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A society is an integrated whole which means that everything that occurs in a community aids in changing all the practices, ideologies and traditions of the community. This idea is rooted in one of the three paradigms of sociology which is Functionalism. When this sociological paradigm is linked with the concept of Racism, it is evident that in the American society, racism is present due to the prevalent stereotypes against other ethnic groups and this leads to increased cases of social injustice and crimes. In 2004 a movie by Paul Haggis titled “Crash” different ethnic groups, clashes between them and flaws in their personalities represents the presence of stereotypes against ethnic groups and gender. The movie sufficiently explains that race and presence of stereotype in the society dominates the action of the people and their interaction with one another. It also describes the impact of race on the justice system and politics. With this discussion under consideration, the thesis statement of this paper is that the movie Crash represents the functionalist school of thought because it explains how one factor that is racism effects all the spheres of life, including the self-perception of the people, their believes and ideologies of the society.

In the movie, there was a scene when Christine, who is the wife of Cameron Thayer, a famous movie director was molested by John Ryan, a sergeant. Christine and her husband are not white; Therefore a white police officer found it easy to molest the woman. The scene also reveals the weakness in the character of Cameron because when his wife was being molested, he only watched the incident and later apologies to the sergeant. It is the most potent example of how race shapes the perception of the people in the contemporary world. Being White John Ryan perceived a woman from another ethnic group as weak and inferior. Likewise being a minority, Cameron regards whites as powerful. Therefore he chose not to fight with them physically or legally. Analyzing this scene from a functionalist perspective, it is apparent that the presence of racial stereotypes impacts the behavior of the people and the justice system. The white supremacy allows the people to commit immoral and illegal acts ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"XOuvN6mJ","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Cole, 2017)","plainCitation":"(Cole, 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":131,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Tqq4tlqy/items/D8Z22E6X"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Tqq4tlqy/items/D8Z22E6X"],"itemData":{"id":131,"type":"chapter","title":"White Supremacy and Racism; Social Class and Racialization","container-title":"Critical Race Theory and Education","publisher":"Springer","page":"35-76","author":[{"family":"Cole","given":"Mike"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Cole, 2017)and feeling of alienation by minorities results in a violation of their fundamental rights.

In the movie, the most compelling relationship is between Jean Cabot and her loyal housekeeper, Maria. Jean was a rich racist woman and always humiliated her housekeeper Maria, but when Jean was in trouble, only Maria was present to help you out. It enabled Jean to realize that her hatred for ethnic minorities is from within herself, she apologizes to Maria and calls her, her only real friend. This relationship was convincing to me because it painted the notion of how a simple act can change the perception of a person. I can relate to this incident because at one point I was helped by a guy in school who I thought was not a good guy because of the race he belonged to. My perception was based on the stereotypes against such people, but interaction with him made me realized my mistake, and after this, my whole personality was changed since I became more open towards different ethnic groups. Applying the functionalist school of thought, it will not be wrong to believe that a simple change in the perception of one person can help in ending the stereotypes present in the society as suggested by Yip in his article “To be or not to be: How ethnic/racial stereotypes influence ethnic/racial disidentification and psychological mood.” ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"LY3pvPug","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Yip, 2016)","plainCitation":"(Yip, 2016)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":134,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Tqq4tlqy/items/52MJC2G4"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Tqq4tlqy/items/52MJC2G4"],"itemData":{"id":134,"type":"article-journal","title":"To be or not to be: How ethnic/racial stereotypes influence ethnic/racial disidentification and psychological mood.","container-title":"Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology","page":"38","volume":"22","issue":"1","author":[{"family":"Yip","given":"Tiffany"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Yip, 2016).

A profound analysis of the movie reveals that it presents an accurate reflection of American society. There are scenes where racial minorities are treated harshly and blamed for things they have not done. One example of this is the conversation between Farhad, a Persian man, and the gun shop owner. The owner called Farhad, Osama who was the leader of a terrorist group, because of his origin. This incident can be linked with the latest incident when a young Muslim boy in America was labeled as a terrorist because he brought a handmade clock to the school. Thus from the scene in the movie, it is evident that racism lies at the roots of the society and from a functionalist perspective, this can be carted through political correctness since all the institutions of the community are linked with one another ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"bVYtcvaI","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Kivel, 2017)","plainCitation":"(Kivel, 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":138,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Tqq4tlqy/items/XT6SA6JR"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Tqq4tlqy/items/XT6SA6JR"],"itemData":{"id":138,"type":"book","title":"Uprooting Racism-: How White People Can Work for Racial Justice","publisher":"New Society Publishers","ISBN":"1-55092-657-8","author":[{"family":"Kivel","given":"Paul"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Kivel, 2017).

Thus the above discussion sufficiently proves that the presence of racism in the society results in intense hate against other ethnic groups. Stereotype shapes the behavior of the people towards others, and it also shapes the political and justice systems. The in-depth analysis of the movie and the American society made me realize that many time I link the behavior of the people with the stereotypes present against them. One instance I blamed my housekeeper for stealing my watch because of her ethnicity because my friend told me that such people take things. But after two weeks I found my watch in my bag. It shows my stereotypic behavior which later became wrong, and I realized my mistake.

To cap it all, the movie by Paul Haggis presents the accurate picture of American society. All the actions of the individuals reflected racism and faults within them. These racist practices impacted the political and justice system of the nation which is correct from the functionalist perspective.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Cole, M. (2017). White Supremacy and Racism; Social Class and Racialization. In Critical Race Theory and Education (pp. 35–76). Springer.

Kivel, P. (2017). Uprooting Racism-: How White People Can Work for Racial Justice. New Society Publishers.

Yip, T. (2016). To be or not to be: How ethnic/racial stereotypes influence ethnic/racial disidentification and psychological mood. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 22(1), 38.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 3 Words: 900


[Name of the Writer]

[Name of Instructor]




Culture involves a certain way of living of a certain group of people in which people puts on display a set of beliefs, social habits, language, knowledge, social standards etc. in a particular way. In culture, the music preference, code of dressing, marriage, hospitality, the behavior is very specific and customized to a targeted group of people living in society. It also consists of moral goals, the traditions, and beliefs, customs, roles assignment of genders etc. that are existing in a society.

Culture revolves around the way gender is portrayed and is conveyed in the society. It is a fact that the sex of any person remains the same in any culture due to its biological justification. But the meaning of a particular sex in relation to that person's gender role in feminine and masculine context may vary from culture to culture. As different cultures incorporate different definitions of feminine and masculine which does not necessarily have to do anything with their sexes (Oakley, 2016). This is why the interpretation of gender in regard to sex might be different in a few cultures. The aspects of gender portrayal are very much related to the broad definition of culture as culture acts as a social construction in all the ways that also includes the designing and implementation of cultural policy.

Due to this reason, gender cannot be separately studied by ignoring the influence of society and culture on the formation of gender. Gender is equally connected with society as it is connected with culture in the form of gender socialization. Individuals are informed in the society about the rules and norms they must follow and the behavior they should display which are assigned to their sex and this whole process of gender socializing is called gender socialization. The process of gender socialization starts as early in the individuals' lives as childhood. It begins at birth, enhances during childhood development, reaches to intensity in adolescence and ultimately adds to gender inequalities in empowerment, education, income, and employment etc. The expectations of society are different for girls and boys when it comes to their attitude. More precisely, gender socialization is the inclination towards boys and girls to socialize differently (Kollmayer et al.,2018). Boys are often assigned to male gender role depicting strong and leadership position in society and girls are assigned the feminine role of caretaker and manager.

One of the ways through which society starts the gender socialization in early childhood is through toys marketing. Toys are marketed specifically to boys and girls penetrating in them the gender society has chosen for them. Toys retailers make toys in such a way that almost every toy is specific for a specific gender. For example, they make market specific toy products of girls to be the Barbie dolls, kitchen cooking set, makeup and jewelry set, hello kitty etc. While they make separate toys for boys like guns, superheroes, action figures, cars, monsters etc. They even perform gender-specific marketing for their gender-specific toys by promoting the pink color for girls and blue color for boys. In America, going through Toys R' Us or Meijer makes the people easily distinguish between the toys separately for boys and girls due to the separation of aisles in such a way. Walking through the aisles intended for marketing of girls toys will quickly make us realize the stereotyping done at this level by looking at pink and colorful packaging of toys, princess style outfits, tea sets and over makeup of Barbie dolls. The same will happen while visiting boys' aisles as noises will be hard, gunfire beeps sound from every corner and engine sounds etc. This is why it is clear to say that marketing is obviously done for both the genders.

Giving an example of barber commercial here, when the first commercial of a talking Barbie was launched. It was shown in the commercial that the Barbie is talking to her love interest male doll named Ken related to her interests in shopping and modeling. This stance clearly sends a message to the society that girls are stereotyped and are made to be beautiful in society to attract male attention. This is why girl's toys encourage the girls to incline towards their role of housekeeping, subordinates, cleaning etc. In contrast, boys are provided with the toys of a superhero and cars to give them an image of their earning, command and leadership, successful roles in the society.

Toys have a strong connection to promote the larger structures of patriarchy in US society. Patriarchy means male dominance in society and women as their subordinates. Toys promote patriarchy system in children in a way that the girl's toys are made to be sensitive e.g. hello kitty and Barbie dolls whereas boys toys are superheroes and giant monsters that shows males are in power in the society. Shaw and Lee also agreed that society is the one that has made a clear sex difference in gender through organizing them according to their stereotyping of sexes (Shaw & Lee, 2011). They said that an individual's culture changes his gender and forces him to act according to the role he is assigned to. In the social construction of gender article, Lorber also points out the same thing by giving examples of males who hold their baby in public and experience staring due to the fact that this role is given to women from the society. Society does gendering more often than it is realized (Lorber and Susan, 1991).

There are many ways society intervened in my role as a gender. Society often assigned me those roles that were not willingly undertaken by me and forced me to adjust according to their standards and definition of a male and a female. Gender socialization should be stopped and all the individuals should be free to choose their gender by their own choice because it is our basic right to live freely and not to give in to social expectations all the time.

Works Cited

Kollmayer, Marlene, Barbara Schober, and Christiane Spiel. "Gender stereotypes in education: Development, consequences, and interventions." European Journal of Developmental Psychology 15.4 (2018): 361-377.

Lee, Janet, and Susan Maxine Shaw. Women worldwide: Transnational feminist perspectives on women. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2011.

Lorber, Judith, and Susan A. Farrell, eds. The social construction of gender. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1991.

Oakley, Ann. Sex, gender, and society. Routledge, 2016.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 3 Words: 900


Answer to Question 1:

The strategies to mend social divisions and challenge racial, gender and sexual inequalities cannot work in isolation (Smith et al., 2016). They must be operated at various societal levels such as:

Strategies at Community Level: organizing a rebuilding or clean up campaign to eliminate vandalism or erase racist graffiti, and simultaneously, putting up ‘hate free zones’ in public areas (Came et al., 2018).

Strategies at Neighborhood Level: forming a committee to welcome everyone who moves into the neighborhood and sending representatives of the committee to the new person’s place with a fruit basket or flowers.

Strategies at School Level: forming a diversity task force or club, conducting field trip to places showing struggles from the past against racism, including anti-racism education in the school’s curriculum, and developing intercultural relationships by recognizing the culture of other ethnic groups (McLeod et al., 2016).

Strategies at Media Level: writing letters to the editors when the media coverage is biased or completely absent.

Strategies at Workplace Level: actively recruiting and hiring an ethnically and racially diverse workforce including managers, executives, and board members.

Answer to Question 2:

Any person has certain skills and interests that he or she already have that they could use to contribute to the changes they would like to see in society. For me, I can bring the change by operating at the following two levels:

At Community Level: I can donate blood and register to be an organ donor. Since I am an animal lover, I can donate cat and dog food to shelters. I believe in collective effort so I can a handwritten note or an encouraging message to someone who is going through difficult times. Similarly, I can babysit for a single parent.

At Workplace Level: I can also kick start change within my company by supporting the personal philanthropic ventures of the employees in the form of paid time off. I can organization team charitable events too.

Work Cited

Came, Heather, and Derek Griffith. "Tackling racism as a “wicked” public health problem: Enabling allies in anti-racism praxis." Social Science & Medicine 199 (2018): 181-188.

McLeod, Branden A., Jasmine Gilmore, and Joseph T. Jones. "Solutions to Structural Racism: One Organization's Community-Engaged Approach in the Aftermath of Civil Unrest." Social work 62.1 (2016): 77-79.

Smith, Jason A., and Bhoomi K. Thakore, eds. Race and contention in twenty-first century US media. Routledge, 2016.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300



Your Name (First M. Last)

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)

Cyber bullying has been one of the issues that are getting the attention of society for the past few years as there came advancement in the technology. In cyber bullying, a person is threaten or humiliated on public forums. There are many social sites for the general public where this immoral act is getting popularity (Campbell, et, al,2005). It could be seen as something very personal, as in this unethical act a person is being humiliated or is threatened that his confidential or private information or things are going to be exposed in front of the world on media like Facebook, Twitter etc. Cyber bullying is going to affect the life of a person as he would not be able to focus on his life and will start avoiding his family and loved ones. He is going to be a patient of depression as well.

It seems to be a personal issue primarily as it looks like it is going to have an impact on the individual only who is going to be bullied. It seems like a personal trouble where an individual is going to be blamed when his privacy that he didn't want to be disclosed would come in front of the world. In any case it has been seen that not the one who bullied is blamed rather the one being bullied is blamed and discouraged. This would give a social image that the person being bullied is not a good person (DeHue,et,al,2009). Many negative sociological imaginations would be attached to his character as well. Sociological imaginations would be mostly negative as it is the part of the human psyche that people always highlights the mistake of other and positive things are never going to be appreciated. Mostly, this issue of cyber bullying is faced by the youngster or students who more addicted of using social media. Once I have been through such an issue when I was in college, someone used to send me messages on my Facebook account and used to threat that he would leak my personal things on Facebook that would be a serious issue for me, but I took a smart step by taking help of cyber-crime cell. Soon the matter was sorted. Good things get very little admiration. But when this issue is being focused and studied deeply, it would be realized that it is not only a personal issue rather it is something that would influence the whole society. It is a matter of great concern as it is going to take a severe form in the future. One who is being bullied would try to the do same with someone and would take revenge of his humiliation from someone.

But this personal issue if gets severe form would change into the public issue as it is going to affect the life of all those individuals who would be related to the one who is being bullied. This personal issue could turn into a public issue if the one being bullied would start doing the same to others that happened with him (Wang, et,al2009). When he would start taking revenge from others, it would be a public issue. Also change in one’s behaviour who is being bullied would affect lives of others. In this case, symbolism could be seen as the victim could serve as a symbol of consciousness. One should be careful about his privacy and should not disclose his details with anyone who is not a trustworthy person. Is it ethically right to mentally torture someone by threatening them about leaking his privacy?


DeHue, F., Bolman, C., & Völlink, T. (2008). Cyberbullying: Youngsters' experiences and parental perception. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 11(2), 217-223.

Campbell, M. A. (2005). Cyberbullying: An old problem in a new guise?. Journal of Psychologists and Counsellors in Schools, 15(1), 68-76.

Wang, J., Iannotti, R. J., & Nansel, T. R. (2009). School bullying among adolescents in the United States: Physical, verbal, relational, and cyber. Journal of Adolescent Health, 45(4), 368-375.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 2 Words: 600


Genetic modification of babies

Brian Whitcomb

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Genetic modification of babies

One of the most interesting biomedical advances brought by the new technologies is genetic engineering/modification. Designer babies are the term most commonly adopted for the babies whose gender has been altered with the aim to either include a gene or remove a particular gene linked with a disease. Genetically modified babies or designer babies are the product of rapid advancements in genetic technology. The 21st century has been marked as the period that made designer babies a real possibility. As a result, this was inserted officially to the Oxford English Dictionary, and it has also remained a hot topic of bioethical debate ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"k2upbcDM","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Ethics of Designer Babies | The Embryo Project Encyclopedia,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“Ethics of Designer Babies | The Embryo Project Encyclopedia,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":584,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/V48XQEX3"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/V48XQEX3"],"itemData":{"id":584,"type":"webpage","title":"Ethics of Designer Babies | The Embryo Project Encyclopedia","URL":"https://embryo.asu.edu/pages/ethics-designer-babies","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",7,1]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Ethics of Designer Babies | The Embryo Project Encyclopedia,” n.d.). Human gender modification takes place by utilizing the direct molecular engineering techniques for manipulation of the genome. These techniques have also been named as “gene editing.”

Designer babies are created by the technique using In Vitro Fertilization and Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). IVF is used to remove a certain cell from the embryo and utilizing PGD the cell is genetically tested. Grounded on the results parents make choices about which gene they want to remove and which one they wish to implant in the womb. Human gender modification can be used into two different means, “somatic genetic modification” and “germline genetic modification.” The former adds, cuts, or alters genes in few cells of a human to improve a medical disparity while the later deals with making alterations in the eggs, sperms and early embryos. It is also referred to as “gene editing for reproduction,” and appears in every cell of the person who is the product of that gene editing. This form of gene editing is prohibited by law in many states ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Eaw0Doho","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Human Genetic Modification | Center for Genetics and Society,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“Human Genetic Modification | Center for Genetics and Society,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":575,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/VUATWWAY"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/VUATWWAY"],"itemData":{"id":575,"type":"webpage","title":"Human Genetic Modification | Center for Genetics and Society","URL":"https://www.geneticsandsociety.org/topics/human-genetic-modification","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",7,1]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Human Genetic Modification | Center for Genetics and Society,” n.d.).

Brief History of Designer Babies

The initial cases of human gender modification took place in the United States, England, and Australia. The foremost designer baby was produced in the year 2000 in the US named Adam Nash. The baby was produced by the Reproductive Genetics Institute in Chicago. Screening techniques were used by the physician to examine and test the embryos of parents. They selected the embryo to create an exact match for their six-year-old daughter Molly. Molly was involved from a genetic disease called Fanconi Anemia. This disease causes bone marrow deficiency and that is why they chose an embryo that was the perfect tissue match. After few unsuccessful attempts of IVF cycles, Adam finally took birth on 29 August. Blood from Adam’s umbilical cord was donated to Molly and relocated by the physician Dr. John Wagner’s team. Since, the creation of Adam, a baby created to save the life of her sister, many more parents created their designer babies to save and protect their offspring from the genetic diseases. Later in the year 2002, in the US the second case of the designer baby took place in order to save the child from diseases for an English couple.

The Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority authorized different couples to produce a designer baby and the first designer baby in the UK took birth in 2003 to protect a sibling by providing stem cells. In 2004, in Sweden, the authorization of designer babies was approved by the Swedish National Council of Medical Ethics in the cases where it is the only way to save a life.


Like any other scientific invention or technology, the technology of human modification comes with its own benefits and risks. There are many benefits of creating designer babies, such as parents can have a variety of choices regarding their babies and they can eliminate and include a specific trait in their babies. They also have a choice to select the gender of their babies. One of the biggest advantages is the elimination of genetic diseases from children before birth. To cure the potential diseases in unborn children was the primary purpose behind creating the designer babies. In this way, parents can protect themselves from the cost and trouble of having a child with some chronic and untreatable disease. Gene alteration also assists in preventing mitochondrial-related disorders and the likelihood of developing genetic disease in the future is also reduced.

It also enables infertile parents to have a baby and enhances the life expectancy of the child by removing the unhealthy genes and keeping healthy genes. It also creates a society of equality by eliminating children and people with disabilities who face discrimination and unfair treatment. Another goal of creating a designer baby is to create a positive influence on the child. Since this technology is used to eliminate health issues and enhance appearance, intellectual abilities and other factors boosting the self-confidence of the child. The technology of creating designer babies also improved human understanding of genetic engineering and the functioning of human genes.


It is true that benefits do not come without peril. One of the dangers of genetic engineering highlighted in a study is, an ecological problem associated with the genetically engineered species. Any accident in genetic engineering can result in major medical issues and can lead to major issues like death. In addition, the repercussion of putting a functional gene in the human body are still anonymous. If some genetic gene is placed in the human body it can also lead to some chronic disease. Elimination of genes also reduces the diversity of genes and identical genomes can make the whole population vulnerable to some diseases ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"4mavmJPm","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Patra & Andrew, 2015)","plainCitation":"(Patra & Andrew, 2015)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":586,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/SWMQLZ2E"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/SWMQLZ2E"],"itemData":{"id":586,"type":"article-journal","title":"Human, Social, and Environmental Impacts of Human Genetic Engineering","container-title":"Journal of Biomedical Sciences","volume":"4","issue":"4","author":[{"family":"Patra","given":"Satyajit"},{"family":"Andrew","given":"Araromi Adewale"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Patra & Andrew, 2015).

This technology still raises the questions of ethics and morality. There is a large population that considers it unethical to make genetic modifications in the babies. The question of ethics is also linked with the harmful effects and risks of using IVF. It is also proved that the children produced by the use of IVF show a higher risk of developing defects as compared to those conceived naturally. One study reports that genetically modified babies can be vulnerable to septal heart defects, cleft lip and other dangers ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"LChpNwbq","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Reefhuis et al., 2008)","plainCitation":"(Reefhuis et al., 2008)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":580,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/RH9BQGMA"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/RH9BQGMA"],"itemData":{"id":580,"type":"article-journal","title":"Assisted reproductive technology and major structural birth defects in the United States","container-title":"Human reproduction","page":"360-366","volume":"24","issue":"2","author":[{"family":"Reefhuis","given":"Jennita"},{"family":"Honein","given":"M. A."},{"family":"Schieve","given":"L. A."},{"family":"Correa","given":"A."},{"family":"Hobbs","given":"C. A."},{"family":"Rasmussen","given":"S. A."},{"family":"Study","given":"National Birth Defects Prevention"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2008"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Reefhuis et al., 2008). This method is also associated with abortion and therefore it is considered illegal and unethical in most of the states. In addition, the technology is still progressing and in some cases, it could be practiced in a few cases for both the mother and child.

Cost of Genetic Modification of Babies

With the popularity of the technology of human gender modification, the demand for designer babies started to increase. The rise of demand in the market has created an expensive market. Though the cost depends upon the physician and the clinic the average cost of treatments linked with genetic modification is high. The market not only comprises of designer babies but also the biotechnology, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, IVF, surrogacy, sperm banks, and counseling services. The price of surrogacy in the US can range from $20,000-$120,000. Sperm banks also charge high for the specimen and generate a high profit by paying less to donors. In addition, the price of eggs can go up to $50,000. The high demand resulted in a highly profitable business for the money makers and an expensive and unaffordable process for many couples. Those who cannot afford such technology remain at a disadvantage and only rich can enjoy the benefits of this technology.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Ethics of Designer Babies | The Embryo Project Encyclopedia. (n.d.). Retrieved July 1, 2019, from https://embryo.asu.edu/pages/ethics-designer-babies

Human Genetic Modification | Center for Genetics and Society. (n.d.). Retrieved July 1, 2019, from https://www.geneticsandsociety.org/topics/human-genetic-modification

Patra, S., & Andrew, A. A. (2015). Human, Social, and Environmental Impacts of Human Genetic Engineering. Journal of Biomedical Sciences, 4(4).

Reefhuis, J., Honein, M. A., Schieve, L. A., Correa, A., Hobbs, C. A., Rasmussen, S. A., & Study, N. B. D. P. (2008). Assisted reproductive technology and major structural birth defects in the United States. Human Reproduction, 24(2), 360–366.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

Sociology Assignment

Sociology Assignment



Sociology Assignment

Titanic, the blockbuster of late 90’s reveals the mutilated form of social values. Most of the people who plan to watch any movie would, for sure, watch it with just one prime purpose. The purpose is entertainment. Titanic, however, is more than just a piece of entertainment. The film provides a rationale on the social fabric we have been wearing for decades. The film was directed and written by James Cameron and reflected a serious problem we face each passing day. The problem is social stratification and class struggle. CITATION Inn16 \l 1033 (Aniceth, 2016)

If we define social stratification then it is a compound structure which accounts for the disparity between the members of the society on the basis of economy or any other form which delineates the difference between the members. The film provides the evidence of existence of social strata, how it is manifestated and what perils it brings to the community at large.

While watching the film one can witness the problem on several occasions. The most prominent was the difference between rich and poor. CITATION Inn16 \l 1033 (Aniceth, 2016) It is clearly envisioned in the film when a poor was being outcasted on the basis of the his economic status. The film also represents the tragic love story and social class plays villain in that role as well. For it is the social class which decides who should you love and who you shouldn’t. CITATION Inn16 \l 1033 (Aniceth, 2016) Moreover, the film also exhibits that how economically rich class of capitalist exploit the poor class and throw them out of their social circles.

Sinking of ship also depicts the class difference between rich and poor, as only rich class was provided with live jackets to survive the accidents and the poor class was ignored. Life is the right everyone is inherited with by birth. The film depicts the social stratification strips people of their right to live even.

If the incident had occurred today, the situation wouldn’t be different because social stratification existed and it still exists. Rich people do not care what poor people are going through would outcast them from their social circle. They would strip them of their basic right to live and woul exploit them to maintain their class.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Aniceth, I. (2016). A. Retrieved april 22, 2019, from www.academia.edu: https://www.academia.edu/23261030/TITANIC_1997_A_Living_Recap_Of_Social_Stratification_and_its_Dangers

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Sociology Essay

Sociology Essay

Commercialization of holidays has become a very common trend in recent times. Commercialization of holidays refers to the inclusion of various modern trends in the original event or holidays, mostly religious. This inculcation of the modern trends, styles, and fashions in the traditional days has made these holidays lost their original meaning and value. The current generations do not know the real meaning and purpose of these holidays and events, and blindly follow the traditions that are shown to them by the media and their fellows.

If the question arises that which holidays are commercialized the most than these are three: Christmas, Saint Valentine’s Day, and Mother’s Day. Of the three, Christmas has become the most commercialized (Das, 2015). Those providing online shopping or some of those “as seen on TV marketing specials have to start advertising shortly after Labor Day. For them, that is a four-month window of marketing for Christmas giving. But the Christmas season really lasts from Thanksgiving to Christmas, almost exactly one complete month. It is the period in which many stores marketing products turn a profit for the first time in a year.

Saint Valentine’s Day and Mother’s Day are also very highly commercialized; those who make specifically targeted items, like the greeting card industry, really go all out on these two holidays. Candy makers and florists are probably the other two industries that thrive most specifically on Saint Valentine’s Day and Mother’s Day. But out of all these, Christmas encompasses not only greeting cards, candy and florists, but also TVs, underwear, socks, books, games, clothing, almost every facet of product marketing benefits at Christmas in a way that it never does for Saint Valentine’s Day or for Mother’s Day. This trend is mostly seen in North America.

Christmas is undoubtedly the most commercialized holiday. The ads and stores start too early. TV shows Christmas movies in November and then monster movies when Christmas shows up. Once Thanksgiving is done…then Christmas can commence. One month is plenty for one holiday. Unfortunately, over time, “marketing and sales” have worked hard to make it two months now devoted to Christmas. Christmas is everyone’s favorite holiday but it has become way too commercialized. This commercialization takes unfair advantage of a person's emotional attachment to the holiday.

Commercialization, in general, is seen negatively because it intends to persuade people to do things they otherwise might not do (e.g., to buy something they don't need). And the commercialization of holidays is even worse because it seeks to take advantage of something (i.e., the holiday) which, usually, has nothing to do with spending money. Companies spend a lot of money on marketing because it pays them back.


Das, A. (2015). The Commercialization of Holidays. Retrieved 6 November 2019, from https://nextgenpolitics.org/the-commercialization-of-holidays/

Hampton, M. P., & Hamzah, A. (2016). Change, Choice, and Commercialization: Backpacker Routes in S outheast A sia. Growth and Change, 47(4), 556-571.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Sociology Homework

Your Name

Instructor Name

Course Number


Sociology Homework

Answer 1

The feminism is not obsolete because women are exploited all over the world based on their gender. Social purpose of feminism is to raise the voice of the oppressed women and to struggle for their rights. 

Answer 2

The men still do things like opening the door for women and keep standing until a woman is seated. Such behaviors reinforce the archaic norms of gender behavior. 

Answer 3

The girls should not be encouraged to participate in beauty pageants because they also portray women as physically weak and a commodity. Whereas the pageants of men portray them as physically strong because they lift weights for the pageants. 

Answer 4

The government should increase the funds for research into male pregnancy because the role of women is undermined by their ability to produce children. 

Answer 5

The women should retain their birth names upon marriage because they spent most of their life living with their parents and should have the right to bear the name of the family to which they belong. 

Answer 6

The women in the US are also exploited as in the rest of the world. However, traditional and cultural values are relatively better for women in the US. 

Answer 7

Outlawing the practice of female circumcision in America contradicts our recent emphasis on multiculturalism because the practice of female circumcision is a religion-cultural practice of the Muslims. 

Answer 8

The increasing opportunities for women in armed forces do not weaken our army; rather, it strengthens them by creating a gender balance in armed forces.

Answer 9

The first amendment rights do protect the songs, literature, and movies that promote violence against women. 

Answer 10

The gender roles have changed only to some extent. The economic rights of the women are still suppressed, and they need to be addressed by campaigning for them at all levels.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Sociology Homework #12

Jonathan Alvarez

Enter the Name of Instructor


10 December 2019.

Sociology Homework # 12

An individual is a separate being, a different identity and an unparalleled self of someone. The unparalleled perspective suggests that each being is different, and is unalike. The self is not different from the individual, rather it is his or her perspective about the individual being. The understandable difference between ‘Individual’ and ‘Self’ are their distinctive identities; the individual might be a body, whereas the self is not. Similarly, ‘Personality’ is the other’s perspective on any person. They all somehow, relate to each other. Finally, free will is the absence of necessities. It is the absence of boundaries and thought which originates from being free.

I had witnessed violent, aggressive and emotional behavior today. These social behaviors are taught to individuals through the society, by the way of socialized norms, which influence the upbringing of an individual. These social behaviors fall in the range of conformity. There could not be any potential harm or benefit, of these behaviors, to conformity or obedience.

‘Common sense’ is revealed as the most followed norms of our society. For example, people react when they see people fighting. In rare cases, common sense can limit our understanding of the world, since the communal norms are wide and majorly common, throughout the world. For example, people generally avoid nudity on the streets.

Some of the symbols which represent US cultural values are

US Flag

Liberty Bell

Bald Eagle

Statue of Liberty

Star-Spangled banner

My personality and my family is not much affected by the social stratification of our society since we had been so adaptive to the societal changes. Racism, I think, affects our social values. The disadvantages of racism vary a lot, since it has become a source to spread hate and violence.

I believe that racism is the only issue that creates differences among the people and creates causes for violence. It must be countered by all means, if the authorities consider it as a wide threat. It has affected the US norms, ranging from cuisine to politics. Racism exists since our society failed in curbing it, in the early stages.

Lastly, I acknowledge that my opinion has not changed at any time in my life since I had been witnessing events in the manner, from an early age.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Sociology Paper

Dispossession of indigenous Canadians

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Dispossession of indigenous Canadians

Around 12,000 years ago, the colonization started and after 15th century that European ,Portuguese ,Italian French landed . they start colonization after 1600 century. In Canada, one distinguishes three groups of indigenous or indigenous peoples. The First Nations (also called "Indians"), the Inuit and the Métis. The latter are predominantly descendants of Europeans who have connected with Indian women. They have developed two languages ​​of their own, Michif , which was created from Cree and Scottish Gaelic . Numerous other Canadians have Indian ancestors. Their marriages were very often made according to the "custom of the country", i.e. without church or government involvement - as in marriages between men of the Hudson's Bay Company and Indian women was common. After this custom closed marriage were valid only from 1867 before the British law.

The Indigenous people dispossessed of, their lands and natural resources, their rights to their natural resources, their cultures, their language etc. Dispossession keeps them in an occupied state. Freedom road will allow the community to access important things. Different forms of trying to kill the people. They only want the resources. Canada has been sneaky. Colonization kills people. The Indian Act helps to divide the people. They need to apologize to them and exonerate them that it is not their fault. Reconciliation is when you do something wrong and you stop. But if you don’t stop it’s hard to reconcile The interests of the indigenous population are represented by Indian and Northern Affairs and Affaires indigenes et du Nord . In addition to the Inuit, it is mainly concerned with the Indians called First Nations. The Ministry is responsible for the recognition of individuals, but also for the recognition of groups as tribes ( bands ), of which it keeps a list. In 2010, 615 groups were recognized as tribes. 15 The Ministry is based on the Indian Law of 1876. However, the Indians see themselves more in their own organizations, such as the First Nations or other organizations. They refer to treaties concluded with Canada and the United Kingdom, such as the Numbered Treaties , to universal human rights, and to decisions of the Supreme Courts of Great Britain and Canada . The Indians have only since 1960 the full right to vote, the Inuit only since 1962. The latter is since 1999, a separate territory called Nunavut available. The First Nations have made numerous individual agreements with the Federal Government and the provinces, many of which have a Traditional Territory in which they have special rights and obligations. European settlers reached North America at the latest around the year 1000, when Scandinavians lived for a short time.

However, the "discoverer" of North America is Giovanni Caboto , an Italian sailor in English service who had lived in Venice for a long time. This landed on 24 June 1497 possibly on Cape Breton Island and took the land for England in possession. Basque whalers and fishermen came to the eastern Canadian coast at least from 1530 onwards and used the resources in the area among the Newfoundland Bank and Tadoussac from 44 for a century , without even attempting to settle there. An expedition led by Jacques Cartier explored the area around the St. Lawrence Gulf from 1534 to 1535 and the St. Lawrence River and declared it to be French owned. Between 1689 and 1763, there were four warlike conflicts in North America between Englishmen (or British) and Frenchmen, who were each a by-product of succession wars in Europe.

Is reconciliation possible? Peaceful colonization is still colonization. Harper’s statement was wrong. They seem to honour the acts and not the indigenous people They were advertising and selling lands that did not belong to them. The settlers were vendors. In Canada’s earliest days, if you were a rich white man actively colonizing, you got a road named after you or sometimes just name the road Colonization road. Roads and infrastructures were created simply to harvest natural resources not because of the aboriginal people or to make life easy and convenient for them. Within 5-mile radius is the entire infrastructure that tie the country together.

The Quebec Act, however, angered the inhabitants of the Thirteen Colonies, who saw it as an impermissible restriction on their westward expansion. The Quebec Act was one of those "intolerable The Peace of Paris recognized the independence of the thirteen colonies and the areas south of the Great Lakes formed the United States . Some 50,000 Loyalists who sided with Britain fled to Canada, along with the British allied Indian tribes, such as the Mohawk . 45In order to better organize the settlement of loyalists on the Atlantic coast New Brunswick 1784 was separated from Nova Scotia. Seven years later, London continued to meet Loyalists fleeing to Quebec, and the British Parliament passed the constitutional law of 1791 , which divided the province of Quebec into French and English speaking.

The tensions between the United States and Great Britain erupted in the British-American War , which lasted from 1812 to 1815 and ultimately ended inconclusively. In Canada, the war is still regarded today as a successful defense against American invasion attempts. The people of British and French developed a Canadian national feeling through the fight against the common enemy, and the loyalty of the British crown was strengthened. (Lavallee & Poole, 2010). But groups that sought more self-government without too much regard for the interests of the British Empire (responsible government), resisting the economic and political domination of a small elite, began to speak more and more clearly. But the rebellions of 1837 were quickly suppressed. Lord Durham then recommended in his inquiry report the establishment of a self-governing government and the gradual assimilation of the French Canadians. 46 The Act of Union 1840 merged Lower and Upper Canada into the province of Canada and made English the sole official language. By 1849, the remaining colonies in British North America also had their own government, which significantly weakened the groups seeking to join the US in the East. (Little, 1985).

In 1846, the United States and Britain concluded the Oregon compromise , which set the 49th parallel as the common border west of the Great Lakes . This was followed by the founding of the Pacific Coast located colonies Vancouver Island (1849) and British Columbia (1858). Inaccuracies in the borderline repeatedly led to diplomatic complications. In addition, many gold miners went north from the US in 1858, prompting the local governor, who had witnessed the departure of the Hudson's Bay Company from the northwestern United States, to tighten control over the men. As Erskine noted that , “the pressures they faced in 1850 will endure to challenge them. Nevertheless, in 1850 the Crown and the Anishinaabe had a similar vision that the Anishinaabe and the settler society could last to co-exist in a jointly deferential and valuable association going into the future” (Erskine,2019)

During the American Civil War , leading politicians recognized the need to oppose a strong federal state to American expansionist aspirations and deliberated in three constitutional conferences on the creation of a confederation . The result was the constitutional law , which came into force on July 1, 1867 and created the Dominion of Canada, which had a certain independence of Britain. In order to open up the west to immigrant settlement, the government, and especially British capital, participated in the financing of transcontinental railways and established the North-West Mounted Police to control the state Prairies and subarctic regions. The Northwest Rebellion and the subsequent execution of the Métis leader Louis Riel in 1885 led to a deep rift between the two language groups. As a direct result of the Klondike gold rush , 1898 became the Yukon Territory created. In response to the increasing colonization of the prairie, the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan emerged in 1905 from the southern part of the Northwest Territories .

Between 1871 and 1921, Canada signed eleven treaties with the Indians, reserving them against small compensations but they guaranteed their usual way of life. Until the 1960s, in some areas even into the 80s they tried to forcibly assimilate. Thus the pupils were forbidden the use of their mother tongues, every form of the tradition was as well as possible suppressed. The Indians were not allowed to hire lawyers to defend their claims in court, and until 1960 they were not allowed to attend parliamentary elections at national level, the Inuit even until 1962. Colonial activities, both past and present, have attempted to strip Indigenous people of them

identity and land (Lavallee & Poole, 2010).

On the side of Great Britain, Canada participated in the First World War from 1914 and sent volunteers to the Western Front . When the government tried to introduce compulsory military service against the resistance of the French-speaking part of the population, the conscription crisis of 1917 occurred.

In the negotiation of the Treaty of Versailles , Canada emerged as an independent state and joined the League of Nations in 1919, independent of Great Britain . The Statute of Westminster guaranteed legislative independence in 1931, but certain constitutional ties remained. The country was hit particularly hard by the global economic crisis, as a reaction developed in the following decades, a well-developed welfare state .

Is reconciliation between First Nation and Non-First-Nation Canadians possible?

The doctrine of Discovery formalized in 15th century allowed the first settlers to come own the land and this was based on the Bible - Song of Solomon. Treaty making was the peaceful way to go about getting lands from the people after the resolution of the conflict between the French and English people. Royal proclamation given by King George 111 that laid out the rules and form of government for the newly acquired colonies. You people don’t deserve your rights. But rights are inherent. Which means they were here even before the settlers came. The royal proclamation simply acknowledged those rights. They had to have their consent. The only way their colonies could be secured was if they recognized and protected those rights. The treaties form the basis of Canada. They are contract and the government needs to honour them. They cannot just walk away. That will invalidate our legal system. The treaties signed after proclamation Shows that they have to have their consent. The treaties are constitutionally protected and shows the sovereignty of the He Indigenous nation. Recognition of the sovereignty of the Indigenous people give legitimacy to Canada as a country.

The lessons of the treat is that they have a deal. “Colonization Road” will deliver understanding into an arrangement that has controlled not only to the development of Canada, but the very actual price of that development and how glorification the agreements, opening to this place we all call home can lead to a decolonized Canada as waters flow. (McMahon, 2019).

The cultural forms of the more than 600 First Nations , as the Indians predominantly describe themselves, are by no means uniform. Within the country, between city and country, between the ethnic groups, the differences are very large. “While roads deliver admittance and substructure to colonizers all over the country, there are First Nation societies whose absenteeism of roads has been damaging and even noxious” (McMahon, 2019). They developed their own identities and cultural structures. “At the same time, large cultural areas can be distinguished. A convinced indigenous versus non-indigenous parting is reserved whilst keeping indigenous society tied, like a balloon, to the march of settler pro2013gress and, hereafter, open to the sustained flow of colonial/settler mediators and constructions”( Paradies, 2016).

On the Pacific coast, the culture was dominated by fishing, especially salmon, or whaling, as in the Nuu-chah-nulth on Vancouver Island. There you will also find the massive totem poles, the largest of which is over 50 m high. Inland, hunting, gathering and river fishing dominated. In the great plains, the plains , was the bison hunt central in other moose, further north caribou. In the literature, ecological problems, poverty and violence, dehumanized technology or spirituality are mostly in the foreground. Most people are reluctant to label themselves as "Native American artists” but pick up topics that affect urbanized society as a whole. With diversity, understanding and respect of cultural values of indigenous people will be helpful to reconcile first nation and non-nation.


Erskine, M., & Erskine, M. (2019, January 8). Judge rules Robinson Huron Treaty's $4 annuity

needs update. Retrieved from https://www.manitoulin.ca/judge-rules-robinson-huron-treatys-4-annuity-needs-update/.

Kenrick, J., & Lewis, J. (2004). Indigenous peoples' rights and the politics of the term

‘indigenous’. Anthropology Today, 20(2), 4-9.

Lavallee, L. F., & Poole, J. M. (2010). Beyond recovery: Colonization, health and healing for

Indigenous people in Canada. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 8(2), 271-281.

Paradies, Y. (2016). Colonisation, racism and indigenous health. Journal of Population Research,

33(1), 83-96.

McMahon, R. (2019). Colonization Road. Retrieved from


Subject: Sociology

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

Sociology Post

Discussion Post

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Discussion Post

In current day and age, Ethnocentrism is something that is quite hard to practice but there are many people who still believe in it. The idea that how their lifestyle and values are better as compared to the others is one of the core aspects of this ideology. The core idea of the Ethnocentrism is that how the practices that are carried out by the people of the certain culture are much more superior as compared to the other cultures. On the other hand, the cultural relativism is also witnessed in abundance these days as it is about the personal belief of the person as well as the activities that are carried out at their end are needed to be understood by them is needed to be understood in the context of their own culture at the given point of time. It is much more about the basic human tendency when effort is being made towards the fact that how it is supposed to be made sure that people tend to link their own perspective towards the way things are supposed to be done most of the times. Talking about my culture, there is one thing that how acceptance towards the way depiction of sexuality is being showed in the movies and popular culture. In the United States to a larger extent and in the rest of the world as well, people have quite a conservative attitude when it comes to the depiction of sexuality and the way nudity is needed to be portrayed at the given point of time. On the other hand, if one talks about the European country specifically France, it is quite a common thing that how nudity is witnessed and talked about. The much more open attitude towards the one’s own body and the body positivity movement that the world is catching up now is much more common in Europe.


Cerulo, K. A. (Ed.). (2002). Culture in mind: Toward a sociology of culture and cognition. Psychology Press.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Sociology Post

Sociology Post

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the institution]


Sociology Post

Every society has set some social standards for individuals to follow and meet the requirements that society has from people. Individuals are not the same when it comes to following the rules. Most of them have their own rules and they care less about what society thinks of them. In response, society exerts an informal social control over them if they find some deviant behavior so that the discipline can be maintained.

Deviant behavior is the attitude in actions that violate the social rules and norms society has set for us. It means going against the standards set by everyone in society to perform an action that is socially unacceptable. There are two main extremes in the deviant behavior display. One extreme involves the height to which the person reaches while breaking the social rules of conduct e.g. rape, murder etc (Newman & Wolfgang, 2017). While another extreme is the one which does not necessarily harm anyone but only ruins the social expectations e.g. tattoos, dressing style, bisexuality, homosexual relationships etc. The deviant behavior I personally observed frequently in society is homosexuality (Dennis, 2015). This behavior is deviant in the societies that do not want to change their perspective about sexuality and only want to observe the man-woman relationships as the couple. This behavior is not dangerous but is treated as deviant behavior that is against the social norms.

To overcome this deviant behavior, individuals opt for conformity behavior. Conformity behavior is the change in attitude and the effect of social influence done in order to fit in with society and receive social acceptance. It may happen due to group pressures or the side-effects of informal social control e.g. bullying, exclusion, teasing, criticism etc. The homosexual individuals opt for hiding their real sexual identity to maintain social control. These sanctions become more harmful for homosexual individuals bearing them than the society. Many people are then forced to commit suicides which barely affects society.

The point of discussion here is that the positive sanction is should be preferred over negative sanctions in these type of cases. Social norms and rules can be molded to save the lives of the people and they should not be used to serve the social expectations all the time. The question here under consideration is that, until when we will have to serve social norms and rules and kill ourselves for that? How long it will take for the society to realize the damage it is giving in the form of negative sanctions? Why is every other attitude treated as deviant in modern society? When will society evolve?


Dennis, J. P. (2015). What is Homosexuality Doing in Deviance? The Handbook of Deviance, 172.

Newman, G. R., & Wolfgang, M. E. (2017). Comparative deviance: Perception and law in six cultures. Routledge.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Sociology Post


[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]


For me, there is an interesting parallel in terms of how both these terms are being talked about. Ethnocentrism is more about making sure that one is able to enjoy the experience but also having this underlying belief that things that are done and incorporated in your culture are somewhat better as compared to the culture of the other. On the other hand, the cultural relativism is about having certain sense of understanding about the way other cultures are working and based on that experience, coming up with the way one’s own thought process and thinking is supposed to be working out. Both these terms despite the fact are quite close to each other in the meaning, are not supposed to be intertwined and in some ways, in this day and age, as a society, it is more important that some sort of cultural relativism is being practiced rather than following one culture but there is no need to berate the culture of other person. The example of the recent movie Black Panther comes to mind. In some ways it has become one of the biggest defining moment of the year 2018. The movie celebrate the cultural diversity and colours that are witnessed in the continent and despite the fact that there are no social commentaries that are being made during the course of the movie, the fact remains that there are some subtle undertones regarding the racial oppression that is being faced by the people of Africa and blacks. One of the reasons that the movie become one of the success stories is due to the fact that it did not berated other cultural sensibilities but at the same time, made sure that the audience is able to relate with the message that is being provided during the course of the movie making it one powerful cultural statement.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Sociology Post

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Sociology Post

Your Name (First M. Last)

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)

Reply 1

It is true that cohabitation is replacing marriages. As the world started liberating and the concept of individuality grew stronger, cohabitation got commoner and popular among people. People today, avoid getting married and prefer to live in cohabitation because they do not prefer to take risk of making a commitment and involve the state in their relationship. Such people consider a huge responsibility to get married (Bumpass, Sweet, 1989). Moreover, now times have changed a lot, most of the population struggles with financial and economic issues and it gets difficult for them to make a decision to start a family with commitment, sharing a household, and bearing children.

Reply 2

Relationships do not seem to be moving any forward to most of the people if there is no marriage involved ahead in the future. Such relationships are not long lasting which are not glued with marriage. I do not know yet how I want things for myself. Among the two options of marriage and cohabitation, I cannot decide now what I will pick. The reason is most of the people back off from marriage to avoid the risk of divorce and its after affects. They consider it economic, social and emotional burden and risk. For instance, if they bear children after marriage and get a divorce later, it can ruin the life of their children and push them into depression. On the other hand, cohabitation is the key element in disturbing the family system in the United States of America (Jay, 2012). It is true that both lifestyles have pros and cons but it cannot be declared which one is the best and should be preferred or recommended, it only depends on the situation at the hand. So, I will see what the future holds for me and how things are with my partner.


Bumpass, L. L., Sweet, J. A. (1989). National estimates of cohabitation.Demography,26(4), 615-625.

Jay, M. (2012). The downside of cohabiting before marriage.The New York Times, April,15.



Sociology post


Running head Sociology post

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Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Sociology Post

Marriage and family

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]


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Marriage and family


Socities are formed by marriages and families and these two are the key structures of a society. The connection of family and marriage is becoming complex in an American society. While, marriage is defined as a legall social contract between two peoples,traditional based on physical relationships. But American society has tramsformed drastically and the definition of marriage needs to be revised. Family is defines as a gropu that is socially defined based on blood relation, adoption or marriage and the U.S. Census Bureau also agrees with this defition of “family” ( OpenStax, 2017).


Cohabitaion is sharing the same residence by a couple without marriage and is terending intodays world.Cohapitaion is an option chose by many couples who want to understand each other before intering into marriage. It is appropriate for couples living in an American society to cohabilitae before marriage because people in America donot keep marriage at the top and they always want to settle down and understand each other more. So in that cultural setup cohabilitaion is a good option. Cohabiliation gives couple enough time to accept each other flaws and it encourages them to fight together for their welbings. If the ended up marrying eachother then it will be a stronger nad happier marriage. In a recently held servey 39 percent respondent answered with a “yes” when asked where marriage is outdating or not. According to a Census reported in 2010, only 66 percent of children live woth two married people and this number has decreed from 77 percent in 1980s census. While cohabitation is increasing in an American society. It has increased by 13 percent sinne 2009. 38 percent believes it negatively impact society and the rests are positive abouit it

( OpenStax, 2017). Many couple understand cohabitation as a trial run for future marriage and it is not surprising at all because socities change and people need to coup with the changing sorroundings. Cohabitaion gives time to save more money and it lets you spend more time togethere before marriage and in an American society time and miney are two important things so this research helped to made my mind for cohabitation.

My question from my class mate is that, if cohabiliation is accepted by 90 percent of Americans then what would be the reaction of immigrant that want to live in America?


OpenStax College. (2017). Introduction to Sociology 2E. Houston, TX: OpenStax CNX. 

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Sociology Post

Sociology post

The post explains the trade-off between work and welfare. Provision of grants to society encourages the culture of ‘lazy welfare bums.' This is because many people find it better to sit at homes and enjoy unemployment benefits compared to the minimum wages received after hard work. This criticizes the role of the state in making flawed policies. The minimum wage in Alabama is $7.25 that is quite low and encourage people to stay at home. Facts reveal that "a full-time worker that works 40 hours per week with no time off will make only $15,080 per year" CITATION Ala18 \l 1033 (Alabama Department of Human Resource, 2018). This indicates that people irrespective of putting efforts earn meager wages while the policy for unemployment is paying more to the people. The policing indicates that the state is encouraging people to stay at homes. This has made people lazy as they prefer to stay unemployed CITATION You161 \l 1033 (YouTube, 2016). The common programs used for minimizing poverty include food stamp programs, housing assistance, and children welfare programs.

Flawed policy and ‘lazy welfare bun' is the reason behind poverty. People who rely on state funds for welfare are more likely to remain poor. Compared to this, people who are taking low-level jobs such as labor will also remain poor. The low wages don't give them the opportunity to improve their lifestyles. The criticism also depicts that rather than spending on welfare it is more appropriate to raise wages of the labor class. This is also a prominent reason for the high-level of poverty. The post emphasized taking adequate measures such as providing better salary incentives for proposing long-term solutions to society. This approach will be more effective in eliminating poverty from the society. Spending on welfare is less effective because it promotes the culture of ‘lazy welfare bums.'


YouTube. (2016). 30 Days Season 1 Episode 1. Retrieved 03 03, 2019, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wmSGEGOVI34&feature=youtu.be

Alabama Department of Human Resource. (2018). Subsidy Overview. Retrieved 03 03, 2019, from http://www.dhr.state.al.us/services/Child Care Services/Subsidy Overview.aspx

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Sociology Post

Sociology post

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Sociology post

Privileges are the rights which are given to some people in the society because of their physical appearance, sexuality, and social status. It is essential to note here that these privileges are not earned by one segment of the society over the others. In fact, there are many privileges that people get since their birth. Another cardinal fact is that only the elite or powerful segment of the society receives rights over the poor class ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"o1RtkTxc","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(McIntosh, 2001)","plainCitation":"(McIntosh, 2001)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":155,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Tqq4tlqy/items/KVYJQ6TK"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Tqq4tlqy/items/KVYJQ6TK"],"itemData":{"id":155,"type":"article-journal","title":"White privilege and male privilege: A personal account of coming to see correspondences through work in Women's studies (1988)","container-title":"Race, class, and gender: An anthology","author":[{"family":"McIntosh","given":"Peggy"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2001"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (McIntosh, 2001). One good example of privilege is that heterosexual couples can openly display their affection while homosexuals are questioned and showing their affection towards someone of same-sex is disapproved. This example fits with the concept of privilege because it allows one segment of society to act freely ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Y5thXei8","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Fetner, 2016)","plainCitation":"(Fetner, 2016)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":152,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Tqq4tlqy/items/98YMUJVC"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Tqq4tlqy/items/98YMUJVC"],"itemData":{"id":152,"type":"book","title":"Book Review: Straights: Heterosexuality in Post-Closeted Culture by James Joseph Dean","publisher":"SAGE Publications Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA","ISBN":"0891-2432","author":[{"family":"Fetner","given":"Tina"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Fetner, 2016).

Under the light of this discussion and the privilege quiz, I realized that I have many privileges which I was not aware of before. Some of the questions in the quiz like have you ever tried to hide your sexuality or are your parents comfortable with your sexual preference made me realize that there are people in the world who does not have the privilege of expressing their selves. I also agree with my results which shows that I have many privileges because of my race, social status, ethnicity, and sexuality. However, there are some privileges that I don’t have because of my gender ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"mf4D43tJ","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Chesney-Lind & Chagnon, 2016)","plainCitation":"(Chesney-Lind & Chagnon, 2016)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":158,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Tqq4tlqy/items/HTBPY4UR"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Tqq4tlqy/items/HTBPY4UR"],"itemData":{"id":158,"type":"article-journal","title":"Criminology, gender, and race: A case study of privilege in the academy","container-title":"Feminist Criminology","page":"311-333","volume":"11","issue":"4","author":[{"family":"Chesney-Lind","given":"Meda"},{"family":"Chagnon","given":"Nicholas"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Chesney-Lind & Chagnon, 2016). A few years ago, one day I was in a garden with my family, some police officers came to the place, and they started interrogating the two black families only about shoplifting and they completely ignore the whites. It made me question my status in society.

The question that I want to pose is what the fundamental thing which grants the most number of privileges to the people is? If ethnicity is the answer then explain how Barak Obama became the president of the United States.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Chesney-Lind, M., & Chagnon, N. (2016). Criminology, gender, and race: A case study of privilege in the academy. Feminist Criminology, 11(4), 311–333.

Fetner, T. (2016). Book Review: Straights: Heterosexuality in Post-Closeted Culture by James Joseph Dean. SAGE Publications Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA.

McIntosh, P. (2001). White privilege and male privilege: A personal account of coming to see correspondences through work in Women’s studies (1988). Race, Class, and Gender: An Anthology.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

SOCY Replies


Student’s name



Response 1

I agree with the writer’s view on relationship issues. It is actually one of the major issues most people face. As discussed, failure to settle different past issues well and completely is one of the things that lead to misunderstanding among couples. This, therefore, means that it is important for partners to be open with each other, communicate whatever they feel on various matters so that they can regain their peace. Talking of physical and mental issues is also a good idea, which means that disagreements not only arise from external factors but also internal factors. I think social media has a great impact on relationships today. This is because most people expose their personal issues, making the public to realize their weaknesses and they start giving opinions which might even make the partners to part. It is important to settle such issues among the couple or consulting relevant people privately who might give relevant advice.

Response 2

The writer’s view of eating disorders is also nice. He points out that there are various factors which lead to eating disorders among people. This includes external factors like trying to imitate regulate eating habits in order to have attractive bodies, and at the same time, we have medical issues which affect the eating habits of an individual. One of the ideas I have that can be used in preventing eating disorders is education people within society. They need to understand the importance of first appreciating their physical appearances and also the need for taking healthy meals for the sake of their health. Through education they people will also understand different measures that should be considered while taking different meals in order to avoid developing eating disorders. Actually social media has a great impact on what we think about ourselves because most of us end up comparing themselves to other people rather than appreciating themselves.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

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