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Benefiting The Public Good

Benefiting the Public Good

Sahista Patel

[Name of the Institution]

Benefiting the Public Good

Among various ideologies existing in political science, the doctrine that is prevalent among the global politics is capitalism. It promotes the idea of a free market economy where the private sector holds much dominance over economic matters. The government does not hold superior powers in this system as consumers and businesses existing in the free market makes most of the critical decisions that affect the country's economy. Therefore, weak government control over the distribution of resources among the general public allows the private sector to make maximum wealth; even through public goods.

If public good ownership comes under the capitalist structure, it will undoubtedly be a disadvantage for underprivileged communities (Magstadt, 2016). For example, if a firm in the private sector highly charges a basic necessity and a public good like water; the people will have no choice other than to buy expensive water or die in vain. The government welfare orders in capitalism will not only be ignored by conservatives but also will be kept powerless in the political system; thus promoting injustice and anarchy in the long-run.

Capitalism believes that goods should only be made accessible to those who can afford it. It considers that it is not the responsibility of the government to accommodate poor people, but instead social enterprises and religious institutions should give charity to destitute individuals (Magstadt, 2016). This creates injustice among society and can worsen the law and order situation in the country as an aftermath of depriving people of their fundamental rights. Thus capitalism challenges the authority of the government where the state fails to exercise its power to stop capitalists from exploiting the wealth of the nation. All government orders are only kept to resolution papers, and in reality, injustice prevails in the society where rich get richer and poor get poorer.


Magstadt, T. M. (2016). Understanding Politics: Ideas, institutions, and issues. Cengage Learning.

Subject: Political Science

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Developing A Democracy

Developing A Democracy

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Developing A Democracy

Namibia is considered an excellent example of decolonization and a prosperous transitory state to political power. Namibia transitioned to democracy with an elected constituent from minority settler administration remotely controlled by Pretoria. Under the UN influence, Namibia formed its government in 1989-1990 without any serious problems or bloodshed. The transition to democracy ended the struggle of SWAPO of Namibia (South West African People's Organization) for an independent state. The newly elected constituent assembly after the colonization period in 1989 appointed Sam Nujoma as the first Head of the Sovereign Namibian state, proclaimed on the country's Independence Day, March 21, 1990. SWAPO secured most of the seats and was established as a dominant party. SWAPO is an official and controlling party of the state which is turning into hegemony (Melber, Kromrey & Welz, 2016). Though Namibia is ranked among top performers of the continent concerning good governance, with such a dominant party, how democratic is the country is a key question.

Majority of Namibia's public are confident in their ruling party and its candidates even though they hold most of the executive power. Since 2015, the country's political landscape is said to be consolidated hegemony. Despite many objections from the thirteen rival parties of the country, the Head of the state that is from SWAPO remains to rule with unlimited executive powers. SWAPO has turned into a total hegemony which according to some cannot be described as democracy. SWAPO is said to be an authoritarian party along with democratic features as Namibia abundantly holds the legal permissions of a democratic government. However, numerous difficulties are threatening Namibia's demonstrative democracy. The primary issue is the non-existent division between the Legislature and Executive. It is almost certain with such representativeness that whatsoever decision is made in the Cabinet, it will be applicable because of one party authority and strength. This is said to be a clear threat to the democratic system, and therefore, in my opinion, direct democracy would be a better alternative for such a country. Direct democracy will allow the citizens to vote for the desired policy without any intermediary legislatures or houses of parliament. If the regime wants to pass a specific policy or law, it will seek people's say and so people can decide their fate (Matsusaka, 2005).


Matsusaka, J. G. (2005). Direct democracy works. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19(2), 185-206.

Melber, H., Kromrey, D., & Welz, M. (2016). Changing of the guard? An anatomy of power within SWAPO of Namibia. African Affairs, 116(463), 284-310.

Subject: Political Science

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Differences Between 2019 US Federal Government And New York State Policy On Combatting Climate Change

Your Name

Instructor Name

Course Number


Title: Federal Government and New York State policy of climate change

Worldwide climate variations have noticeable consequences on the atmosphere. The contraction of Glaciers, earlier blooming of plants and ice breaking up on rivers are the major consequences of global warming. The effects that experts had forecast in the history would result from universal climate variation are now arising. Globally, it has been observed that the variations in climate produced by the industrialization will prospectively increase day by day. Researchers have forecasted that the world-wide temperature will keep on rising with the passage of time. The rise in temperature is due to the greenhouse gases produced by different human activities. Comprising 1,300 and even more researchers from the United States in a panel has predicted a temperature increase of 2.5 to 10 degrees Fahrenheit over the succeeding era.

Studies have suggested that the rise in global temperature of less than 1.8 to 5.4’F above 1990 altitudes will create advantageous results in certain states and detrimental effects on others. To discuss and talk about federal climate policy of the Federal Government and New York is to improve the future of the state. The Administration of Trump has opposed many climate policies of its precursors. Visualization of productive policies by the Federal government seems impossible. In the given scenario, the improvements in the continuing two years of President Trump’s would be questioned. The differences in the policies at the Federal Government and New York has a lot of endeavors that are yet to be discovered.

Example 1

The fourth utmost crowded state in the US is New York. It is also the state with the third-greatest economy. Currently, it is dignified to implement the country's greatest ambitious weather goals. These goals include generating electricity without using carbon compounds by 2040, which means the emission of net-zero carbon by 2050. As the state Assembly is controlled by the Democrats, Cuomo encouraged the matters of the state and marvelous individual influence has led to effectively utilize the Republicans control.

Example 2

Last year, Cuomo placed his climate bill, which was named as the Climate Leadership Act. It was New York's Green New Deal with some amendments. Overall, the concluding bill signifies a huge victory for New York’s environment support community. The Federal Government needs to implement laws and policies by remembering that if Congress is not active than the native legislatures are been active.

Example 3

New York's other advanced climate crises is to battle the climate catastrophe by producing 100% of electricity from the renewable capitals to reduce greenhouse vapors production by 85%. The residual 15% would be counterbalance via struggles to eliminate carbon from the environment by planting additional trees. This was also projected in the bill by the state legislative.

Example 4

The Climate Action Council is working on the establishment of organized advisory boards. The advisory board will offer safe and environmental-friendly processes for land use, industry, etc. The New York state is also planning to organize a just-transition operational group to investigate and recommend staff teaching, job impressions, and associated problems. There are a few parameters that are implemented in the New York State but not in Federal government. The provision of laws that industries must reduce release of gasses and emission of other environmental pollutants.

Further research and strategies needed

The Green New Deal is perhaps not successfully fabricated in the federal government. Somewhat, if it occurs at all, it will face the crushing out conquests where Democrats govern actions but certainly, New York has augmented the agenda. Ecological advocates supporting the bill suggested that there is a need for more to be done also in the federal government. The legislation proposed and adopted by the Ney York state would place it more forward but the climate crises demand more and faster strategies to reduce the production of greenhouse gasses in the federal government. Although, it has also been assumed that it would increase energy prices. The federal government needs more appropriate, cost-effective and environmentally friendly ways to deal with the climate crises.

Subject: Political Science

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Job Market For Lawyers And Possible Careers In Political Science Related Fields

Job Career for Lawyers and Career in Field of Political Science

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Job Career for Lawyers and Career in Field of Political Science


The assessment of legal and political education for lawyers and those who have important subjects of political science related fields provide ample of opportunities at various offices and places. Both subjects are inter-related and have considerable difference also. The area of political science is supported by the current events and happenings across the world. There is an excellent opportunity for the corresponding structures of state and formulators of public policy. On the contrary, lawyers have a bright career because they are directly or indirectly connected with the affairs of state, constitutional organizations like parliament, research engines and courts system. It is essential to consider that becoming a lawyer is always well-paid, famous profession and certain trends also encouraged them to advise the government, individual and corporations on legal problems.


The annual survey of the international and comparative law reflected that there is a significant relationship between politics and law. Politics explained the legal values, norms and the functions of institutions while the phenomena of the rule of law is well supported by the interpretation of courts over a particular subject. In such circumstances, there is an excellent market for lawyers to work at every legal firm after completing their required qualification. Even the corporate sector have various arrangements for lawyers to advise them on the matters of legal issues in establishing and marinating the business (Cerar, 2009). For every place or the new settlers of business, there is a requirement of completing the legal documents which cannot be possible without a well-known and competent lawyer. For the legal world where people approached and get advice over the disputes they face at various stages, there is a market for lawyers to serve and earn accordingly.

Before entering into the market, the aspiring lawyers have to receive the graduation in law from a reputable and recognized school/college of law. At the initial stages, they have to undergo through specific training which polished them for arguments and availing significant opportunities inside their course of action (Cerar, 2009). Most of the lawyers have to pass the exam of a bar for the state of employment, and if a person wanted to practice in other state or area of discussion, then he or she has to pass the bar council exam of that particular country. As per estimation of Bureau of Statistics, there is a median salary for a lawyer which ranges from 140000 US dollars to 190000 in a year. In other words, this means that they can earn more than the amount paid to them. Form the past few years the amount of earning on the part of lawyers is the same and many organizations and associated entities reflect it.

The lowest percent of the earning is 57900 US dollars while the upper level of earning on the part of lawyers is 210000 dollars per year. The median annual pay income for the new entrance into the legal market ranges from the 90-15000 US dollars. This shows that starting salaries have risen over the period and these are dramatically high than the other profession. It was for several months and years that benchmark starting salary of a new lawyer at the large firms with more than 700 employees had been 160,000 a year with certain bonuses/allowances. The figure has jumped over the years and reaches up to 180,000 dollars every year. In this regard, a report issued by the National Association of Law provided that more than 50 firms are paying for new graduates at the same amount (Cerar, 2009). There are certain mega-firms which ensures the protection of jobs issued to lawyers.

Market Over-Saturation Lawyers and Political Career

It happens that when a school or the educational institution produced more lawyers or graduates of political science which are not required immediately for the market than it creates a flux and situation of saturation (Friedman, 1971). Many universities in the world neglect the demands of the market. There are very few in the world which arises and meets the related requirements of the market regarding the issuance of particular people. Too many law graduates create tension for society, and it is the same as the supply and demand issues. As a prestigious profession lawyers area given significant attention but still there are firms and large corporations who fail to acknowledge the growing number of graduates from various universities. The economic crises of 2008-09 had developed a severe situation for the firms to hire more and more lawyers as legal advisor and other positions. What is important here is that law graduates or the student need to think about the different ways and out of box tools to manage their association with the particular field.

The government, financial services and the corporations’ at large places ensures the policy work in a professional way which could consider the future career of lawyers and political scientist. It is not as easy for the professionals to engage in some job shortly after the passing the graduation exam because the market has to be run on certain principles which will not allow everyone to indulge without demand. A profession of lawyers is based on hard work and significant work, but still, it will not work unless a person could smartly approach the market. In a short period, one can achieve a higher level of goals and demand main goals by putting specific smart initiatives (Friedman, 1971). Time for hard work is no more applicable in the contemporary era of competition and defeating the higher number of competitors in a professional and befitting manner.

Significant Differences between Law and Political Science

Many people start their education with political science and end up the training at some law school (Wirt, 2017). This shows that the field is inter-connected and most of the terms, course, and syllabus are similar in nature and practice. Since politics deals with the system of communities and law define those communities in legal conditions for the understanding of everyday people. However, there are specific significant differences like politics deals with the study of institutions that have primarily related to the public. In one way or the other state organizations like the parliament, presidency or the organs of security-related departments are included in the politics. On the contrary, the law defines how to run these organizations and what are the rules that can be useful for the community to be run effectively. There is always a dialogue in politics which is not in law because monologue is not applied in the field.

Among the significant difference between both subjects, politics deals with the issues of social concerns while the law provides specific rules for regulating the action of members and those who are involved in the imposition of political conflicts. The document of policy will not be a law because it lies under the mandate of political stakeholders and those which are part of devising a policy framework. Bureaucracy, the political class, ministers, members of the parliament are significantly involved in dealing with daily affairs of the state. For those who are seeking a career in this field can have the option of serving in legislative organizations and other state-own enterprises (Wirt, 2017) while those having the options for advising the masters sitting in constitutional departments can have many chances to serve and earn money. One thing that is essential to consider for any practice is the training and educational experience because without it there would be no chances for a bright career of the person.

The law would govern the principles, procedures, and standards for the policy document or any action taken by the state through the representatives selected by the public. These actions can be political (Wirt, 2017). Some scholars have defined both fields with the same sense of dealing with internal and external affairs. One can say that law is the central product of politics which cannot be separated because there would be no direction for the measurement of actions and framework considered to resolve the public issue. In straightforward words laws are for the people and policies to be made in the name of the public.

Previously there was no difference in law and politics, and it was considered as same for building a bright career in the future. However, with the passage of time and evolution of the process, things change, and both subjects are differentiated. Expansion of knowledge and the training in various fields have also supported the difference to balance functions of state institutions (Wirt, 2017). There are more significant challenges for the democracies of the 21st century to differentiate between the responsibilities of law and politics which are also creating troubles for the careers of the people.


Concluding the discussion legal and political career for lawyers and those who have essential subjects of political science related fields provide the plenty of chances at various agencies and chairs. Both subjects are inter-related and have substantial differences also. The area of political science is supported by the current events and happenings across the world. There is an excellent opportunity for the corresponding structures of state and formulators of public policy to align both and reduce the gap for career builders and new graduates of the law.


Cerar, M. (2009). The relationship between law and politics. Ann. Surv. Int'l & Comp. L., 15, 19.

Friedman, L. M. (1971). Response—Lawrence M. Friedman: Some Thoughts on the Relationship between Law and Political Science. Washington University Law Review, 1971(2), 375-380.

Wirt, F. M. (2017). Politics, products, and markets: Exploring political consumerism past and present. Routledge.

Subject: Political Science

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

Problems With The Articles Of Confederation And Remedies In The Constitution(Chp.2)

Articles of Confederation

[Author Name]

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Author Note

Articles of Confederation

The Articles of Confederation established a weak central executive as well as legislature, delegating most powers to the states. The first problem with the Articles of Confederation was the issue of taxation as the central government did not have the power to enforce taxation. Rather, states had this authority and this put the central government in a weaker economic position. The Constitution rectified this situation by granting taxation powers to Congress. This ensured that the federal government has enough revenue to fund project and provide services to Americans, something the Articles of Confederation did not have.

Another major problem with the Articles of Confederation was its rigidity; it required a unanimous approval for any amendment. This made it difficult to adapt to changing times through amendments which are a necessity for any constitution of the world. As the world evolves, there is a need for the country and its laws to evolve as well. The Constitution resolved this crucial aspect by introducing Article 5m, which lays out the procedure to amend the Constitution. Article 5 states that Congress needs to pass an amendment with a two-thirds majority in both the Senate and the House of Representatives. This has paved the way for 27 important amendments to the Constitution, such as the 19th amendment, which granted women the right to vote.

The issue of raising an army was another problem with the Articles of Confederation as the central government did not have the authority to raise and maintain an armed force. This was left to the individual states as each state had its own army according to its own requirements. In case of an emergency or an attack from another nation, the central government had to request states for contributions to the army which were voluntary. So, states could refuse and USA as a whole would have suffered dire consequences. In order to correct this, the Constitution made it mandatory for the central government to maintain an army for the defense of the nation.


Beard, C. (2017). An economic interpretation of the Constitution of the United States. Routledge.

Maggs, G. E. (2017). A Concise Guide to the Articles of Confederation as a Source for Determining the Original Meaning of the Constitution. Geo. Wash. L. Rev., 85.

Subject: Political Science

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Russian Midterm Paper

Bryan Rodriguez

Instructor Name

Course Number

7 July 2019

Russian Midterm Paper: Was Russia’s democratization and liberalization successful after the collapse of the Soviet Union?

The 1970s saw many authoritarian regimes in the world being replaced by political systems more democratic in their outlook. In particular, South American and Southern European nations such as Brazil, Spain, Chile, and Portugal experienced dramatic changes during this time period in terms of their political processes and government institutions’ leanings towards a democratic structure. Similarly in the Soviet bloc, following the disintegration of the Soviet Union, many leaders announced their intent to institutionalize democracy within their states among which Russia was a particularly important test case. However, tracing Russia’s transition by analyzing various historical and contemporary events, factors, and influences, it is observed that the transition of Russia towards market liberalization and democracy has not been successful so far, and may require greater time for the purpose.

Among many Western leaders in the 1990s, the transition of Russia towards democracy was seen as the most important test case. For the Clinton administration, the transition of the former Soviet states towards a market economy and democratic political structure became one of the leading foreign policy objective. This was evident in a remark from Warren Christopher, the former US Secretary of State, who stated that “helping the Russian people to build a free society and market economy is the greatest strategic challenge of our time” CITATION Eva11 \l 1033 (Evans). Russia is not just important because of its large population, land mass, and territory but due to its immense influence, strategic military capability, and the challenge it posed to the United States. Moreover, Russia was the successor of the Soviet Union, the main ideological and geopolitical rival to the U.S., for half a century. The symbolic implications of an ideological rival and superpower transitioning to democracy and liberalization would be profound.

In tracing the success or failure of Russia’s transition towards democracy and liberalization, Gorbachev and his policies remain of fundamental importance. The decrees issued and the initiatives taken by Gorbachev in rapid succession considerably weakened the administrative apparatus of the Communist party and the system that was in place for well over 70 years. The aim was to create an intra-party democratic scheme within the one-party system which redefined electing procedures and roles of party functionaries. However, his reform process was painstakingly slow and was marred by technical lapses, zigzag policies and fundamental contradictions owing to various political pressures and certain apprehensions on his own part CITATION Dal92 \l 1033 (Dallin). The transition attempted at a separation of powers within the Communist party while introducing a system of checks and balances based on the ‘socialist’ system by amending constitutional procedures. Yet, even this careful and slow transition faced resistance by the constitutional court while the people lacked the political habits and culture necessary for democratization. Although the Soviet economy still carried potential for reform, the often-conflicting reforms introduced by Gorbachev aimed more at creating a modernized socialist system rather than to completely replace the Soviet economy with liberal capitalism CITATION Shl99 \l 1033 \m Coh04(Shlapentokh; Cohen). Consequently, these economic reforms completely failed and led to growing inflation, budget deficits, falling production, and consumer shortages.

As Gorbachev’s gradual and reformist approach towards transition failed, Boris Yeltsin and his team sought to treat Russia’s chaotic economic and political environment with fast-track economic reforms through ‘shock therapy’. Gorbachev was seen by Yeltsin as wanting to combine things which were not combinable, and instead jolt the Russian economy with quick shocks aimed at liberalization CITATION Eva11 \l 1033 (Evans). However, Yeltsin’s team adopted a confrontational strategy instead of a democratic-consensus building one throughout the 1990s. Yeltsin’s strategy involved introducing elements from right-wing U.S. conservatism to replace the planned economy created under the Communist regime. The public expectations were high, however, they soon turned into widespread discontent as Yeltsin’s market liberalization reforms also failed to materialize. Freeing the prices of goods led to a dramatic rise in the price of essential goods to the extent that people’s savings were wiped out and consequently, were met by increased frustration, societal polarization and fragmentation CITATION Eva11 \l 1033 (Evans). Thus neither Gorbachev nor Yeltsin’s reform policies could help Russia transition to a democratic free-market economy.

The other reason why the democratization process remained unsuccessful in Russia was the negligible public resistance to non-democratic actions by successive leaders. It explains why Yeltsin in 1993 was able to fire at the parliament, filled with opposition members, with tanks or Vladimir Putin was able to eliminate three hundred hostages in a 2004 terrorist attack at a school in Beslan. Hence, the benefits outweighed the costs for these Russian leaders, something which lies in sharp contrast to the U.S., where a President would risk impeachment and loosing popular support for such actions. The tolerance of the public and the lack of resistance also allowed Yeltsin and Gorbachev to rearrange institutions and develop policies that suited their own interest. Even as selected appointments limited the political influence of the opposition, the Russian society remained passive and indifferent, allowing Yeltsin, Putin, and others sweeping access to powers, amend the constitution, and appoint governors to positions even if they lost the popular vote CITATION Vla15 \l 1033 (Gel'man). Moreover, the general trend at various other critical junctures tended to prefer a more authoritarian rather than a democratic direction even as democracy remained part of the political agenda. However, these democratic elements served more as a smokescreen for various antidemocratic purposes and, as a result, any hopes towards a transition to real democracy remain bleak CITATION Vla15 \l 1033 (Gel'man).

One of the key reasons why Russia could not transition towards market liberalization include the nature of macroeconomic reforms introduced during the 1990s period. Even if the reforms were sometimes sincere, they did not meet expectations mainly because of the absence of a proper institutional framework which a market economy needs to build itself on. Furthermore, other non-economic micro-level factors such as a lack of business ethics, civic responsibility, and a non-existent civil society were absent to make market liberalization successful CITATION Ale01 \l 1033 (Ledeneva). The state remained a major shareholder in major industries and large corporations, and extra-legal practices were employed at nearly all levels which were a result of a substantially weak overall enforcement infrastructure. The government continues to fail in generating tax revenue, enforce agreements and laws, preserve a social safety net, and create the necessary conditions needed by a market economy to flourish. Since the private sector did not receive such services, this led it to develop alternate rules and institutions which often employ extra-legal to operate CITATION Ale01 \l 1033 (Ledeneva). In the absence of a coherently functional legal framework, lack of transparency, and frequently changing rules, it is not possible for basic market institutions to work. The market system relies heavily on transparency, anti-corruption legislation, and a functional banking system to allow open competition and transparent corporate governance to take root.

Furthermore, corruption remained a major obstacle to Russia’s transition. In a society where nearly all institutions and agencies are involved in corruption, it is nearly impossible to eliminate it from the society. Russia’s economy remained tainted with corruption in both the Soviet and Post-Soviet era, and as a result, developed a reputation for non-transparency. Hence, in an economy where “rules of the game” are not understood or recognized, and businesses operate on rules other than that of free competition, it becomes increasingly difficult to set up a democratic and liberal economy. The weakness of the rule of law deters foreign investors and undermines efforts to battle tax evasion, capital flight, and abuse of corporate governance CITATION Ale01 \l 1033 (Ledeneva). Although there have been attempts to improve the efficiency of the system by strengthening the rule of law, it largely failed at the implementation stage. However, that failure resulted more from a failure of the law to function coherently, rather than the core elements of rule of law being absent. When corrupt practices and dubious rules govern the ways in which corporations and businesses make profit, while the law fails to prevent concentration of ownership to ensure free competition, then a market economy cannot flourish. In addition, the implementation of antitrust and antimonopoly laws remains unsuccessful. Furthermore, the judiciary’s inability to tackle corporate misdeeds and the government institutions ‘inability to generate tax revenues prevent corrupt corporations from gaining and exercising excessive political influence CITATION Des05 \l 1033 (Desai). The interplay of these factors continue to serve as a major obstruction to Russia’s transition to a free democratic market economy.

In conclusion, there are several interconnected factors that lead us to conclude that Russia’s transition to market liberalization and democracy is yet to be successful. In the post-Soviet era, these factors relate to conflicting political reforms by Russian leaders that ignored democratic consensus and led to further deterioration of an economy, which could still potentially be reformed. A lack of pro-democratic political culture and indifference of the elite and public further contributed to the problem. In addition, corruption and inadequate macroeconomic reforms continued to obstruct a free market from flourishing in the environment. However, even as the transition remains unsuccessful, it is possible to assume that Russia just needs more time for its democracy to mature. Just as it the U.S. democracy was substantially different in the 1990s compared to the 1950s and women only gained the right to vote 80 years ago, Russia with its different political history may require further time to transition to a successful democratic and free market economy.

Works Cited

BIBLIOGRAPHY Cohen, Stephen F. "Was the Soviet System Reformable?" Slavic Review 63.3 (2004): 459-487.

Dallin, Alexander. "Causes of the Collapse of the USSR." Post-Soviet Affairs 8.4 (1992): 279-302.

Desai, Padma. "Russian Retrospectives on Reforms." Journal of Economic Perspectives 19.1 (2005): 87-106.

Evans, Alfred B. "The failure of democratization in Russia: A comparative perspective." Journal of Eurasian Studies 2.1 (2011): 40-51.

Gel'man, Vladimir. Authoritarian Russia: Analysing Post-Soviet Regime Changes. Ed. Jonathan Harris. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburg Press, 2015.

Ledeneva, Alena. Unwritten Rules: How Russia Really Works? London: Centre for European Reform, 2001.

Shlapentokh, Vladimir. "The Soviet Union: A normal totalitarian society." The Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics 15.4 (1999): 1-16.

Subject: Political Science

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

The Ethics Of Distributive Justice

The ethics of distributive justice

The ethics of distributive justice

The idea of basic income has remained a hot topic for many years in the international forums. Depending on the economic conditions of different countries, the experts present different arguments. For example, the majority of them argue that each country should incentivize the economic and healthcare condition for all citizens by depositing a minimal sum in its own currency. This minimal sum from the state can be the initial income of each citizen and will be regarded as the starting salary above the poverty line. Scott Santens in his article published by the World Economic Forum argues that these basic incomes will be the unconditional guarantees of economics and health care.

Since social safety net is not discriminating in nature so welfare cannot be made conditional in any state. Many countries of the world cannot guarantee equal working opportunities to its citizens. The developing countries like Russia and China also fall in this category. On the other hand, in the United States, the basic income was tested in the year 1970. In the same year some states in Canada managed to eliminate poverty for five years. This was possible when states assured a minimum level of income for each citizen which guaranteed their rights from the state. Different to this, there is an opinion that why the State should provide money to its citizens for doing nothing. Santens argue that provision of a basic sum to each citizen can outweigh the economic benefits offered to the state by its citizen. Therefore, these minimal level of economic and healthcare opportunities should be unconditionally guaranteed to each citizen.

The example of the United States and Canada shows how the provision of a minimal sum can guarantee the health care and economic wellbeing of the citizens. Similar, the developing countries like Russia and China which aim at incentivizing the healthcare and economic opportunities generally, donot prioritize the individual development of citizens. Many underdeveloping states like India, Namibia and Brazil have experimented such programs with collaborating with some private entities like Y Combinator and GiveDirectly. The results of such experiments have proved encouraging in light of their growing populations.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Davala, Sarath, Renana Jhabvala, Guy Standing, and Soumya Kapoor Mehta. Basic Income: A Transformative Policy for India. Bloomsbury Publishing, 2015.

Pateman, Carole. “Democratizing Citizenship: Some Advantages of a Basic Income.” Politics & Society 32, no. 1 (2004): 89–105.

“Why We Should All Have a Basic Income.” World Economic Forum. Accessed July 15, 2019. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2017/01/why-we-should-all-have-a-basic-income/.

Subject: Political Science

Pages: 1 Words: 300

The Ethics Of Freedom, Liberty, And Morality.

The Ethics of Freedom, Liberty, and Morality.

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

The Ethics of Freedom, Liberty, and Morality.

Freedom, liberty and morality are pinnacle values in societies. According to most sociologists and social thinkers, it is science of ethics that governs societies in an effective way. Nevertheless, film “Enemy of State” explains dilemma of those societies where state itself hampers the social fabric. Here, film projects ill-side of high state security and state intervention in private lives of individuals.In this film, a person who had sensitive information was made to undergo difficult circumstances. His personal life was totally in tatters as he belonged to middle stratum of society. This high-handed approach of NSA and influence of the politician is clearly expressed in this film. Besides, this film is an exact portrayal of the fact that sometimes government – guarantor of liberties- itself become a reason of intervention and surveillance. This film is a manifestation of the fact that individual’s life and liberties are under constant watch, and this corresponds well with the Edward Snowden’s claims that American society is under strong observation. He listed various injustices and abuses by the state in this regard. His claim that NSA is focused on getting sensitive information by any means and from anywhere is justified because states do adopt such insensitive methods in name of national interests. In addition, its outreach has expanded and even domestic spheres are not excluded from it. In this vein, taping of calls andcommunication among people is done frequently. Even people are cognizant of this fact and they have launched protests against this interventionist approach of state. As a matter of fact, this is not a liberal and moral approach of state authorities as it runs counters to preamble of US Constitution and later bill of rights which affirm right of freedom, liberty and pursuit of happiness to all.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY “A Commentary On The Constitution Of The United States Latest Reprint by Author Bernard Schwartz.” Accessed July 2, 2019. http://classicreadgo.info/a-commentary-on-the-constitution-of-the-united-states-best-prime-reading-bernard-schwartz.pdf.

“Constitutional Opinions: Aspects Of The Bill Of Rights Freely Available Books Leonard Williams Levy.” Accessed July 2, 2019. http://freelicensebooks.info/constitutional-opinions-aspects-of-the-bill-of-rights-free-license-unlimited-leonard-williams-levy.pdf.

Landau, S. “Making Sense from Snowden: What’s Significant in the NSA Surveillance Revelations.” IEEE Security Privacy 11, no. 4 (July 2013): 54–63. https://doi.org/10.1109/MSP.2013.90.

Subject: Political Science

Pages: 1 Words: 300

The Speaker Of The House Has Considerable Discretion Over The Flow Of Legislation In The Texas House, While The Lieutenant Governor Wields Even Greater Power In The Texas Senate Due To The Chamber’s Organization..”

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Instructor Name

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“The Speaker of the House has Considerable Discretion over the flow of Legislation in the Texas House, while the Lieutenant Governor Wields even Greater Power in the Texas Senate due to the Chamber’s Organization”.

This paper will investigate whether there is a considerable discretion of the Speaker of House over the flow of legislation in the Texas House, over the Lieutenant Governor has greater power in the Texas Senate due to the Chamber’s Organization.


The limited embrace of the Texas government can be observed with the three branches, which has a higher representation of white male business owners as well as lawyers. The main responsibility of the government is to pass legislation, resolutions, and handling administrative services ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"PJMooElV","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}Political Culture} 1.1)","plainCitation":"(Political Culture 1.1)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1847,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/F0XOCTdk/items/CVDTASQ5"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/F0XOCTdk/items/CVDTASQ5"],"itemData":{"id":1847,"type":"webpage","title":"Political Culture","URL":"https://www.webtexts.com/courses/34318-alsaeed/traditional_book/chapters/3605730-political-culture/pages/2920325-introduction","shortTitle":"Political Culture","issued":{"date-parts":[["2020"]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2020",1,29]]}},"locator":"1.1"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Political Culture 1.1). Texas has a bicameral system like other states when it comes to the government’s legislation

President of the Senate: the Lieutenant Governor

When it comes to power, the Lieutenant governor has more powers in comparison with the speaker of the house. The Lieutenant governor in Texas is supposed to act as the president for the senate and Lieutenant is elected as the Constitutional president by the voters and representatives from the executive body. In the absence of the governor, the Lieutenant governor makes state decisions and can narrate rules ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"h23x06pT","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}Political Culture} 3.12)","plainCitation":"(Political Culture 3.12)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1847,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/F0XOCTdk/items/CVDTASQ5"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/F0XOCTdk/items/CVDTASQ5"],"itemData":{"id":1847,"type":"webpage","title":"Political Culture","URL":"https://www.webtexts.com/courses/34318-alsaeed/traditional_book/chapters/3605730-political-culture/pages/2920325-introduction","shortTitle":"Political Culture","issued":{"date-parts":[["2020"]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2020",1,29]]}},"locator":"3.12"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Political Culture 3.12). Moreover, the Lieutenant has the authority to make decisions regarding the questions raised from the parliament. Lieutenant has also authority to sign bills and lead the Senate.

Speaker of the House-Selection

In the House of Representatives, a presiding officer is considered as the Speaker. Speaker has the duty of maintaining orders while floor debating sessions and can identify the speakers and rules concerning the procedural matters ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"gK1Xc8kK","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}Political Culture} 3.11)","plainCitation":"(Political Culture 3.11)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1847,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/F0XOCTdk/items/CVDTASQ5"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/F0XOCTdk/items/CVDTASQ5"],"itemData":{"id":1847,"type":"webpage","title":"Political Culture","URL":"https://www.webtexts.com/courses/34318-alsaeed/traditional_book/chapters/3605730-political-culture/pages/2920325-introduction","shortTitle":"Political Culture","issued":{"date-parts":[["2020"]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2020",1,29]]}},"locator":"3.11"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Political Culture 3.11). However, the duties of the Speaker are identified and decided by the House Rules of Procedures’ members. Speakers can also sign bills but the Chamber has to review them and it is the bodies of the government, which defines the roles of each committee and representative ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"hGHWuEwc","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}Political Culture} 3.15)","plainCitation":"(Political Culture 3.15)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1847,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/F0XOCTdk/items/CVDTASQ5"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/F0XOCTdk/items/CVDTASQ5"],"itemData":{"id":1847,"type":"webpage","title":"Political Culture","URL":"https://www.webtexts.com/courses/34318-alsaeed/traditional_book/chapters/3605730-political-culture/pages/2920325-introduction","shortTitle":"Political Culture","issued":{"date-parts":[["2020"]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2020",1,29]]}},"locator":"3.15"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Political Culture 3.15). There are certain limitations including the review of the bills by the committees, whereas the charges of the committee are limited.


Based on the studies I analyzed that, the speaker has some of the significant discretions that includes order maintenance when it comes to the flow of the legislation in the Texas House. While Lieutenant general has more power in the Senate of Texas because of the organization of the Chamber.

Works Cited:

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Political Culture. 2020, https://www.webtexts.com/courses/34318-alsaeed/traditional_book/chapters/3605730-political-culture/pages/2920325-introduction.

Subject: Political Science

Pages: 2 Words: 600

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Kant and the Constitution


In order to champion enlightenment in general and highlighting the idea of freedom specifically, Kant focused on writing his social and political philosophy. His work contained both natural law and traditions involving a social contract. According to him every human being that is rational in nature has the choice and the freedom of entering into a civil condition. This can also be governed by a contract of the social nature so that the freedom of the individual is preserved and realized. Going further into his work, Kant has worked tirelessly to differentiate between the different forms of constitution currently applicable. Out of all the others he chose to say in his “First Definitive Article for Perpetual Peace” that all republican constitutions should be put into place as the Civil Constitution of every state. This essay, keeping in light of this, will look at why the distinction made by Kant was important for his thesis and is there any resonation in this distinction. Finally, how important is this distinction in order to understand the nature of democracy in the twenty-first century.


The political philosophy of Kant lies within the domains of practical philosophy. This is considered as one-half of the broadest divisions of the thoughts of Kant between theoretical and practical philosophy. Furthermore, political philosophy is also to be considered as a part of practical philosophy on the basis of both empirical elements and the virtue proper. In light of the empirical elements, it is worth noting that practical philosophy contains a collection of rules. These rules govern the free behavior of rational beings and also cover all the actions of humanity in both aspects related to applying and pure politics. (Rauscher, 2007). Practical philosophy and its rational elements with the absence of empirical evidence were known by Kant as the metaphysics of morals. Kant emphasized heavily and also made the pure aspect of philosophy a priority in his work, this was visible from the part of his essay titled, “On the common saying: that may be correct in theory but it is of no use in practice" (Williams, et al. pp. 263-273). However, this essay was also written in essence to show his contradictory view towards Hobbes on the fact that it was more important for a politician to focus on governance of the pragmatic sense and not with the abstract right (Williams, et al. pp. 263-273).

Political philosophy, in general, is not only a derivative of Kant and his practical philosophy but the truth is that it depends strongly upon the practical philosophy of Kant in order to form its basis. The intention regarding the practical philosophy and the categorical imperative that seems to govern Kant's philosophy was originally thought of to be the basis for not only what is thought ethically proper in this day and age but for a broader spectrum of things that related directly and indirectly with the human behavior and its deliberations. In his work, he defined practical philosophy as something related to the behavioral rules regarding free choice (Rauscher, 2007). On the other hand, theoretical philosophy dealt with the knowledge and its rules. In this manner, practical philosophy laid the rules that govern the deliberative actions of humans. Kant’s main arguments towards the relationship between categorical imperative and human deliberative action arise from the groundwork for the metaphysics of morals. On its first page, he denotes that the groundwork is supposed to be a book that prepares for metaphysics of morals and its future. After twelve years he published two books as part of the metaphysics of morals, the doctrine of right and doctrine of virtue. Both of these parts have categorical imperative as its highest principle and thus making them equally as a part of the practical philosophy of Kant (Tampio, et al. Pp.258-266).

There are two distinct parts of the book metaphysics of morals namely the doctrine of right and doctrine of virtue. Kant's work focused on separating the political rights from what common man would call morals in the narrowest of sense. He put three conditions in order to limit right and only something can be enforceable as a right if it fulfills these three conditions. Firstly, a right is something that has an influence on other people as well. This influence can be either directly or indirectly, which means that any duties to one’s own self are excluded from this. Secondly, right just not merely a concern they wish but also the choice of others (Rauscher, 2007). This means that mere desires have not to be placed in being considered as right in fact only those decisions that bring about actions are at stake. The third condition doesn't necessarily relate to the matter of the acts of others but only the form. This shows that there is no particular desire or even ends that are presumed on the agent's part. However, Kant is considered to include as a part of right to be beneficent, however, there is no conclusion on his part that states that beneficent actions are important for a right. The only thing that he does conclude is that most beneficent actions are permitted by right but there are some who also violate right.

In the perspective proposed by Kant, the concept of a constitution is not one of positive law but one of reason, which is not in any shape or form subject to written law. In Kant’s terms, the experience is related to empirical and positive law which in the overall sense makes it an issue that does not pertain to the faculty of law. Furthermore, there is no implementation of the constitution in normal terms by Kant. This could be accredited to the fact that during that era and after that for a long time the constitution was considered only as a political concept which was normative in nature rather than a legal document (Bragyova, 2011). By the end of the eighteenth century, the constitution was started to be considered as empirical legislation, which Kant refers to as positive law. Constitutions such as the 1791 French constitution was considered as a legal document but was more a product of political philosophy that in turn led to the formation of the political principles. These were then finally written down in a solemn charter. This was majorly present on the legal concept that was considered rational during that time and age. What today is considered constitutional in the period of enlightenment were not valid at that time. This occurred not on the basis of positive law but mostly due to practical reasons (Simpson, et al. pp. 109-128).

In Kant's understanding, concepts such as state and constitution are more related to the course of action. This is because the constitution determines the government, its form and how it manages the relationship between the different state powers. In actuality, the idea of social contract is not the creation of Kant but the implementation of his thought as a regulative idea that might stem from him. Kant was an exceptional anthropologist, which allowed him the notion that no contract that ever has constituted a society has ever been obtained (Bragyova, 2011). This way he relates the notion of a constitution with a social contract. This entails the idea that Kant explicitly considered the constitution to be a social contract. So, by understanding the constitution in the form of an idea, Kant considers the people that are constituted within the constitution as the ideal people. Since these people cannot exist before and separate from a social contract, they cannot discuss about the origination of the supreme one.

Furthermore, the constitution and its conception as a form of social contract help in developing an understanding of the link between the sovereignty of the people and the constitution. The conceiving of the constitution by Kant is not only as of the basis of social life establishment under the rule of law but more of his focus is on the people who united on the basis of this contract as he identifies with them (Bragyova, 2011). The sovereignty of people is the most important criteria but there should be no manifestation of it in the practical life of individuals. The republican constitution and the representation of the constitution as a social contract are basically the same things. Kant considers representational and more importantly constitutional democracy as a necessary element that is needed for the formation of a lawful constitution. These thoughts of his have proved widely successful in the constitutional theory of the modern age and more importantly the neo-classical school of thought. It was also appreciated in the modern political philosophy, which is considered by Rawl as the theory of constitutional democracy (Bragyova, 2011). In the light of constitutional law, it is an accepted theory that the conception of the constitution to be judged as a social contract. This is interpretable in legal forms and also has applicability in legal reasoning related to constitutional law. Furthermore, it helps in the interpretation of sovereignty of people under the law of the constitution. Lastly, in modern legal systems, the constitution provides two services. It maintains the legality of the legal system and helps in the legal determinations of the content of the law. This is present in both modern and neo-constitutionalist legal systems.

Taking into account the central idea of the perpetual peace and the notion that was proposed by the central ideology of International Law, it is highlighted that Kant is hundreds of years ahead of the ideology that is presented by Hobbes. For Kant, law and constitution is all what is parallel to the actual and moral good. Also, it is termed as an ethical dimension that can be a representative of the activities carried out by human beings and the ethical dimensions that directly or indirectly affect human activities and human relationships. For Kant, a constitution should be a reflection of the public good because all those actions that are performed by the leaders and the ones who are elected when made not acceptable for the public is the real cause of religious and state issues and stress that can bring unrest in the action of the states (Simpson, et al. pp. 109-128). Also, it is highlighted that constitution is a contract, but it is never ever a fact, in fact, it is an idea of reason that is required of a human being so that something that can be born out of the collective and the united will of the state. Within society and a state, every normal human being is termed as a contractor because a contract has the potential to decide and then categorize what is being served is required or not. Also, it determines if the propositions are in favor of humans or not. An analysis of the constitutional views by Kant highlighted that any constitution should be a republic. It means that only the constitution that is the result of some social pact must be based on the goodwill of the people. It is also highlighted that there are two major principles that can make the constitution well-performing and applicable. One of the principles is of representation and the other is the principles of the separation of power. The principle of representation highlights that every human being within a state is the representative of the affairs of the state. Also, a state can only work if it is the union of all the citizens as well as it is careful of the rights of the citizens that are gained through the mediation of the delegates. The other principles, also called the principle of the separation of power highlights that if a state has any of the representative characters, then it should think like the report of the sovereign and the multitude of the subjects (Tampio, et al. pp.258-266). Kant finds the separation of power not as a division but as a unity that resides in the different authorities of the state. The reason for such beliefs can be traced from the fact that Kant has its prime focus on the lawful government as well as the civil right that connects him to the natural right thoughts. These justifications of the state given by Kant are not just limited to the visions that are proposed by the other people, but it also highlights the fact that an individual only enters the state when it is found that the rules and regulation of the states are best fulfilling the needs of an individual. In order to promote the welfare of society, those laws should be proposed that can address human thoughts and are compatible with the thinking paradigm of those who are living in a society or that state.

The political philosophy of Kant is more like a junction between the two major realms, on one side there are the overwhelming political principles, while on the other side, there are domain of materials motives of the human behaviors (Molloy, et al.). A critical analysis highlights that if a state draws these two constitutions, it is necessary to meet the set obligations of the society. Also, the moral improvement of men can only be done by making those condition and laws that are equally applicable and they are directly meeting the needs and the requirement of the people who are living in that particular state. One of the examples that are given by Kant is that of a human who commits robbery, he commits robbery, not because of the passion to rob but he robs because he is seeing that there is no way out that he can achieve and fulfill his dreams, of both moral and materialistic desires. Such desires push not only robbery but other crimes as well such as adultery and even attacking the politicians out of anger and disrespect.

A critical insight highlights that there are two major sections of the construction of peace by Kant. According to Kant, peace means that there would be an end to all the form and types of hostilities taking into account that an adjective “perpetual” is attached to it. This understanding of peace is defined and found to nullify all the exciting reasons that can pave the way for future wars. It is also highlighted that there would be a mental reservation by the party that can revive some old pretension to the future (Grovogui, pp. 301-302). Kant held that the "telos" of human history is actually a tribute to the achievement of the constitutional state. There are some strong reasons in the construction of Kant's republican constitution, with a strong reliance on the reason and this logic is very close to the anthology that is proposed by the neo-constitutionalist constitution, taking into account the idea that a republican constitution can never be a political constitution. It is more like a legal construction that is derived from some pure source of the concept of law. Kant has proposed a profound difference between the political and legal construction taking into account the dominance of the natural or the national law. Kant has defined three major principles of a constitution (Molloy, et al.). One of the major principles is freedom, taking into account that man has a single simultaneous and innate right. The concept of freedom is much interesting as it includes some of the fundamental human rights such as freedom of speech, equality and the protection of privacy. In more simple words, the concept of freedom proposed by Kant is more like a universal right that infers that freedom is supposed to be acquired or deserved, much like the other rights that are practiced under legal systems. Another aspect of Kant's constitution is the enforcement of legal norms, also called “met the norms” that can be used to conduct the legal system (Grovogui, pp. 301-302). Here, legal freedom comprises of the lawful freedom that employs an equal subjugation to the law, highlighting that legal freedom is protected by the state coercion. It is also called the nonconstitutional concept of freedom that was incorporated in the 18 century and it was prevalent until the 20 century. In addition, the third element of the republican constitution as proposed by Kant is the equality of the citizens. This equality is also called Unabhängigkeit. The underlying understanding of this equality differentiates between the active and passive citizens where political rights are secured and meant for the citizens who are self-sufficient and they have an economic and social existence (Grovogui, pp. 301-302).

An analysis of the definite article of peace highlights, Kant has proposed some necessary and sufficient conditions that are necessary for the achievement of perpetual peace. According to Kant, it is necessary and possibly formal to institute a state of peace with the same ideology that it is among the men. Perpetual peace as defined by Kant is dependent on the establishment of an international civil constitution, in which Kant highlighted three major principles named as, freedom for all the members of the society, the principle of dependence for everyone who is living in a state on a single and common legislation and then the legal equality for everyone (Acosta, et al.). Kant differentiates between the republican constitution and the democratic constitution which highlights that Kant was not friendly towards democracy, in fact, he found that the stance of democracy has puzzled many commentators and there is some good reason behind this differentiation. It asserts that Kant is not only committed to his ideology of ethics but he had a strong notion of equality among the other human beings. Kant has endorsed Rousseau’s idea that there is none of the law that can be legitimate until and unless it can or at least it enjoys consent from all the consociates. This is also defined as a principle that is found to be more demanding than the current understanding of legitimate democracy. Kant’s philosophy asserts that there should be no obedience to the external law except those which are given consent from all the people who are living in a state. Kant’s differentiation of republican and democratic consultation is necessary to understand How Kat sees democracy as a despotism in to the realms of perpetual peace (Acosta, et al.).

The analysis of both, “To perpetual peace and The Doctrine of Right”, it is highlighted that the aim of perpetual peace is to look for the most explicit and the strongest reservations that can be found against the government. According to Kant, forms of state can only be classified by using two different criteria, whether it reflects the number of rules, or it is all about the way in which a sovereign power to be exercised. Kant views democratic government and constitution as demos that can act either like a monarch or an oligarchy (Acosta, et al.). Kant has affirmed that direct democracy is something that is void of any human interpretation. Also, it is highlighted that Kant departs from Rousseau because Kant is not explicit about it. This philosophy also highlights that there is a dire need to have a government that can be called "universal government”. This philosophy automatically pushes people towards republican democracy (Grovogui, pp. 301-302). In the spirit of republicanism, it is highlighted that the minds of the citizens and rulers should be the representative of the public that is living within the state. Also, it is highlighted that if the burden of representation is shared by the electors as well as the elected then there is no reason that is left behind to justify that democracy should be void of despotism. In a simplified form, it is highlighted that if the power of general good is embedded in the political authorities, then democracy can face a clear advantage over the others also called “formae imperii.” (Simpson, et al. pp. 109-128). Kant is not an appreciator of the popular which is also called democratic control over the other delegates. It would not be wrong to say that Kantian republic is more like an ideal type that cannot be satisfied only with the help of election and a critical analysis of the constitutional limits. It is important to note that the Kantian republic is more like an idea that should have been followed by the concrete republicans. A simple understanding of constitution near Kant is more like a despotic regime. Kant’s republican ideology is more like an ideology of today that can entail the ability of an individual to distance oneself from the other’s interest or the political interest. In terms of Kantian constitution, there would be a state in which all the citizens would be free, there would be a deliberative and an autonomous citizenship that can accept all the issues and burdens of the upholder policy and other representations that either support public good or there is a real chance to express goodwill (de Ville, et al. pp. 335-357).

As per Kant’s philosophy, it is justified that if there is a state in which all the votes can be either exchanged or controlled so that the powerful can dispose of a number of votes in proportion to the number of those dependent, then there is a very less or rare chance of expressing goodwill. Kant is found to be quitting explicit, along with the reason for excluding the servants, women, apprentices and the minors from the right to vote. The ignorance and negligence reflect the stance of passive citizenship which infers that all the people are obliged to depend on the officers and other higher authorities to get their life necessities fulfilled. This exclusion is much similar to the elitism style which is also defined in terms of the preoccupation highlighting that the powerful citizens do not increase in their say of political decisions if they exploit their dependency on the other dependents, which ranges from moral sustenance to the act of blackmailing someone. It would not be wrong to say that for the angle of constitutional theory, it is highlighted that the relationship between public justification and rationality is significant. In terms of politics, it is highlighted that the use of reason both public as well as collective is justified because it is a combination of both, participation rights as well as election, and legislation along with other communicational rights that can act as a strong tool to safeguard public reasoning and debate. It is highlighted that the democratically of the legitimate formation of both will and constitution is impossible without the inclusion of constitutional rights and it is based on the constructional rule or procedure. Ultimately, it is asserted that rational procedural constitutional democracy is also in a dire need of judicial protection that would be granted by the constitution. As per Kant’s thought, the constitution is more like a social contract, which defines as well as highlights the underlying concept of constitutional democracy, which is also called equality (Molloy, et al.). Under this stance, constitution is meant for the equality of those who are living in the constitutional state. This idea is similar to that of popular sovereignty highlighting the empirical social fact. The constitutional people also called the sovereigns exist only in the constitution, taking into account the idea of the titular state. The collective decision making power that binds people is more like the manifestation of the decision-making procedure. In other words, the constitutional freedoms that are the major part of an adequate constitution reflect fundamental rights these rights are legally necessary and they are the actual content of any of the legal system. Under the impact of modern constitutional reviews, legislation is meant to protect the constitutional rights of the people which is in return taken over from the natural law or from the rational law that is preferred by the majority (Tampio, et al. pp.258-266).

In accordance with the constitutional theory of Kant, it is highlighted that the rational states usually establish legal consideration and these considerations are a confusion among the citizens. Legal freedom, one of the basic aspect is also found to be lawful and in freedom along with an equal subjection to the rule of law. This stance of law is much similar to that of constitutional freedom that is granted in the 18 century and it was prevalent until the 20 century. These political dimensions are also counted unfit for the title of constitutional law. It is also a general role that is deemed to be accepted by the people who are adapting to the different representative organs such as parliament. As per the information quoted by Kant, the ultimate identity of the two formulas also called, rationale admissibility, as well as the publicity, is actually derived from the concept of reason. Kant has associated rationality with publicity and this concept is intertwined with reason that is used in a similar way as that of science. Kant has examined the rationality of the arguments (Molloy, et al.).

The difference between the two ideologies. Democratic constitutions in contrast to the republic constitution highlight that a constitution should be made only out of three major perspectives and baselines such as freedom, equality, and independent. Under this impact, it is affirmed that all the laws and regulations should be made under the impact of republicans. Republicanism is more like the political principles that infer the separation of executive power with that of legislative. It is highlighted that the despotism is that of the autonomous authority that is designed by the state of the laws which is decreed by the government itself. Also, it is highlighted that in the despotism, the public must be governed by the rulers, as per the direction of the will of the ruler (Tampio, et al. pp.258-266). However, the democratic model of the government is found to be in contrast with that of the republicans. It is made impossible by the modes of the government to wish for mastery. It is also said that no matter how much smaller is the person of the government, there would be a greater representation and there would be increased stress on the approaches by the constitution, reaching the possibility of the republicans. In the case of democratic authority, the government must have a significant representative form where the government is despotic and it is arbitrary in nature.

Taking into account the political philosophy of Kant, it is highlighted that states are subjected to the unilateral whims of the potential adversaries, also defined as a condition that is formally incompatible with the duty to respect. The Kantian republic is more like an ideal abstraction that each of the concrete republics should always strive for. It is important to note that Kant is so suspicious about democracy taking into account the ideology that it helps to conceive a form of a democratic regime that cannot importantly fall in the category of perversion fears (Simpson, et al. pp. 109-128). As per Kant’s philosophy, it is brought into insight that the spirit of republicanism has shaped and modified the minds of both citizens and rulers in such a way that the representative uses laws that are not only found to be consistent with the constitution but it was something that is capable of furthering the general grounds. If the ideology of general good is embedded in the polity then democracy can have a clear advantage over the other form of politics and democracy. The overall analysis highlights that Kant was in the favor of majority where majority good can be addressed and all the actions and their consequences are the product of something that is practiced within the state (Molloy, et al.).

It would not be wrong to say that this distinction between democratic and republic law is important to examine what is actually required of a layman who is living in a society and what they are presented with which in return behooved them to resist and act against the set standards. There are a lot of aspects and dimensions that need to be considered while analyzing the criticism of the perpetual peace and the difference between a republic and a democratic constitution. An exegetical analysis of the Kant’s philosophy highlights that the political philosophers tend to analyze their works in terms of the present situation that they have been facing rather than a critical insight of their future and the changing situation. The analysis of the Kant philosophy in the present time, i.e. 21 century attracts man’s attention because the massive shift and empowerment of the Kant’s philosophy was because of the French revolution and 21 century is something that is beyond the impact of any kind of revolution (Williams, et al. pp. 263-273). It is asserted that although Kant was highly in the favor of republican democracy, still some of the philosophers assert that the points are much similar to that of the metaphysics of morals. It is asserted that liberalism and republicanism are not actually the same thing because the limitations of the legislation and constitutional limits are not enough for the standards that are set for a republic. Also, the republic is far more important in the concept of liberal democracy, taking into account that the legislative owner acts in the spirit it is not just a collection of facts and figures. It is also sweeping to admit Kant’s vision because a republic is not just a set of institutions, in fact, it’s a collection of ethos that is meant to be reached through the action of the citizens. If there are shared ethos than it determines the internal political reference and preferences but it is also and most relevantly a choice in the foreign policy (Grovogui, pp. 301-302).

Kant has made a clear thesis that no perfect republic is actually responsible of the relation of one state with the other state, there is no consideration under the common laws. If the concept of moral learning is considered than there is no other ideal state than republican state because a republic state is something that is continuously something that is striven towards. There is no state in the world can be said to reach the ideal positions neither there is a state that has secured once for all in the progress that is made for the achievement of that ideal state (Molloy, et al.). Another notion of the republican government highlights that a republic government doesn’t actually or merely respond to the majority of the electors because if a republic is judged by the conformity of the decisions in terms of constitutional as well as interpretation values. Also, the major notion of the representative government comprises of more than one mechanism that is capable of showing or ensuring the transition of preferences from the citizens to the rulers. Also, a state is found to presuppose the authentic interpretative effort that can be applied to the republican principles that are applicable to all the interpretative efforts (Grovogui, pp. 301-302).

It is also highlighted that the ideas of universal peace that are presented by Kant are more towards the model of an imperial Pax Romans that is based on universal monarchy. Also, this ideology is based on the project that is meant for an international order. Kant has given an account of the human’s innate right of the freedom with that of the others that is also defined as the independence from being constrained by the choice of someone else (Simpson, et al. pp. 109-128). As per Kant, right is something that is accounted with the authorization of the use of coercion because as long as there is an opposition of the coercion, there would be a hindrance to the freedom that is parallel to the universal laws. Kant’s ideology is more like general within the context of private life. Kant clearly prefers a division that is a republic in nature in terms of the vision of power which is also a single alternative to despotism. So, there are two possibilities both, acceptance and no acceptance of the resonance because at one stage Kant’s philosophy is more like a negation of the private concern while on the other side, it is more like a stance of acceptance because of the possibility of change in the societies that are more closer to the ideology of an ideal state where a prime significance is given to the human rights. Also, Kant is not a categorical pacifist, in fact, he accepted what have played a central role in the development of making in general good. He does not think like the “mechanism of nature” that is similar to that of the natural law. In fact, the ideology promoted by Kant is more like the perfection of the practical reason that is termed as a duty towards eternal peace (Acosta, et al.).

Taking into account an analysis of the 21 century, it is highlighted that Kant’s work is more like an insight into the prophetic view of state on, however, there would be a massive approach to human rights and the will of a common citizen. In the present i.e., the Kant’s philosophy is not applicable because today, morals are more of a practical sense. Politics is defined as the sum of laws that impose unconditional obedience, taking into account that this obedience is in accordance with “Ought” to act phenomena (Grovogui, pp. 301-302). If this philosophy is matched with the current notion of politics then the idea of duty seems to engage in her to the ground by itself because of “ultra-posse more obligations”. Political science also deals with morals and ethics but these morals and ethics are theoretical in nature. This contradictory statement here is the fact that politics infer “be wise as a serpent” in contradiction to the morals infer, “and guileless as doves” (Tampio, et al. pp.258-266). In 21 century, perpetual peace is more like a stance that needs to be resided because the world is not the same, and the situation is not the same. Also, there are two notions in the era of the moral framework that is associated with morality and then its implication in politics. On one side, it is honesty that is the best policy while on the other side it is said that honesty is better than the other policy. It is also important to note that the philosophy of Kant that highlights three basics fundamental of the constitution is something that is nothing more than an abstraction because, in the world of technology where modernism prevails, the branches of government such as resilient and justifications are the law decoders. The considerations of general goodwill never lead political progression, in fact, it will return and tilt politics to the grounds of morality only that is only dependent on the human power to make decisions (Simpson, et al. pp. 109-128). Also, the values of any of the state changes with the passage of time and even morals as well where Kant’s philosophy is nothing more than an open invitation to everyone to express and come to change what they want to.

It would not be wrong to say that today it is the time of political revolution, where a complex community is removed from the surface of the earth in the name of politics and the harm that community have done to the political structure (Simpson, et al. pp. 109-128). In such a case, the political and moral view of peace promoted by Kant would ultimately lead to the dramatized version where there would be no world politics and there would be no progression of the law-making bodies. Also, the domain power in the present time is that of democracy that is practiced in most of the superpowers, their success infers that they are required to address human needs and to take initiatives that can prove effective in the long run. The promotion of perpetual peace might result in war because if there would be no major contributions to the world and then it would lead to more wars (Grovogui, pp. 301-302).


Kant one of the well-known philosophers has proposed the ideology of law in the name of “perpetual peace”, taking into account an emphasis on republic politics rather than democratic peace. Although Kant has justified this phenomenon as per his ideology which was guided by the French revolution, it is highlighted that the stance of republic politics resonates because of the shivering basis that is made on human rights in general overpowered by human rights in private. Although, it seems to be sweeping still it is asserted that Kant’s philosophy cannot withstand 21 century. It is highlighted that in 21 century, Kant’s philosophy is nothing more than philosophy, because, in the current time, there is no significance of "general politics", in fact, there is a prevalence of “political politics”. The shuffle of politics intertwined with morality is something that needs to be promoted and it is also required by the present time because democracy is prevalent only because of the validity of the stance. This stance is enough justification for the fact that Kant’s philosophy cannot be promoted in the present time, because it might lead to world war.

Work Cited

Acosta, Emiliano. "Nature and perpetual peace in Kant and Fichte's cosmopolitanism." Anuario Filosofico 52.1 (2019).

De Ville, Jacques. "Perpetual Peace: Derrida Reading Kant." International Journal for the Semiotics of Law-Revue internationale de Sémiotique juridique 3Atack, Iain. "Pacifism and perpetual peace." Critical Studies on Security 6.2 (2018): 207-220.2.2 (2019): 335-357.

Grovogui, Siba N’Zatioula. "Kant’s International Relations: The Political Theology of Perpetual Peace. By Seán Molloy. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2017. 270p. $75.00 cloth." Perspectives on Politics 17.1 (2019): 301-302.

Molloy, Seán. Kant's International Relations: The Political Theology of Perpetual Peace. University of Michigan Press, 2019.

Simpson, Sid. "Making liberal use of Kant? Democratic peace theory and Perpetual Peace." International Relations 33.1 (2019): 109-128.

Tampio, Nicholas. "Is Perpetual Peace Possible?." (2019): 258-266.

Williams, Howard. "Progress, Human Rights and Peace in Luigi Caranti’s Kant’s Political Legacy." Kantian Review 24.2 (2019): 263-273.

Subject: Political Science

Pages: 20 Words: 6000

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Justice White’s decision vs. Justice Rehnquist decision

This essay is both the comparative and contrast analysis about Justice White’s opinion in R.A.V v. The city of St. Paul case with that of Chief Justice Rehnquist’s opinion in Bay Scouts of America vs. Dale case. Justice White opined in R.A.V v. The city of St. Paul that the decision of the Minnesota Supreme Court is considered the reverse. In doing so, the court provided none of the reason for advancing. The court mentioned that the decision has been made on the basis of the issues that are not an inherent part of the court proceedings in this case ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"dJhrWbPE","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Kommers et al. 151)","plainCitation":"(Kommers et al. 151)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":524,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/2ESIL2KE"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/2ESIL2KE"],"itemData":{"id":524,"type":"book","title":"American Constitutional Law: Liberty, Community, and the Bill of Rights","publisher":"Rowman & Littlefield Publishers","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"American Constitutional Law","author":[{"family":"Kommers","given":"Donald P."},{"family":"Finn","given":"John E."},{"family":"Jacobsohn","given":"Gary J."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2004"]]}},"locator":"151","label":"page"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Kommers et al. 151). The court went on to write that the decision was made without any prior case briefing and it also challenged the established precedents of the court. Justice White mentioned that the case R.A.V v. The city of St. Paul could have been decided on well-developed pieces of evidence ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"B52Qozgc","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Kommers et al. 152)","plainCitation":"(Kommers et al. 152)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":524,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/2ESIL2KE"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/2ESIL2KE"],"itemData":{"id":524,"type":"book","title":"American Constitutional Law: Liberty, Community, and the Bill of Rights","publisher":"Rowman & Littlefield Publishers","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"American Constitutional Law","author":[{"family":"Kommers","given":"Donald P."},{"family":"Finn","given":"John E."},{"family":"Jacobsohn","given":"Gary J."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2004"]]}},"locator":"152","label":"page"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Kommers et al. 152). Justice White also mentioned the first amendment precedent that it could also have been incorporated. He remarked that in this decision the ordinance is overboard. The ordinance, according to him reached unprotected speech that prohibited expression. The repugnant was just protected by the first amendment.

The court opined in the Boy Scouts of America vs. Dale case that since the Boy Scouts is adamant of its values, therefore, it has the right to dispel any gay scoutmaster ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"WLUr1LrJ","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Kommers et al. 172)","plainCitation":"(Kommers et al. 172)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":524,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/2ESIL2KE"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/2ESIL2KE"],"itemData":{"id":524,"type":"book","title":"American Constitutional Law: Liberty, Community, and the Bill of Rights","publisher":"Rowman & Littlefield Publishers","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"American Constitutional Law","author":[{"family":"Kommers","given":"Donald P."},{"family":"Finn","given":"John E."},{"family":"Jacobsohn","given":"Gary J."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2004"]]}},"locator":"172","label":"page"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Kommers et al. 172). Chief Justice Rehnquist argued his decision on the basis that the teachings of the Boy Scouts are in contradiction with the adult conduct, therefore they have the right to decide about what is right or wrong. He also argued that any judicial disapproval of the tenet doesn't justify the state efforts to force the organization to accept those who have conducted against the very norms of the organization ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"fVP3AsS6","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Kommers et al. 173)","plainCitation":"(Kommers et al. 173)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":524,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/2ESIL2KE"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/2ESIL2KE"],"itemData":{"id":524,"type":"book","title":"American Constitutional Law: Liberty, Community, and the Bill of Rights","publisher":"Rowman & Littlefield Publishers","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"American Constitutional Law","author":[{"family":"Kommers","given":"Donald P."},{"family":"Finn","given":"John E."},{"family":"Jacobsohn","given":"Gary J."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2004"]]}},"locator":"173","label":"page"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Kommers et al. 173). Chief Justice also argued that the law of the land is free to expand the conduct of every sort but it cannot discourage approved conduct of any organization. These opinions have been extracted from chapter seven titled "Freedom of Speech" which is authored by John E. Finn. Considering the opinions of the judges in both the cases it appears that the first amendment cannot be argued against any organization’s approved laws or its values unless they are against the very law of the land.

Comparative analysis of R.A.V v. The city of St. Paul and Boy Scouts of America vs. Dale case

R.A.V v. The city of St. Paul case analysis: In this case presented in front of the Court in the year 1992. The court struck an ordinance, which was later interpreted as a bar on the freedom of speech. In the ordinance, the court mentioned that it is illegal (and will from now onwards considered) top burn the cross or swastika, in order to show the feelings of hate or anger. It also mentioned that it is also barred to arouse anger on the basis of cast, color or creed. Another court’s decision mentioned it as the violation of the first amendment and overturned the conviction of the cross- burning ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"V8ODiIDh","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Kommers et al. 153)","plainCitation":"(Kommers et al. 153)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":524,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/2ESIL2KE"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/2ESIL2KE"],"itemData":{"id":524,"type":"book","title":"American Constitutional Law: Liberty, Community, and the Bill of Rights","publisher":"Rowman & Littlefield Publishers","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"American Constitutional Law","author":[{"family":"Kommers","given":"Donald P."},{"family":"Finn","given":"John E."},{"family":"Jacobsohn","given":"Gary J."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2004"]]}},"locator":"153","label":"page"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Kommers et al. 153)The case was presented involving a juvenile named Viktora, who in an attempt to intimidate a black family burned the cross inside the fence of their home. The juvenile was charged against the bias-motivated crime. (Victoria was referred to in the case by his initials, as per his juvenile identity). The trial court agreed with the attorney of the Juvenile that the ordinance violated the first amendment. The Minnesota Supreme court also held the juvenile court decision legal. After when Viktora appealed to the Supreme Court, the court reversed the decision. The Supreme Court argued that the statue was designed to prohibit the expressions that are against another's will, or which cause anger and fear in other people. The Supreme Court argued that it was not right to consider the ban as content- specific discrimination. The Court opined that it appears not reasonable for St. Paul to consider it as the content- specific discrimination.

Boy Scouts of America vs. Dale case analysis: The Boy Scouts of America vs. the Dale case involved a private organization with that of a gay citizen. The Bay scouts is a non- for profit organization in the U.S. the organization claims that its values do not involve any such action which is against the natural act. They also maintain that their motto is to instill the values in young people. In the court, the Boy Scouts maintained that the homosexual conduct comes against the values of nature, therefore it is also inconsistent with the values of the Boy Scouts organization. On the other side, Dale was an extraordinary student, whose academic record proved that he has been an exceptional student. But when he found that he was more prone towards the LGBT community, he became the resident of that society. Considering his such activities, the Boy Scouts revoked his membership ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"eowHVOqB","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Kommers et al. 172)","plainCitation":"(Kommers et al. 172)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":524,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/2ESIL2KE"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/2ESIL2KE"],"itemData":{"id":524,"type":"book","title":"American Constitutional Law: Liberty, Community, and the Bill of Rights","publisher":"Rowman & Littlefield Publishers","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"American Constitutional Law","author":[{"family":"Kommers","given":"Donald P."},{"family":"Finn","given":"John E."},{"family":"Jacobsohn","given":"Gary J."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2004"]]}},"locator":"172","label":"page"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Kommers et al. 172). Dale challenged the decision of the Bay scouts’ organization in the state court of New Jersey that the Boy Scouts decision of eliminating him is against the public accommodation law of the New Jersey state. In the case, the court upheld that any private organization can eliminate any citizen if it found the activities of that person in violation of the values of that organization. The court mentioned in this context also that the private organizations must value the concerns of the first amendment also. The New Jersey Supreme Court held in its decision that Dale presence in ineffective to the other scouts. However, when the case was forwarded in the U.s Supreme court, it upheld that the first amendment protects the scope if each and every member of any organization is needed to take on board. This expressive association, however, do not limit the association of any individual. The Supreme Court considered the New Jersey court's decision aloof to the first amendment. The court refrained from giving any opinion about homosexuality and allowed the Boy Scouts to practice their values.

Comparative Analysis: Considering the case circumstances in both cases, it appears that both these cases follow different perspectives. In R.A.V v. St. Paul case, it has been noticed that the complete action was considered by the Supreme Court as challenging the first amendment of the U.S constitution. This case is much related to the expansion in the discrimination theory. Mowrer suggests that the discrimination theory is relatively relevant in describing the court opinion in R.A.V v. St. Paul case ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"nQXoONTY","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Mowrer 5)","plainCitation":"(Mowrer 5)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":525,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/Z6BSWYKF"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/Z6BSWYKF"],"itemData":{"id":525,"type":"article-journal","title":"Learning theory and behavior.","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Mowrer","given":"Orval"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1960"]]}},"locator":"5","label":"page"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Mowrer 5). The discrimination theory makes the court and the liberal democratic institutions stand in front of each. It suggests that the court opinion just remains against any entity for the reason as it is baring anyone to suppress his or her anguish feelings. Since the human has different feelings at a different place in times, therefore it remains pertinent to imply the discrimination theory in this case. In the other case, Boy Scouts of America vs. Dale case, the Supreme Court barred from expressing its opinion about homosexuality. The Supreme Court had all the options to give a legal stance on the issue pertaining to homosexuality in the United States but is restrained from doing so. This is what the judicial restraint theory suggests. Although Dale had all the options to pursue the membership of the American Scouts club, as by no manner he or his association was found guilty against the first amendment. But considering all such perspective, the U.S Supreme Court upheld the private organization's stance. The Supreme Court's actions must, therefore, conform to that of the judicial restraint theory.

Contrast Analysis: In both the cases the United States Supreme Court had over ruined the opinions of the lower court. It suggests that the interpretation of the laws in both cases remained different for the judges. In the first case, the judges opined their remarks on the basis of racial discrimination. As the juvenile was first released on the basis that he has exercised his freedom of action which he can enjoy under the first amendment. The Supreme Court overruled this decision on the basis that since the Juvenile has gone into the territory of the neighbors, he has, therefore, violated the first amendment by impeding in the freedom of the other. This decision was also based on the fact that the Juvenile did all the action on the basis of creed discrimination, therefore he has overruled what the first amendment provides to him. In the second case, there is a whole new legal perspective. The legal entities are an organization versus the homosexual person. At first instance, it involves not a single person and that of an organization, on another hand it involves not a naturally normal person but a homosexual person. As Koppelman argues that on the basis of such facts the Supreme Court overruled the lower court decision that the organization has the right to exercise freely its will, as it is not contradictory to the constitution of the United States ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"9S8pbUfU","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Koppelman)","plainCitation":"(Koppelman)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":527,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/YHTN9DNN"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/YHTN9DNN"],"itemData":{"id":527,"type":"article-journal","title":"Signs of the Times: Dale v. Boy Scouts of America and the Changing Meaning of Nondiscrimination","container-title":"Cardozo L. Rev.","page":"1819","volume":"23","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Signs of the Times","author":[{"family":"Koppelman","given":"Andrew"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2001"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Koppelman 89). For the part of Dale, the Supreme Court refrained from giving its stance.

The first amendment: The first amendment of the constitution of the United States assures complete freedom in terms of religion, assembly, speech, and expression. Brennan and Harv have argued that the first amendment remains largely debatable ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"FWfX1MRn","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Brennan Jr)","plainCitation":"(Brennan Jr)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":529,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/XUH9XHQK"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/XUH9XHQK"],"itemData":{"id":529,"type":"article-journal","title":"The Supreme Court and the Meiklejohn interpretation of the first amendment","container-title":"Harv. L. Rev.","page":"1","volume":"79","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Brennan Jr","given":"William J."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1965"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Brennan Jr 97). They believe that the interpretation of the first amendment by the Courts largely depends upon the aspect that how the judge has been witnessing the case in hand. In the circumstances in these two cases, the Supreme Court has maintained the freedom enshrined over the participants from the constitution. In the first case, the Supreme Court held the freedom of the victim party, whereas the lower court opined that the juvenile had the freedom to exercise his expression or feelings. In the next case, the Supreme Court rested its opinion with the organization, as some believe that the organization was much more obedient in exercising its freedom, as it was not violating the values he had surrendered in front of the state of the U.S. the Supreme Court remained silent on the fate of the second party which shows that- t some extent, the court is adamant of its responsibility towards the citizen also.

The central concern of Laura Beth Nielsen, set forth in her chapter titled License to Harass

The concerns of Laura Beth Nielsen in her chapter License to Harass are widely related to the public offensive speeches. She has observed the hate words being spoken to any American remains hostile and derogatory. She has placed just not the disadvantageous groups to analyze the impact of such words but has also examined the impressions of those who don't belong to the low classes or the immigrant classes. In doing so, she has analyzed the words being thrown over to women, to gays, to the lesbians, and to other such communities. The concern raised by her in this chapter is about aggression and hostility ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"oiAlhfmO","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Nielsen 172)","plainCitation":"(Nielsen 172)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":531,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/FXQACRH7"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/FXQACRH7"],"itemData":{"id":531,"type":"book","title":"License to harass: Law, hierarchy, and offensive public speech","publisher":"Princeton University Press","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"License to harass","author":[{"family":"Nielsen","given":"Laura Beth"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2009"]]}},"locator":"172","label":"page"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Nielsen 172). She believes that such words raise hostility and aggression in the disadvantageous groups. She has also raised concerns on the role of the state authorities, which she believe that must be more broadened and hostile toward such actors of the society. The questions that remain relevant in this context put forward by Laura Beth could be that is there any mechanism that suggests that the society and all such actors can remain in a collaborative way? And also that what the law mentions specifically about the hate speeches thrown towards the disadvantageous groups?

These questions could have been asked during the Michigan affirmative action cases. These questions remain important as the fourteenth amendment claims the equal protection of rights for all the citizens of the U.S. these questions remained relevant as they talk about the direct role of the United States authorities in calling for the provisions of the equal rights to the United States citizens. Perry argues that calling and debating all this in a very straight forward manner can make sense ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"SsC8DQf7","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Perry 111)","plainCitation":"(Perry 111)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":533,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/Q4C9S28J"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/Q4C9S28J"],"itemData":{"id":533,"type":"book","title":"The Michigan affirmative action cases, Landmark law cases & American society","publisher":"Lawrence: University Press of Kansas","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Perry","given":"Barbara A."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2007"]]}},"locator":"111","label":"page"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Perry 111). She believes that doing so affirms the case of everyone calling out for the provision of rights and freedom. The questions also make sense in the manner that the amendments of the U.S constitution somewhere remain contradictory. For example, they call for freedom but remains too narrow in defining the actual limits of speech.


This essay has looked into two different cases. The main argument in both the cases was relevant to the freedom enshrined by the first amendment of the U.S constitution. Considering the facts based argument and the opinions of the judges, it becomes much observable that the first amendment cannot be read as violating the freedom of citizens by the organizations. Since every organization work in limits of the freedom endowed upon it by the constitution, therefore the organizations with time develop some values, that could in some time comes in clash of the constitution. It is, therefore, remains important to look over to the extent of this clash between the institutional values and that of the constitution.

Works Cited:

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Brennan Jr, William J. “The Supreme Court and the Meiklejohn Interpretation of the First Amendment.” Harv. L. Rev., vol. 79, 1965, p. 1.

Kommers, Donald P., et al. American Constitutional Law: Liberty, Community, and the Bill of Rights. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2004.

Koppelman, Andrew. “Signs of the Times: Dale v. Boy Scouts of America and the Changing Meaning of Nondiscrimination.” Cardozo L. Rev., vol. 23, 2001, p. 1819.

Mowrer, Orval. Learning Theory and Behavior. 1960.

Nielsen, Laura Beth. License to Harass: Law, Hierarchy, and Offensive Public Speech. Princeton University Press, 2009.

Perry, Barbara A. The Michigan Affirmative Action Cases, Landmark Law Cases & American Society. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2007.

Subject: Political Science

Pages: 7 Words: 2100

- Ideal Citizen In A Totalitarian Government

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The term "totalitarian" comes from Latin - the word "totus" means "whole" or "complete". A totalitarian state means a political rule in which people are completely subjugated to the state system. It is a form of dictatorship, i.e. a dictatorship without democracy, in which the people have little freedom. The human rights are violated or severely limited and there is no freedom of expression, religion and press freedom. The media such as newspapers, books or television are controlled by the rulers and critical content falls victim to censorship, so they are not published. There is also no separation of powers; such is to ensure in democratic states that the state power is not too one-sided.

Totalitarianism: a dictatorial form of government

For the first time, the Italian politician and political critic Giovanni Amendola used the term "totalitarian" in a political context when he called fascism in Italy under Benito Mussolini in 1923 a “totalitarian system". He described the almost unrestricted and uncontrollable rule of the dictator Mussolini. The fascists finally used the term themselves and interpreted it positively in their favor. In a totalitarian state, a single tyrant does not necessarily have to be at the top, but total power can also come from a political group. Other political opinions or parties are not tolerated by the state power. A totalitarian government strives to control all areas of life affecting both professional activity and family life or leisure activities. Moreover, the peculiarity of totalitarian systems is that they are based on certain ideas and convictions, their worldview and the image of humanity that they set should be shared by all citizens be taken over and a critical and independent thinking is undesirable. A "new human being" is to be created that corresponds to a certain ideal image. A political, social and at the same time human enemy image is also common to these systems, through which the "we-feeling" is strengthened. It is not the individual, that is, the individual person that counts in this social form, but the community into which the individual must submit. On the other hand, the personal freedom of the human being is severely limited and a development according to one's own interests and preferences is difficult. Such was the slogan of the National Socialists: "You are nothing, your people is everything," and in the socialist GDR it was said: "From me to us."

Therefore, from childhood onwards, people should be educated to the most adapted citizens, who are completely convinced of the socially prescribed ideals and do not question the rules of the system, a constant " propaganda " is carried out in the interests of the rulers. In a totalitarian system, control of people goes so far that it not only plays a role in how they behave externally, but also their thinking and feeling should be as much as possible in accordance with the convictions of their state. The citizens in totalitarian systems are being monitored and spied on, and critics of the ruling policies must expect prosecution and punishment. Not infrequently, people who do not fit the government are imprisoned, tortured or even killed. The population is often arrested or even forced to observe and betray "conspicuous" people for the alleged welfare of the general public so that "enemies of the state" can be fought and eliminated. Thus, people are intimidated and there is a state of constant fear and oppression. In addition to Mussolini's fascist system in Italy and the Nazi dictatorship in Germany between 1933 and 1945 under Adolf Hitler, Josef Stalin's Communist rule in the Soviet Union between 1924 and 1953 is often cited as an example of a totalitarian system.


Friedrich, C. J., & Brzezinski, Z. K. (1965). Totalitarian dictatorship. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP.

Llobera, J. R. (2003). The making of totalitarian thought (p. 224). Oxford and New York: Berg.

Petersen, J. (2004). The history of the concept of totalitarianism in Italy. In Totalitarianism and Political Religions, Volume 1 (pp. 21-38). Routledge.

Subject: Political Science

Pages: 1 Words: 300

10 Most Important Reading From American Political Thought A Norton Anthology

Meagan Self

Instructor Name

Political Science

12 November 2019

The American Political Thought

There should be no doubt that the American Revolution was an unprecedented historic event based on the ideals of Age of Enlightenment. The political system of democracy itself was untested at the time. Therefore, historical status of the American founding father as revolutionaries and state builders cannot be ruled out of the study of American political thought. It was their interpretation of ideas for the liberals like John Locke that founded the political thought that made the first government that was "With the people, for the people, and by the people" as Abraham Lincoln stated many years after the constitution of the united states of America was concocted and implemented. To understand the evolution of American political thought we need to take trip through history and understand the politicians that shaped and perfected a crude idea that was never tested before.

The Rights of the Colonists by Samuel Adams (1772)

After the British helped the Americans Colonists to defend themselves against their enemies, there was an idea that the Britishers cannot rule the colonies efficiently since they lived across the sea and are therefore not particularly aware of the problem faced by colonists. This idea, combined with ruthless taxes imposed by the crown led the leader of the Patriotic Resistance, Samuel Adams to come up with a pamphlet called "The Rights of the Colonists" (page 108). This pamphlet claimed that the Americans had right to same privileges enjoyed by subjects born in Britain. Although this pamphlet did not call for independence in direct terms, yet its importance cannot be ruled out as it was the first step by the Americans in direction of seeking their independence. This can be proved by the fact that when Adams was elected to the Continental Congress in 1774, he was hailed as the champion of American Independence by his fellow politicians.

Common Sense by Thomas Paine (1776)

The ideas presented in Adams’ pamphlet soon led to the writing of a new pamphlet that expressly gave the idea of the independence of the original thirteen colonies. This pamphlet called “Common Sense” (page 131) was written by Thomas Paine on January 10th, 1776. Paine gave a series of political reasons why the British were unfit to colonies in a clear and persuasive argument. The pamphlet openly encouraged the colonists to rise against the Crown. This paper is considered very important as it is seen as the official beginning of the American Revolution. The main substance of this pamphlet made a highly convincing case for independence of the American colonists, giving people some serious food for thought at the time. The pamphlet was largely inspired by Adams’ pamphlet as the essence of argument for both papers was the acquisition of rights of the oppressed colonists. It was sold and distributed extensively in the colonies yet name of the writer was kept secret at the time to avoid persecution by the British rulers. It should be noted that this pamphlet is the most widely disturbed and sold American publication (till 2006) and it is still discussed and printed today.

Declaration of Independence by Thomas Jefferson (1776)

Not soon after the pamphlets presented by Adams and Paine, the Continental Congress asked Thomas Jefferson and his fellows to draw up a Declaration of Independence (page 151). The main purpose of this declaration was to explain to the masses why the ideas presented by Adams and Paine were needed to be implemented for their good. The paper explained that the British have not given them their birthrights and the only way forward was independence of the colonist, as argued by Adams and Paine before him. The difference was that this concept was no longer treated as an idea. The paper, after its approval on July 4th, 1776, declared colonists free of the rule of the British Crown. The famous concepts of "all men are created equal" were first presented in the paper which was not as commonplace as they are in present times. This paper was the official start of the armed struggle against King George, which was brewing steadily after the Crown implemented a series of brutal taxes on the locals. Hence the concept of "No taxation without representation" was finally taking shape of a rebellion due to lack of adherence to the pleas of the colonists.

The Constitution of the United States by Alexander Hamilton (1787)

In 1787, ten years after winning the War of Independence, the constitutional convention was called by the founding fathers of the United States to draw up a constitution that would help in governance of the land as envisioned by Thomas Jefferson’s declaration of Independence. Alexander Hamilton represented the state of New York in the session (page 170). His main task was to revise the Article of the Confederation but the convention ended up completely removing them and started a debate on the creation of the constitution that is still in effect today. Hamilton was a believer in a strong central government with a president having a life-long term of rule. The main gist of his six-hour speech in the session was that he put forward an idea for a president with king-like powers with an elitist bunch of senators, as was later quoted by his fellow politician James Madison. It can be seen that he was a fan of the British system of government which he declared in his speech as "the best in the world". Although many of his suggestions were ignored by the majority of the members, yet this speech can be observed as an everlasting impact on the psyche of the newly independent American politicians. The political thought of Hamilton was further elaborated through a series of papers called the Federalist papers.

Federalist Paper no. 51 by James Madison (1788)

The Federalist papers were without a doubt the most important political papers in the history of the United States as they played an important part in the refinement of the US Constitution. Mostly, we can see that all the federalist papers are a debate about the rights of the states and the central government. However, there is no doubt that the set of papers that left their mark on the American Political thought are the Federalists papers no. 51 presented by James Madison (page 222), who also happened to have a completely different view than Hamilton. These sets of papers are important because of the concept of the checks and balances system that is seen as the greatest strength of the US constitution even today. This idea was expressed in the famous quote "Ambition must be made to counteract ambition". The main idea of the concept was to stop the accumulation of power in the hands of a group of individuals or a single institution. The whole system of governance was divided into three separate branches: Legislature, Judiciary, and Administration. These ideas of checks and balances were based on the philosophies of Rosseau and Locke. This concept changed the system of governance of the whole world as we know it, as its variations are observed in the constitutions of several states today.

The Bill of Rights (1791)

After their presentation, there was a debate on the federalist papers and it was observed that the constitution has given very few rights to the general public. The main focus of the founders was to create an efficient system of government. Seeing this, a change was proposed by Charles Pinckney to include the rights of the general public as it was the core issue that started the entire struggle in the first place. It was strongly debated by the Anti-federalist group of the Congress that freedom of the practice of religion, press and peaceful protests should be incorporated in the constitution as these rights were the core of struggle of independence from the British Crown. Therefore, a set of ten amendments was proposed that guaranteed the rights of the common folk. These amendments were dubbed as The Bill of Rights (page 281). These debates were met with a negative response with the federalist who regarded the whole ratification of the bill as a "silly exercise", placing their arguments that the division in branches of the state was a guarantee of the preservation of the rights of all citizens of the US. Nevertheless, some flaws are still present in contemporary times the rights like the “ability to bear arms” (Amendment II) which is responsible for the current Gun Violence that the US is experiencing these days.

Farewell Address by George Washington (1796)

The American political thought would have not been the same if George Washington, President, and Commander-in-Chief of the United States of America had not stepped down after the completion of two terms in the office. But that is just one part of his famous thirty-two-page Farewell Address (page 333). In the second part, he declared national unity as the common religion of the Americans. This proclamation was made for the preservation of state unity as three years prior, there was a known tussle between pro-France Jefferson and the pro-British Hamilton which was resolved by the Neutrality Act of 1793. Washington gave the concept of neutrality which would be followed until the declaration of the Second World War. He said in his address that regional entanglements should be avoided at all costs. In the third part of his address, he openly criticized the practice of Partisan Politics, equating it to fire that can give warmth but will burn out everything they have accomplished if it gets out of control. He said that the political divisions will give minorities artificial powers to undermine the writ of the government which should be avoided at all costs. He also laid stress on the demarcation of the sphere of influences of the branches of the state so that they would be able to serve their true purposes. In the end paragraphs, he laid stress on keeping good credit by avoiding participation in wars and being honest and just in their international ties with the major powers of the world. Many of the points of his speech are still in effect today as they have guided the American political thought to this day.

Jacksonian Democracy (1820s)

After losing the War of 1812, a major overhaul of the existing system was required. In the elections of 1828, John Quincy Adams was defeated by Andrew Jackson (page 390), and thus he became the president of the United States. He was hailed as a common man, especially after his successful war campaigns in 1812. His tenure gave rise to rapid industrialization of the economy of the US as they believed that it was essential for their progress. The concept of Manifest Destiny was also put forward in his tenure which gave the idea of a state that could exist from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean that happens soon after. The Jacksonians also started the practice of Patronage, which is the appointment of their favored men in the political offices of power. Needless to say, that this practice was damaging to the government but it is still present in one form or another as even still today the President appoints his favored people as the secretaries of different departments. This era also saw the United States steady march towards the Laissez-Faire Economic Model.

The Gettysburg Address by Abraham Lincoln (1863)

On November 19th, 1863 President Abraham Lincoln gave the shortest speech given by any US President in office (page 685). In his speech composed of only ten sentences, he managed to deliver a message that span volumes. In his rather poetic speech, signified by the term “four scores and seven years ago”, he would underline the threat that the underway civil war posed to the survival of the Union. The also presented this peril on the Union as an opportunity to establish the principle of equality on permanent grounds, as these were the times when slavery was still present in the Southern States that had left the Union. Needless to say, these ten sentences changed the course of history forever but its effects would be realized years later when the United States elected its first Black President, Barack H. Obama. This speech found itself as a reference in many official documents like the French Constitution of 1958 and China’s Sun Yet San’s Three Principles of the People. This speech was also the way forward of the American Political thought as it settled the long-standing debate on slavery that was the cause of many inefficient decisions in Congress.

The Gospel of Wealth by Andrew Carnegie (1889)

Carnegie was a Scottish Immigrant that ended up as the second richest person in the United States (Page 732). He gave his belief, later dubbed the Gospel of Wealth, that the rich had the responsibility towards their countrymen. He believed that capitalism is the answer to all the world's problems if it was implemented responsibly. In his three options for wealth, he showed his resentment for leaving one's hard-earned riches to heir that did not realize its value. So, he laid down three options. First, he advocated for the establishment of trusts for benefiting the poor. Second, he gave the concept of charities that would help the poor during one's lifetime. Lastly, he gave the concept of Inheritance tax so that a hefty amount could be collected for public welfare projects. He practiced what he preached, giving away at least ninety percent of his wealth to charity before he died. This speech strengthened the American "land of Opportunity" narrative.


To conclude, the above-stated events have influenced the shape of American Political thought as we see today. This evolution of political thought was based on unprecedented events that were unique in the history of the world. It also showed that agreements and disagreements are common in politics. Also, it set several standards that are followed by the many democratic nations in the world based on the system of government mentioned in the Federalist Papers. These principles of political thought set the Americans from a group of people struggling under the thumb of the British king to the status of hegemon of the unipolar world.

Works Cited

BIBLIOGRAPHY Kramnick, Isaac, and Theodore J. Lowi. American Political Thought: A Norton Anthology. New York: W.W. Norton, 2009. Print.

Subject: Political Science

Pages: 8 Words: 2400

3rd Party Interventions, Conflict Prevention, Peacekeeping And Peacemaking

Third Party Interventions, Conflict Prevention, Peacekeeping and Peacemaking

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Third Party Interventions, Conflict Prevention, Peacekeeping and Peacemaking

America under the Trump administration has withdrawn from the nuclear deal that was previously signed between America under the Obama administration and Iran. The conflict has taken a dangerous turn and it seems by the present circumstances and the to and fro statements from Iran and the U.S. that war is imminent. Although for this sort of circumstances, the conflict avoidance can only be possible by the mediator when the issue is so much heated. According to some reports, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe is moving to Southwest Asia in order to mediate between the U.S. and Iran. Although Japan looks to be an odd choice, its mediation does make sense for some of the reasons as follow.

First, the relation of Japan with both countries is of good nature, especially at the level of administration. Japan and the U.S. are allies on one side and on the other side, Japan and Iran are celebrating the 90 years of reputable diplomatic relations. Secondly, Japan has no religious baggage that other potential mediator countries, therefore, making it a more suitable foundation of trust for a mediator. Thirdly, the stake of Japan is strong in this mediation. Although the imports from Iran are about 5% its total 80% of imports come from the Strait of Hormuz which is a strategic point Iran can exploit if the tension escalates. Therefore Japan is the most suitable choice for the ongoing conflict mediator.

According to me, the Global Fragility Act is a great initiative of preventing the conflict because of several reasons. First of all, it will protect the national security of the U.S. because it addresses the violent conflict root cause that limits the costly intervention by the military. Secondly, this act will build coordination and the effectiveness of the U.S. programs that are designed to address the violent conflict source. Thirdly, billions of dollars are spent by the U.S. in order to stop the violent conflict once they broke out. By prevention, the U.S. will save lives and money with its efforts. Fourthly, this act will increase U.S. foreign assistance accountability by administrating the development in the evaluation and monitoring indicators that measure the U.S. program result.

India and Pakistan are both nuclear capable nations. The reason for the main conflict that led to 4 wars between them is the issue of Kashmir. The Kashmir issue emerges because of the accession of Kashmir to India which is the main reason for the conflict between the two nations. Both the countries after getting the nuclear capability had only one war that took place in the Kargil sector for achieving the strategic point for dealing with the issues of Kashmir. The conflict is now dangerous for not only both countries but also to the whole neighboring nations because of the potential use of nuclear weapons. United Nation mission is placed in both the countries in the Kashmir controlled area but it failed to restrict them in restraining from the human rights violations that lead to the conflict. The problem arises because of the United Nation incapability of stopping them by force. For this purpose, some suggestions are as follow.

First and foremost thing to be done is the solution of Kashmir issue which is the main source of conflict. U.N. has to implement the plebiscite in Kashmir.

Secondly, involve with itself the country that holds influence on both of these countries.

If these things can be catered, the issue would be resolved.

The peace deal between the Colombian government and FARC has result significantly in some of the positive effect as well as some of the negative effects that still remains. On the positive side, the bombing and mines incidents are reduced in a great deal and people can move freely without being name called by the guerrilla. Now the clashes and bombings are nowhere to be seen and people live in a calm environment. The number of affected municipalities has decreased in a significant amount. On the negative side, the FARC removal has increased the number of thefts, drug consumption, sexual assault, and murders. The reason for their increase is that FARC regulates these types of behavior. Although the peace agreement is signed still some of the challenges remains in the first place, for example After the agreement approval, many middle-ranking rebels show great concerns and saying that they would break away with the agreement. Also according to the deal, drug trafficking is also prohibited and some of the family members of the gorilla members come under the microscope that makes the peace process at stake.


Bercovitch, J. (1997). Mediation in international conflict: An overview of theory, a review of practice. Peacemaking in international conflict: Methods and techniques, 125-154.

Bercovitch, J. (2004). International mediation and intractable conflict.

Bosack, M. (2019). Why Japanese mediation of U.S.-Iran tensions makes sense | The Japan Times. The Japan Times. Retrieved 13 June 2019, from https://www.japantimes.co.jp/opinion/2019/06/04/commentary/japan-commentary/japanese-mediation-u-s-iran-tensions-makes-sense/

Five Reasons to Support the Global Fragility Act . (2019). Friends Committee on National Legislation. Retrieved 13 June 2019, from https://www.fcnl.org/updates/five-reasons-to-support-the-global-fragility-act-1658

Hylton, F., & Tauss, A. (2016). Peace in Colombia: A New Growth Strategy: Colombia’s peace deal is a remarkable achievement, but its economic implications are troubling. NACLA Report on the Americas, 48(3), 253-259.

UNITED NATIONS INDIA-PAKISTAN OBSERVATION MISSION (UNIPOM) - Background. (2019). Peacekeeping.un.org. Retrieved 13 June 2019, from https://peacekeeping.un.org/mission/past/unipombackgr.html

Subject: Political Science

Pages: 2 Words: 600

8th Grade Science Fair Project

Science fair project

[Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees]

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Author Note

[Include any grant/funding information and a complete correspondence address.]

Science fair project

Cleaning, washing, and dusting is a large area of working which connects a large number of individuals with cleaning agents. A wide range of cleaning products has been made and introduced in the market. These cleaning products enable clothes and surfaces to get rid of dust, dirt and stains. By carefully and successfully eliminating dust, microorganisms and other pollutants, they aid us to stay fit. These products make our homes, belongings and environment healthier and germ free. Encouraging wellness, consistent cleaning and sterilizing can do a good job for the removal of stains and other pollutants. These cleaning products eliminates allergens and microorganisms. Homemade cleaning products are safe to use. Homemade cleaning products are widely used all over the world. With the use of complex types of cleaning products, there are some serious health harms. These harmful effects are allergies, aversions, and asthma. Increased chances of allergy and asthma-related health problems have been revealed in many houses and work environment. This project provides a comprehensive outline of good and eco-friendly cleaning products either homemade or bought from stores.

The science of cleaning products

There are numerous elements in the cleaning agents, supplementary to provide different features to a cleaning product. All products and their formulation is a careful balance of numerous components that will work best for whatever purpose they are used CITATION Bet \l 1033 (Jabs, 2009)

An overview of the most important of these normally used components is listed below.


Surfactants deliver the maximum of the cleaning in the cleaning agents but supplementary constituents are also required to create the finest agents possible. These constituents aid the surfactants to work better on diverse kinds of soil and dust. As the surfactants are the chief strength in cleaning and therefore create a large quota of cleaning preparations. It is important to see which surfactant is precisely better at eliminating which type of stains. Numerous cleaning agents comprise two or even more than two surfactants in the formulation. The selection of surfactants regulates where the cleaning agent will work finest.


Watery cleaning agents are the solutions used to prepare a cleaning agent. Liquid solvents are substances that aid constituents stay assorted and give cleaning agents the correct viscosity so they are easy to dissolve and use. Additionally, biological solvents can support avoid liquid or fluid goods from icing in cold weather. Absence of a solvent will make a manufactured product very dense. In certain circumstances, this might be good for the product. Once we supplement solvents, we drop the viscosity, which means that the fluid will passage quicker when dispensed out of the flask or bottle.


Enzymes are not living creatures but are produced by microbes, like microorganisms and yeast. In the research laboratory, we use particular microbes and let them cultivate in a very precise atmosphere. They cultivate and harvest the required enzymes. In cleaning agents, enzymes aid to eliminate stains and assist us to rinse garments. When added to a cleaner recipe, all enzymes will be concerned with a particular type of stain. When the enzyme discovers a stain it loves, it starts working on it by breaking it down into lesser parts and eliminating it from the external surface of the belongings while cleaning stains in the process.


A preservative is a material supplementary to a cleaning invention in order to create it even and harmless for an extended period of time.


Antiseptic or disinfecting constituents can be involved in a cleaning product or used distinctly after cleaning. Their usage delivers an additional decrease in microorganisms on the hands, body or exteriors in our homes.

Important ingredients from home

As part of today's evolution to be extra self-supporting and chemical restricted, homemade cleaners are in use. It appears like a portion of the energy is required to prepare but it's eco-friendly. So, pleasing with the outcomes of numerous of the formulas used in homes, here are some important stain cleaner ingredients which can be used in homes CITATION 2011 \l 1033 (ACI, 2019). It's a continuous experimental process comprising of a lot of mistakes, and occasionally a moment of a search discovering the correct constituents. Here are some examples of homemade ingredients which can be used as a cleaning agent.

Baking Soda

Baking soda is commonly used in homes because of its effectiveness for removing stains from nearly all sources. It is particularly appropriate for cleaning organic stains like vomit of children and urine. Baking soda successfully nullifies the unpleasant smells.

White Vinegar

White vinegar is another outstanding choice when looking for an eco-friendly pigment cleaning product. Principally suitable when having plant-originated, tea or coffee-based and dye-based stains.

Oxygen Bleach

What varies among oxygen bleach and the additional poisonous chlorine bleach is that the former contains natural soda minerals and hydrogen peroxide. Mixing it with water will result in safe use to remove stains and pigments.


Eco-friendly stain removers and cleaners are regarded safe to use as related to chemically prepared cleaning products. These are non-toxic which makes us inevitable from acquiring certain health-related issues. Besides, the usefulness of homemade cleaning products over the harmful effects of cleaners bought from stores should be known CITATION Mic09 \l 1033 (Micaela, 2009). It is factual that today, there are a lot of effective cleaners that can take away all spots in the market. Cleaning sprigs, dye, ammonia, bleaches, antiseptics, mixing goods, and other chemicals are used in the cleaners that are bought from markets. They are directly associated with physical and health harms. Make sure to choose eco-friendly, safe and effective cleaning product. A different substitute that has newly turned out to be very common, is to use homemade cleaners. They are economical and are readily available in homes.


BIBLIOGRAPHY ACI. (2019). About Cleaning Product Ingredients. Retrieved from American Cleaning Institute: https://www.cleaninginstitute.org/understanding-products/about-cleaning-product-ingredients

Jabs, B. (2009). Natural Living Made Easy. Retrieved from DIY Natural: https://www.diynatural.com/author/betsyjabs/

Micaela. (2009). Eco-Friendly Stain Removers. Retrieved from Mindful Momma Simple Solution for Natural Living: https://mindfulmomma.com/eco-friendly-stain-removers/

Subject: Political Science

Pages: 3 Words: 900


Your Name

Instructor Name

Course Number


Martin Luther King and Malcolm X

Question No 1: How are these two leaders different and how are they the same?

Answer: Half a century after their deaths, Malcolm X and Martin Luther King Jr became the world’s most admired political activists. They both were respected leaders of the American Civil Rights movement who struggled for racial freedom and equality and fought for a difference in Black America. They had the same goal of promoting black respect and pride. Their visionary voices transformed the traditional thinking of white Americans who believed that white people are superior to Black people. In one of the speeches of Malcolm X denies the white supremacy and asks the black community to come together and fight for their rights. They both experienced the bitter reality of racism in Americain 20th century. He was successful in doing history’s largest march that involved over 20,000 people in 1963. They marched from Washington to the Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.C. But both of them had different approaches of fighting for the rights as Martin Luther King believed in the constitution of the country that says that all whites and blacks should be treated equally and believed in non-violent movements for the abolishment of racial discrimination. He believed in peaceful marches and movement but Malcolm X believed in violent ways of fighting for the rights. He used force against his opposition group and used aggression as a tool to get equal rights.

Question 2: Can their Legacy and work be labeled as Progressive?

Answer: The works of both the leaders are unforgettable as they left a legacy after him in the form of justice and equality. Martin Luther's views on defeating communism are still used as guidance for today’s ideological struggle against violent extremism. As he said in one of his speeches that, "Communism will never be defeated by the use of atomic bombs or nuclear weapons". His non-violent struggle or movement against racial injustice and inequality is still being recognized throughout the world and people protest through marches like the march against gun violence that happened recently in America. He is the reason why Black Americans got recognition in different fields of life, they got their fundamental rights and racial injustice went down after his struggle. The ideas of Malcolm X are widely discussed and respected who became an internationally known African American leader. After visiting several countries he understood the white supremacy as the number one enemy of African people in the world and struggled to change this through his organizing strategies and established Civil Rights organizations and movements. His efforts to make Black people aware of the political situation inside African and America cannot be ignored as he paved a way for the Black people in the field of politics.

Question 3: Do these readings and videos change or reinforce your perspective on race in America?

Answer: Since the colonial era, America has been experiencing Racism when white Americans were given socially and legally privileges and rights. But the same rights were denied to other minorities and races. These readings and videos show how American is affected by such evils of racism for the last many years. People have been fighting for their rights for a very long time now and leaders like Martin Luther King and Malcolm X stood against this evil throughout their lives. Racism still exists in America but not like it existed before as mentioned in the readings and videos. Things are now changing and becoming better. The last President of America “Barak Obama” is a black American who remained the president for eight years. One can also observe the behavioral changes in white people towards black people as they have accepted each other’s identities. Racism is everywhere in the world and it is also present in America but as for now it is decreasing and everyone is doing his/her best to finish it.

Subject: Political Science

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Abandoning Counterinsurgency

Author’s name

Course Number

15th Nov 2019

Abandoning Counterinsurgency: Reviving Antiterrorism Strategy


This paper aims to provide a brief description of the article on counterinsurgency compiled by Steven Metz. In the article, the author discusses the pros and cons of the strategy in the context of historical as well as modern wars.


In order to investigate the effectiveness of the counter-insurgency strategies, the author takes different wars as case-studies and analyzes the American military and foreign policy for the accomplishment of its goals.


In most Americans fought wars, in which counter-insurgency was used as the main narrative, American-backed governments in the war-ridden countries did not want to end as the war as war brought sustenance into their economy. The theory of counter-insurgency is based on an outdated definition of modernization which no longer makes sense. It has crumbled in Vietnam as well as in Afghanistan.


The author suggests that the US must leave this rhetoric of counter-insurgency behind as it has proven to be an ineffective way of achieving its goals. According to Metz, the core security issue on which America should focus is Trans-national terrorism. The author suggests that America should develop a new and more effective strategy in which large scale punitive raids should be conducted for the accomplishment of its goals (Metz). Furthermore, US military needs to redesign all its forces along with developing strategic concepts and large-scale expeditions as well.

Personal comments:

I can understand the point of view of the author and I agree with the strategy that the author is proposing. In my opinion, a large number of punitive strikes against trans-national terrorists will go a long way in the fight against terrorism. The one for Osama bin Laden is a prime example. Economically though, we should be weary of the advancements that China is making and we should be willing to hold our international ambitions to stay with it.

Works Cited

Metz, S. (2017). Abandoning Counterinsurgency: Reviving Antiterrorism Strategy. Parameters, 47(3), 13-23.

Subject: Political Science

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Advice For President

Advice to New POTUS

The new POTUS brings new strategy thoughts, another group, and another store of political capital. Be that as it may, America's slate is definitely not clear. The rundown of concerns confronting the nation's new CEO—old and new, interminable and intense, social, economic, military, and geopolitical—is overshadowed uniquely by the universe of thoughts regarding how to address them (Griffiths, 2016).

My recommendation to the following POTUS of the United States is this: in spite of the fact that we've had a few disappointments in state building, and despite the fact that it's prominent for legislators today to state "America ought not take part in state working," (Griffiths, 2016) in certainty the US' national-security interests truly rely upon this country building up a successful limit with regards to postconflict political finish for future military mediations.

Try not to flee from state building. Perceive that the disappointments of the past imply that we have to put more in it. The cost will be altogether not exactly the expense of any number of new weapon frameworks that military temporary workers are as of now discussing, and its effect on our capacity to prevent global terrorism will be far more prominent (Griffiths, 2016).

Terrorism is above all else a political strategy. The essential objective of terrorist brutality is to incite a rough reaction. Since terrorists cover up inside bigger populaces of individuals, governments that react to terrorist acts frequently do as such to the disservice of enormous subsets of those populaces. The impact is to make individuals in those populaces begin seeing the administrations being referred to as their foes. It empowers the terrorists to state, we're the ones who have been battling this risky foe from the beginning (Jens, 2017).

Our reaction, they trust, will make political open doors for them. Practically the majority of the talk we hear this decision year about how to react to worldwide terrorism in the Middle East and somewhere else on the planet is, the point at which they assault, we're going to simply bomb them. Try not to attempt to do state building; don't possess anything. Simply go in with demolition (Jens, 2017).

So what would we be able to do that terrorists would really despise? The appropriate response is to develop political options in contrast to them. What's more, the best approach to do that is to build up a fair sharing of intensity between national, common, and civil governments.

In the event that you glance through the historical backdrop of what occurred in Iraq and Afghanistan after our military mediations there, you'll see that where we had dissatisfaction and disappointments, it was quite often in light of the fact that we didn't demand a legitimate harmony among nearby and national legislative issues in the development of the legislature. This isn't some hypothetical reflection. This is actually the sort of political head that implied the most to America in its very own state-building process (Jens, 2017).

It has been said by numerous that Americans have overestimated how much individuals around the globe want or are prepared for democracy. I think democracy is a quite decent sell. I think individuals all around the globe, in the event that they don't have a democratic government, welcome the possibility that the national initiative should be responsible to an expansive well known endorsement, and don't need pioneers who can't win famous endorsement in something, for example, a decision.

A long way from overestimating the intrigue of democracy, I think we belittle the degree to which different nations are actually similar to the US in having neighborhood governmental issues that mean as a lot to them as national legislative issues. At the point when our ambassadors and commanders go in and center just around structure a solid national government for a nation experiencing significant change, we are certainly compromising neighborhood political administration in a few or numerous pieces of that nation. For each situation this has made issues.

For instance: ISIS in 2014 vanquished the Sunni third of Iraq in all respects rapidly on account of an estrangement of the Sunni populace. That territory had honestly chosen commonplace governments in the three Sunni-lion's share areas. In the event that the US had made a pledge to long haul monetary and specialized help for those authentically chosen commonplace governments in the Sunni regions, nearby Sunni pioneers wouldn't have expected to go to ISIS to ensure their political expert (Jens, 2017).

The US ought to have comprehended, in light of the fact that this is our very own piece history, that individuals wherever need some confidence that prominent nearby pioneers have some genuine capacity to serve their networks (Kreiss & Howard, 2010).

When I contend that the US needs to put resources into a trustworthy limit with regards to state building, it isn't with any expectation that we will ever utilize it. One can advocate for military frameworks while never needing to utilize them—actually, one should. The basic is deterrence. On the off chance that terrorists perceive that assaulting the US will bring about the production of a suitable democratic government in the state or district wherein they work, they should change their political methodology. In the event that that occurs, at that point our state-building limit will never should be utilized, however we will in any case have deterred hazardous enemies.

Maybe the greatest worry that economists talk about today—identified with the issue of low or even negative loan fees—is the means by which to invigorate economic development. My recommendation has to do with a significant driver of development, which is the way to urge organizations to build their degrees of venture—that is, to spend more on plant, hardware, gear, and R&D, speculations that eventually will create future benefits, increment business, and drive economic development.


Griffiths, R. J. (2016). US security cooperation with Africa: Political and policy challenges. Routledge.

Jens, C. E. (2017). Political uncertainty and investment: Causal evidence from US gubernatorial elections. Journal of Financial Economics, 124(3), 563-579.

Kreiss, D., & Howard, P. N. (2010). New challenges to political privacy: Lessons from the first US POTUSial race in the Web 2.0 era. International Journal of Communication, 4, 19.

Subject: Political Science

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Affordable Care Act Policy Analysis And Evaluation

Affordable Care Act Policy Analysis and Evaluation

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]


TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u Introduction PAGEREF _Toc7714378 \h 3

Client History PAGEREF _Toc7714379 \h 4

Program Objective PAGEREF _Toc7714380 \h 5

Timeframe for the Pilot Program PAGEREF _Toc7714381 \h 6

Evaluation Flexibility\ PAGEREF _Toc7714382 \h 6

Flexibility in Program Implementation PAGEREF _Toc7714383 \h 7

Program Evaluation Personnel PAGEREF _Toc7714384 \h 8

Chief Investigator PAGEREF _Toc7714385 \h 8

Main Research Coordinator PAGEREF _Toc7714386 \h 9

Economic Consultant PAGEREF _Toc7714387 \h 9

Research Assistant PAGEREF _Toc7714388 \h 9

Volunteers PAGEREF _Toc7714389 \h 9

Program Budget Projection PAGEREF _Toc7714390 \h 10

Data Collection PAGEREF _Toc7714391 \h 10

Analysis of the Data PAGEREF _Toc7714392 \h 13

Evaluation Presentation and Communication PAGEREF _Toc7714393 \h 14

Program Evaluation and Limitations PAGEREF _Toc7714394 \h 15

References PAGEREF _Toc7714395 \h 16

Affordable Care Act Policy Analysis and Evaluation


Affordable Care Act is one of the most important laws when it comes to the general healthcare and provision of the people. Also known as the Obamacare, it a law that allows the comprehensive healthcare reformation of the people and the core idea of the act is to ensure that sustainable healthcare provision has to be there for the citizens of the United States. At the same time, the other major goal of the act is to make sure that the affordable healthcare is available to the people and more and more people are integrated into the healthcare system. Furthermore, the law is providing people with the subsidies along with the premium tax credits that are available at the lower cost. This option is available for the people whose income is ranged between 100 % to 400 % of the poverty level. In order to make sure that the policy is able to take its effect on the general populace, there is a need to make sure that the effort is carried out with regards to making sure that how the right sort of balance is needed to be achieved in terms of the balance that seems to exist in terms of the budget constraint as well as making sure that high quality healthcare services are provided to people at the particular point of time. With better healthcare provision, it can be made sure that the balance is going to be achieved in The program also intends to make sure that the innovative medical care is being provided to the people as well as making sure that the medical delivery methods are being designed with the intent to ensuring that the lower costs are achieved when it comes to the provision of the healthcare at the given point of time. The problem with the program is that it is quite an ambitious thing to ensure that quality healthcare is being provided to the whole population due to the fact that by its nature, it is cost intensive project, and no matter how much effort is going to be made during the course of the whole activity, there are going to be severe budget constraints. The main issue for all the stakeholders is to make sure that how the right sense of balance is going to be achieved when it comes to making sure that the budget cuts should be in line with the provision of the quality healthcare.

Client History

Before one goes into the detail of how the Affordable Care Act is going to be made more fiscally viable, it is important to understand the history and motivation behind the bill. The Affordable Care Act was presented in 2010 by then President Obama and the idea behind the Act was to make sure that the people are being provided with the stable and affordable health insurance. Looking at the history of the United States, people have a hard time gaining access to the insurance and the private insurance providers are the ones that have been found out to be quite vulnerable when it comes to making sure that the insurance abuses that are witnessed across the industry are avoided at the particular point of time. The major underling goal of the President that point of time was to make sure that the strategy was being devised that is going to ensure that better healthcare access is being provided to the people and the concerns of the people are being addressed in terms of how equitable healthcare provisions are going to be taken care off. Looking at the core objective of the Affordable Care Act, the first thing that it is attempting to do is to make sure that the access to the healthcare coverage is being improved for the people of the United States. In order for that to happen, the idea must be to make sure that the relevant healthcare benefits must be provided to the people who have low income and the ones that are living with the disabilities. The legislation has always been considered as one of the most important passages of law that is going to allow better prevention and cure rationale for the people who are suffering from HIV and AIDS. For instance, one of the major provisions of the law is that how the insurers are not going to be denying access to the children who are living of the HIV and AIDS. Not only that, the effort is also needed to be made to make sure that the better sense should be prevailing when it comes to making sure that the healthcare insurance and the provision of the medical insurance is done in the manner that should make sure that how quality healthcare is going to be provided to people at the particular point of time. The other major objective of the Affordable Care Act was to make sure that the quality coverage and access to the healthcare is being provided to the wider demographic so that the major population of the United States could be provided with the healthcare insurance options and allowing more equitable distribution of the resources in terms of how provision of healthcare is supposed to be carried out.

Program Objective

Despite the fact that the Affordable Care Act is something that sounds well and has a good intention behind it, there are many underlying complications behind the program. One of the major concerns when it comes to the implementation of the plan is that how it is going to be made sure that the budgetary constraints of the government that comes with such an ambitious plan are going to be worked out. It has to be noted that the United States is battling with the biggest budget deficit of its century and to ensure that the better sense should prevailed in terms of how the management of the resources is supposed to be carried out, it is imperative that some sort of balance has to be there in terms of how allocation of the resources is supposed to be carried out. As per different policy makers, the approach that has been adopted in terms of the way Affordable Care Act is being implemented is that there are many underlying pilot projects that are currently working with the program and one of the reasons that the program has not been doing well and causing lot of problems is that how the spending patterns are going to be determined. As the choice was being made towards ensuring greater coverage expansion rather than provision of quality, there are lot of problems in terms of how it the systematic and verifiable cost control mechanism is going to be implemented in terms of the way quality improvement program is going to be working out. So the core objective of this plan is to make sure that the sense of balance is achieved with regards to making sure that not only the broad base coverage is being provided to the specific population groups, but it should also be made sure that the efficiency constraint has to be taken care off in terms of the way implementation of this program is going to be done at the particular point of time.

Timeframe for the Pilot Program

Now, looking at the time frame for the implementation of the cost control mechanism, it has to be noted that keeping in mind the vast range and reach of the program, it should take at least 24 months so that the particulars of the program are being implemented. The idea is to make sure that there is flexibility in terms of how evaluation is carried out.

Evaluation Flexibility\

The first thing that is going to be done when it comes to the program is that it would be made sure that the data collection protocol is needed to be developed. The major rationale for this protocol is to make sure that the data collection mechanism is needed to be developed that is going to ensure that the cost control rationale is developed. This data is then going to be representing each of the demographic group and the sub population that is going to be affected by the cost control exercise. Furthermore, there would 2 months more time period that is going to be needed to make sure that the dissemination process in terms of the data collection is being done in an appropriate manner.

Flexibility in Program Implementation

One has to be quite accurate when it comes to making sure that the pre-test and post-test time frames are going to be implemented in an appropriate manner. The idea is to make sure that the agenda has to be there in terms of how VHS is going to be used so that the identification of the cost control protocols is going to be done along with making sure that if there is any change in the initial rationales and parameters, then it has to be accounted for considerably. Furthermore, the effort is going to be made to make sure that the time frame that is being discussed for the implementation of the program is already optimistic, so effort is going to be made to make sure that* this time frame does not exceed and the cost control procedures are implemented appropriately at the given point of time. In the hindsight, it can be said that the idea is to make sure that the sufficient healthcare provision has to be there for the people as well as making sure that the appropriate cost control measures are also there.

Program Evaluation Personnel

In order to make sure that the implementation of the program is carried out well, there are many key personnel who have to make sure that they evaluate each and every aspect of the program. The idea behind the whole thing is to make sure that the research programs are setup in an appropriate manner and policies are setup with the greater scope of the impact. Not only that, there is longitudinal analysis that was carried out at the multiple sites that also affected the efficiency of the program, so one has to be quite careful when it comes to making sure that the right personnel are deputed for the program. Keeping in mind these considerations, following are some of the people who must be on board for program to run successfully.

Chief Investigator

They would be the one that will look after the implementation of the program and determine what direction program is taking. Not only that, they would be charged with making sure that the coordinated effort is carried out in terms of how the communication of the information is done and how the pilot program is needed to be there in terms of the way evaluation process is going to work.

Main Research Coordinator

They would look after the technical aspects of the research as well as making sure that the program evaluation and research protocols are setup in an appropriate manner.

Economic Consultant

The economic consultant is the one that would look after the oversight and direction of the research as well as making sure that the methodological firmness and applicability of the research has to be there in terms of the overall design. They would also assist in the development of the economic framework that would allow further insight about the program.

Research Assistant

During the course of the research, there is going to be needed to make sure that the data collection protocols are being setup in an appropriate manner. In order for that to happen, there is a need to make sure that the proper evaluation of the research methodology has to be done


These are the people that would actually go in the field and aid with the collection of the data. They would also make sure that the right protocol is setup as far as the way collection of the data is supposed to be carried out and thus allowing better insight.

Program Budget Projection

When one talks about the evaluation of the program and the VHS and the mandatory rationale when it comes to the cost control. Now, the key thing that has to be kept in mind is that the program scope is such that it is going to be going on for 24 months, and during the whole process, it is imperative that there are going to be instances that the likelihood of going overboard with the budget is always going to be there. In order to make sure that these things are taken care off in an appropriate manner. The other thing that has to be done is that the duration of the project is also quite accommodating, so effort is needed to be made that the during the course of the project, the timelines should not be exceeding as it would directly have an impact on the cost consideration of the project at the given point of time. So, all these considerations are always needed to be kept in mind when the budgeting aspect of such a project is needed to be done. There are going to be expenses in terms of the travel and the data collection as well as the documentation that are needed to be kept in mind to make sure that the reimbursement process is going to be carried out with the help of the small utility that would always show the overdraft, the comparison against the budget and other such particulars about the project so the insight is always going to be there in terms of how the project’s cost consideration are kept in mind. Many more problems loom just over the horizon. The infamous “doc fix” for the sustainable growth rate (SGR) formula under Medicare threatens large cuts to physicians fees every year. Congress passed the latest SGR patch in December and deferred cuts for 2011, without offering any permanent resolution. Ultimately the SGR has to be addressed, but the fiscal cost is staggering: estimated at $276 billion over 10 years. The CBO also estimates that costs for the new insurance subsidies and Medicaid expansion under the Affordable Care Act will grow by about 8% annually beginning in 2019.

Data Collection

The collection of the data is going to be one of the most complex things that is going to be done during the course of the project. Now, the data collection protocol for the program is going to be done during the primary periods, the pre-test implementation and the post-test implementation of the program. At the same time, whenever there is a case of the economic study, there is a need to make sure that the effort is carried out with regards to how the study is going to be done in terms of the higher level of accuracy as well as the one that being generalized quite easily at the moment. There is lot of dichotomy in terms of how this study is going to be carried out. Not only that, there is also a need to make sure that the randomized controlled trials are going to be developed to make sure that the higher internal validity is going to be made possible along with the observational model being implemented.

The other thing that is going to be kept in mind is that how the comparisons of the different studies are going to be carried out that are prospective in nature and when that happens, there is a strong likelihood that the data that is going to be collected would be misleading to say the least. When that happens, there is a need to make sure that the insight about all the relevant factors are going to be obtained to make sure that the shift and the improvement in the validity of the research is being done in terms of the way combination of the different collection methods are going to be used during the research. The other thing that is needed to be kept in mind as far as the way collection of the data is being done is that how the validity constraints are kept in mind. Most of the times, the validity concerns are implemented in the manner that the external constraints play an important role in terms of how the whole situation is going to be worked out. The idea is to make sure that the usage of the proxies has to be done so that the collection of the resource utilization is being done along with the estimates. There has to be reliance on the patient self-reported data as well that is needed. What it tends to do is that it makes sure that all the underlying methods that are being used when it comes to the collection of the data would assist as far as the validity of the study results are needed to be obtained. At the same time, there are national guidelines are well that must be implemented when it comes to the way rationale is needed to be developed for the collection of the data and the way economic evaluation is being done. Not only that, the corresponding agents and devices should also be working in the manner that the issue of the more in-depth perspective can be developed in terms of the way economic analysis is being done.

It has to be noted that the core objective of the research must be kept in mind, specially the way comparison of the costs is going to be done in terms of the ECMO and how it compares to the conventional treatment with the passage of time. Not only that, there is a need to ensure that the measurement of the cost effectiveness and the cost utility must be done. It is an important determinant looking at the success prospects of the research and without a concrete idea regarding how the cost and benefit analysis would be done, the research would lose its merit. As far as the healthcare implications of the data is concerned, it is going to be recorded from the intensive care resources so that the parallelism is supposed to be there in terms of the way research is needed to be carried out. The other major question is that how the sensitivity analysis is going to be carried out and how some of the other cost intensiveness rationales are developed. The cost utility analysis is going to be based on the quality of life adjusted years and how they are gained from the Europol EQ-5D for the first six months. Then other factor that has to be taken into account is the way sensitivity analysis is being carried out. The idea is that how the probabilities that are related to the different patients would vary and what would be the lack of the healthcare provision that is going to be witnessed if that one element is removed from the narrative. The other thing that is going to be done is that how the probabilities that are related to the cost effectiveness would be varying based on how the different funding thresholds are going to be worked out. The other important consideration is the way recording is going to be done. The chunk of the data that is going to be dealt with during the course of this research is so vast that at times it is going to be quite hard to ensure that the consistent pacing is being allowed at the given point of time in terms of the way trial record is going to be done. It has to be noted that some of the details and the aspect of the healthcare that are going to be talked about in this research are not normally found elsewhere. Well-funded and well-designed high risk pools could provide a solution for the chronically ill who cannot currently afford insurance at market rates, without distorting the entire market through community rating and guaranteed issue regulations. Finally, the states should be encouraged to experiment with additional innovations. Reforms in Utah, Massachusetts, and elsewhere should be allowed to flower or fail before the entire nation is committed to one state’s work in progress. Tax reform should be the first order of business. Policymakers must replace the current open-ended employer deduction with a fixed individual deduction or a flat tax credit for the purchase of at least catastrophic health insurance. Low income uninsured and Americans with serious pre-existing conditions should receive more help. Policymakers should also focus on fundamental Medicare and Medicaid reforms. 

Analysis of the Data

Looking closely at the particulars of the program, one thing tends to stand out the most is that how the budget deficit has become a lingering problem with the passage of time, and how it has become impossible to make sure that the arrangement of the new subsidies is going to be made possible to ensure that the upper income portion of the population that does not have life insurance can take into account their overall healthcare. One of the thing that can be done is to make sure that how the possibilities are going to be explored in a sense that how the score of the Affordable Care Act is going to work out base on the premises that how the planning for the education is going to be done. The policy making in this regard is needed to be done in the manner that at least about half a trillion dollars can be saved if the dollars are shifted out of the private economy and that cost saving has to be directed towards health care programs and obligations. That would hinder the job growth in the private sector. The other thing that stands out in terms of the way this whole act must have been implemented was to make sure that the tax reforms were needed to be brought. It has to be noted that the tax reforms are an important consideration in terms of the way overall planning is being done whenever there is any major fiscal announcement, and in terms of the continuity, without bringing about major tax reforms, it is quite implausible that the Affordable Care Act is going to be sustained for a very long time. The health insurance markets were also witnessed to be quite monopolistic in nature which in turn is increase the competition. The idea is to ensure that the quality of the healthcare and the overall cost that goes into it must be lowered. Specially in the long run, the objective is to ensure that the Medicare payments must be lowered so that the current populace is able to have access to the healthcare. The higher cost of insurance is one thing that is pulling it back and effort is needed to be made to make sure that the greater degree of control is exercised in this regard. Finally, we should face the reality that there is no administrative “silver bullet” for fixing health care. Every wealthy country is faced by the triple challenge of aging populations, rapidly advancing health care technology, and a shrinking workforce to pay for it. Individuals will need to assume more responsibility for their own health and plan for long-term health care expenses that will accrue with a substantially lengthened lifespan. As a society, our assumptions about health and work will have to adapt to these new realities. Longevity is a blessing, but we can no longer assume that programs created in 1965 will meet the new health care realities of the 21st century. Our current health care arrangements have many flaws, but we should not lose sight of the many blessings that come from the life saving and life lengthening technologies generated by the U.S. health care system. Reforming the reforms is our next task, one that I hope we will approach with more sobriety and less partisanship than has been our recent experience.

Evaluation Presentation and Communication

Looking closely at the way program worked, the first thing that tends to stand out the most is that what were some of the choices that were made by the administration during the course of the whole process. The nature of the program was such that the expansion became the key objective during the program. There was little thought and consideration put towards making sure that method can be devised that would make sure that the challenge of the bending curve could be implemented in an appropriate manner. It was one of the prime reasons that even the decade after the program was implemented, it had done little to make sure that the quality improvement was visible at the broader level. What it has done is that due to the nature of the program, the cost of the healthcare has increased at an alarming rate. The healthcare spending has also increased in the given time period and thus there is lot of work that is still needed to be done so that the program become much more appropriate at the level at which it is operating at the given point of time. The sense of perspective is also needed to be there in term of the broader planning.

Program Evaluation and Limitations

When the program of such magnitude and scale is being carried out, there is all the likelihood that there are going to be some limitations. One of the major limitations that has been discussed above is that no matter how much time and resources are being dedicated to the research of this scale, there are always going to be instances when the sample size and the data collection would leave something to be desired. Furthermore, the other major problem is that the correlation between and the way high quality healthcare is supposed to be defined is something that is highly subjective in nature, and due to that, it is imperative that some sort of context has to be added behind the numbers at the particular point of time. The other underlying limitation that is going to act as a major setback for the research is that how the lack of implementation mechanism is going to make it hard to ensure that this whole framework can be applied at an appropriate level. Due to that, the desired results of the framework would not be seen and thus there is going to be lack of empirical evidence for the research.

Health insurance markets should also receive a powerful dose of competition: either through pure interstate insurance sales or through an optional federal charter for health insurance.9 One study commissioned in 2008 by the Department of Health and Human Services found that the number of uninsured Americans could be reduced by eight million simply through effective interstate insurance sales. Well-funded and well-designed high risk pools could provide a solution for the chronically ill who cannot currently afford insurance at market rates, without distorting the entire market through community rating and guaranteed issue regulations. Finally, the states should be encouraged to experiment with additional innovations. Reforms in Utah, Massachusetts, and elsewhere should be allowed to flower or fail before the entire nation is committed to one state’s work in progress.


Albright, H. W., Moreno, M., Feeley, T. W., Walters, R., Samuels, M., Pereira, A., & Burke, T. W. (2011). The implications of the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act on cancer care delivery. Cancer, 117(8), 1564-1574.

Breathett, K., Allen, L. A., Helmkamp, L., Colborn, K., Daugherty, S. L., Khazanie, P., ... & Peterson, P. N. (2017). The Affordable Care Act Medicaid expansion correlated with increased heart transplant listings in African-Americans but not Hispanics or Caucasians. JACC: Heart Failure, 5(2), 136-147.

Dresden, S. M., Powell, E. S., Kang, R., McHugh, M., Cooper, A. J., & Feinglass, J. (2017). Increased emergency department use in Illinois after implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Annals of emergency medicine, 69(2), 172-180.

Hall, M. A. (2013). Evaluating the Affordable Care Act: The eye of the beholder. Hous. L. Rev., 51, 1029.

Kim, C. Y., Wiznia, D. H., Wang, Y., Save, A. V., Anandasivam, N. S., Swigart, C. R., & Pelker, R. R. (2016). The effect of insurance type on patient access to carpal tunnel release under the Affordable Care Act. The Journal of hand surgery, 41(4), 503-509.

Sommers, B. D., Buchmueller, T., Decker, S. L., Carey, C., & Kronick, R. (2012). The Affordable Care Act has led to significant gains in health insurance and access to care for young adults. Health affairs, 32(1), 165-174.

Sommers, B. D., Gunja, M. Z., Finegold, K., & Musco, T. (2015). Changes in self-reported insurance coverage, access to care, and health under the Affordable Care Act. Jama, 314(4), 366-374.

Sommers, B. D., Kenney, G. M., & Epstein, A. M. (2014). New evidence on the Affordable Care Act: coverage impacts of early Medicaid expansions. Health affairs, 33(1), 78-87.

Uberoi, N., Finegold, K., & Gee, E. (2016). Health insurance coverage and the Affordable Care Act, 2010-2016. Washington (DC): Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation.

Wherry, L. R., & Miller, S. (2016). Early coverage, access, utilization, and health effects of the affordable care act medicaid expansions: A quasi-experimental study. Annals of internal medicine, 164(12), 795.


Appendix 1

Data Collection Form

Appendix 2

Organizational Hierarchy

Subject: Political Science

Pages: 17 Words: 5100

American Federal Government


Bassam Sajid

[Name of the Institution]

Bassam Sajid

[Name of Instructor]


March 25, 2019

American Federal Government


The idea of separation of power is linked with a fair government that divides its power between its various branches. It is a system of check and balances in the government that makes sure that none of the branches of government is superior to the other branch. Similarly, in the United States, the same system was established by the framers of the US constitution. All the three branches of the US government such as Executive, Legislative and Judicial branch are given equal powers (Posner, p.15). Under the US constitution, there are various restrictions and controls on the powers of those branches. The idea of just and fair government made the philosophers and thinkers come up with a philosophy that divides the power equally among those branches of the government.

At the same time, the system would also minimize the chances of tyranny by providing equal power to each of the branches, and it ensures that none of the branches can grab too much power. However, in actual the balance of power has been a topic of controversy throughout history. Somehow, one of the branches has always struggled to expand its power, and it has been controversial in enjoying the excessive power throughout history although all the branches have equal power with different tasks to perform but one branch always efforts to remain dominant.


A check and balance are maintained in the US Government to operate the functions of the whole government. At the same time, the power exercise of each branch is overlooked by two of the other branches. For instance, the president wants to implement a project then the Congress and Supreme Court will look into the matter. According to the constitution, each branch needs to concern two other branches in decision making. Each has equal authority to speak into the matter. The power of funds lies with the Congress, so it has the right to monitor the funds used by the executive office. At the same time, the president has the right to nominate the officials for Federal offices, but confirmation power is given to the Senate. Even both of the Congress houses cancel out the power of each other (Posner, p. 20). It is the same case with the other branches of the government. Similarly, a bill passed by the Congress is forwarded to the presidential office, and the president has the power to veto the bill. Likewise, The Supreme Court and the other courts have the right to declare the laws and actions of executive bodies as unconstitutional through the judicial review.

At the same time, the president has the power to check the judicial functions of the Supreme Court, and by using the power of appointment, the president can also change the practices of the federal courts. However, Congress has the right to amend the laws through different amendments in the constitution, and it has the right to check the Supreme Court Decisions. All three branches of government have an important role to play in performing the different activities of the government by enjoying equal power. However, through the check and balance, each one minimizes the chances of any misconducts by others.

Since the 19th century, the executive branch of the government has disrupted the balance of power and intended to influence the other branches of the government. Likewise, it continued today. The majority of the historians and scholars argue that the executive branch has been very influential as compared to two of the other branches. The current executive branch of the US government is more powerful than it was at the time of foundation and it can be seen that the presidents claim of most of the power in the government. There are so many examples of it.

For instance, in 1937 the challenge of check and balance occurred when Roosevelt was in office. A controversy arose between the president and the supreme court. When Roosevelt was re-elected, he believed that the supreme court creates problems for the president to implement most of the policies. Therefore, he asked Congress for more power to alter the judicial branch. It provoked tension between three of the branches.

The second evidence is from Obama's office period. With the time the government has also grown, and many issues are becoming more complex, and the separation of power between all three is blurred. All the rules and laws passed by Congress are crosschecked by the judiciary. The ruling of Obamacare also showed that the balance of power does not exist between all the three branches (Lankford, Np.). It can be seen that most of the rules and laws are propagated, understood, and managed by the officials of the Executive branch and Congress. Likewise, the executive branch has tried to shake the balance of power many times.

The supreme court has given the equal power to intervene in the matters of the government. Many of the people argue that the Supreme Court should be kept away from political matters (Kramer, N.p). But they forget that the constitution has given political power to the Federal courts along with the Legal status.

In the past, both executive and Congress used reprimand to overreach the Congress (Kramer, n.p). It is the manipulation of the balance of power that is assured by the Constitution. During Thomas Jefferson’s era, along with the executive body, Congress tried to threaten and pressurize the federal judges by delaying its term.

The Supreme court plays a central role in resolving the clashes between Congress and the Executive office (Posner, p.5). It never regards any of both very powerful instead it has shown an active role in resolving the disputes between Congress and the executive office. Therefore, the part of the federal courts cannot be ignored for balancing the power of the government. It is the duty of the courts to intervene in problems in order to maintain the balance of power. When the balance of power is upset by one branch, then it is the duty of two other departments to intervene and achieve the balance again. On its intervention, most of the times the Supreme Court becomes the victim.

However, the balance of power is the ideal way to govern a system. If it is practiced correctly, it can bring many developments for the country. There are some weaknesses in the US government that the balance of power is not adequately distributed among all the three branches.


In conclusion, separation of power is linked with a fair government that divides its power between its various branches. It is a system of check and balances in the government that makes sure that none of the branches of government is superior to the other branch. However, there are some flaws in the US government that do not allow to achieve the balance of power. Since the 19th century, the executive branch of the government has disrupted the balance of power and intended to influence the other branches of the government. The supreme court has given the equal power to intervene in the matters of the government. The role of the federal courts cannot be ignored for balancing the power of the government. Thus, there are some weaknesses in the US government that the balance of power is not properly distributed among all the three branches.

Works Cited

Kramer, Larry. "The Supreme Court V. Balance Of Powers." Nytimes.com. N. p., 2001. Web. 25 Mar. 2019.

Lankford, James."Obamacare Ruling Shows US Balance Of Power Is Off." CNBC. N. p., 2015. Web. 25 Mar. 2019

Posner, Eric A. "Balance-of-Powers Arguments and the Structural Constitution." University of Chicago Institute for Law & Economics Olin Research Paper 622 (2012).

Posner, Eric A. "Balance-of-Powers Arguments, The Structural Constitution, and the Problem of Executive Underenforcement." U. Pa. L. Rev. 164 (2015): 1677.

Subject: Political Science

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

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