of this piece of writing is to provide a literature review regarding the different literature out there regarding the effect that social media has on a new product.

Search Method

For new product introductions, social media can be powerful and a promising tool. Social media can help in broadening the reach and increase the rate of diffusion of information regarding the new product. This would be done through the facilitation of social interaction and spreading of word of mouth online. In order to analyse the impact of social media on new product I used ProQuest database. This database is used for searching journal articles and other information sources that are directed by sociological approach. My search terms were, “Social media”, “marketing”, “product” and “launching”. The research was limited to research papers and journal articles. As a result of search, 102 articles were collected and after analysis 6 were chosen that were directly related to the research problem.

Literature Review

3.1 Discussion and Limitations

The different researcher has conducted different platforms of research to know the impact that is caused by social media in the marketing of the new product. According to the research conducted by Baum, (2019), the main point was to analyses the impact of social media on the success of any new product. According to the results that were found by surveys, it was highlighted that social media campaigns can play a central role in guiding behaviour towards a specific product. The prime focus was the advertisement of the brand on social media by displaying the major products and determine what are the possible impact that can be calculated by the use of product on the other audience such as the advertisement of some high-quality binoculars. Research such as by Baum, (2019), determined the reaction of people in terms of product launch. He asserts that the articles and things that are sold by Apple and Samsung have got more value as compared to other brands because these brands are already famous for their products. This publicity has imparted a profile that has facilitated the purchasing of these article in a positive and quicker way, leaving behind a positive approach towards the market. it has been seen that social media helps in reaching a targeted population of every kind. One of the most obvious positive point of social media in the marketing of a new product is that it is one of the fastest and cheapest sources of introducing new products in the market. It is found that people are more active on social sites than another media source. There are various ideas that marketing managers could use for introducing a new product in the market. For each kind of audience, market managers could find different sites. Social media helps in making a product popular if it is benefitting people. Social media has been a trendsetter as well and help people so that they could easily search a product and information related to it. On the other, there are some analysts who believe that there are drastic negative impacts of social media on the product marketing, as on social sites it becomes easy for people to share their view regarding a product.

The research conducted by (Souiden, et, al, 2018) and his fellow colleagues highlighted the analytical approach towards marketing that signifies the role of social media that has changed in the past few years. It is asserted that there have been a lot of changes in the perception of product over time. In the past, perception towards product was not the result of assertions and recommendations but people used to experience the products themselves. In past, amount, type of company and the reputation was the deciding factors that could help people build an idea about product but now, people make decision in a relative manner. All decisions are guided by the approach towards recommendation and positive connotations that are made by the superior or elite people. Almost all those products are sold out and preferred that are either bragged on social media websites or people are made to address the positive side in form of positive feedback from those who have used. In order to view this ideology critically, the data collected and reviewed from 12 articles addressed the changes that have been brought over time, in terms of access to social media because in early times people were not having more access towards the social media so there was a less trend. Today, this trend is emphasized by the ease of approach towards purchasing on social media.

Lippizzi is another researcher who investigated the impact of social media on the product launching and marketing. She used social media for experimentation taking into account that the research was completely directed by the data that was retrieved from twitter. As twitter is a comparatively old social media platform, she used it to check how decisions making and product launching can be enhanced and diminished by the used of social media websites. She used twitter streams to select data that was then analysed through qualitative approach so that she can get a deeper understanding of the underlying role of social media in marketing paradigms.

(Harb, et, al., 2019) used social media’s one of the features in order to define how social media has impacted the launching and marketing of the pricy. Although he used surrey techniques, he analyses the event pages that are created of the launching of nay of the product. It is highlighted that much like other marketing trends, one of the trends that are incorporated in that of creating event pages. It is an exegetical and exaggerated approach that is used nowadays in order to approach customers as it is used as a highlight. He determined the response of people by using the different platform of data collected and survey information. Kijpokin also used the same technique but the subject was to define the oversell approach towards the utilization of product as well as the perception of people towards any kind of product taking into account that people find it as one of the most effective ways of getting an insight and developing opinion toward the product.

EGilana analysed the approach towards the role of social media in product launching by using a comparative approach. He collected different research approaches that can be used to undergo comparative and systematic analysis and employed them in studying the impact that is caused but social media on the use and launching of the product. He used collection of approaches in order to know the subject, taking into account that he used different tools such as meta-analysis and systematic review so that he can get a deep insight into other impact and it was found that there are a direct impact of social media marketing strategies and the way people use social media to know about different products. He used systematic approach to incorporate scientific understanding and meta-analysis to undergo an analysis of cognition that is set by experiences and exposure so that he can get a solid idea about the impact of social media in terms of marketing.

Critiques

Consideration the work of Baum, it could be noticed that he only supported those tactics that would promote brands already having popular products. His study did not promote brands that are new in market. Souiden, in his study article mentioned approaches that are used by the brands who wants to do best marketing but did not focused on the fact that people who does not have access to media would have both positive and negative perception about a product. Harb in his study, promoted way of collecting response of people about a product but forget to mention limitations as people who even did not used the product may also comment about product. Kijpokin, in his work did not mention how reliable is the social media that people use for making an opinion before buying a product. EGilana, used various approaches so it becomes difficult to say that which of these approaches have positive effects and which approaches are responsible for negative impact.

Methodology

4.1 Method Description

There are different types of research methods that are used by the researchers in order to evaluate different research topic, taking into account the underlying context. It is asserted that, most the social spectra-oriented topics are followed by qualitative research which is used to analyse the quality of the content and on this basis, decision are made regarding the research topic. In the research of topic regarding the impact of social media on products, qualitative research is used. I used 6 articles and all of them are evaluated by using qualitative sources of information taking into account that it was companies by different types of surveys and systematic reviews that could help to get an insight into the facts and figures that are either in favour or against the central topic of research.

However, all 6-researcher used qualitative approach in their own way, taking into account the measure of convenience they had while conducting the research. Daniela conducted her resaerch by using suvey method. He collected data by generating a survey campaign on social media where everyone was eligible to participate. Researcher used the data collected from people who took part in survey to know the impact of social media in attracting people to buy binoculars. However, Lippizi conducted qualitative research by using a twitter stream. It is more like an analytical approach to understand the public point of view. Twitter stream was more like an observational study which was analyzed by the researcher. Souiden conducted research by using qualitative method, taking into account that researcher conducted an analysis of the articles and the researches that were posted earlier regarding the subject matter. However, this research was limited by different constraints such as publishing of articles as well as the time in which article was published. This research adhered to the quality of information within the articles. Harb conducted qualitative research by developing questionnaires. These questioners Qualtrics and the research was based on TPB, taking into account that the stance of information was guided by the follow up of the pages that were made of social media for the networking of product were also used. The data collected was afterwards analysed by using techniques of qualitative research methods.

Kijpokin also conducted qualitative research but his methodology was confined to the analysis of business and professional applications. These applications were assessed in connection to the approach of people, because social apps are only famous when they have large customer value. He analyzed the value and the viewers of applications to determine the approach of people towards new product.

Gilania also used qualitative research, his research methodology was similar to the systematic review and its analysis, but the only difference is, he confined his research to different dimensions such as number of articles and the time frame. The collected information was then analysed qualitatively to proceed for the results.

4.2 Comparison (features and techniques of the authors)

Daniela et al (2018), worked on the same premise and focused their research study on the impact of social media and its campaigns on the success of a new product. The form of the methodology chosen for this topic is in qualitative form. The data is collected using a survey and behavioural data. This survey is conducted on the basis of a social media campaign in progress. This is campaign was focused on promoting and introducing high-end binoculars. In this research, they used the behavioural data and the survey data that they had accumulated in order to analyze the impact social media can have on a new product. The limitation of this research was the lack of restrictions in data.

Authors such as Lipizzi, et al (2015), conducted qualitative research focused on finding out how customers are to react to a certain product launch. The data for this research was taken from twitter and generally focused on the early reactions consumers had regarding two new products sold by Apple and Samsung. The data was more specifically collected by the streams that were generated on twitter around the seventy-two-hour window encapsulating both product launches. Furthermore, the conversational analysis of the twitter streams by forming maps. These maps were further interpreted by the use of semantic and topological metrics in order to compare the different responses gathered in twitter feeds. The limitation of this research was lack of content centered information.

According to (Souiden, et, al, 2018) the idea of the impact of social media on product and services is determined by using qualitative research. In this research, information was collected by using 12 articles, theta was selected after several rounds of information. He used this method to get a deeper insight into the impact that is caused by social media in the product. The choice of articles is highly dependent on factors such as time and place that has played a direct role in maintaining the authenticity of research. It is found that the author limited his research to the places such as Marrakech and Morocco and the time was limited to April 2017. Moreover, the topics of the article were also oriented to the topic because he aimed at a highly content-oriented choice of articles and contents. The limitation of this research was the quantitative representation of data that would have added to the quality of research.

(Harb, et, al., 2019) and his colleagues conducted a research in order to understand that social media as a tool of marketing as a significant event, in order to conduct this research, the approach utilized was quantitative research method taking into account that it was facilitated by the used of online surveys. These questionnaires were distributed on Qualtrics and the research was based on TPB. The research was considered by the followers of events pages that are created on Instagram, Facebook and twitter. The limitation of this research was the quantitative representation of data that would have added to the quality of research.

Kijpokin conducted research in terms of professional and business applications adhering to the social media platform. This research was conducted by using qualitative research taking into account that the centre of research was directed to defined and pinout the relationship that exist between digital age and the promotion of product. He used this research without any limitation to content or time frame because it was a qualitative research taking into account that diverse opinion and diverse sources of information was used to find out positive and adequate results that can help to get a deep insight into the topic and the other relevant features. The only limitation in this research was the lack of any restriction or constraint in research.

(Gilania, et, al., 2019) conducted research in order to find out the impact of social media on decision making. In accordance with the readers, he used qualitative research that was guided by using bibliometric analysis methods along with the review of papers that were published between 2008 till 2019. This research was highly selective in its content taking into account that there were about 1159 articles. He chooses only 733 articles in total and used them to proceed with the systematic review and meta-analysis taking into account the identification of the role of social media. Moreover, this research also included survey sections in which different people were surveyed in terms of the collaboration that exist between countries. This collaboration was centred on the role of social media and the aspects that have brought countries as well as the products that are either popularized and de-popularized by the use of social media. It would not be wrong to say that the researchers conducted research by using qualitative approach taking into account that it is one of the most used approach for the analyses of research topics in the social spectrum. There is no apparent limitation in this research.

4.3 Viewpoint and methodology Comparison

In this research, only qualitative research method was used so it cannot be inter-compared. However, all the researchers believe that social media has a direct and positive impact on new product launching as it creates business paradigms and hype up the customers. In this instance many researchers looked at the different aspects of how social media has been used over the years to influence the response regarding new product launch. It is more added, Baum has described the role of social media in terms of different campaigns that are used to launch a product. He addressed the sociological viewpoint. However, Gilani asserted that social media can play a major role in decision making because today, our decisions are the product of audience. Harb has described social media as a tool that can help to enhance the market value of a product. Kijpokin, highlighted that social media has played a central role in businesses such as launch events. Through their research they clearly state the importance social media holds regarding any new product in the market.

Conclusion

Taking a look at the above the discussion, it could be concluded that with the advancement of time, technology is influencing all the fields of life. At present, social media is the latest form of the technology that revolutionized all the areas of life i.e. business and communication etc. considering the research of the various experts, it has been witnessed that there are two kinds of impacts that social media cast on the product. There are some researchers who claim that social media is an important source through which targeted audience could be approached easily. This fact cannot be denied that most of the people make up their mind about a product by taking a look at the reviews being given on social sites. People could share their reviews easily that may cast negative impacts on the popularity of new products.

References

Baum, D., Spann, M., Füller, J., & Thürridl, C. (2019). The impact of social media campaigns on the success of new product introductions. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 50, 289-297 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0969698918305496

Gilani, E., Salimi, D., Jouyandeh, M., Tavasoli, K., & Wong, W. (2019). A trend study on the impact of social media on decision making. International Journal of Data and Network Science, 3(3), 201-222.http://growingscience.com/beta/ijds/3088-a-trend-study-on-the-impact-of-social-media-in-decision-making.html

Harb, A. A., Fowler, D., Chang, H. J., Blum, S. C., & Alakaleek, W. (2019). Social media as a marketing tool for events. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, 10(1), 28-44.

https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/JHTT-03-2017-0027/full/html

Kijpokin Kasemsap, K. (2019). Professional and business applications of social media platforms. In Social Entrepreneurship: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications (pp. 824-847). IGI Global.https://www.igi-global.com/chapter/professional-and-business-applications-of-social-media-platforms/224786

Lipizzi, C., Iandoli, L., & Marquez, J. E. R. (2015). Extracting and evaluating conversational patterns in social media: A socio-semantic analysis of customers’ reactions to the launch of new products using Twitter streams. International Journal of Information Management, 35(4), 490-503. https://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/40642804/paper_apple.pdf?response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DExtracting_and_evaluating_conversational.pdf&X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Credential=AKIAIWOWYYGZ2Y53UL3A%2F20190825%2Fus-east-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Date=20190825T181332Z&X-Amz-Expires=3600&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Signature=98e9a80a1aa22cf7c5d260d27aa0eb165d19731bdbf8c9641bb33908032127d3

Souiden, N., Ladhari, R., & Chiadmi, N. E. (2019). New trends in retailing and services. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S096969891830626X

Subject: IT

Pages: 2 Words: 600

: IT Systems Architecture

Information Technology Systems Architecture

Chimene Tchokoko Diboma

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)

Information Technology Systems Architecture

Introduction:

Information technology plays the role of utility in modern life. Businesses rely on information technology systems for their operations. With exponential penetration of information technology into businesses and everyday processes, attacks on such systems have also increased tremendously. Most of the organizations collect and process personally identifiable information of customers for service delivery. Headlines are filled with news of successful targeted attacks on organizations and individuals as well ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a1437igehrb","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Martini & Choo, 2012)","plainCitation":"(Martini & Choo, 2012)"},"citationItems":[{"id":1992,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/gITejLE9/items/EA59SPEZ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/gITejLE9/items/EA59SPEZ"],"itemData":{"id":1992,"type":"article-journal","title":"An integrated conceptual digital forensic framework for cloud computing","container-title":"Digital Investigation","page":"71-80","volume":"9","issue":"2","author":[{"family":"Martini","given":"Ben"},{"family":"Choo","given":"Kim-Kwang Raymond"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2012"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Martini & Choo, 2012). To investigate such attacks and criminal activities involving information technology systems digital forensic investigation methods are utilized. The paper describes the methods involved in digital forensic investigations, tools and technologies, and issues involved in such investigations.

Digital Forensics Methodology:

Steps involved in the investigations of digital crime may be similar to those of ordinary investigations, but the methods are totally different. There are various tools that need to be utilized effectively in order to collect digital evidence. The first step in digital forensic investigations involves preparation of the investigation. Preparations for each investigation event may be different based on the nature of the digital crime being investigated. There may be no physical footsteps in digital forensics to be investigated. Therefore, there must be an appropriate plan of investigation before initiating the actual investigation process. In digital crimes, computer systems can be used as an object of crime or as a tool to commit the crime. Computer systems have central importance in any digital investigation.

Digital forensics is the process of collecting information while maintaining the integrity of the information. It is crucial in such investigations to maintain the integrity of evidence being collected because criminals can further obfuscate the available details or digital fingerprints on machines. During the preparation phase of digital forensic, the investigators have to decide about the point of initiation ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a1keoq33rip","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Ab Rahman, Glisson, Yang, & Choo, 2016)","plainCitation":"(Ab Rahman, Glisson, Yang, & Choo, 2016)"},"citationItems":[{"id":1995,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/gITejLE9/items/UYAS75EU"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/gITejLE9/items/UYAS75EU"],"itemData":{"id":1995,"type":"article-journal","title":"Forensic-by-design framework for cyber-physical cloud systems","container-title":"IEEE Cloud Computing","page":"50-59","volume":"3","issue":"1","author":[{"family":"Ab Rahman","given":"Nurul Hidayah"},{"family":"Glisson","given":"William Bradley"},{"family":"Yang","given":"Yanjiang"},{"family":"Choo","given":"Kim-Kwang Raymond"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Ab Rahman, Glisson, Yang, & Choo, 2016). That requires identification that what should be analyzed to find evidence. In case of a vast computer network, it is highly possible that the whole network was compromised or involved in an attack or just a part of the network. Once, the physical point of the investigation is determined then various data analysis tools are used to extract information from the systems. It involves the collection of metadata along with the actual data that can help in identification of the criminals. Evidence collected in this phase is then analyzed using sophisticated file analysis tools. Findings are then reported using standardized formats because most of the time digital forensics data may be used in a court case later in time.

Collection of equipment or evidence in a particular investigation is crucial. The identified place of crime may have a different type of hardware connected to a network. For example, if storage disks are configured or connected to a computer system using RAID technologies, then appropriate RAID levels must be preserved to extract the data from the disks ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a1lp2mklhnl","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Mitchell, Anandaraja, Hara, Hadzhinenov, & Neilson, 2017)","plainCitation":"(Mitchell, Anandaraja, Hara, Hadzhinenov, & Neilson, 2017)"},"citationItems":[{"id":1998,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/gITejLE9/items/L8GML9P8"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/gITejLE9/items/L8GML9P8"],"itemData":{"id":1998,"type":"paper-conference","title":"Deconstruct and preserve (DaP): A method for the preservation of digital evidence on solid state drives (SSD)","container-title":"International Conference on Global Security, Safety, and Sustainability","publisher":"Springer","page":"3-11","author":[{"family":"Mitchell","given":"Ian"},{"family":"Anandaraja","given":"Tharmila"},{"family":"Hara","given":"Sukhvinder"},{"family":"Hadzhinenov","given":"George"},{"family":"Neilson","given":"David"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Mitchell, Anandaraja, Hara, Hadzhinenov, & Neilson, 2017). Otherwise, careless handling of digital evidence will result in the loss of information that could be crucial in moving forward. Physical samples collected must be preserved against tampering so, that actual information can be retrieved from the source.

Digital Forensic Tools:

There are many tools and utilities that can be used in digital forensic analysis. One such tool is known as EXIF tool. The tool is used to reveal metadata of any particular file. Metadata is known as the data about the data. Such as the metadata of an image may reveal about the geolocation where the image was captured, exact date and time, time of last modification of the image file. All of these information bits help in the investigation of digital crime. Computers preserve last accessed timestamp of all the files stored in them in the metadata of the file. Therefore, extracting metadata of files in crucial in digital forensic investigations. Many other forensic investigation tools are to be used at this step such as forensic toolkit software that allows the researchers to scan complete data storage drives for evidence.

A significant hurdle in the collection of the evidence is that a criminal may have deleted the files and crime tools from the storage. In such cases the use of forensic tools is inevitable. FTK software scans full hard drive storage to locate the data and provide granular visibility into related metadata of discovered files. It uses sophisticated algorithms to retrieve pieces of data that were previously deleted by the criminal. Even if the complete file is not retrieved, the tool will be able to reveal necessary pieces of metadata of the file. It is especially helpful in the retrieval of deleted emails from a computer system. Emails can reveal many relevant data points helpful in such investigations ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"afn88t6s9d","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Tassone, Martini, & Choo, 2017)","plainCitation":"(Tassone, Martini, & Choo, 2017)"},"citationItems":[{"id":2001,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/gITejLE9/items/ZCADJFPG"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/gITejLE9/items/ZCADJFPG"],"itemData":{"id":2001,"type":"article-journal","title":"Visualizing digital forensic datasets: a proof of concept","container-title":"Journal of forensic sciences","page":"1197-1204","volume":"62","issue":"5","author":[{"family":"Tassone","given":"Christopher FR"},{"family":"Martini","given":"Ben"},{"family":"Choo","given":"Kim-Kwang Raymond"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Tassone, Martini, & Choo, 2017). An email can be tracked down to the original destination or vice versa. Internet protocol addresses involved in network communication helps in the discovery of the geographical location of the criminals. As there are plenty of devices connected to a particular network, specialized tools such as FTK are used in the extraction of metadata from the devices. Data storage devices containing valuable information may be encrypted by the criminals. It will be hard for investigators to crack the encryption of any storage device based on the algorithms of encryption used by the criminals. Tools for extraction of metadata of files help investigators to build a dictionary of collected data that can in turn help in breaking the encryption of device.

Hashing in Digital Forensics:

There are many ethical issues in the collection and processing of digital evidence in investigations such as personal files may also be recovered as part of the data retrieval efforts. Hashing is helpful in limited cases of digital forensics. In one way hashing can be used to preserve the privacy of parties involved. Hash functions are algorithms that generate standardized output for any random stream of data. Such as a fixed length digital output is generated for any given file input in most of the hashing functions. An essential aspect of the hashing functions is that any hash of a file cannot be reverse engineered to the original file ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a4lgkspmgg","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(S. Khan, 2017)","plainCitation":"(S. Khan, 2017)"},"citationItems":[{"id":2004,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/gITejLE9/items/4UHI4NRC"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/gITejLE9/items/4UHI4NRC"],"itemData":{"id":2004,"type":"article-journal","title":"The Role of Forensics in the Internet of Things: Motivations and Requirements","container-title":"IEEE Internet Initiative eNewsletter","author":[{"family":"Khan","given":"Suleman"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (S. Khan, 2017). However, metadata and necessary information about the file required for digital forensic can be obtained by analysis of the hash output. Another important characteristic of hashing is that for unique inputs unique hash values are generated, and for the same input, the same hash output will be generated by the function. This property of hashing discards the possibility of collisions in hash values. Meaning that no two different input values can have the same output hash values. This property is helpful in the identification of unique files.

On the other hand, besides protecting privacy, hashing utilities play a limited role in forensic investigations. Hash values cannot be reverse engineered back to the original file contents. This property makes hashing a limited resource in investigations. Exact file contents may be required for investigators to identify the criminal and hash values cannot help in this regard ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a243btj0qi8","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Singh, Gaud, & Joshi, 2016)","plainCitation":"(Singh, Gaud, & Joshi, 2016)"},"citationItems":[{"id":2007,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/gITejLE9/items/AARYPDSR"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/gITejLE9/items/AARYPDSR"],"itemData":{"id":2007,"type":"article-journal","title":"A Framework for Digital Forensic Investigation using Authentication Technique to maintain Evidence Integrity","container-title":"International Journal of Computer Applications","page":"8887","volume":"975","author":[{"family":"Singh","given":"Umesh Kumar"},{"family":"Gaud","given":"Neha"},{"family":"Joshi","given":"Chanchala"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Singh, Gaud, & Joshi, 2016). If any storage device contains the exact image of the criminal and only a hash value of the image file is retrieved by using file analysis tools such as FTK, then that hash value may not be of any use in investigation process due to the inability of reverse operation on the hash value.

Protecting Integrity of Digital Evidence:

Evidence collected during an investigation plays a central role in solving the case. As most of the cases are presented in a court of law, the integrity of evidence must be ensured to make it admissible in the court. Digital evidence is fragile as compared to other types of physical evidence. In digital forensic investigations, automated tools are utilized for evidence collection. These tools offer some functionalities to protect the integrity of the evidence. Chain of custody must also be preserved for a piece of evidence to be acceptable by the court of law. It must be appropriately documented that who owns the evidence from the point of collection to the presentation in the court of law ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a123mb6k4br","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(M. N. A. Khan, Ullah, Khan, & Khan, 2018)","plainCitation":"(M. N. A. Khan, Ullah, Khan, & Khan, 2018)"},"citationItems":[{"id":2010,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/gITejLE9/items/93ME8QGI"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/gITejLE9/items/93ME8QGI"],"itemData":{"id":2010,"type":"article-journal","title":"Analysis of Digital Investigation Techniques in Cloud Computing Paradigm","container-title":"INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NEXT-GENERATION COMPUTING","volume":"9","issue":"3","author":[{"family":"Khan","given":"Muhammad Naeem Ahmed"},{"family":"Ullah","given":"Shah Wali"},{"family":"Khan","given":"Abdur Rahman"},{"family":"Khan","given":"Khalid"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (M. N. A. Khan, Ullah, Khan, & Khan, 2018). A single discrepancy or vague detail will make it difficult for investigators to prove that it was not tempered by unauthorized personnel. In a popular case, an engineer was sentenced by the court of law for four years in prison based on digital evidence against him pointing to the trafficking of child pornography. The victim then hired a computer expert who proved that the evidence was forged and tempered by unauthorized parties to prove the accused person as a criminal. Therefore, it is crucial to maintaining the integrity of the evidence after collection.

FTK is one of the popular tools that is used in digital evidence collection. The software is capable of creating disk images and storing critical metadata information about that. It provides some hashing functionality and cryptography algorithms to protect the integrity of digital evidence against tampering. However, there is a problem with the tool that it requires manual entry of the name of the investigator. Any person can enter the name of a fake person that will make the integrity of evidence questionable because it will not be possible to identify who actually generated the evidence using the tool. There are various other tools that are being used by experts to ensure the integrity of the evidence.

References

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Ab Rahman, N. H., Glisson, W. B., Yang, Y., & Choo, K.-K. R. (2016). Forensic-by-design framework for cyber-physical cloud systems. IEEE Cloud Computing, 3(1), 50–59.

Khan, M. N. A., Ullah, S. W., Khan, A. R., & Khan, K. (2018). Analysis of Digital Investigation Techniques in Cloud Computing Paradigm. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NEXT-GENERATION COMPUTING, 9(3).

Khan, S. (2017). The Role of Forensics in the Internet of Things: Motivations and Requirements. IEEE Internet Initiative ENewsletter.

Martini, B., & Choo, K.-K. R. (2012). An integrated conceptual digital forensic framework for cloud computing. Digital Investigation, 9(2), 71–80.

Mitchell, I., Anandaraja, T., Hara, S., Hadzhinenov, G., & Neilson, D. (2017). Deconstruct and preserve (DaP): A method for the preservation of digital evidence on solid state drives (SSD). In International Conference on Global Security, Safety, and Sustainability (pp. 3–11). Springer.

Singh, U. K., Gaud, N., & Joshi, C. (2016). A Framework for Digital Forensic Investigation using Authentication Technique to maintain Evidence Integrity. International Journal of Computer Applications, 975, 8887.

Tassone, C. F., Martini, B., & Choo, K.-K. R. (2017). Visualizing digital forensic datasets: a proof of concept. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 62(5), 1197–1204.

Subject: IT

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

About Me Assignment

Title page

About me

As everyone has a dream of becoming something in life, I aspire to become information scientist. Technology and innovation have inspired me since my childhood. On reaching my twelfth birthday I realized that I had obsession towards computers and had never ending desire of learning about technology. After attending Austin Community College for one year in America in 2015 I took a gap year for gaining work experience. I am currently attending UTD College and my major is Information Technology Systems. My goal is to specialize in Information Technology Systems and join a reputable organization in America.

I made a very important decision of moving to America because it offer better opportunities for higher education compared to Vietnam, my home country. Although culture in America is different but I have huge potential of adapting to the new ways, which, I believe, will help me in adjusting to the workplace in foreign country.

I have undergone stressful situations during my studies at Vietnam. This was due to the traditional methods of teaching because the institutions believed on pressurizing students. Studies at Vietnam had been very hard. I had to attend 5 hors of school and then take tutoring classes for next 5 hours. I was not adjusting to the traditional educational system where students were required to take tuitions for passing the tests. The education institutions are hardly making any efforts to promote critical and innovative thinking in students.

The flaws of the Vietnam’s education system made me realize that I wont be able to get ample opportunities for building critical approach or innovative thinking which is required for pursuing the career in the field of Information Systems. I therefore decided to leave Vietnam and complete acquire my degree from United States. After completing my education I will move back to Vietnam with the mission of helping other students who are dreaming of becoming information scientists.

Subject: IT

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Acceptable Use Policy

Acceptable Use Policy

[Author Name]

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Acceptable Use Policy

An acceptable use policy (AUP) is a set of rules and regulations that are applied by the owner of any website or network to pose restrictions on the ways through which websites or networks may be used. The owner or administrator also provides guidelines on how the network or websites should be used. AUP is an integral part of the information security policies (O'Byrne, 2019). AUP documents are not only limited to the information security field as this policy is also implemented in educational institutes, businesses, and any other organizations. A security breach is one of the major issues that is faced by many organizations. Although, these issues are highlighted regularly yet still, many organizations do not have the required knowledge of how to avoid a security breach. In most cases, the reason for a security breach is the lack of policies or loopholes in the contracts that organizations, networks, and institutes typically ask new employees or users to sign. To avoid this issue, it is recommended to use an acceptable use policy as this policy is not meant to snoop on others but it the policy that facilitates in protecting business assets.

Modern life spins around technology and it has become an indispensable part of our life. Regardless of age, people are using the internet every day. Due to this reason I have decided to focus on the AUP policy that governs internet usage. AUP regarding the usage of the internet does not only include a website or network information that can be accessed by the end-users, but it also includes information that is prohibited to access. The AUP will not only help in protecting an organization from any illegal actions and damages but it will also protect the people working within an organization as well (Stewart, 2000). The foundation of information security is laid on three principles. These three principles are confidentiality, availability, and integrity. AUP helps a lot in ensuring that all three principles are followed and implemented in any organization by limiting the accessibility of the confidential information. The AUP contains a clause that allows only authorized people to access confidential information while preventing unauthorized people from accessing confidential information. Additionally, the policy requires that even the authorized people must authenticate themselves before accessing the information. This will help a lot in securing the information as if any information is disclosed, then the employee is held responsible and the organization can take legal action against them. This policy is not limited to confidential information but can be implemented on the internet usage of the whole organization. For instance, if employees are using the internet for accessing or contacting competitors’ sites or entertainment purposes rather than doing an organization’s work, then they must be held accountable according to acceptable use policy. On the other hand, an organization is not allowed to spy on employees’ emails as this is also a kind of privacy breach and employees can also take legal action against the company. Thus, using this policy will not only benefit the company but the employees as well.

The acceptable use policy for internet users should not be limited to entertainment sites usage or accessing competitors only but it should be used to control cyberbullying and creating or distributing unlawful content. The policy can further be improved by introducing the rules against cybercrime as well. This will help in mitigating any illegal actions that can damage a company’s reputation. Also, this will help in saving employee’s personal information from leaking.

The AUP for internet usage can be implemented in an organization by providing the employees with two copies. One copy will be with them while the other copy must be submitted back to the organization. All the details of the policy must be communicated to the employees so that they can understand the terms and conditions before signing the contract. Furthermore, the policy must be created by incorporating the employees' needs while also considering their privacy and security as well. The companies must ensure that all the employees are aware of the policy to avoid any issue. The implementation of the AUP policy will act as a counter-strategy to mitigate the risk of exposure of confidential information and inappropriate use of the internet (Safa & Furnell, 2016).

Organizations can utilize several techniques to spread awareness of their internet usage policies. It is relatively easy for a company to provide a contract to the newly hired employees so that they can be aware of the policies. However, it is a bit difficult for a company to spread awareness regarding its internet usage policies to the public. A company can be aware of the public by using brochures and displaying posters in public places so that company staff and the public can see them. The companies must pin the brochure on their websites so that customers and employees must be aware of their limitations while using internet services. A company can also conduct sessions and seminars to the employee awareness of the terms and conditions regarding internet usage. The sessions are very helpful as during sessions, the employees can share their concerns and ambiguities that can be solved instantly (Gaskin, 1998). The sessions can also be aware of the employees regarding the repercussions that may arise if they violate any of the company’s policies. Additionally, the employees will also be able to know about their rights and access as well. Thus, every company must implement the AUP for internet usage to ensure confidentiality, availability, and integrity.

References

Gaskin, J. E. (1998). Internet acceptable usage policies. Information Systems Management, 15(2), 20-25.

Safa, N. S., Von Solms, R., & Furnell, S. (2016). Information security policy compliance model in organizations. computers & security, 56, 70-82.

O'Byrne, W. I. (2019). Acceptable Use Policies. The International Encyclopedia of Media Literacy, 1-6.

Stewart, F. (2000). Internet acceptable use policies: Navigating the management, legal, and technical issues. Information Systems Security, 9(3), 1-7.

Subject: IT

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Adding Pages For 102138



Adding Pages For 102138

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Adding Pages For 102138

Abstract

The label "Internet of Things" was first put forward by Kevin Ashton in 1999. Ashton had the vision to transform the world into a huge set of data. Analysis of this collected data would result in precise decision making. Accurate decision making subsequently increase efficiency and decrease wastage of resources. "Internet of Things" (IOT) is extensive connectivity of physical devices and objects from everyday life over the internet (Lee & Lee, 2015). Three components are considered three pillars of IoT (Lee & Lee, 2015). First, Electronic devices such as smartphones, smart televisions and autonomous cars. Second, Internet connectivity. Lastly, the sensors. How these three components interact to make the IoT works. What made the advancements in the field IoT possible is the combination of different technologies, real-time analytics, sensors, and embedded systems. For instance, the IoT scenario in a smart home can be described as smart devices such as television, a smart home stereo system, smart air purifier interconnected over the internet and controlled through smart devices. Understanding how these would work in coherence would clarify the IoT concept further. An owner of the house while leaving the house forgot to switch on the air purifier. While on his way to the office, the owner switches on the air purifier. IoT not only has impacted how the home operates, but it has modified how the way society works. In the years to come, IoT's impact on society will only increase for the good. Every innovation will be integrated within the society through IoT. Soon there will be smart cities working in tandem with other cities to facilitate the residents in the best way possible. In this paper, a brief history of IoT would be discussed. Furthermore, applications of IoT in the real world would be explained. The research methodology used specifically for this paper is theoretical research methodology. Lastly, the current trends related to IoT and future prospects would be discussed.

Research Methodology

In the field of computer science and information technology research can be carried out using three methods (Ayash, 2014). These methods are experimental methodology, simulation methodology and theoretical methodology (Ayash, 2014). Of these three methodologies, the theoretical methodology has been applied to complete this paper. Theoretical methodology for research requires theoretical and literature review of the work done so far in any particular field and reaching a logical conclusion (Ayash, 2014).

Discussion

History of IoT

Back in the year 1982, a smart soft drinks vending machine was developed at Carnegie Mellon University (Ornes, 2016). The machine was controlled over the internet (Ornes, 2016). Additionally, the machine was able to report back the temperature of the beverages was optimum or not (Ornes, 2016). At the time, it was considered a landmark innovation. Today it seems like an ordinary innovation with so many technological advancements making headlines every day. However, how small it might appear, that smart vending machine proved to a foundation stone in the domain of IoT. Now every aspect of life is influenced by the IoT in one way or the other. IoT applications have been widely used in society and change the lives of thousands of people.

Applications of IoT

Every aspect of society is influenced by IoT applications in one way or the other. These applications are categorized as a consumer, commercial, industrial and infrastructure applications.

Consumer Applications

A large chunk of IoT devices is targeted for consumer use (Manyika, 2015). Smart and semi-autonomous vehicles, smart home automated appliances, and smart wearable devices that make up the category of the Internet of Wearable Things are included in the consumer applications (Manyika, 2015). Smart home appliances are aimed at achieving wide-scale home automation (Stojkoska & Trivodaliev, 2017). Home automation appliances and applications range from automated lighting, heating, and cooling. Additionally, smart home security and monitoring systems also fall in the category of consumer applications (Stojkoska & Trivodaliev, 2017). The idea of a smart home revolves around a central device that controls and manages the rest of the appliances that are in the home (Stojkoska & Trivodaliev, 2017). The amazon's Alexa is a prime example of the central device that is used to control all the other devices. For instance, the temperature of an air conditioner can be easily decreased or increased using a voice command. Additionally, this preference will be stored by Alexa. Whenever the same voice of the person would be heard by Alexa, the temperature of the air conditioner would be set accordingly.

Commercial Applications

The IoT applications have revolutionized how commercial application previously worked. Be it medical and healthcare provision or efficient and sustainable transportation used for reducing the carbon footprint from the planet earth.

The field of the medical applications of the IoT is called the Internet of Medical Things (Joyia, 2017). These applications collect large amounts of health-related data for research purposes and monitoring (Joyia, 2017). This large amount of data has been employed to study and analyze symptoms of various illnesses and has helped to produce their vaccines (Joyia, 2017). Another useful application of IoT in health care is the production of widescale digitized health systems of healthcare (Joyia, 2017). These digital healthcare systems are connected together over the internet and different medical teams of different hospitals are connected to it simultaneously (Joyia, 2017). For instance, an individual that has been involved in a road accident needs to be administered treatment. The individual is unconscious and hence unable to communicate with the first responders. The first responders have two options. First, wait for the individual's doctor to assist the first responders with the patient's medical history. Second, using a smart portable device, which has digital healthcare application installed with connectivity with all the hospitals in town, retrieve patient's previous medical conditions to administer treatment accordingly. The second option seems more practical. This would not only save precious time but also the life of the patient.

As far as transportation is concerned, IoT has been employed to combine the intercommunication, command and control, and information processing of different transportation systems (Mohanty, Choppali & Kougianos, 2016). This system is also called an intelligent transportation system. The intelligent transportation system is aimed at efficient traffic management and empowering travelers with the latest information to make decisions for their travels accordingly (Mohanty, Choppali & Kougianos, 2016). Application of IoT in the transportation not only include the vehicles, but also the driver and the infrastructure upon which the vehicle is being moved (Mohanty, Choppali & Kougianos, 2016). Continuous connectivity and communication between the three parts of the transportation system can help significantly. It can help in controlling traffic smartly, efficient parking management, and digital toll collecting systems (Mohanty, Choppali & Kougianos, 2016). Additionally, control, safety, and roadside side assistance for heavy-duty vehicles can also be provided using IoT applications (Mohanty, Choppali & Kougianos, 2016). For instance, various electronic logging devices (ELD) have been created for heavy-duty vehicles. The ELD records all the necessary vehicular information and is sent to the employer of the vehicle. The employer can view whether or not the driver of the vehicle has been in compliance with the rules of breaks or not. Compliance with break rules is not only vital for the driver himself, but it is equally essential for the vehicles traveling over long distances.

Industrial Applications

The industrial applications of IoT are ample. The modern manufacturing devices are loaded with a number of sensors, through which these vehicles can identify, process and communicate over the network (Wollschlaeger, Sauter & Jasperneite, 2017). Network control and management of this manufacturing hardware mix the IoT with the industry (Wollschlaeger, Sauter & Jasperneite, 2017). Systems equipped with IoT are intelligent, that enable the production of newer items at a rapid pace and respond to rising product demand effectively (Wollschlaeger, Sauter & Jasperneite, 2017). Real-Time analysis can help achieve maximize outputs with optimization. Businesses are being revolutionized with each coming day with the help of IoT (Wollschlaeger, Sauter & Jasperneite, 2017). So much so, it is widely believed that by the year 2030, the world would have witnessed the fourth industrial revolution. The annual turn over after the fourth industrial revolution is estimated at $ 12 trillion of global GDP. For instance, a farmer equipped with the modern and intelligent tractor, sensors that can read various inputs such as temperature, rainfall, humidity, wind speed, pest infestation information is miles ahead from the farmers of the last decade. The sensors collect data and enable farmers to take decisions in order to improve the quality of produce, minimize wastage, and decrease the rigmaroles of sowing the seeds. Additionally, sensors that continuously monitoring the soil, enable farmers to take decisive measures even from remote locations.

Infrastructure Applications

The IoT integrate infrastructure is aimed at constantly monitoring for changes in structural conditions jeopardizing the safety of the people (Sotres, 2017). The infrastructure that can be monitored in a sustainable urban city includes bridges, railway tracks, and much more (Sotres, 2017). The construction industry can reap the benefits of IoT by saving huge costs, reducing time, and enhanced productivity (Sotres, 2017). Additionally, real-time data analysis can empower authorities to take timely decisions based on evidence instead of opinions (Sotres, 2017). Task coordination between different service providers could be used for scheduling a repair and carrying out maintenance activity in a coordinated manner in order to minimize the difficulties of the users of the infrastructure can be done through IoT (Sotres, 2017). At a metropolitan scale, the deployment of IoT can yield remarkable results. For instance, in South Korea, a city is being built that would be equipped with all the modern hardware that would be interconnected. This city has been named Songdo, which envisions little human intervention when it comes to public service provision. With the debilitating global climate, various sensors have been developed that assist in protecting the environment. These sensors constantly monitor several indicators such as air, water, atmosphere and soil conditions.

Conclusion

One of the most important outcomes of the IoT is considered to be the exponential growth of the smart devices that controlled through the internet. IoT has provided an opportunity to visualize the physical world in the computer-based systems. As a result, efficiency has been improved, economic benefits have been increased manifold, and human exertions has been decreased. To understand the economic effect of IoT, it is vital to grasp the total market value of the IoT market in years to come. By next year, the global economy will see an addition of almost $ 7 trillion. Therefore, the production of smart devices is going to increase significantly. The number of smart devices connected via IoT in 2017 was 8.4 billion. It was an increase of 31 pc from the previous year. According to an estimate, by the year 2020, there would be 30 billion smart devices connected through each other in one way or the other. In the future, IoT will be coupled with artificial intelligence. This is an indication of the pace and accuracy with which the estimated 30 billion devices would employ. The benefits of IoT are great. However, what is debatable are the challenges relating to IoT. The challenge of security remains the biggest hurdle in the field of IoT. With the increase in the production of smart devices that provide great opportunities, commercial and user space may experience turbulence. Sensors that are employed to store tonnes of information continuously, in some cases, can also store sensitive data. With recent global events suggesting that security of the information can be jeopardized at any moment. The incidents of data breaches at google and facebook has cast a shadow over the security of the information being collected under the IoT. With Cambridge Analytica, a company that was highly regarded when it came to handling large quantities of data, was found to indulge in the sale of personal information of many consumers in order to manipulate elections. One could only hope for the best given the terrible security situation regarding the safety and privacy of sensitive information while employing smart devices and the internet to their best use.

References

Ayash, E. M. M. (2014). Research Methodologies in Computer Science and Information Systems. Retrieved November, 28, 2014.

Joyia, G. J., Liaqat, R. M., Farooq, A., & Rehman, S. (2017). Internet of Medical Things (IOMT): applications, benefits and future challenges in healthcare domain. J Commun, 12(4), 240-7.

Lee, I., & Lee, K. (2015). The Internet of Things (IoT): Applications, investments, and challenges for enterprises. Business Horizons, 58(4), 431-440.

Manyika, J., Chui, M., Bisson, P., Woetzel, J., Dobbs, R., Bughin, J., & Aharon, D. (2015). Unlocking the Potential of the Internet of Things. McKinsey Global Institute.

Mohanty, S. P., Choppali, U., & Kougianos, E. (2016). Everything you wanted to know about smart cities: The Internet of Things is the backbone. IEEE Consumer Electronics Magazine, 5(3), 60-70.

Ornes, S. (2016). Core Concept: The Internet of Things and the explosion of interconnectivity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(40), 11059-11060.

Sotres, P., Santana, J. R., Sánchez, L., Lanza, J., & Muñoz, L. (2017). Practical lessons from the deployment and management of a smart city Internet-of-Things infrastructure: The smartsantander testbed case. IEEE Access, 5, 14309-14322.

Stojkoska, B. L. R., & Trivodaliev, K. V. (2017). A review of Internet of Things for smart home: Challenges and solutions. Journal of Cleaner Production, 140, 1454-1464.

Wollschlaeger, M., Sauter, T., & Jasperneite, J. (2017). The future of industrial communication: Automation networks in the era of the internet of things and industry 4.0. IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine, 11(1), 17-27.

Subject: IT

Pages: 6 Words: 1800

Address Integration/implementation Issues And Plan , People , Process, And Data Governance Issues.

Report

[Author Name]

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Report

Introduction

Due to the rise in technologies, many companies are incorporating new technologies to make their systems efficient. However, despite the emergence of new technologies one issue that all the organizations are facing is a security issue. Systems are vulnerable to security threats due to which it is necessary to address the cybersecurity issue. Due to which the executive team of our media company decided to make a team whose responsibility was to address security issues. While working on the security of the systems our team decided to replace IPv4 to IPv6 while also implementing a smart security system based on IoT. However, while integrating and implementing this strategy, several issues were encountered. This report will discuss the issues that occurred during implementing the smart security system based on IoT. Also, the requirements and future recommendations that needed to be addressed to make the systems more secure is also discussed.

Body

When the executive team of our company recognized the importance of cybersecurity, they assigned us the task to develop a strategy that includes a security plan needed to protect the company’s data. For this purpose, we divided the task among the team and developed a security plan. Firstly, we decided to replace IPv4 to IPv6 because it offers a large pool of IP addresses. It can also run end to end encryption while supporting secure name resolution (Kim & Paek, 2017). This also helps in reducing ARP poisoning and several naming attacks. Thus making the system more secure. Additionally, using just IPv6 does not solve the security issue and there is a need to make a proper security system. For this purpose, a smart security system based on IoT was developed. The system is capable of generating alarms and taking intelligent decisions using IoT concepts. It uses both Bluetooth and GSM technology that will help in managing the organization from both indoor and outdoor. The system also uses various sensors such as motion, gas, and laser making it more flexible (Saifuzzaman & Nur, 2017).

After developing the security system next step was its integration with other systems and its implementation in the organization. However, while implementing and integrating new systems several issues were faced. The first issue that we faced was shifting from IPv4 to IPV6. As IPv6 is new therefore it is not compatible with systems using IPv4. Also, it requires new server software and equipment thus making its deployment a bit expensive. Specifically, discussing about LAN (local area network), it contains less than 50 addressed devices due to which there is no need to use more than a billion new LAN addresses as it is a wastage of resources. Additionally, the current operating systems and routers provide less support for IPv6 and therefore needed to be updated. Also, major ISPs offer some IPv6 functionality yet still they need improvement. However, there are certain methods such as 6 to 4 that can be useful in transitioning from IPv4 to IPv6 (Wu & Metz, 2012).

Moving on towards the smart security system, several issues occurred while implementing this system as well. The issue was that connecting wire to deploy the system is itself one of the most hectic tasks. Also, as smart security systems use several sensors so maintaining the sensors regularly is very necessary as sometimes the sensors stop working due to several issues. This will again cause a problem as without sensors the detection of the potential threats is not possible. Additionally, sensors require more voltage that can increase the power issue. This issue will, in turn, result in internet connection fluctuations. Also, in case of any intruder detection SMS will be sent to the respective person of an organization responsible for security. As low power and the range of wireless are traded off by lowering bandwidth. The SMS requires a maximum wireless range that may increase bandwidth issues. Moreover, to integrate the new system with the existing security software is also an issue because existing software is based on old cryptographic techniques. On the other hand smart security system software uses the latest techniques by incorporating several mini techniques such as GSM and Bluetooth.

The deployment of several latest technologies does not only affect older technologies but it influences people working with older technology as well. Most of the people in the company were trained to use older software for security so for them, a smart security system that is based on IoT was difficult to understand. Also, transitioning from IPv4 to IPv6 will cause more problems for the employees. Many servers and routers do not support IPv6 and most of the sites use IPv4. So making a connection through IPv6 between router and device that supports IPv4 is not easy (Levin, S& Schmidt, 2014). Thus due to the implementation of new techniques hiring new employees is a major necessity. This will cause more issues as hiring new employees and training requires lots of effort. Also, a smart security system based on IoT can accommodate several new technologies so hiring new people for every new technology is difficult. Additionally, data governance issues will arise due to the deployment of a new security system. So there is a need for the governing body that defines a set of rules and procedures that will help in ensuring the integrity and security of the newly deployed system.

Conclusion

Cybersecurity is a major issue that needs to be addressed. There are several benefits of IPv6 and smart security systems based on IoT. However, deploying any new technology can be difficult as several issues rise with it. There are lots of software that can help in the transition from IPv4 to IPv6, yet incorporating the use of IPv6 with older technologies is difficult. Additionally, the smart security system also has certain limitations, yet it is a flexible system that can accommodate several new technologies. Also, most people are not familiar with the latest technology. It is, therefore, necessary to train people before deploying new technology so that they can also utilize the benefits of new technology.

References

Kim, H. S., Ko, J., Culler, D. E., & Paek, J. (2017). Challenging the IPv6 routing protocol for low-power and lossy networks (RPL): A survey. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 19(4), 2502-2525.

Levin, S. L., & Schmidt, S. (2014). IPv4 to IPv6: Challenges, solutions, and lessons. Telecommunications Policy, 38(11), 1059-1068.

Saifuzzaman, M., Khan, A. H., Moon, N. N., & Nur, F. N. (2017). Smart Security for an Organization based on IoT. International Journal of Computer Applications, 165(10), 33-38.

Wu, P., Cui, Y., Wu, J., Liu, J., & Metz, C. (2012). Transition from IPv4 to IPv6: A state-of-the-art survey. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 15(3), 1407-1424.

Subject: IT

Pages: 3 Words: 900

AI Chips

JLIY bjbj 489 9 G5 NNNNNbbb8DbLF7776N777776NNK7NN p7J,Gv a0 /N7777777667777777777777777 AI chips

by

(Your Name)

(Class)

(Name of Professor) (University)

AI Chips

CPU is the main brain of any smart device that enables all of its functions to run smoothly from executing the software to the transfer of data between its busses. These chips have been strong and powerful to execute these basic tasks. But advancement in AI has given it new turn. CPU requires data to be stored in order for it to process it. But Ai doesnt require data to be stored on the chip and they learn data and recognize the patterns I order to run the functions smoothly. This is the reason that many companies are now making specialized AI chips that supports the deep learning. Like Microsoft is preparing AI chip for its HoloLens VR set. Apple is working on Neural Engine that will power Siri and face id ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationIDLlFkw1wC,propertiesformattedCitation(Staff, 2018),plainCitation(Staff, 2018),noteIndex0,citationItemsid1567,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/VEEVT5GR,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/VEEVT5GR,itemDataid1567,typewebpage,titleThe AI revolution has spawned a new chips arms race,container-titleArs Technica,abstractTheres no x86 in the AI chip market yetPeople see a gold rush theres no doubt.,URLhttps//arstechnica.com/gadgets/2018/07/the-ai-revolution-has-spawned-a-new-chips-arms-race/,languageen-us,authorfamilyStaff,givenArs,issueddate-parts2018,7,9,accesseddate-parts2019,3,19,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (Staff, 2018).

CPU chips were able to perform all the AI tasks on their own but in the 12 steps, which is very time consuming. While Ai chips are to complete the tasks in simple three steps. AI chips also time independent and use field arrays instead of timers that are used by the CPU chips.

All the basic functionality of the AI chips is based on the concept of deep learning. Once AI learn sits lesson, it doesnt need to relearn it. Machine learning is the practice of using algorithms to parse data, learn it and then make the decision or prediction on the basis of data. It is based on the predictive problem solving solutions, based on the previous learned information ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationIDYUoniyVc,propertiesformattedCitation(Monroe, no date),plainCitation(Monroe, no date),noteIndex0,citationItemsid1569,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/TS46XRCQ,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/TS46XRCQ,itemDataid1569,typewebpage,titleChips for Artificial Intelligence,abstractCompanies are racing to develop hardware that more directly empowers deep learning.,URLhttps//cacm.acm.org/magazines/2018/4/226374-chips-for-artificial-intelligence/fulltext,languageen,authorfamilyMonroe,givenDon,accesseddate-parts2019,3,19,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (Monroe, no date).

AI deep learning chips are capable of performing the task faster and intelligently in comparison to the CPU chips that overkill to perform such tasks. It has Network attach storage that lacks in the CPU chips. Thus AI chips perform the tasks faster without consuming huge power ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationIDf9xMx3Uf,propertiesformattedCitation(Sejnowski, 2018),plainCitation(Sejnowski, 2018),noteIndex0,citationItemsid1573,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/DHNQAS46,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/DHNQAS46,itemDataid1573,typebook,titleThe Deep Learning Revolution,publisherMIT Press,number-of-pages354,sourceGoogle Books,abstractHow deep learningfrom Google Translate to driverless cars to personal cognitive assistantsis changing our lives and transforming every sector of the economy.The deep learning revolution has brought us driverless cars, the greatly improved Google Translate, fluent conversations with Siri and Alexa, and enormous profits from automated trading on the New York Stock Exchange. Deep learning networks can play poker better than professional poker players and defeat a world champion at Go. In this book, Terry Sejnowski explains how deep learning went from being an arcane academic field to a disruptive technology in the information economy.Sejnowski played an important role in the founding of deep learning, as one of a small group of researchers in the 1980s who challenged the prevailing logic-and-symbol based version of AI. The new version of AI Sejnowski and others developed, which became deep learning, is fueled instead by data. Deep networks learn from data in the same way that babies experience the world, starting with fresh eyes and gradually acquiring the skills needed to navigate novel environments. Learning algorithms extract information from raw data information can be used to create knowledge knowledge underlies understanding understanding leads to wisdom. Someday a driverless car will know the road better than you do and drive with more skill a deep learning network will diagnose your illness a personal cognitive assistant will augment your puny human brain. It took nature many millions of years to evolve human intelligence AI is on a trajectory measured in decades. Sejnowski prepares us for a deep learning future.,ISBN978-0-262-03803-4,noteGoogle-Books-ID 9xZxDwAAQBAJ,languageen,authorfamilySejnowski,givenTerrence J.,issueddate-parts2018,10,23,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (Sejnowski, 2018).

Bibliography

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL uncited,omitted,custom CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Monroe, D. (no date) Chips for Artificial Intelligence. Available at https//cacm.acm.org/magazines/2018/4/226374-chips-for-artificial-intelligence/fulltext (Accessed 19 March 2019).

Sejnowski, T. J. (2018) The Deep Learning Revolution. MIT Press.

Staff, A. (2018) The AI revolution has spawned a new chips arms race, Ars Technica. Available at https//arstechnica.com/gadgets/2018/07/the-ai-revolution-has-spawned-a-new-chips-arms-race/ (Accessed 19 March 2019).

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Subject: IT

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Alexa / Google Home

Alexa/ Google Home

Hannah Nigrin

CIS 377

Professor Willbanks

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Author Note

Alexa/ Google Home

Alexa and Google Home are the smartest home operators that do everything from a short action of turning on/off the lights to a lengthy activity of reading kids a story. They are very useful as they provide many engaging and interesting activities, especially for kids, including games, books, fun activities, and even help in their homework. But some work is required to make them useful and effective. Otherwise, their value is no more than a timer installed in the kitchen.

Before introducing the devices that use artificial intelligence (AI), finding out about their functionality, their effectiveness under the given circumstances, and the privacy issues associated with them is necessary. It is pretty much straight forward to perform simple things from these devices, like setting a timer, telling a joke, or reading the weather forecast. But to perform any complicated task, one has to connect the smartphone applications to his accounts to set his preferences. After personalizing the device, one can set his news sources preferences and listen to the music from the Amazon, Google Play, or Spotify. One can also set preferences for different delivery services from different restaurants, and more. CITATION Car18 \l 1033 (Knorr, 2018)

Pros of using Alexa/ Google Home Devices

These devices are very good for the kids as well. Both Alexa and Google Home offer tons of activities for kids (known as "actions" on Google Home) from entrenched providers, including Disney and many others. The devices can be used to play games, tell jokes, read books, provide assistance for homework, and even activate special meditation to chill out the kids. Each service is being upgraded, every now and then, with a lot of new improvised and exciting stuff. In order to make effective use of these devices, one needs to figure out what exactly he wants, find out, and set up the relevant applications and understand how they work. Apart from the games, these devices can provide assistance to families in basic ways, like considering the fundamental facts, performing math (avoid cheating on homework!), notifying about a sports score, and setting a timer. CITATION Car18 \l 1033 (Knorr, 2018)

Cons and Risks associated with Alexa/Google Home Devices

With a lot of free exciting stuff, there are some hidden costs as well. A lot of skills can be added without any cost, but one still has to pay for the subscriptions and memberships of many applications, including Amazon, or Spotify, to have access to the latest features in order to maximize the effectiveness and value of his device. Many smart home products, such as thermostats, bulbs, and home security, need some extra equipment for their proper use. Though each and every service tries to attract the families, the most fundamental uses of Google Home and Alexa are very sophisticated, detail-oriented activities, like indicating the times of commute, reporting the approaching calendar events, and making grocery lists.

To prevent any unwanted or unauthorized purchases, one should modify the app settings in his devices and must make sure that his kids take his permission before including any item in the shopping cart. There is an option that allows the users of Alexa to set a pin code for its voice purchasing system. And in the Google Home app, toggling off the option of 'Pay using the Assistant’ will do the job. According to Sociologists, Artificial Intelligence has a huge impact on kids nowadays. A kid using an intelligent device must learn how it interacts, including performing orders and having bounded communication abilities. Every time a new technology is introduced in the home, parents must provide the proper guidance about its use and expectations, to their kids.

The privacy issues associated with these devices are complicated, evolving, and very serious. If anyone has a Google account, he has already accepted some online privacy risks. Both Alexa and Google Home offer some privacy options in their applications (like deleting the history), such as a user can toggle his microphone off whenever he wants. However, neither application/company is super explicit about its process of gathering, storing, and using the information/data it collects, and both technologies leave many open paths to the users' data for any third-party application developers. According to some experts, the more convenient users get to use these devices, the more Alexa and Google will endanger their privacy. For example, they could provide the sound-recording transcripts of users to a third-party developer. CITATION Car18 \l 1033 (Knorr, 2018)

Cyber Risks

These intelligent devices are, however, not safe and can be hacked. There are many options provided by these devices, which are used by hackers to get into these systems. For example, they use Alexa’s feature, "intent," which carries out the spoken instructions. The attackers may get access to the users’ accounts information by saying the keywords, “email” and “password”.  CITATION Sec19 \l 1033 (Labs, 2019) Hackers often use the devices which are being compromised for their attacks. For example, hackers can communicate with a kid owning a smart toy (whose security is compromised). This shows that even safer enough things for a child could still cause harm if compromised.

Simple devices like smart bulbs can be hacked and used by the hackers to disturb and frighten the owners by turning them on and off at inconvenient times. Devices with the feature of mobility, if hacked, can provide information about home layout, which can be used by hackers for planning further actions. The point of connection of all household smart devices can also be of great use for hackers. This illustrates the fact that any device connected to the smart network can be as beneficial and vital to a hacker as it is to the real owner. CITATION Ziv19 \l 1033 (Chang, 2019)

The above-mentioned scenarios show the deep interaction of people with IoT. The possible reason for this immense involvement is the availability of an IoT device for every corner of a home, which makes the cyberattacks both possible for hackers and impressive for users. Cyberthreats have now become arguably more invasive and dangerous in smart homes than in any other place.

References

BIBLIOGRAPHY Chang, Z. (2019, July 30). Inside the Smart Home: IoT Device Threats and Attack Scenarios. Retrieved from Trend Micro: https://www.trendmicro.com/vinfo/hk-en/security/news/internet-of-things/inside-the-smart-home-iot-device-threats-and-attack-scenarios

Knorr, C. (2018, November 19). Parenting, Media, and Everything In Between. Retrieved from common sense media: https://www.commonsensemedia.org/blog/what-parents-need-to-know-before-buying-google-home-or-amazon-echo

Labs, S. R. (2019, October 24). Alexa and Google Home Devices can be Abused to Phish and Eavesdrop on Users, Research Finds. Retrieved from Trend Micro: https://www.trendmicro.com/vinfo/hk-en/security/news/vulnerabilities-and-exploits/alexa-and-google-home-devices-can-be-abused-to-phish-and-eavesdrop-on-users-research-finds

Subject: IT

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Alzheimer And Technology

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Alzheimer and technology

Corchado and colleagues, in their study present the autonomous and intelligent agent that could monitor Alzheimer patients when they are taken under care. This agent (AGZLZ) is a planner that is specifically designed to assist the nurses in planning their time (Corchado, et al, p. 382-396). It would also help the nurses that have to deal with Alzheimer patients for maintaining the working reports about their activities and would guarantee that nurses are giving proper care to their patients.

Solomon in this article on Alzheimer’s disease, spots a light on the aspects of how technology is helping healthcare professionals in dealing with this disorder. It is claimed that by using phage display technology (that promotes the active immunization) Alzheimers’ β amyloid peptide (Solomon, p. 3053-3056). Immunization process helps in improving the function linked with cognition as in this procedure the bacteriophage that displays copies of self-epitope modulates the response of the immune.

In order to show how the advancing technology could help in dealing with Alzheimer’s disease, Carrillo and colleagues are appreciating the way everyday technologies are being launched for dealing with this disorder by the Alzheimers’ Association and Intel Corporation. Different associations are raising funds so that promising research could be done for coping with Alzheimer’s disease by using technology at its best (Carrillo, et al, p. 479-488). Technology in different forms would help in diagnosing, monitoring and treating Alzheimer’s disease in the near future. Aging health technology is being replaced with newer technology so that the growing needs in Alzheimer care could be met, efficiently.

Sun claims in the article, research is being done at large pharmacological and biomedical projects for devising more advanced ways of dealing with Alzheimer’s disease (Sun, p. 667-671). It is believed that life quality of AD patients (Alzheimer’s disease) largely depends on the face recognition of nurses and intimate family members, so efforts are being made to assist this process of face recognition by using advanced technology.

Works Cited

Carrillo, Maria C., Eric Dishman, and Tim Plowman. "Everyday technologies for Alzheimer's disease care: Research findings, directions, and challenges." Alzheimer's & Dementia 5.6 (2009): 479-488.

Corchado, Juan M., et al. "Intelligent environment for monitoring Alzheimer patients, agent technology for health care." Decision Support Systems 44.2 (2008): 382-396.

Solomon, Beka. "Active immunization against Alzheimer's β-amyloid peptide using phage display technology." Vaccine 25.16 (2007): 3053-3056.

Sun, Jing, et al. "Predicting Alzheimer's Disease Based on Network Topological Latent Representations." Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics 10.3 (2020): 667-671.

Subject: IT

Pages: 1 Words: 300

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