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Title page


From the reading about memory processes I learned that following appropriate strategy can improve study skills. It allowed me to learn that different strategies can be adopted for enhancing memory. The first suggestion for improving memory is chunking that means memorizing information in small pieces. The second strategy that can be used for improving memory is elaborating rehearsal. In this process the meaning of the new word is recalled by using knowledge that is already stored in memory. The third suggestion is of using mnemonic devices. This device allow learners to encode information and recalling information in stages or phases. The example is recalling months in an orderly form like January, February, March etc. The fourth strategy is saying words loud. This allow learners to store information in memory and recalling at the time of need.

My time management skills will be applied to SmartPrep modules by adopting different strategies. To retain information in memory for a longer period I would use chunking and mnemonic devices. I will follow a certain order such as Mercury, Venus, Earth for memorizing placement of planets.

Annotated bibliography

Article 1: Sleister, H. M. (2014). Evidence-Based Strategies to Improve Memory and Learning. Journal of Microbiol Biol Educ, 15 (2), 336–337.

The article stresses on identifying ways for enhancing memory. It explains the memory enhancing strategies can be effective for learning. The common strategies identified include recalling, reading aloud, frequently asking questions from the teacher and writing. Frequent quizzes at classroom also makes memorizing easy for the learners. The article highlights benefits of memorizing.

Article 2: Forrin, N. D., & MacLeod, C. M. (2017). Reading information aloud to yourself improves memory of materials. Memory, 1.

The article explore the role of memory enhancing strategies on learning of students. One of the most effective method of retaining information for a longer duration is reading aloud. This also reflects the effectiveness of rehearsing words. When an individual reads the information again and again it is stored in the memory.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Forrin, N. D., & MacLeod, C. M. (2017). Reading information aloud to yourself improves memory of materials . Memory , 1.

Sleister, H. M. (2014). Evidence-Based Strategies to Improve Memory and Learning . J Microbiol Biol Educ , 15 (2), 336–337.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 1 Words: 300


Title page


FYS Week 5

The test taking strategies that I have implemented for preparing posttest include listening attentively to the instructions, reading test directions with full concentration, and planning time allocation. Careful reading of the instructions will be useful in General Education Course because it will help me in recalling the required information. In the course these strategies will allow me to memorize things.

FYS Week 6

I will navigate through SmartPrep by focusing on weaknesses of each module including math, science, language and English. Through a personalized study plan I would be able to give adequate time to each module separately. This will allow me to score better in every subject. SmartPrep online practice tests have allowed me to enhance my knowledge in English and math.

FYS Week

My results of each module depicts that SmartPrep has contributed to my overall academic improvement. I scores A grade in all four subjects that exhibits the positive impact of the SmartPrep course. During taking test I adopted the strategy of managing time and completing all sections within the given duration. I read the instructions carefully that allowed me to recall the course material.

FYS Week 8

I believe that the course has contributed to my overall academic development because I have been able to enhance my academic preparedness. The tutorials helped me in creating personalized study plans that improved by ability of learning and retaining course material.

PSY Week 6

Psychology today is capable of explaining the changes experienced by humans in later life. It explains that human beings continue to experience change even after adolescence. The concept of social and emotional aging explains that people exhibits different behavioral patterns as they get old. This is due to the changes in the socio-economic settings CITATION Sus10 \l 1033 (Charles & Carstensen, 2010).


BIBLIOGRAPHY Charles, S., & Carstensen, L. L. (2010). Social and Emotional Aging . Annu Rev Psychol, 61, 383–409.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Assigment 5, Psychology Of Exeptional Children

Assignment 5: Psychology of Exceptional Children

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Assignment 5: Psychology of Exceptional Children

1: AAIDD is a professional association that is related to intellectual and developmental disabilities and the inclusion of these people in society. Based on the disabilities of the person the organization either provide basic facilities to the person or full therapies are provided to the individual.

2: Some of the common characteristics of Intellectual disabilities are learning difficulty and possessing information, issue related to abstract thought and also issues related to social interaction happen at various levels that are unique to each individual.

3. The five skills that should be focused while treating babies and adolescents with intellectual disabilities are communication, problem-solving, hygiene, routines and also everyday social skills.

4. Speech, language and communication are interrelated because speech is basically the production of sound, language is the method of communication, all the three are related in the speech which is a method of using language for communication.

5. Although there are no known causes of stuttering and language disorder some are brain difference, family history, abnormalities in speech motor control and also genetics.

6. The treatment approaches for adults are accompanied by speech therapy and also pediatric therapy. While in children the best therapy is only speech therapy other than that cognitive behavior therapy can also help.

7. Autism spectrum is highly variable and genetic processes, environmental events, gene, and environmental interaction and also developmental factors play a role in these variabilities however the severity of the characteristics are varied from person to person, some people can control the characteristics like they will behave normally in public while others will show strange behavior when in public ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"r3cAt1y2","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Synaptic, transcriptional and chromatin genes disrupted in autism | Nature,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“Synaptic, transcriptional and chromatin genes disrupted in autism | Nature,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1283,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/74JWUZ46"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/74JWUZ46"],"itemData":{"id":1283,"type":"webpage","title":"Synaptic, transcriptional and chromatin genes disrupted in autism | Nature","URL":"https://www.nature.com/articles/nature13772","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",4,6]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Synaptic, transcriptional and chromatin genes disrupted in autism | Nature,” n.d.).

8: The primary impairments in children with autisms are speech and language impairments.

9: The biological factors that play a role in autisms are a mutation in the gene which increases the risk of autism.

10: There are various treatment approaches for Autism spectrum disorders which include behavior and communication approaches, dietary approaches, medication and also complementary and alternative medicines.


1: Biomedical Factors: These are the factors or characteristics that increase the chances of a person to get a disease or disorder these are bodily states which are influenced by behavioral risk factors.

2: Anoxia is a condition in which the person’s body or the brain stops getting oxygen which creates oxygen depletion in the body.

3: Anencephaly is the absence of a major part of the brain, skull and also scalp which happens during the developmental stage of the embryo.

4: Hydrocephalus is a condition excessive cerebrospinal fluid builds up within the ventricles of the brain and they can also increase the pressure within the head.

5: Language delay is a type of communication disorders, children can have a language delay if they don't meet the language developmental milestones for their age.

6: Landuage disorder on kids results in struggle with both understanding and also speaking the language. It is different from speech sound disorder which contains problems in producing sound.

7: Phonology is the branch of linguistics which is related to the systematic organization of sounds in spoken languages and also signs in sign languages.

8: Syntax is basically the arrangement of words or phrases in order to create a well-formed sentence in a language.

9: Morphology is that branch of biology that deals with the forms of living things and with relationships between structures.

10: Semantics is a branch of language and also logic concerned with meaning. The study of meaning is also called semantics.

11: Receptive language disorder is a condition in which the child has difficulties with understanding what is said to them.

12: Expressive language disorder is a condition in which the child has problems in conveying and also expressing information in speech, gesture and also sign.

13: Aphasia is a disorder of language which effects the production of understanding of speech along with the ability to read or write.

14: Cluttering is a communication problem which affects the person's ability to convey messages in a clear manner.

15: Delay speech which is also called alalia is the delay in the development or use of mechanisms which produce speech.

16: Autism is a wide range of conditions which are accompanied by challenges related to social skills, repetitive behavior and also nonverbal communication.

17: Savant syndrome is a condition in which a person has various mental abnormalities which also explains certain abilities far in excess of average.

18: Asperger’s syndrome is characterized by difficulties in social difficulties and also nonverbal communication ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"pOdLrqW0","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Szatmari, Archer, Fisman, Streiner, & Wilson, 1995)","plainCitation":"(Szatmari, Archer, Fisman, Streiner, & Wilson, 1995)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":211,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/2CD5CPQS"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/2CD5CPQS"],"itemData":{"id":211,"type":"article-journal","title":"Asperger's syndrome and autism: Differences in behavior, cognition, and adaptive functioning","container-title":"Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry","page":"1662-1671","volume":"34","issue":"12","author":[{"family":"Szatmari","given":"Peter"},{"family":"Archer","given":"Lynda"},{"family":"Fisman","given":"Sandra"},{"family":"Streiner","given":"David L."},{"family":"Wilson","given":"Freda"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1995"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Szatmari, Archer, Fisman, Streiner, & Wilson, 1995).

19: ASD or Autism spectrum disorder is a term that is used for a particular set of behavior and developmental problems along with the challenges.

20: The Pervasive Developmental Disorder is a set of developmental delays which includes autism, Asper’s syndrome, Rett syndrome, and Childhood disintegrative disorder.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Synaptic, transcriptional and chromatin genes disrupted in autism | Nature. (n.d.). Retrieved April 6, 2019, from https://www.nature.com/articles/nature13772

Szatmari, P., Archer, L., Fisman, S., Streiner, D. L., & Wilson, F. (1995). Asperger’s syndrome and autism: Differences in behavior, cognition, and adaptive functioning. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 34(12), 1662–1671.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 2 Words: 600


Your Name

Instructor Name

Course Number


Blind Side and Social Psychological Principles

The Blind Side is based on a heart-touching true story of a high school boy, Michael. It is about his journey from being a silent, diffident kid to being a professional footballer. As a child, he has a broken and unstable home due to a drug-addict mom and an absentee father. He begins going to a new school, and eventually end up into the home of a rather wealthy family called the Tuohys that offers him stability better upbringing. He begins to improve his grades and starts playing football. Eventually, he becomes football fame and many colleges look forward at him for joining their football teams.

I chose this movie because it provides a very deep insight into the psychosocial development of a child and the factors that play instrumental roles in promoting or retarding this development. Blind Side can be related to Social Psychology in many ways. There are many social-psychological principles that are at play in the movie including stereotyping, prejudice, bystander effect, conformity, discrimination, gender roles, unconditional positive regard, and so on.

The movie shows how as several points in his early life, Michael experienced social discrimination. Discrimination can be defined as meting out a prejudicial treatment to someone solely on the basis of their membership in a certain social group. At one instance, during a football match, the referee was showing bias as he didn't call a penalty when Michael was hit by the opponent team’s member on his head. One explanation for this discrimination could be the black color of Michael. Moreover, he had also suffered social isolation because his peers thought he was dumb as he had not developed a normal level of intelligence because of his broken family.

The issues of discrimination persist even today in the American Society. The discrimination ranges from racism to gender discrimination. One form is discrimination against immigrants. Discrimination based on sexual orientation is yet another example. The scenes of police brutality surface more often than not against the black community. In schools and colleges, those who come from humble backgrounds are looked down upon and pushed into isolation.

Stereotyping is a generalized belief about a person because of his or her association with a certain group or category. The movie highlights stereotyping when, at one instance, Sean asks Leigh Anne about Michael that whether or not he has stolen anything. Here stereotyping is at play because Sean assumed that Michael stole something simply because he was black. Stereotyping is a social psychological principle prevailing in almost all societies around the world. One pertinent example is the stereotyping to American people. There are both positive and negative stereotypes associated with Americans by other people around the world. Positive stereotypes include optimism, generosity and hardworking. Negative stereotypes include obesity, obsession with guns, materialism, military zeal, etc.

Another important social psychological principle that was at play in the move was conformity. Conformity can be defined as the tendency of an individual to align their behavior, attitude, and beliefs with the surrounding people in order to in the group. One of the reasons for conformity is the desire to acquire a sense of security within a religious, cultural or same-age group. Non-conformity can lead to social rejection. Michael's younger brother was a student but wanted to join one of the local gangs. Therefore he dropped out of school and changed himself to fit into the gang groups as per their requirement and terms. Another character, Leigh Anne Tuohy, on the other hand, depicts the behavior of non-conformity when she tells her socialite friends that they were all bigots. She chose truth over the comfort that comes with social conformity.

Conformity is extremely entrenched in our society. We conform to expectations of society regarding our gender roles. Our sexual orientation, in majority cases, also aligns with the societal norms. However, not everyone conforms to social pressure and there can be exceptions as well. According to one study, the degree of conformity varies from culture to culture CITATION Smi92 \l 1033 (Smith and Bond). For instance, in comparison to Asian culture, people from Western cultures (U.S., UK, etc.) are more individualistic. People in Eastern cultures, on the other hand, tend to value the needs, norms, and traditions of family and groups.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Smith, P. B. and M. H. Bond. "Social Psychology Across Cultures: Analysis and Perspectives." (1992). <https://www.simplypsychology.org/conformity.html>.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 2 Words: 600



[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]


Introductory Post

Thank you all for gathering here. This page has been specially created to assure you that you are not alone; you are not isolated and you definitely need not to worry. Help is always there and we are always here to bring it to you. Helping Hands had always been actively assisting the survivors of Katrina Hurricane by providing therapeutic assistance both in the areas of physical and psychological treatments (Bankston III, et. al., 2010). Helping hands had been conducting individuals and group therapies at different locations. As we all know that it is not possible for everyone to gather at our selected support group meeting location, hence the organization has taken this initiative to keep the tradition of support group discussions alive. This page will help the participants of the support group discussions to stay in contact with each other and with the management even if they have moved to different locations (Naslund, Aschbrenner, Marsch, & Bartels, 2016) They can also reach to discuss their issues privately in our private inbox. Helping hands would always be delighted to help the calamity stricken friends and drive them to a better tomorrow.

Two Initial Posts for the Page as a Group Leader

Post 1

The management of Helping Hands is delighted to present this group to our friends who have been struck badly by the devastating Katrina Hurricane. Since Helping Hands cannot continue the series of physical support group discussions, we will be having online discussion sessions from now onwards. Those members who are available for physical and live meetings are more than welcome to join us; other members are requested to suggest how would they prefer these sessions to be conducted? The management has been thinking on two patterns; the first options is that we can have a conference call with all the maximum possible number of members, for the second option, the psychologist can start a live session at a pre-decided time and the participants can keep coming and joining. These live sessions will also be beneficial in the sense that people can also view the comments and the whole session even after the termination of the session. (Barak, Boniel-Nissim, & Suler, 2008).

Post 2

Suggestions are welcomed for the date and place of the next support group session. Those members who can reach easily to the location are more than welcome and those people who will not be able to come to the meeting point can easily join us on the video call.

Four Mock Responses to Initial Posts

Responses to Post 1

Happy to hear from you. I am glad that you guys have taken this initiative of online support group. It would be beneficial for many people like me who had moved away from the location and could not attend the physical support group sessions anymore. In my opinion, the option of ConCall would be better, as it is a much closer option to physical participation of the members.

Hi. I would suggest that you people conduct live sessions, instead of conference calls. In this way, more people will be able to participate in the sessions and you guys can touch a larger number of audience. Really appreciate your efforts.

Responses to Post 2

Hey, you guys are doing a great job. I would suggest that the next session should be conducted in the community hall of our town. I guess it is easier for many people to reach there.

I cannot participate physically this time as I have moved to my aunt’s place. Kindly don’t conduct physical sessions.


Bankston III, C. L., Barnshaw, J., Bevc, C., Capowich, G. E., Clarke, L., Das, S. K., ... & Esmail, A. (2010). The sociology of Katrina: Perspectives on a modern catastrophe. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Barak, A., Boniel-Nissim, M., & Suler, J. (2008). Fostering empowerment in online support groups. Computers in human behavior, 24(5), 1867-1883.

Naslund, J. A., Aschbrenner, K. A., Marsch, L. A., & Bartels, S. J. (2016). The future of mental health care: peer-to-peer support and social media. Epidemiology and psychiatric sciences, 25(2), 113-122.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 2 Words: 600


Neo-Freudian theorists

The prominent Neo-Freudian theorists include Adler, Erikson and Jung. Adler stressed on the significance of social connections and conscious thoughts. He explained that personality is the product of social determinants. This means that an individual will develop a personality according to the social environment in which he is living. Adler was against Freud’s idea of unconscious thoughts and the role of inner sexual drive. The psychological theory of Alder explained that unconsciousness alone is not adequate for driving behaviors. Unconscious motivation is not strong enough for provoking negative attitudes. His analysis of libido explains that human beings are striving for perfection that create feelings of inferiority. The desire for perfection provokes aggressive drive.

Erikson claimed that the social and historical forces drive certain behavior in human beings. This indicates that the libido never moves while social forces influence one’s creation of identity. This also explains the reason of identify crisis because children who are dissatisfied with their ethnicities or cultural background struggles to change them. Erikson has also identified identify crisis experienced by humans at different ages. Such as when the child is two years old he struggles to trust others. This is due to the mistrust towards others. On reaching age of three the child struggles to attain autonomy. During the age of 6-12 years the child face challenge of inferiority.

Jung explained that libido represents the natural urge of life. He focused on manifestation of energy for explaining the role of personality. Individuals are motivated by the desire of hunger, sleep and sex. He claimed that a self-regulated system is responsible for initiating behaviors and formation of personalities. Individuals are motivated by their inner most urge and desire. He rejected the concept of unconscious thoughts explained by Freud.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 1 Words: 300


Factor influence my life history

Student’s Name



My life

A person identity and life is shaped by several different factors. Culture, family, personal interest, friends and the surrounding environment are some of the factors which shaped a person’s identity and life. I was born in March 1997 in Cuba. Though during 1997 and the years after, Cuba was isolated from the rest of the world due sanctions, but we had access to TV and other essential households which gave me access to the rest of the world. Music played a key role in my life. I used to listen to pop music and blues which are Americans music. I always think because of music and other American movies I used to watch changed my mind and therefore, influenced my decision to come to America and pursue education.

The popular cars were vintage cars, which was introduced in during 1870s but it has gone through modification to reflect the change in technology. I loved cars and when growing I used to play with cars hoping one day I will own my car. It contributed a lot to the kind f course I pursue and therefore, I can confirm that cars were some of the greatest influence of my life. However, being born and growing up in communist nations influenced my life. It affected how I interact with people and also grew up speaking only Spanish as the only language. Therefore, culture, language and regions are some of the factors which influenced my life and therefore, shape my identity and my beliefs.

It is therefore, important to point that who I am today is because of my family, but mostly because of what decided to be. There was also a lot of political temperature in the country, the resignation of Fidel Castrol from the leadership, sanctions which made Cuba to be isolated from the rest of the world. These factors contributed greatly to the lives of people. Because of sanctions the economy was terribly bad forcing my citizens to migrate to the United States and other neighboring nations.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 1 Words: 300


oBiological Treatments: including various use of chemicals(drugs) to treat some of the effects of mood disorder but it depends because person with mood disorder can switch his mood from depression to mania. and in this case different medicines can be suggested by doctors including SSRI, SNRI, MAOIs or ant depressants etc. Other treatments may include ECT and mood stabilizers like Lithium or anticonvulsant etc.

oPsychological Treatments including: There are many psychological treatments can be used in mood disorders like behaviour therapy, cognitive or combination (CBT) family focused or rhythm therapy.

-Behaviour therapy core elements are core believes hidden behind depression, anxiety and

-Cognitive therapy core elements are core thoughts that are responsible for negative through pattern that are responsible for disorder.

- CBT core believes are beliefs and automatic thoughts.

Cognitive Behaviour therapy

Cognitive behavioural therapy combines the principles of cognitive psychotherapy and behavioural therapy that was actively developed in the 1950s. However, in its present-day form, cognitive behavioural therapy has evolved when these therapies were systematically combined in the 1980s and 1990s. In the history of cognitive behavioural therapy, both the underlying theories and methods are central to the knowledge and experimental methods studied. This, on the other hand, provides a solid scientific basis for the trend and its development and, on the other hand, directs its focus to phenomena that can be scientifically measured, such as external symptoms and practices. Common exercises include various relaxation methods, experimenting with new practices and training, gradual exposure exercises, and so-called 'practice' exercises. “Mindfulness” exercises, where you practice your own thoughts and feelings in a spirit of acceptance, just putting them in the mark and not interpreting them anymore.

Interpersonal and social rhythm therapy

This therapy reduces the stress of your life. Because stress activate bipolar disorder, this method can aid to reduce mood cycling. It helps in consistent practices of eating, sleeping, and activity. It also helps in stabilizing personal relationships

Family-oriented care

Family-centred care helps to resolve stress and built healthy relationship with other family members. It also helps in improving communication and provide education about disease to other family members.

Comparison of therapies

Combination of various therapies can be more effective then using single approach like using drug therapy with psychotherapy or CBT. However, the relapse rate in different mood can be effected if one treatment discontinued.


Nemeroff, C. B., & Owens, M. J. (2002). Treatment of mood disorders. Nature neuroscience,

5(11s), 1068.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 1 Words: 300


Unit 9 Assignment: Educational and Career Plan

[Name of the Student]

[Name of the Institute]

Educational and Career Plan

Educational and career planning is essential in helping students become aware of the existing relationship between career and educational planning in pursuing the learning and practical work.For being a specialized organizational or industrial psychologist, a doctorate degree in psychology or PsyD is essential in the relevant field. It creates a more excellent knowledge and awareness regarding the benefits of specific educational accomplishments and developing career paths.There are various online resources for career planning, and they are significantly helpful in making students build a successful career plan for their choice of degree. The following degree plan will provide and will explore the courses and career pathways in doctorate of psychology or PsyD.

Degree Plan

Psychologists, today, work in almost every field. They are divided into two chief disciplines; researchers or practitioners. My intended attention is to gain a doctoral degree in industrial/organizational psychology. I will most likely opt for a research project or thesis, as it will help me search for something innovative, or unique in industrial/organizational psychology. The field of psychology is becoming more competitive in this era of scientific innovations, as companies are finding new and essential ways of improving organizations and their cultures at various levels. The specialization in organizational or industrial psychologist requires a doctorate degree in psychology or PsyD in the relevant field. PsyD degree is alternative to a Ph.D., and it is obtained for direct psychological practices and services than the disciplinary research. The educational requirement for this degree is to have a degree of master’s in I/O psychology.

The course of I/O psychology is designed at an accelerated rate, and it is typically done in four to six years. Anyways, four years is the fastest pace for doctoral students, and mostly it requires the students to complete all of the prerequisites and requisites of the program. This degree necessitates the basic knowledge of general psychology and, practical and theoretical work to enter into the PsyD program. This program prepares its students to become licensed I/O psychologists (Pomerantz&Murphy, 2015).

Course Number

Course Name

PSY 7512

Psychology of Leadership (3 credits)

ORG 8511

Advanced Topics in Performance Management (3 credits)

RES 7105

Scholarly Argument I (3 credits)

ORG 8510

Advanced Seminar: Leading Organizational Change (3 credits)

RES 7400

Research Design & Methods – Quantitative (3 credits)

RES 7410

Research Design & Methods – Qualitative (3 credits)

ORG 8518

Professional & Business Ethics in Organizational Leadership (3 credits)

RES 7402 

Advanced Tests & Measurements (3 credits)

ORG 7101

Assessment Tools for Organizational Leadership (3 credits)

RES 7110

Scholarly Argument II (3 credits)

RES 7415

Advanced Statistics (3 credits)

RES 7440

Advanced Study in Qualitative Research (3 credits)

DOC 8770

RES 8910

RES 8912

RES 8990/8992

Doctoral Capstone Seminar (4 credits)

Dissertation Planning I (1 credit)

Dissertation Planning II (1 credit)

Dissertation* (5 credits)

Licensure/Credentialing Plan

Required Licensure/Credentialing

It is necessary to become a licensed psychologist through the state board of licensing in order to practice psychology. Industrial-organizational psychologists need to be licensed in some states. Therefore, nine states necessitate the licensure of having a separate designation for psychologists as a provider of health service. The national register provides such an opportunity for credentialing the providers of healthcare and services that are ensured by the companies. The licensing body of the state requires at least a doctoral degree in psychology from a government-chartered or regionally accredited institution. Various institutes in different countries need it from an APA accredited program.

Steps and Requirements

Accumulate authoritative materials. Understudies should report the number of customers, sorts of issues they treated and regulated encounters they had during their postdoc and entry-level position, Bricklin says. To facilitate the procedure, make a dossier of your coursework, recommends Stuart Tentoni, Ph.D., advising organizer and preparing chief at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Norris Health Center (Doverspike& Flores, 2019).

Get ready for tests. All U.S. states and Canadian territories whose sheets are individuals from ASPPB - with the exception of Quebec and Prince Edward Island - expect candidates to pass the EPPP, a 225-question numerous decision test created by ASPPB on center zones of brain science, for example, appraisal and analysis, and social and natural bases of conduct. Be that as it may, Quebec requires the EPPP for out-of-region applicants. Visit www.asppb.org for substance territories and an electronic practice test.

Passing scores for the EPPP are set by each state; most states require in any event a 70 percent or 500 on the PC based test. Candidates who take the EPPP not long after in the wake of finishing their doctoral certificate will, in general, improve on the test than the individuals who pause, says Barbara Van Horne, Ph.D., ASPPB president. (See Toward answers for expert postdocs for more data on when you can take the EPPP.) Some states likewise expect a contender to pass an oral test that might be a competency-based test or a trial of laws and morals. Different states just require a law test.

Gather administered clinical hours. Understudies should collect 2,000 hours during temporary position and 2,000 hours during the postdoc. To meet state necessities, Emil Rodolfa ., a previous PhD student from California prescribes, authorizing board and seat of the Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and Internship Centers. Purviews change in the number of regulated hours required.

Additional Requirements

Bank your accreditations. Banking or recording data about your postdoc, temporary position, and doctoral certificate through associations like the ASPPB's Credentials Bank (www.asppb.org) or the National Psychologist Trainee Register (www.nationalregister.org) implies you won't need to find transcripts or bosses for marks later on.

Make yourself versatile. Banking your certifications, some exhort, can likewise be an approach to enable you to rehearse in an alternate state later in your profession.

Foresee the expense. Look for assistance when you need it. In case you're confounded or uneasy about the permitting procedure, many online sites prescribe conversing with other people who have experienced it.

Career Plan

Career Goals

The career goals and objectives of I/O psychologists vary diversely and numerously. This branch of psychology studies and applies the theoretical and practical framework for the organizational environment. The principal goal of the I/O psychologist is to improve the efficiency of a workplace.Its primary focus is to study the climate and employee relationship within an organization and it also focuses on working for the benefit of the organization. Moreover, after three years of gaining a PsyD degree, I will be in command to particular practical work in the related field. After two more years, it will enhance their skills and abilities. In 10 years, the goal is to be a professional psychologist with various other licenses and credentials (Purdue.edu).

Additional Education, Licensure, or Credentialing

Additionally, there is no requirement for any more license, diploma, and education or degree in I/O psychology after PsyD. This degree is an alternative to a Ph.D., and it is obtained for direct psychological practices. Hence its services and resources are very much similar to the Ph.D. programs, and as a student of Ph.D. needs no further degree or diploma after the doctorate, likewise it is not necessary for PsyD students.

Career Center Resources

The resources such as career assessment/exploration, technical direction, resume and cover letter review, interview preparation, mock interviews, and career networking tips, assistance in building an online job search and support are centers that are available online for assisting the students with career planning.

Other Purdue Global Resources

Others may include online career fairs, 24/7 online access to jobs and career development tools through a network of career building sites, and Purdue Global career resource online.

Resources Outside of PG

Outside resources areas such as career service centers, career force locations, counselors, GPS, and employment training programs. There are various online resources for career planning, and they are significantly helpful in making students build a successful career plan for their choice of degree. These resources are necessary in ways such as they assist the student along with career goals, objectives, and even salary packages.


The educational and career plan provides and explores the courses and career pathways for Doctorate of psychology or PsyD. In order to become a specialized organizational or industrial psychologist, a doctorate degree in psychology or PsyD is essential in the relevant field. This plan will be helpful in pursuing the degree and its courses. It discussed the duration, directions, and career goals respectively, and gave a brief career plan. My main objective is to gain a doctoral degree in industrial/organizational psychology. The field of psychology is becoming more competitive in this era of scientific innovations, as companies are finding new and essential ways of improving the organization and its culture at various levels. The principal goal of the I/O psychologist is to improve the efficiency of a workplace. Some states, likewise, expect a contender to pass an oral test that might be a competency-based test or a trial of laws and morals. Otherstates just require a law test. There are various online resources for career planning, and they are significantly helpful in making students build a successful career plan for degree of choice.References

Communications, B., (2019). Managerial Accounting Services | Global Support Resources. Purdue.edu. Retrieved 10 June 2019, from https://www.purdue.edu/business/mas/global/resources/index.html

Doverspike, D., & Flores, C., (2019). Becoming an Industrial-organizational Psychologist. Routledge.

Pomerantz, A. M., & Murphy, J. M. (2015). Coverage of Ph.D./PsyD differences in undergraduate clinical psychology textbooks. Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Psychology, 1(3), 244.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 5 Words: 1500







1 a. What are the three indicators that family therapy should be considered

Scapegoating families

This is where there is a member of the family who is infected by diseases such as cancer, diabetes, HIV/AID or Ebola. Such kind of familys needs therapeutic advice to enable then know how to handle such a kind of patient (Dare et al, pg. 1048). This is because patients who suffer from this kind of disease always need good family care to survive for a longer period and so if not taken care of they might end up dying quickly.

Family patterns contributing to ego dysfunction

This is a situation where you find out that some family members do not want to listen to others opinion or where they live on their own rules (Dare et al, pg. 1049).

Acting out parental impulses

This is where either one or both parents have a problem on their ego, syntonic, character or disorder and therefore fail to listen to have a problem interacting with their children

1 b. What are three red flags or reasons why family therapy should not be attempted

The counselor chosen does not have the necessary training to address the issues that the family has (Wachtel, pg. 336).

This is a very dangerous indicator since by the fact of letting an unqualified person attend to a family on the crisis he or she might end up giving the wrong advice and making the problem to be even worse.

Severe sadomasochistic among the family members

This is a situation where all the family members have a poor relationship and therefore cannot sit on one table to discuss anything among themselves (wachtel, pg. 337).

A family that is undergoing divorce proceedings

In this kind of family setting, there is a huge expectation of unhealthy temperatures among the members and the members in the family may tend to pick sides to favor.

2. List three techniques you can use in family therapy to help the adolescent child share their negative experiences/ feelings stemming from trauma with their negative caregivers

First of all, the therapist should assure the adolescent child that he or she is safe. He should also make the child aware of the stage that he or she is undergoing and make them believe that it is part of life (Cohen Mannarino, pg. 158).

Secondly, the therapist should be able to explain to the child that he or she is not responsible for what happened. This is because most children in this stage happen to blame themselves on events that they even cannot handle

Lastly, the therapist should tell the children to be patient, since there is no absolute time that is stipulated for healing in case of trauma. The therapist should assure the children that they should not feel guilty or have any bad thoughts about anything.


Russell, G. F., Szmukler, G. I., Dare, C., Eisler, I. (1987). An evaluation of family therapy in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.Archives of general psychiatry,44(12), 1047-1056.

Cohen, J. A., Mannarino, A. P. (2008). Trauma focused cognitive behavioural therapy for children and parents.Child and Adolescent Mental Health,13(4), 158-162.

Wachtel, E. F. (1982). The family psyche over three generations The genogram revisited.Journal of Marital and Family Therapy,8(3), 335-343.




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Subject: Psychology

Pages: 1 Words: 300



Instructors’ Name

Course Title and Code


Teenage Depression and Suicide


Teenager depression and suicide, which have been neglected for a long time, has now emerged as a great health concern in modern times. The long spells of sadness, feelings of worthlessness and not being valued, depressed mood are some of the most important sign of depression among the teenagers, which lead them towards the thoughts of suicide. It is often caused due to the family history of the individual, however, can also be found among the individuals having no family history of depression. It is a treatable condition, which needs the attention and support of family and other support groups. It can be treated with the help of professionals by getting psychotherapy, interpersonal therapy, cognitive behavior therapy, and medicines.

Teenage Depression and Suicide

Depression is one of the most common, as well as growing, mental health concerns in modern time. The society has taken a really long time to accept the fact that depression is a serious mental health issue, which can impact the performance of an individual regarding the routine activities, as well as cause serious threats to the physical health of the person. A general conception in the society is that then mental health issue like depression can only be found among the adults and it does not affect the life and routine activities of the children or the teenagers. However, this conception has been proved wrong in the past decade, as a number of cases of teenage depression have been observed. They are facing the challenges of making their place in modern society, which becomes an important source of their depression. Teenagers can also develop depression due to the pressure of performance, family issues and identity issues. It can also be caused due to the family history of the issue. One of the most concerning issues about teenage depression is that it is giving rise to suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts among the teenagers, as they do not get timely help and think they are not needed in the society. The rate of suicide among teenagers has drastically increased in the past few years and pose a serious threat to the mortality rate of the teenage population. The issue is not just limited to one part of the world but the teenagers in different parts of the world, belonging to different races and ethnicities, as well as genders, and social classes of the society have the tendency of developing depression and becoming suicidal. It is the responsibility of the society to provide the programs of awareness, so the disturbed teenagers can seek treatment, instead of being guilty and feeling worthless and unvalued. Teenage depression and suicide may have been among the rising concerns of the society, however, it can be controlled by spreading awareness about the importance of mental health and the status of the problem among teenagers, in addition to providing the psychotherapies and other treatment facilities.

Teenage depression is almost a new concept for the society as initially, the people did not believe the fact that there could be any issue with the mental health of the children, or teenagers as young as the age of ten to fifteen or sixteen years. However, the research by McLoughlin, Gould, and Malone (p. 765) has highlighted the fact that teenager depression has emerged as a common mental health issue among the children born after the year 1995. In addition to it, the teenage depression statistics reached an all-time high number during the year 2015. The society often confuses the depression of the teenagers with temporary sadness, as well as the physical and psychological transition from being the child to the adult, which is completely wrong. The teenage depression is an equally important issue and concern to be acknowledged and explored by society as the issue of depression among the adult population of the society. The most important thing in this regard to exploring teenage depression. So, the teenage depression is the long episodes of sadness and irritability among the teenagers, accompanied by depressed or irritated mood. A sudden gain or loss in weight, without any apparent reason or physical health issue, is another indicator of depression among teenagers. These changes are often associated with the hormonal changes in the bodies of the teenagers, which is not wrong if it is limited to a little time period and does not affect the routine activities and life of the teenagers. However, if these changes start impacting the lives of teenagers and persist for weeks and months, then it is not the impact of the hormonal changes but teenage depression. Another important aspect of teenage depression is that the teenagers develop suicidal thoughts and attempt is as well, which has taken the life of a great number of population. Feelings of worthlessness, sense of identity, as well as being unvalued, are the major triggers towards the suicidal thoughts, which makes the sufferer think that there is no purpose of living the troublesome and difficult life (McLoughlin, Gould, and Malone, 773).

Teenage is one of the most challenging parts of the life of an individual. They pass through the physical and psychological changes, which suddenly take away their childhood and make them think that they are now grown-ups, who need to think and act like a mature person. The pressure of the society to become mature and think seriously about life and future sometimes causes great stress to the teenagers, which transitions to long episodes of depression, leading to suicidal thought and attempts. The teenagers also have to go through the changes in their feelings, in addition to body and thought changes, which make them question their identity and place in society. Confusion, uncertainty, and fear are the major aspects of their troubled feelings, which make them question their identity and position in society. The pressure of achieving academic excellence as well as take a progressive career path in the future is another major stress of the teenagers, which become the source of their depression. The fear is mostly not being able to fulfill the expectations of family, peers, and teachers. When the teenagers fail in achieving academic excellence or are unable to maintain their performance, they develop the thoughts that their failure is not temporary and they would stay the same their whole life. Even if they try to make their performance better, their depressive thoughts and feelings do not let them concentrate on their goals and achieve them, which adds to their depression and strengthen suicidal thoughts. Such thoughts trigger them to think that there is no use of living life in failures and suffering and it would be much better to take their life (Hagler). Apart from the pressure of academic excellence, teenagers also face the pressure of socializing and if they fail to become socially active and popular, it sometimes leads them to the thoughts of not being valued or worthless for the society. They keep confining themselves in their shell, due to the fear of not being accepted in the popular groups or being rejected (Twenge).

Apart from societal reasons, there are some family issues, which give rise to depression among teenagers. One of the most important among them is the family history of depression. The teenagers who have an individual in their family, have greater chances of developing depression because it can sometimes be transferred through the genes. However, it does not mean that teenagers not having any history of depression in their families cannot develop it. Separation or divorce among the parents can also become the source of depression among teenage children. Moreover, the death of a loved one or changing the community which can separate the teenagers from their childhood friends, can also contribute to the sources of their depression. Adjusting in a new atmosphere and getting bullied can also lead the teenagers towards depression and developing suicidal thoughts as well as attempting it. Moreover, childhood trauma or abuse can also greatly contribute to the depressive and suicidal thoughts among teenagers. In some of the aspects, the family attitude towards the upbringing of the teenagers also greatly contribute to the development of depression. For example, the poor parents, who spend their whole lives in suffering may instill the feelings of hopelessness among their children, making them think that nothing can change and work in their favor (Hagler).

The teenage is that part of life when the young children need the most support of their families, peers, and instructors, to know the complexities of life. This is the time they need to focus on taking a career path, along with enjoying the changes in their life, instead of being fearful of them. It is very important for the family and peers of the teenagers to lend a hand of support in the time of need. The teenagers suffering from depression and suicidal thoughts depict specific signs and symptom, which are actually a cry of help and should never be ignored. The warning signs of depression among the teenagers include the feelings of hopelessness and deep sadness which continue for a long period of times or are recurrent. It can also include unreasonable crying spells. The feelings of anger, frustration, and irritation over trivial matters, is another important warning sign of depression among teens. The consistent annoyed mood of the teenagers accompanied with feelings of hopelessness, emptiness, or the loss of the sense of purpose are also among the warning signs of depression. Low self-esteem, loss of interest in fun activities or the most favorite activities of the person can also be the signs of depression among the teen. Self-blame, criticism, guilt, developing conflict with family, are also the signs of depression among teenagers. The signs of depression among the teenagers which can specifically take them towards suicidal attempts include the sensitivity towards rejection, the need of excessive reassurance, over and deep thinking, bleak and grim thoughts of future, frequently thinking and talking about death and suicide. Apart from the changed attitude and behavior of the teens, drastic changes in their health can also provide the warning signs of depression and suicidal thoughts. they may have increased or decreased appetite, leading to sudden weight gain or weight loss. It can also be depicted through the increased sleep pattern of the teens or the lack of sleep, which can also lead to insomnia. Teenagers can also isolate themselves from their social groups, as well as family, which is a warning sign (Twenge).

One of the most important aspects of teenage depression and suicide is the increasing pressure of the modern world to stay updated and follow the trends of society. Research has proved that teenagers who spend more screen time, like scrolling their social media accounts and using their phones have a greater tendency to developing depression. Becoming aware of the progress and activities of the life of other people can make them rethink about their life and its purpose. If someone from their friend list keep posting about the achievements in his/ her life or new ventures of life, exploring the talents or availing the opportunities of progress, it can make the teen, seeing all this progress, think that he does not have enough opportunities of making progress and there will be no improvement in his life. The most important issue of the teen of modern times is that they get intimidated, which become the source of their depression. This depression does not let them keep up with their performance or improve it, which further worsens their condition and they start developing the suicidal thoughts. If they do not get any help from their support groups, as well as professional counseling and treatment, they cannot get out of their depression and get rid of their suicidal thoughts. Most of the times, the signs of depression among the teens are associated with their poor performance and parents think that they are just making the excuses. They do not take the depression of the teenagers seriously as they also associate it with teenage rebellion. However, this completely wrong and parents should pay special attention to the attitude and behavior of their children, in order to identify the symptoms and signs of depression, while lending a hand of support to them (Ophir, Asterhan, and Schwarz, 103).

The society has now become more understanding and knowledgeable towards the issues of teenagers. The general public has accepted the fact that teenage can also suffer from depressions which can take them to commit suicide and have learned to not associate the troubling behavior and attitude of the teenagers with rebellion. There are a number of articles in the newspapers and talks on the news as well, which guides the parents regarding the troubled attitude of their teen. They are provided with the information that they need to lend support to their children so that they overcome the dark period of their life and enjoy its blessing instead of taking their own life. The teenagers suffering from depression and suicidal thoughts need to get professional treatment, in order to restore their mental health. There is nothing wrong in being weak and taking the steps towards improving mental health. One of the most effective treatment procedure for depression and suicidal thoughts is getting the psychotherapy. The psychotherapy provides the opportunity of discussing the troubling thoughts and feelings with the professional. The teenagers can also share the events and incidents which trigger their thoughts and feelings of sadness. The professional can provide them counseling that they do not need to get worried about anything and can also share the coping skills to manage their frustration, anger or feelings of sadness. Cognitive behavior therapy can also prove effective for the treatment of depression and suicidal thoughts by making the teenagers change their attitude and patterns of thinking in a negative manner and develop a positive thought process. In addition to it, interpersonal therapy is also utilized as the source of treating depression among teenagers. Interpersonal therapy provides the opportunity for learning the abilities to develop a healthy relationship with family and peers. It also provides the opportunity of being more focused towards positive and constructive, instead of focusing on negative and destructive thoughts. The professionals can also recommend medicines to troubled teenagers in order to help them treat their depressive moods and thought, which can eventually help them to restore their mental health and become progressive (Kroning, and Kroning, 80).

Teenage depression and suicide have become a fairly common issue in modern society. The issue was neglected in the past, as it was associated with teenage rebellion, however, the growing number of teenage suicide rate is causing serious concern to the society. The mood irritability, lack of interest in routine activities, low self-esteem, long spells of sadness, feelings of worthlessness and not being valued are some of the signs of depression among teenagers. These are also accompanied by physical health issues like eating disorders, drastic weight loss or gain, lack of sleep or increased sleep. Depression can lead the teenagers to suicide attempts; however, it can be controlled and treated with the help of family, support groups and professional. Medication, psychotherapy and cognitive behavior therapy, in addition to interpersonal therapy, can play an important role in treating depression among teens and helping them get rid of suicidal thoughts.

Works Cited

Hagler, Patrick. "Teen Depression, Suicide, Stress, Anxiety, Healthy Coping Skills." The Council on Recovery, Huston, Austin (2017).

Kroning, Maureen, and Kayla Kroning. "Teen depression and suicide: a silent crisis." Journal of Christian nursing 33.2 (2016): 78-86.

McLoughlin, Aoibheann B., Madelyn S. Gould, and Kevin M. Malone. "Global trends in teenage suicide: 2003–2014." QJM: An International Journal of Medicine 108.10 (2015): 765-780.

Ophir, Yaakov, Christa SC Asterhan, and Baruch B. Schwarz. "Unfolding the notes from the walls: Adolescents’ depression manifestations on Facebook." Computers in Human Behavior 72 (2017): 96-107.

Twenge, Jean. "Teenage depression and suicide are way up—and so is smartphone use." The Washington Post (2017).

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 8 Words: 2400

Assignment #3

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Psychological testing is multipurpose activity aimed at assessing and diagnosing psychological illness and determining the effectiveness of selected treatment. Typically, four methods are used for psychological assessment clinical interview for clinical admission, intellectual testing for intellectual functioning, assessment of personality and behavioral appropriateness

This point does not require further elaboration that human being is the primary source of information in psychological testingenriched with subjectivity and biasness. Darwins theory of individual differences carries a great significance here each human being is different from othershis thinking, feelings, sensations, perceptions, attitudes, outlooks, orientations, problem solving, decision-making, personality and coping follow holistically distinctive patterns. Hence, each individual undergoing assessment may perceive and attribute actions, objects and situations differently, due to which there is no universally accepted system for verifying human cognitive and behavioral diversity.

Discuss two challenges in assessing an adult.

Two challenges while assessing an adult client are as follows

Manipulation Human being is a social animal with the constant urge of attaining social approval and desirability. Psychological illness is something relatively undesirable for society. For that matter, he may try to transform his responses, molding them deliberately and synchronizing with what society expects him to have. Due to this, client may provide wrong and misleading information about his attributes.

Reserved attitude Some individuals under their introversion influence feel reluctant to disclose their thoughts, feelings, opinions and life experiences due to which psychologist finds it hard to grab valuable and desired information from them. Poor rapport building is another cause of individual not unveiling his personality.

Discuss at least 3 challenges encountered when assessing children.

Poor rapport building some juvenile clients e.g., autistic and attention deficit children typically do not feel like understanding the purpose of assessment and seem as if not listening at all. This is the biggest challenge because it hampers further processing.

Antisocial approach Children are undergoing moral development rather than possessing fully developed moral values and normative beliefs at this life stage. Avoidance of punishment is the basic motivator that compels them to act appropriatelysuggested by Vygotsky. Some children particularly with conduct disorder do not fear punishment hence it is quite hard to handle them.

Lack of retrospection At that stage, children are unable to retrospect and understand their thinking, feelings, opinions and perspectives

Evaluators often rely on the childs parents to obtain information about the childs problems. What issues might the evaluator confront when dealing with the parents Discuss at least 3.

Lacking understanding Parents cannot fully understand what their child is up-to, what he feels and why he behaves certain ways.

Social desirability Parents do not want their children to get banished from the society therefore they transform most of their actions in relation to childs personality and conduct.

Concealing family or child-parent conflicts Parental conflicts maybe the underlying reason for childs problems which they may conceal deliberately.

What challenges might be encountered when using teachers or other school personnel as sources of information about a childs problems

Teacher is having limited interaction with his students therefore he might fill the information gaps based on the confined impressions he gets.

Teacher might get influenced by what other students say about him, which might be lopsided

Teachers personal attributes might influence his perception about the child

Teacher may generalize his classroom behavior over his outside-the-classroom personality

What challenges in assessment arise when there are significant cultural differences between the assessor and the person being assessed

The concept of behavioral appropriateness is highly culture specific in nature. For example, in certain cultures avoiding eye contact may be considered as a sign of respect while assessor might consider it a sign of deception. Such issues make it hard for the assessor to assess the culturally different person.

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Subject: Psychology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Assignment 1

Assignment 1




Assignment 1

Drug abuse has been one of the most important issues of modern times, which not only impact the mind and body of the drug abusers but also their social and economic status. The way of administration of the drug, in addition to the quantity administered, play an important role in making some individual addicted to it. Cocaine is one of the drugs of abuse which can be administered in different ways. The various methods of administration of this drug also affect the body of human beings in different ways. Various ways of administration and their impact on the human body will be discussed in detail in this paper.

There are a number of ways of administrating some drug in the body of human beings, depending on the required impact in some specific period of time. In the case of drugs of abuse, most of the abusers use four common ways of administering the drug, which include the oral, intranasal, intravenous and smoking. Oral and intranasal routes might take a little more time in depicting their impact over the body of the abusers. However, the drugs administered through the routes of smoking and intravenous readily react and provide the desired effect and satisfaction to the abusers (Broséus, Gentile, & Esseiva, 2016).

Cocaine is one of the most commonly used drugs of abuse across the globe. It can be administered in the human body in a number of different ways. The most common ways used by the abusers are oral, nasal, veins and smoking. In the case of the oral route, it can be used by chewing or simply by swallowing. Most of the drug abusers use the coca leaves for the purpose of chewing. By chewing, cocaine reaches and reacts with the system of the human body in a slower manner, as it takes five to minutes in showing its impact. However, once it has become activated in the body, it keeps the abuser in a state of high for about forty-five to ninety minutes. In the case of swallowing cocaine, it becomes even slower and the initial onset of action takes ten to thirty minutes. After getting activated, it keeps the abuser in a state of high for forty-five to ninety minutes. One of the most common and convenient ways of administering cocaine in the human body is through the nasal route. It is quite effective as well due to the fact that a little dosage provides more satisfaction as it quickly reaches the system and reacts with it. The average time required for the initial onset of action of cocaine through the nasal route is two to three minutes and it also keeps the abuser in the high state for about half an hour to forty-five minutes (Advokat, Comaty, & Julien, 2014).

The most dangerous way of administering cocaine in the human body is through veins. This type of administration is mostly used by chronic drug addicts because it is one of the fastest ways of adding drugs to the system. The least time required in the initial onset of cocaine when administered through the veins is only thirty to forty-five seconds, which also keep the abuser high for ten to twenty minutes. The duration of being high is less in the case of intravenous administration because of the low dose which can be contained in a single injection. Intravenous administration is dangerous because of the fact that syringes are used for administering the drug and most of the addicts use one syringe multiple times or in some cases, a single syringe is used by many addicts. This can lead them to contract diseases from each other, which can ultimately cause their death. The last common way of administering cocaine in the system of the human body is through smoke, which is also the fastest ways. The initial onset of action is only eight to ten seconds, which keeps the abuser high for five to ten minutes. The abusers use cocaine in smoke in the form of paste, free base and crack as well (Dinis-Oliveira, 2015).

The various ways of administration of cocaine affect the body differently. In the case of oral administration, it reaches the stomach and then becomes a part of the bloodstream. In the case of nasal administration, it passes through the mucous membrane, narrowing the blood vessels which takes the drug a little longer time in becoming a part of the bloodstream and reaching the brain cells. The intravenous administration is the most effective and dangerous as well because the drug is directly administered to the bloodstream. It can result in the death of the abuser on the spot if a high dosage of the drug is administered to the bloodstream. In the case of administration through smoking, the drug is transported through the lungs, becoming a part of the bloodstream to reach the brain (Advokat, Comaty, & Julien, 2014).

Cocaine is one of the most commonly abused drugs across the world. It is administered through the oral, nasal, venous routes, in addition to being smoked. The various ways of administration impact the body of human beings differently as the drug reach the system in varied time and keeps the abuser high for the different time period. The intravenous administration is the fastest yet most dangerous, while the oral administration is the slowest. The administration of drug impacts the functioning of the human body, having the chances of killing the abusers according to the level of drug in the bloodstream.


Advokat, C. D., Comaty, J. E., & Julien, R. M. (2014). Julien's Primer of Drug Action. Macmillan Higher Education.

Broséus, J., Gentile, N., & Esseiva, P. (2016). The cutting of cocaine and heroin: a critical review. Forensic science international, 262, 73-83.

Dinis-Oliveira, R. J. (2015). Metabolomics of cocaine: implications in toxicity. Toxicology mechanisms and methods, 25(6), 494-500.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Assignment 1

Assignment 1


[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Author Note

Critical Thinking

Abnormal behavior is a behavior that deviates from an expected or normal behavior. For example, if Sandy stands up in the middle of the class and starts dancing, it would be suggested as abnormal behavior. Abnormal behavior may have many causes such as genetic abnormality, biological anomaly, and abnormal behavior due to cultural differences. Psychologists often classify abnormal behavior based on a violation of norms of the society, statistical rarity, personal distress or antisocial personality disorder. Certain other factors also contribute to an abnormality such as incomprehensibility, unconventionality, irrationality, unpredictability, violation or loss of control and vividness. Many psychologists suggest that the presence of the four Ds in a person identifies him as abnormal. Deviance, dysfunction, distress, and danger are the four Ds ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a2nb12c7bnp","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Desmarais et al., 2018)","plainCitation":"(Desmarais et al., 2018)"},"citationItems":[{"id":1059,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/7MPRJU5M"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/7MPRJU5M"],"itemData":{"id":1059,"type":"article-journal","title":"Social inappropriateness in neurodegenerative disorders","container-title":"International psychogeriatrics","page":"197-207","volume":"30","issue":"2","author":[{"family":"Desmarais","given":"Philippe"},{"family":"Lanctôt","given":"Krista L."},{"family":"Masellis","given":"Mario"},{"family":"Black","given":"Sandra E."},{"family":"Herrmann","given":"Nathan"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Desmarais et al., 2018). If a person fails to perform his daily tasks in a normal way, then he might be recognized as abnormal. In case of dysfunction, it is recommended that a person may have acquired an abnormal pair of genes or any structural or functional anomaly ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a6ff1rrhfr","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Tay et al., 2019)","plainCitation":"(Tay et al., 2019)"},"citationItems":[{"id":1060,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/QU33XCW2"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/QU33XCW2"],"itemData":{"id":1060,"type":"chapter","title":"A robust abnormal behavior detection method using convolutional neural network","container-title":"Computational Science and Technology","publisher":"Springer","page":"37-47","author":[{"family":"Tay","given":"Nian Chi"},{"family":"Connie","given":"Tee"},{"family":"Ong","given":"Thian Song"},{"family":"Goh","given":"Kah Ong Michael"},{"family":"Teh","given":"Pin Shen"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Tay et al., 2019).

It is also debated among psychologists that changes in genetic material and biological processes may also be criteria to identify abnormal behavior. Certain psychologists believe that there are various criteria for the identification of abnormal behavior including genetic and biological differences. If the number of chromosomes fail to be gathered in a normal pattern then it might result in abnormality. Genetic differences may result because of mutation or environmental factors such as exposure to harmful radiation. Psychological differences might be a consequence of stressors or depression-related factors in individuals ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a8ot80j3l6","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Huang et al., 2018)","plainCitation":"(Huang et al., 2018)"},"citationItems":[{"id":441,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/KP88X54P"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/KP88X54P"],"itemData":{"id":441,"type":"article-journal","title":"Is cognitive behavioral therapy a better choice for women with postnatal depression? A systematic review and meta-analysis","container-title":"PloS one","page":"e0205243","volume":"13","issue":"10","author":[{"family":"Huang","given":"Lili"},{"family":"Zhao","given":"Yunzhi"},{"family":"Qiang","given":"Chunfang"},{"family":"Fan","given":"Bozhen"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Huang et al., 2018). Therefore, certain factors such as genetic, biological, psychological, and socio-economical, as a result of a diverse range of elements, may cause abnormality.


If a person is statistically average, it does not represent that he is normal. Also, if a person has no socio-psychological issue, it does not imply that the person is normal in behavior. Normal behavior is a norm that is socially and communally acceptable. Abnormal behavior is a behavior that does not align with the norms of the society or it deviates from normal cultural aspects. In my family, I have my first cousin who is suffering from Down syndrome. It is a condition that results because of abnormality in chromosome number 21. This form of abnormality is a genetic difference that causes a person to suffer from this condition. We have encountered various situations where he often started eating in front of everyone at an odd time. It was so awkward when he once started eating at a funeral. This behavior is abnormal in society, however, the person is not able to control his actions in such a case.

The genetic abnormality is a kind of behavior that is beyond control. Similarly, one of my family relatives is suffering from epilepsy. It is a condition in which he cannot control his aggression. He started calling names to a person in the street and after that, he badly hurt him in front of everyone. At that time, he was not able to control his anger. This is also considered as abnormal behavior for society. He was advised to take some anti-epileptic drugs to calm him down. He demonstrates abnormal behavior because of genetic or behavioral differences therefore, his activities and conduct are not recognized as normal by others.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Desmarais, P., Lanctôt, K. L., Masellis, M., Black, S. E., & Herrmann, N. (2018). Social inappropriateness in neurodegenerative disorders. International Psychogeriatrics, 30(2), 197–207.

Huang, L., Zhao, Y., Qiang, C., & Fan, B. (2018). Is cognitive-behavioral therapy a better choice for women with postnatal depression? A systematic review and meta-analysis. PloS One, 13(10), e0205243.

Tay, N. C., Connie, T., Ong, T. S., Goh, K. O. M., & Teh, P. S. (2019). A robust abnormal behavior detection method using a convolutional neural network. In Computational Science and Technology (pp. 37–47). Springer.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Assignment 1.a

How does this article's statistics from Iceland compare to the United States' statistics?the article presented statistics that revealed that the number of cases of down syndromes have drastically depleted in multiple western and European countries including the United States. However, specifically in Iceland, the Down Syndrome has almost vanished. This study further reveals that close to 100 percent of the women who received a positive test for Down syndrome went for an abortion of termination of their pregnancies. Such approaches have led to a decrease in overall cases of down syndrome and other similar cases.

What are the implications for a society with a much lower population of children with birth defects, specifically Down syndrome?

The society that has much lower population of children with birth defects specifically down syndrome tend to be more prosperous with sufficient funds and resources to spend on children welfare and development. Treating, managing and improving the conditions of children of any society ensures the development of a healthier and productive society in future.

What are the moral, ethical, and societal issues at play in these decisions and societal trends? 

In combating issues such as down syndrome, the individuals as well as authorities tend to make decisions that are otherwise considered wrong. For instance, abortion because any deformity in child is detected is now considered a legally correct decision in countries such as Iceland. However, it is also an immoral and unethical consideration. Therefore, creating a grey area in the society.

Do you feel that this article presented this data from a slanted or biased viewpoint?

I believe that the article presents a very comprehensive, reliable and succinct information on implications of reduced cases of down syndrome and the causes that have led to the decrease. I believe there is no biasness or exaggeration in this article as every thing is presented with the support of facts and figures.


Hill, M., Johnson, J. A., Langlois, S., Lee, H., Winsor, S., Dineley, B., ... & Advani, H. V. (2016). Preferences for prenatal tests for Down syndrome: an international comparison of the views of pregnant women and health professionals. European Journal of Human Genetics, 24(7), 968.

Crombag, N. M., Boeije, H., Iedema-Kuiper, R., Schielen, P. C., Visser, G. H., & Bensing, J. M. (2016). Reasons for accepting or declining Down syndrome screening in Dutch prospective mothers within the context of national policy and healthcare system characteristics: a qualitative study. BMC pregnancy and childbirth, 16(1), 121.

Taneja, A., Nagaraja, S. B., Padubidri, J. R., Madadin, M., & Menezes, R. G. (2018). Abortion of Fetus with Down’s Syndrome: India Joins the Worldwide Controversy Surrounding Abortion Laws. Science and engineering ethics, 24(2), 769-771.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Assignment 1: Discussion Question: Effective Questioning

Discussion Response

Institutional Affiliation

Student’s name



Discussion Response

Effective Questioning

In pointing out what is wrong in the scenario, I agree with the point of failure to observe the Miranda Rights by the police. Although Jacob is young/minor, he still deserves to be taken through the right procedure before being interrogated, so that a better decision can be taken thereafter.

Judging from the way the police is asking the questions, it is apparently Jacob feels scared. The kind of questions being asked are purposely meant to make the victim feel that what he has done is a big crime. For instance the question like why did you take the garment would definitely make the victim panic as he tries to figure out the most appropriate response to give (Rose 2017). As discussed in the essay, such an approach when it comes to dealing with such cases increases the chances of having the victim telling lies.

Being caught, Jacob would definitely feel nervous and impatient. This is because first of all he knows what he has done is wrong, and the way the police is approaching him signifies that he is up to no good. This would have been less intense if at all the police would have asked the victim the reason which drove him to steal the garment (Oyama 2017).

If I were the police, questions like ‘kindly tell us why you went to the store to steal the garment’, ‘Do you know what you have committed is a crime and you can be punished for that?’ Just as discussed, such chose of questions are more likely to reduce the tension and also enable the victim to understand that what he did was wrong, other than judging him without listening to his side of the story.

The inductive interview would be more appropriate to generate more reasons that drove the victim towards committing the crime (Bachman & Schutt 2016). Custody interrogation, just as discussed in the essay would also make the victim feel secured, and will increase his willingness to share openly his view about the whole incident. Through it, it would be even easier for the officer to come up with a better solution to settle the issue.


Bachman, R. D., & Schutt, R. K. (2016). Fundamentals of research in criminology and criminal justice. Sage Publications.

Rose, K. (2017). You Have the Right to Remain a Child: Juveniles and Miranda Rights. Liberty Law., 13.

Oyama, Y. (2017). Promoting learners’ spontaneous use of effective questioning: Integrating research findings inside and outside of Japan. In Promoting Spontaneous Use of Learning and Reasoning Strategies (pp. 31-45). Routledge.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Assignment 1: Discussion Question: Persuasive Interviewing

Assignment 1: Discussion Question: Persuasive Interviewing

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Assignment 1: Discussion Question: Persuasive Interviewing

Motivational and Persuasive Interview Techniques

Motivational interviewing technique in a counselling setting is done in order to strengthen the motivation and desire of alterations in the personality of the interviewee (Hettema, Steele, & Miller, 2015). Whereas, the persuasive interview is done in order to acquire the information in the interview which can be later utilised in the persuasive occasions (Krieger, & Neumann Jr, 2015). The most significant distinguishing factor between these two types of interview is that in a motivational interview it totally helps the interviewee. However, in a persuasive interview, it helps both gaining the mutual benefit from the interview for both the parties. The apparent similarity between these two techniques is that they both illicitly gain a response from the person getting interviewed. Motivational interviewing is based on the client, and it helps the client to change the association of fear.

Ethical Consideration

The ethical considerations regarding the motivational interview technique and persuasive technique are more or less similar. The interviewee should feel safe and secure while the interview, as such any kind of discomfort or harm would result in the inappropriateness of the interview technique. If the client’s aspirations are in contradiction with the aspirations of the counsellor or interviewee, it raises the ethical considerations with regard to the interview technique (Miller, & Rollnick, 2012). The ethics regarding effective interview techniques involve the guidelines and prescriptions related to the effectiveness of the efforts of persuasion. In this technique, the standards of ethics are considered in regard to the other's needs and societal good. It involves the value and confidentiality of the interviewee and interviewer.

The ethical considerations are important to consider while conducting the interview in counselling or business setting as the information provided by the interviewee is as precious and should be kept confidential so that the interviewee doesn't feel betrayed or cheated.


Hettema, J., Steele, J., & Miller, W. R. (2015). Motivational interviewing. Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol., 1, 91-111.

Krieger, S. H., & Neumann Jr, R. K. (2015). Essential lawyering skills: interviewing, counselling, negotiation, and persuasive fact analysis. Wolters Kluwer Law & Business.

Miller, W. R., & Rollnick, S. (2012). Motivational interviewing: Helping people change. Guilford Press.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Assignment 1: Discussion Question: Selecting A Counseling Approach

Assignment 1: Discussion Question: Selecting a Counseling Approach

Your Name (First M. Last)

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)

Assignment 1: Discussion Question: Selecting a Counseling Approach

In this case, a 19-year-old boy is feeling unmotivated stressed and worried about his falling grades. He also had to move to a new place for college, which shows that this might be the biggest challenge that boy is facing. Transitions are not easy, especially when you know that you are out of your home from good long years. This seems to be the case of this young man, who is finding it hard to adjust into a new environment which is translating acutely in his studies. His sudden drop in grade shows that low grades are not norm from him and this sudden drop can be associated with the changing environment ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"TepGMkbA","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Cognitive, Behavioral, and Psychodynamic Therapies | SpringerLink,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“Cognitive, Behavioral, and Psychodynamic Therapies | SpringerLink,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1458,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/8D9GVQS7"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/8D9GVQS7"],"itemData":{"id":1458,"type":"webpage","title":"Cognitive, Behavioral, and Psychodynamic Therapies | SpringerLink","URL":"https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4757-9779-4_8","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",3,14]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Cognitive, Behavioral, and Psychodynamic Therapies | SpringerLink,” n.d.).

In this case, I will use a humanistic approach to deal with the body. As all he needs is the support to help him adjust and some motivation that he can fit in the new environment. My counseling approach will be based on empathy, kindness, and understanding. I will let him vent out his emotions and listen to him with sympathy. I won't judge him for his grades and inability to adjust. Instead after listening, at the end of the session, I will give him tips and tricks to deal with his situation ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"ZylG6Qth","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Resnicow & McMaster, 2012)","plainCitation":"(Resnicow & McMaster, 2012)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1453,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/W7LNG8BM"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/W7LNG8BM"],"itemData":{"id":1453,"type":"article-journal","title":"Motivational Interviewing: moving from why to how with autonomy support","container-title":"The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity","page":"19","volume":"9","source":"PubMed Central","abstract":"Motivational Interviewing (MI), a counseling style initially used to treat addictions, increasingly has been used in health care and public health settings. This manuscript provides an overview of MI, including its theoretical origins and core clinical strategies. We also address similarities and differences with Self-Determination Theory. MI has been defined as person-centered method of guiding to elicit and strengthen personal motivation for change. Core clinical strategies include, e.g., reflective listening and eliciting change talk. MI encourages individuals to work through their ambivalence about behavior change and to explore discrepancy between their current behavior and broader life goals and values. A key challenge for MI practitioners is deciding when and how to transition from building motivation to the goal setting and planning phases of counseling. To address this, we present a new three-phase model that provides a framework for moving from WHY to HOW; from building motivation to more action oriented counseling, within a patient centered framework.","DOI":"10.1186/1479-5868-9-19","ISSN":"1479-5868","note":"PMID: 22385702\nPMCID: PMC3330017","shortTitle":"Motivational Interviewing","journalAbbreviation":"Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act","author":[{"family":"Resnicow","given":"Ken"},{"family":"McMaster","given":"Fiona"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2012",3,2]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Resnicow & McMaster, 2012).

The humanistic approach suggests that inner feelings and emotions have an impact on human behavior. So I will help him sort out his emotions and divert his attention to other matters. Following are the questions that I will use.

How are you feeling?

What do you think is the reason behind your sadness and lack of motivation?

Do you previously have any history of depression?

How is your relationship with your family?

What is the most difficult situation that you are facing in this new place?

All the questions stated above depict he humanistic approach. They show that I am empathetic towards his situation. All these questions will help him pour his heart out and will give me the actual insights about his heart and mind condition ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"ppJKsvgP","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Psychology Perspectives | Simply Psychology,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“Psychology Perspectives | Simply Psychology,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1456,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/GGT6I34S"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/GGT6I34S"],"itemData":{"id":1456,"type":"webpage","title":"Psychology Perspectives | Simply Psychology","URL":"https://www.simplypsychology.org/perspective.html","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",3,14]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Psychology Perspectives | Simply Psychology,” n.d.).


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Cognitive, Behavioral, and Psychodynamic Therapies | SpringerLink. (n.d.). Retrieved March 14, 2019, from https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4757-9779-4_8

Psychology Perspectives | Simply Psychology. (n.d.). Retrieved March 14, 2019, from https://www.simplypsychology.org/perspective.html

Resnicow, K., & McMaster, F. (2012). Motivational Interviewing: moving from why to how with autonomy support. The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 9, 19. https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-9-19

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Assignment 1: LASA 2: Final Project: Final Research Paper

Men and Depression

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Men and Depression


Depression in men is one of the major concerns of public health. The clinicians have started to take an interest in this issue, and it is not yet fixed by psychiatrist how to respond to these crises. Depression is one of the problems emerging among both the genders; however, men are more vulnerable to it because they are reluctant to express their mental health issues. In this study, we will focus on the reasons for the depression in men in the modern age, and the signs and symptoms of men depression. Many factors cause depression in men; however, we will focus on two major sources of depression such as psychosocial issues, and economic issues. Moreover, we will also study the consequences of depression in men such as suicidal ideations, and other major diseases. We will study quantitatively the responses of men struggling with depression. Data will be collected through a stratified sampling method.

Men and Depression


Depression is a common mental disorder that is continuously growing in this modern age. The ratio of symptoms of depression in men and women are almost the same. However, men are less likely to express it. Mostly it is observed that men hide their mental issues and irritated when asked about their depression. The depression in men can lead them to suicidal ideation. The rate of suicides in men is more than women. Depression is the mental disorder which causes the patient the symptoms of sadness, loss of interest in the material world, lack of concentration and focus, tiredness and pain in the body, reluctant to socialize, loss appetite, lower self-esteem and feeling guilt (Rungreangkulkij et al., 2018). The reasons that cause depression are financial problems, unemployment, other major medical illness, significant changes in life, loss of a loved one, and work stress. These are some of the major causes of this mental issue that mostly lead to suicidal ideation and other serious diseases. According to Dewey (2013), Japan is one of the least depressed countries in the world, having the rate of diagnoses less than 2.5 percent. While in Afghanistan the rate of depressed male is the highest across the globe. In Afghanistan, every fifth person is suffering from depression, which is the highest rate of depression, and they are ranked number one in this issue, due to political and economic instability. Social, economic and emotional factors drag men towards depression, and there is a need for counseling for men that most of them don't want at any cost. However, the loved ones can become a support system for men in depression. It has been revealed by many studies that depression causes drug addiction, unethical practices, and suicidal ideations in men. While depressed women are less likely observed to harm herself, society, and involvement in illegal and unethical practices.

Research Question

There are two research questions for our study to investigate the complete sense of this study which is given as under:

Why are the men at more risk of depression in the current age?

What does the depression causes in a man?

Objectives of the study

The objective of this study is to find out the reasons and symptoms of depression in male community in the USA. The research proposed the following objectives of this study based on one dependent variable that is depression and two independent variables; first IV is the reason of depression in men, while the other is the symptoms of depression. There are numerous reasons for the depression in men. However, this study will focus on only a few reasons because of the time constraint and limited resources. We will study the psychosocial aspect such as loss of loved ones. The economic issue for depression in men is unemployment and financial crises. It will cause further complications such as suicide and other mental illnesses.

To investigate the reasons behind higher depression rate in man as compared to a woman.

To examine the causes and symptoms of depression in man.

Importance of the study

This study will highlight the mental health issues in man, and its consequences in various aspects of a man’s life. Depression is the growing disease of the present age, as the advancement of means and sources and availability of all the luxuries at our doorsteps. However, the depression is found soaring despite these facilities, as the ease in life increase it causes more complexity and mental disasters. There is a lot of literature on the causes and factors of depression in a woman and its consequences. However, there is very little literature on the depression in men. Our study will contribute a slight contribution to this issue and its symptoms and reasons. To highlight this issue by various researchers, a specific set of actions are expected to be taken to cope with this significant psycho-social issue. Men never reveal their problems of mental illnesses especially depression and anxiety, and man is found more vulnerable to suicidal ideation. There are more men die every year especially the age 15-29 years in a year, that is several times higher than women counterpart.


There are two hypotheses of the proposed study based on the literature/.

Hypothesis 1: There is a positive relationship between depression in men and the psychosocial and economic issues.

Hypothesis 2: There is a negative relationship between depression in men and the psychosocial and economic issues.

Hypothesis3: There is a positive relationship between depression in men and the suicides and other mental disorders.

Hypothesis 4: There is a negative relationship between depression in men and suicides and mental disorders.

Literature Review

According to Young and Morgan (2018), revealed that physical fitness also influences the mental status of a man, most of the men with obesity and overweight are found depressed. The unbalanced diet and overeating in depression also cause obesity. Both depression and obesity are inter-related and are highly correlated. Although this factor has affected both the genders. In Australia 70% of the obese people are suffering from major depression, they face more chronic diseases and are found three times greater than other people to commit suicide and die. The depressed men usually become alcoholic and drugs addicted. They seek satisfaction and peace of mind in such negative and harmful addictions. The drugs and alcoholism cause major medical health issues such as cancer, heart diseases, kidney, liver, and lungs disease and can lead to cancer. Major depression causes suicide ideation, and it is found that suicide is the second leading cause of death in the USA. In the world suicide is the leading death cause among the people age group 15-29 years old. As compared to women, men commit more suicide, as they don't express their mental stress and sadness in front of people. Men are found less likely to consult with doctor their mental health issues including depression, anxiety, and other psychological disorders. Men mostly consult with psychiatrists for the job stress, lower performance at workplace, lower sexual performance, loss control on anger, and grief of the loss of their loved ones (Oliffe, 2017). Depression in man is positively correlated with unemployment and uncertain economic and political conditions of a country. A society where the employment rate is higher people is found less depressed, while economically less stable states are found more exposed to depression, other mental health issues, suicides, and drugs addictions.

Depression can be treated by various methods, such as by medicines, counseling and sessions, and spirituality and religious practices. All these techniques are effective and widely practiced around the world, which has significant results. No such evidence proves ineffectiveness of anti-depressant medicines for men as compared to women (Ogrodniczuk & Oliffe, 2011). In many countries men are considered as the bread earner for the family, they have more responsibilities as compared to women, so the unemployment and financial crises can lead them to depression and anxiety. As a young boy grows up and develop, he learns the socioculturally prescribed role and responsibilities of a man. Moreover, man is considered to be mentally strong and should support his family in any crises and disasters. However, all human beings regardless the gender hold certain emotions, and the external environment influences them. As a sociocultural pressure, men hide their sorrows and sadness, that ultimately lead them to depression. There is a famous phrase that big boys don’t cry, they hold there emotions inside that results in the suicidal attempts, drugs addictions, and other mental and behavioral disorders. According to Murray (2015), the depression and its effects on men are profoundly different from women, issues related to the loss of loved ones have a remarkable impact on man throughout his life. Unlike the woman, man hides his grief behind his long term silence, alcohol addiction, and the lake of interest in being socialized. Depression is the medical illness related to the behavior and feelings of the person. It causes the feelings of sadness and the loss of interest in the routine activities.

Gallo and Matthews (2003) argued that negative emotions and cognitions are associated with the economic condition of a person and the physical and mental health of a person. The socioeconomic issues are strongly linked with psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. To cope with mental problems the doctors, psychologists, spiritual scholars, and other agencies working according to their knowledge and techniques, however, the fast-growing world has consequently soared the anxiety, depression, and suicide cases (Macdonald, 2009). Suicide attempts are the prominent issues in the world, especially the in the USA. It is a significant social and public health problem that has substantial adverse effects on the society, suicides are common among the Native American community, especially in the adult's age range 15-24 years. The Native American suicide rate is the highest compared to other ethnic or cultural groups in America. According to CDC (2012), the suicide cases of this group is 2.5 times higher than the annual national statistics of suicide. In this group suicide the second leading cause of death among the stated age group. Thao et al., (2015) asserted that people suffer due to lack of self-awareness and self-actualization, they don’t know their real self- as they are disconnected from their spiritual status of being, and their strength such as their inner wisdom. So the lack of awareness and knowledge leads the Native Americans to commit suicide, proper counseling by the spirituals to realize them the actual purpose of our being, and what other responsibilities we have, which are worthy and undeniable. Those Native Americans who have a strong spiritual relationship with other fellows are likely having significantly less suicidal behavior than other peers.


Sampling Technique

There are many techniques used for targeting the population for the study; such sample techniques are random, systematic, multistage, and stratified techniques. However, for our study stratified technique is more effective, as the population is vast and scattered. Stratified sampling technique is a probability-based method which is used for large populations, divide the entire population into various subgroups or strata, which allow the researcher to select the final subjects achieved from these different strata (Shields et al., 2015). Data are collected from all the communities in USA regardless of their race, class, community, religion, and national of origin.

Generalizability of the sample

The data collected from the respondents don't belong to a specific field or class. The sample was collected from the people belong to the different background so it can be generalized on the whole population. Generalizability of the research is based on the variation of participants and the scope of the data collection.


The questionnaires were distributed among 400 participants, out of which 362 participants responded with complete information, rest of the questionnaires were discarded. Responses were collected from target respondents categorized on the basis of age groups, employment, and the family status and breakups, etc. 52 respondents had an unsuccessful relationship and breakups, while 48 percents had a better family life. Moreover, 62 percent of respondents had financial crises that caused the depression, while rest of the 38 percent respondents were financially sound status. 70 percent of the respondents were alcoholic and preferred other drugs during their hardship, 65 percent of the participants had no intention to visit the psychiatrist to overcome their sorrows and get over their mental illness. In the open-ended questions, most of the participants revealed that they were considering suicidal ideation during their extream level of depression.


For the data collection from participants adopted questionnaire was used. The questionnaire is thean easy and accurate way for data collection. These questionnaires were distributed among the participants belonged to different groups. There were two types of questions, the close-ended questions, and open-ended questions. The close-ended questions were measured through lickret scale with five options, varied from strongly disagree to agree strongly. The initial problems were about the demography of the participants, such as; age, gender, income, age group, job, relationship status. Other questions were regarding the lifestyle, breakups, family crises, financial crises, the loss of loved ones, and the reactions of the participants. The open-ended questions or free-text questions were also included to find the views of participants regarding the barriers they faced during their hard time.

Ethical Issues

It has been noticed that men with depression are more likely to violate the moral and ethical issues. A depressant doesn't know exactly about his mental disorder and doesn't realize what is happening to him. The break the rules of ethics in their daily life, it has been evident in the men with depression. They don't consider that their actions will hurt other people, most of the men with depression preferred to be isolated, or they got invole in drugs addiction and alcoholism. Many psychologists and other counselors suggest the depressants spirituality and religious practices to overcome their mental instabilities.


Family issues and financial crises are the two leading factors that cause depression in men. It has been observed that unlike women men are reluctant to discuss their mental disorders with others, and they are found hesitated while consulting with their physician. Depression in men consequently raises the suicidal ideation, drugs and alcohol addiction, and negative and unethical practices. Knowing and actively investigating the signs and symptoms of depression in men during this study, it would be suggested that the organizations, social groups, family, and the government should spread awareness and help the persons with depression through medical treatments and counselings.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2012). Deaths: Leading causes for 2008, National Vital Statistics Reports, 60(6), June 6, 2012.

Gallo, L. C., & Matthews, K. A. (2003). Understanding the association between socioeconomic status and physical health: do negative emotions play a role?. Psychological bulletin, 129(1), 10-51

Le, Thao N., and Judith M. Gobert. "Translating and implementing a mindfulness-based youth suicide prevention intervention in a Native American community." Journal of Child and Family Studies 24.1 (2015): 12-23.

Murray, J. (2015). Understanding Loss: A guide for caring for those facing adversity. Routledge.

Ogrodniczuk, J. S., & Oliffe, J. L. (2011). Men and depression. Canadian Family Physician, 57(2), 153-155.

Oliffe, J. L., Kelly, M. T., Bottorff, J. L., Johnson, J. L., & Wong, S. T. (2017). “He’s More Typically Female Because He’s Not Afraid to Cry”: Connecting Heterosexual Gender Relations and Men’s Depression∗. In The Psychology of Gender and Health (pp. 177-197).

RUNGREANGKULKIJ, S., KOTNARA, I., KITTIWATANAPAISAN, W., & ARUNPONGPAISAL, S. (2018). Loss of Control: Experiences of Depression in Thai Men. Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST), 16(4), 265-274.

Shields, M. D., Teferra, K., Hapij, A., &Daddazio, R. P. (2015). Refined stratified sampling for efficient Monte Carlo based uncertainty quantification. Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 142, 310-325.

Young, M. D., & Morgan, P. J. (2018). Effect of a Gender-Tailored eHealth Weight Loss Program on the Depressive Symptoms of Overweight and Obese Men: Pre-Post Study. JMIR mental health, 5(1).

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 8 Words: 2400

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