Dispossession of indigenous Canadians
Dispossession of indigenous Canadians
Around 12,000 years ago, the colonization started and after 15th century that European ,Portuguese ,Italian French landed . they start colonization after 1600 century. In Canada, one distinguishes three groups of indigenous or indigenous peoples. The First Nations (also called "Indians"), the Inuit and the Métis. The latter are predominantly descendants of Europeans who have connected with Indian women. They have developed two languages of their own, Michif , which was created from Cree and Scottish Gaelic . Numerous other Canadians have Indian ancestors. Their marriages were very often made according to the "custom of the country", i.e. without church or government involvement - as in marriages between men of the Hudson's Bay Company and Indian women was common. After this custom closed marriage were valid only from 1867 before the British law.
The Indigenous people dispossessed of, their lands and natural resources, their rights to their natural resources, their cultures, their language etc. Dispossession keeps them in an occupied state. Freedom road will allow the community to access important things. Different forms of trying to kill the people. They only want the resources. Canada has been sneaky. Colonization kills people. The Indian Act helps to divide the people. They need to apologize to them and exonerate them that it is not their fault. Reconciliation is when you do something wrong and you stop. But if you don’t stop it’s hard to reconcile The interests of the indigenous population are represented by Indian and Northern Affairs and Affaires indigenes et du Nord . In addition to the Inuit, it is mainly concerned with the Indians called First Nations. The Ministry is responsible for the recognition of individuals, but also for the recognition of groups as tribes ( bands ), of which it keeps a list. In 2010, 615 groups were recognized as tribes. 15 The Ministry is based on the Indian Law of 1876. However, the Indians see themselves more in their own organizations, such as the First Nations or other organizations. They refer to treaties concluded with Canada and the United Kingdom, such as the Numbered Treaties , to universal human rights, and to decisions of the Supreme Courts of Great Britain and Canada . The Indians have only since 1960 the full right to vote, the Inuit only since 1962. The latter is since 1999, a separate territory called Nunavut available. The First Nations have made numerous individual agreements with the Federal Government and the provinces, many of which have a Traditional Territory in which they have special rights and obligations. European settlers reached North America at the latest around the year 1000, when Scandinavians lived for a short time.
However, the "discoverer" of North America is Giovanni Caboto , an Italian sailor in English service who had lived in Venice for a long time. This landed on 24 June 1497 possibly on Cape Breton Island and took the land for England in possession. Basque whalers and fishermen came to the eastern Canadian coast at least from 1530 onwards and used the resources in the area among the Newfoundland Bank and Tadoussac from 44 for a century , without even attempting to settle there. An expedition led by Jacques Cartier explored the area around the St. Lawrence Gulf from 1534 to 1535 and the St. Lawrence River and declared it to be French owned. Between 1689 and 1763, there were four warlike conflicts in North America between Englishmen (or British) and Frenchmen, who were each a by-product of succession wars in Europe.
Is reconciliation possible? Peaceful colonization is still colonization. Harper’s statement was wrong. They seem to honour the acts and not the indigenous people They were advertising and selling lands that did not belong to them. The settlers were vendors. In Canada’s earliest days, if you were a rich white man actively colonizing, you got a road named after you or sometimes just name the road Colonization road. Roads and infrastructures were created simply to harvest natural resources not because of the aboriginal people or to make life easy and convenient for them. Within 5-mile radius is the entire infrastructure that tie the country together.
The Quebec Act, however, angered the inhabitants of the Thirteen Colonies, who saw it as an impermissible restriction on their westward expansion. The Quebec Act was one of those "intolerable The Peace of Paris recognized the independence of the thirteen colonies and the areas south of the Great Lakes formed the United States . Some 50,000 Loyalists who sided with Britain fled to Canada, along with the British allied Indian tribes, such as the Mohawk . 45In order to better organize the settlement of loyalists on the Atlantic coast New Brunswick 1784 was separated from Nova Scotia. Seven years later, London continued to meet Loyalists fleeing to Quebec, and the British Parliament passed the constitutional law of 1791 , which divided the province of Quebec into French and English speaking.
The tensions between the United States and Great Britain erupted in the British-American War , which lasted from 1812 to 1815 and ultimately ended inconclusively. In Canada, the war is still regarded today as a successful defense against American invasion attempts. The people of British and French developed a Canadian national feeling through the fight against the common enemy, and the loyalty of the British crown was strengthened. (Lavallee & Poole, 2010). But groups that sought more self-government without too much regard for the interests of the British Empire (responsible government), resisting the economic and political domination of a small elite, began to speak more and more clearly. But the rebellions of 1837 were quickly suppressed. Lord Durham then recommended in his inquiry report the establishment of a self-governing government and the gradual assimilation of the French Canadians. 46 The Act of Union 1840 merged Lower and Upper Canada into the province of Canada and made English the sole official language. By 1849, the remaining colonies in British North America also had their own government, which significantly weakened the groups seeking to join the US in the East. (Little, 1985).
In 1846, the United States and Britain concluded the Oregon compromise , which set the 49th parallel as the common border west of the Great Lakes . This was followed by the founding of the Pacific Coast located colonies Vancouver Island (1849) and British Columbia (1858). Inaccuracies in the borderline repeatedly led to diplomatic complications. In addition, many gold miners went north from the US in 1858, prompting the local governor, who had witnessed the departure of the Hudson's Bay Company from the northwestern United States, to tighten control over the men. As Erskine noted that , “the pressures they faced in 1850 will endure to challenge them. Nevertheless, in 1850 the Crown and the Anishinaabe had a similar vision that the Anishinaabe and the settler society could last to co-exist in a jointly deferential and valuable association going into the future” (Erskine,2019)
During the American Civil War , leading politicians recognized the need to oppose a strong federal state to American expansionist aspirations and deliberated in three constitutional conferences on the creation of a confederation . The result was the constitutional law , which came into force on July 1, 1867 and created the Dominion of Canada, which had a certain independence of Britain. In order to open up the west to immigrant settlement, the government, and especially British capital, participated in the financing of transcontinental railways and established the North-West Mounted Police to control the state Prairies and subarctic regions. The Northwest Rebellion and the subsequent execution of the Métis leader Louis Riel in 1885 led to a deep rift between the two language groups. As a direct result of the Klondike gold rush , 1898 became the Yukon Territory created. In response to the increasing colonization of the prairie, the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan emerged in 1905 from the southern part of the Northwest Territories .
Between 1871 and 1921, Canada signed eleven treaties with the Indians, reserving them against small compensations but they guaranteed their usual way of life. Until the 1960s, in some areas even into the 80s they tried to forcibly assimilate. Thus the pupils were forbidden the use of their mother tongues, every form of the tradition was as well as possible suppressed. The Indians were not allowed to hire lawyers to defend their claims in court, and until 1960 they were not allowed to attend parliamentary elections at national level, the Inuit even until 1962. Colonial activities, both past and present, have attempted to strip Indigenous people of them
identity and land (Lavallee & Poole, 2010).
On the side of Great Britain, Canada participated in the First World War from 1914 and sent volunteers to the Western Front . When the government tried to introduce compulsory military service against the resistance of the French-speaking part of the population, the conscription crisis of 1917 occurred.
In the negotiation of the Treaty of Versailles , Canada emerged as an independent state and joined the League of Nations in 1919, independent of Great Britain . The Statute of Westminster guaranteed legislative independence in 1931, but certain constitutional ties remained. The country was hit particularly hard by the global economic crisis, as a reaction developed in the following decades, a well-developed welfare state .
Is reconciliation between First Nation and Non-First-Nation Canadians possible?
The doctrine of Discovery formalized in 15th century allowed the first settlers to come own the land and this was based on the Bible - Song of Solomon. Treaty making was the peaceful way to go about getting lands from the people after the resolution of the conflict between the French and English people. Royal proclamation given by King George 111 that laid out the rules and form of government for the newly acquired colonies. You people don’t deserve your rights. But rights are inherent. Which means they were here even before the settlers came. The royal proclamation simply acknowledged those rights. They had to have their consent. The only way their colonies could be secured was if they recognized and protected those rights. The treaties form the basis of Canada. They are contract and the government needs to honour them. They cannot just walk away. That will invalidate our legal system. The treaties signed after proclamation Shows that they have to have their consent. The treaties are constitutionally protected and shows the sovereignty of the He Indigenous nation. Recognition of the sovereignty of the Indigenous people give legitimacy to Canada as a country.
The lessons of the treat is that they have a deal. “Colonization Road” will deliver understanding into an arrangement that has controlled not only to the development of Canada, but the very actual price of that development and how glorification the agreements, opening to this place we all call home can lead to a decolonized Canada as waters flow. (McMahon, 2019).
The cultural forms of the more than 600 First Nations , as the Indians predominantly describe themselves, are by no means uniform. Within the country, between city and country, between the ethnic groups, the differences are very large. “While roads deliver admittance and substructure to colonizers all over the country, there are First Nation societies whose absenteeism of roads has been damaging and even noxious” (McMahon, 2019). They developed their own identities and cultural structures. “At the same time, large cultural areas can be distinguished. A convinced indigenous versus non-indigenous parting is reserved whilst keeping indigenous society tied, like a balloon, to the march of settler pro2013gress and, hereafter, open to the sustained flow of colonial/settler mediators and constructions”( Paradies, 2016).
On the Pacific coast, the culture was dominated by fishing, especially salmon, or whaling, as in the Nuu-chah-nulth on Vancouver Island. There you will also find the massive totem poles, the largest of which is over 50 m high. Inland, hunting, gathering and river fishing dominated. In the great plains, the plains , was the bison hunt central in other moose, further north caribou. In the literature, ecological problems, poverty and violence, dehumanized technology or spirituality are mostly in the foreground. Most people are reluctant to label themselves as "Native American artists” but pick up topics that affect urbanized society as a whole. With diversity, understanding and respect of cultural values of indigenous people will be helpful to reconcile first nation and non-nation.
Erskine, M., & Erskine, M. (2019, January 8). Judge rules Robinson Huron Treaty's $4 annuity
needs update. Retrieved from https://www.manitoulin.ca/judge-rules-robinson-huron-treatys-4-annuity-needs-update/.
Kenrick, J., & Lewis, J. (2004). Indigenous peoples' rights and the politics of the term
‘indigenous’. Anthropology Today, 20(2), 4-9.
Lavallee, L. F., & Poole, J. M. (2010). Beyond recovery: Colonization, health and healing for
Indigenous people in Canada. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 8(2), 271-281.
Paradies, Y. (2016). Colonisation, racism and indigenous health. Journal of Population Research,
McMahon, R. (2019). Colonization Road. Retrieved from
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