Home >> Free Essays >> All Subjects >> Sociology

Sociology Examples and Topics

“Describe The Religious And Educational Institutions Using The Functionalist And Conflict Approaches.”

Functionalist and Conflict approaches in religious and educational institutions

Your Name (First M. Last)

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)

Introduction

For structuring and maintaining human societies, social institutions play an important role. Religious and educational institutions are the backbone of the society upon which the structure of the society is based on. Both religious and educational institutions provide a structure and code of conduct which shines a light on how a person must live their life. Religious and educational institutions use different approaches for structuring a code of life that they want others to follow. This education whether it be religious or worldly gives knowledge and changes people for their betterment. It helps in building the perspective for looking at life. Institutes are the basic building blocks of any society as they teach and play their functions in certain realms of the society and are responsible for certain reforms as far as behaviour of individuals are concerned. Opinions and views are made by the institutions (religious and educational) regarding the surrounding world. Religious education helps in building a connection between world and eternity and keeps our faith alive. Religious and educational institutions use conflict and functionalist approach accordingly.

Discussion

Religious institutions are one of the main five institutions of society and religion constitutes a set of beliefs regarding the super-power. Religion is a social institution that includes practices and believes which serve spiritual needs of the society. Both functionalist and conflict approach provide valuable ways for understating this society in a better way. Norms are important for keeping a society in balance as functionalist approach argues that religion helps in maintaining the value consensus. According to functionalist approach, society is a system of interconnected parts in which the social institutions play an important role in the functioning of society. Functionalists claim that role of religion is to preserve the status qou rather than promoting social change. Religious institutions use functionalist approach for reforming the society as functionalist approach spots a light on the function that every institution plays in a society. In functionalist approach, religion has a prominent position. According to Comte, it prompted ordinary people to serve unseen purposes that becomes hard to detect sometimes even for religious scholars. According to micro functionalist Malinowski, religion helps in establishing, fixing and reforming society’s attitudes which then add value to existence and survival. Functionalist approach also claim that religion binds people together and promotes social order for maintaining peace and smooth functioning of society.

Conflict approach in sociology shines a light on inequality and claims that society is an arena of inequality where conflict and change are generated. Sociologist mostly use conflict approach for studying the ongoing conflict between disadvantage groups (Gaus et al, 2019). Conflict approach within religious institutions shines a light on how religion as a phenomenon of human behavior promotes social inequality with the help of the worldview that justifies oppression. According to Karl Marx, religious institutions play effective role for creating inequalities in people by giving more resources and power to certain people than other group of people. According to the conflict approach, religious institutions reinforce as well as promote social inequality and social conflict. It helps in convincing poor to accept their lot in life which leads towards violence and hostility which is promoted by religious differences. Religious institutions force the poor to accept their fact by helping the existing system in maintaining social inequality. Karl Marx claimed that workers need to rise up and overpower the bourgeoisie because they are exploiting them of their rights. For understanding this exploitation, poor class must realize that their poverty stemmed from the oppression by the elite class, but they are strong holders of religious beliefs which views their poverty in religious terms. They believe that if they are suffering in world there would be a reward at the end after this earthly life.

Educational institutions are also among the social institutions that reform the behavior of individuals so that they could make their society a better place for living. Educational institutions serve many important functions for society such as educational institutions teach socialization, social integration, and social or cultural innovation. There are some latent functions as well being performed by educational institutions and these functions include building of peer relationship, child care and lowering of unemployment by proving better job opportunities to the school students out of full-time labor force. Educational institutions claim that problems that may harm the society cannot be completely removed. Functionalist approach in society stresses upon the functional approach by claiming that this approach fulfill needs of the society. It won’t be wrong to say that socialization is the main function being played by the educational institutions. In order to learn about the social norms, skills and values of a society children must need to function in society and educational institutions serve as the primary vehicle for learning (Hedegaard et al, 2019). Three Rs are being taught by the educational institutions in society and these are reading, ‘riting and ‘rithmetic. Social values and norms are being transferred from one generation to another generation through educational institutions. Social integration is the second most important function of the educational institutions.

Functionalist approach claims that people need to subscribe to a common set of values and beliefs so that a society could work smoothly. For unifying a society common norm systems and values must be inculcated in society members in order to avoid any disorder in society. Third most important function performed by educational institutions is social placement. One of the prominent functions of educational institutes is that these institutions highlight inequality in social placement by the educationalist institute. Students are being looked upon by the teachers and other school officials for observing that whether a student is more or less motivated. For placing students at respective positions, educational institutions observe even if the students are educationally challenged so that teachers would give appropriate attention to the students. Educational institutions prepare people for their future life and enable them so that they could become a productive part of the society. After proper identification, children are taught at the level that suits them well as educational institutions prepare them for the professional life ahead (Moskop et al, 2019). Cultural innovation is another important role being played by the functionalist approach. Artist, scientists and poets cannot create or discover great things in their lives if they are not given proper education by educationalist institutions. It has been claimed that educational institutions require various kinds of reforms in the current system and process of education for making it effective as per the time and demand of the society.

Conflict approach does not oppose the functions being played by the educational institutions but gives some of these functions a different slant by spotting a light on how educational institutions perpetuate social inequality. In schools when children are tracked and placed in category like slow learner and fast learner, this tracking and categorization also creates social inequality as students are being locked faster within lower tracks. Conflict approach claim that even in educational institutions students may be placed as per their social class, race and ethnicity etc. that draws a parting line among the students. Conflict approach also claim that there are great chances that the test are standardized and are also culturally biased that also gives rise to social inequality. Conflict approach believes that difference of quality of educational institutions also widen the gap or inequality in the society. Educational institutions promote inequality as it draws a line among those who are from high standard educational institutions as compared to those who are in mediocre level educational institutions.

Conclusion

Taking a look at the above discussion, it could be said that social institutions define some ways and by following these ways life could be made better. Religious and educational institutions are the two main institutes that teach basic lessons of life. Both functionalist and conflict approaches view religious and educational institutions in different ways. Perspectives regarding educational and religious institutes of conflict and functionalist approaches are contradictory somehow as discussed above. It has been witnessed that functionalist approaches mainly shine a light on functions being performed by both educationalist and religious institutions. On the other hand, conflict approaches claim that inequality is promoted by both religious and educationalist institutions. So as a whole, it could be concluded that different approaches view educational and religious institutions in different ways by keeping in consideration their basic believes. Different approaches have their own ways of analyzing various institutes.

References

Gaus, N., Tang, M., & Akil, M. (2019). Organisational culture in higher education: mapping the way to understanding cultural research. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 43(6), 848-860.

Hedegaard, M. (2019). Children’s perspectives and institutional practices as keys in a wholeness approach to children’s social situations of development. In Cultural-Historical Approaches to Studying Learning and Development (pp. 23-41). Springer, Singapore.

Moskop, J. C. (2019, June). Moral Conflicts and Religious Convictions: What Role for Clinical Ethics Consultants?. In HEC Forum (Vol. 31, No. 2, pp. 141-150). Springer Netherlands.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

Nacirema

Submitted by

Submitted to

Course

Date

Nacirema culture And Comparison to Modern Americans

The debates around the problematic of cultural differences have led to the revelation of the tradition of Nacirema culture research. It is observed the tremendous diversity of people's behavior in similar situations; even the most exotic traditions are incapable of confusing him. Even if all the logical possibilities of a certain behavior are not yet available in any place known around the world; The anthropologist suspects that this possibility may be present in an undefined tribe.

According to the radical belief that determines the entire system, the human body is ugly and inherently a weakness and disease. The only hope of a person imprisoned in such a body is to eliminate these traits by means of rituals and ceremonies. Each household has one or more temples dedicated to this purpose. There are more sanctuaries in the homes of the more able individuals and the prosperity and abundance of a house are explained with reference to the rite points that it has. Most of the houses are built with acacia rod and plaster; The temple of the more affluent houses is built with stone walls. Relatively less affluent families attempt to mimic the rich by covering the walls of the temple rooms with pottery plates

Every family has sanctuary with associated rituals to performed in a personal and confidential manner, not in the form of family ceremonies. Information about the ritual begins to be shared with children only when they are old enough to become aware of these mysteries. However, since I was able to develop a friendly relationship with the locals, I had the chance to study these temples and tell them about the rituals.

The pivotal fact of the temple is a kind of box or box placed inside the wall. In this chest there are many talisman and magical tonics which the locals believe cannot survive without them. These preparations are secured by a group of experts. The most respected of these experts are the healers who should be paid with precious gifts in return for their help. However, healers do not offer the necessary healing medicines for their customers; they agree what content is necessary and write this recipe in ancient and secret language. This recipe can only be understood by those who prepare the necessary talismans for healers and other gifts.

Comparison of modern-day Americans and the Nacirema (similarities/ differences)

Nacirema is nothing but "American". The example is intended to give the readers the salutary experience that the views of a people about themselves have little in common with the description an outsider would give of them, and that simple truths about a people as a whole are a rather dubious affair.

Nacirema culture is categorized by an extremely developed market economy grew in a rich, natural habitat. While most of the people's time was dedicated to economic rendezvous, the return of these efforts and much of the day is used for rituals. The focal point of these rituals is the appearance and health of the human body, which is the dominant area of interest in the community's belief system. While such an interest is certainly not unusual; the ritual manifestations of it and the underlying philosophy are unique. Native Americans revolted against their neglect, then the gay ones, and so instead of celebrating the all-American unity, we see an ever-expanding sculpture park coming forward that belies the original intent.

Modern day American are a largely mythical people, in which the dreams of the modern world are crystallized, allowing this world to articulate its central social problems as well as basking in escapist and romantic fantasies.

The Nacirema are rather prudish towards their own bodies, they like to undress and humiliate their sick, and there is even a priesthood caste of their own, whose duty it is to harass and harass the frail and suffering. Another group of people, surprisingly, make a living by traveling from place to place and displaying their healthy bodies. Whereas modern Americans like to wear modern dresses and they don’t have any priesthood.

Overall impression

Nacirema are extremely strange people who are completely irrational in their beliefs and engage in amazing magical practices. Their lives revolve around small water temples set up in their homes, and shrines hung in them, holding primeval remedies for cleansing and healing rituals whose effectiveness the Nacirema is firmly convinced, even though all the facts point to their complete uselessness.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Somali Immigrants And Their Participation In The American Economy.

Somali Immigrants and their participation in the American Economy

Name

Institution

Preface

Since its founding in 1776, United State has always been welcoming safe haven for the immigrants and refugees fleeing persecution and conflicts. Estimation indicates that since 1975, U.S has relocated by approximately three million refugees all over the world. 1980 was the year of peaked refugee settlement efforts when over 200,000 immigrants fleeing Communist Vietnam reached U.S. Today, U.S fulfills significant humanitarian mission to resettle refugees and at the same time, provides worthy economical advantages to the country (MDOH, 2014). Refugees participate in the economical growth of nation to a considerable extent; contributing billions of dollars every year through business start-ups and consumer spending in the community—resulting in net constructive fiscal consequences. Additionally, refugees empower the establishment of vibrant and diverse communities and revitalize the declining social and economical scenarios; making the place conductive and favorable for community living. However, since 1980, the annual refugee admissions to U.S have declined. Despite having settlement of the largest number of refugees in the country, far more refugees are now being admitted by Australia and Canada on per capita basis.

History

Somalia

Geographical location of Somalia indicates that it is located in the Horn of Africa—the east coast of the continent. Their agriculture system was developed through southern river valleys due to which they follow conventional nomadic pastoralist profession (Putman & Noor, 1993). A vital role in trade and industrial development is being played by its Capital Mogadishu and other urban cites.

The fishing industry is supported by approximately 1880 mile coastline of Somalia for centuries. In addition, these coastal areas also acted as transportation channels to Asia, Europe and Middle East for exploring educational and economical opportunities. Contemplating through the lens of history, the small group of Somali sailors reached and settled New York City in 1920s. This practice generated an endless thread of migration for fiscal and educational purposes and since 1960s, thousands of Somali students reached U.S for pursuing their educational activities (Putman & Noor, 1993).

Jumping to the twentieth century, Somali land was undertaken full-fledge control by European Governments and was divided in various areas. Northern Somalia was claimed by British government which is now called Somaliland whereas Southern Somalia was seized by Italian government including the capital Mogadishu. Northwestern Somalia was taken up by French government which is now called Djibouti (Putman & Noor, 1993).

As a result, Somali residents strongly resisted foreign invasion but could not counter this trend unfortunately. After World War I, England and Italy were pressurized by external forces to end colonial regimes in Africa, which resulted in independence of Somalia. After a peaceful power transition, Somalia became a democratic country in 1960. However, in 1969, a military coup was led by General Mohamed Siad Barre which forced Somali residents into social, economic and political turmoil. In response to this unacceptable coup, a resistance movement was escalated by many National groups of Somalia in late 1980s and forced him out of the office in 1990 (Putman & Noor, 1993).

The above mentioned description indicated that Somalia was engulfed by the civil war for more than two decades. After long history of instability and turmoil, the Transitional Federal Government powered by the African Union and United Nations Organization gained complete political control in Somalia in 2010. In 2012, internationally recognized federal Somali government was established after parliamentary elections (Putman & Noor, 1993).

Resettlement and migration

Since the beginning of civil war, more than one million Somali nationals tended to leave the country and migrated to various European countries, as reported by United Nations Organization. Even within the Somali territory, number of internally displaced people was estimated as 1.5 million. In 1992, Somali nationals were offered visa from United States for the first time (MDOH, 2014). Although, leaving their homeland, family and relationships was painful but their economical condition compelled them to acquire visa and settle in United States—many of them did so.

Minnesota is the place where most of the Somali refugees migrated in 1992. Some of them were refugees whereas migration of others was backed by the sponsorship of already residing family members. They also started relocating Minnesota from other parts of the United States (Afrah, 2004). Many government and non-government refugee resettlement agencies e.g., Somali-led organizations i.e., Somali Family Services, International Institute of Minnesota, non-profit faith-based service organizations like Catholic Charities and Lutheran Social Services, Confederation of Somali Community in Minnesota and World Relief Minnesota facilitated the resettlement and migration of Somalis in Minnesota (MSDC, 2008).

Now in 2018, one of the largest Somali communities is hosted by Minnesota. Although, it is difficult to determine the exact number of Somali refugees living in Minnesota, yet the estimation ranges from 35,000 to 100,000 whereas data from 2015 census estimated their number as 57,000 (MSDC, 2017). The exact location where Somalis reside in Minnesota is Twin Cities Metropolitan area whereas others settled to the small rural areas of the state.

Most of the Somalis prefer Minnesota for residence because they find a wide ranged social network there with all the employment and educational facilities and access to number of social and healthcare services (Lee, 1982). They also acquire Minnesota’s outclass living standard and reputation for hospitality. Typically, they arrive there to synchronize their cultural resources with the pool of residents having same national background.

In addition, their extensive social and community network helps them find employment, education, housing and all the essential community resources and ensure their quality living. However, despite having excellent community support, they encounter many challenges in the practical life including family and belongingness separation, maintenance of religious and cultural practices in multicultural environment and acquiring proficiency in English language and at the same preserving national language (Lee 1982).

As far as economical contributions are concerned, in the American labor market, refugee men and women demonstrate active participation to a great extent, fulfilling the labor gap and contributing to the economical growth of States. In the initial years, refugees are paid less but their wages follow gradual progression with the passing time and increasing experience (Horst and Nick 2002). This is because they learn to adopt new culture, improvise their language skills, develop more extensive community networks and gain more experience in the labor market.

Estimations indicated that Somali refugee women start their work with the low rates of labor force participation but after 10 years, their degree of participation, performance and production exceeds the labor force of Native American counterparts (Parks 2011). Both Somali men and women report increase in their average yearly wages when they gain enough experience in the labor market. Based on the statistics, the U.S born men with prime working age contribute 80% of the labor force participation whereas participation of Somali men was comparatively higher than U.S born men i.e., 84%. However, these rates are substantially lower for Somali women i.e., 64% because of their religious customs which allow less participation of women outside the home. This analysis was done using 25-64 years as the prime working ages because the standard definition of prime working age i.e., 16+ encapsulates retired individuals that act as a threat to the validity of results (Portes and Minn 1993).

Over time, the rate of participation follows transitional trend for men and women however, their growing integration in the labor market is always constant. Even in the first ten years, migrated men and women in the labor market demonstrated more active participation than U.S born workforce. During initial years in labor market, rate of labor force participation of Somali men was 56% whereas the rate demonstrated upward transition in the upcoming years by 84%. Interestingly, the transition of labor force of Somali women and U.S born women followed similar trends i.e., 71% (Caps et. al., 2015).

A recent development in the settlement of Somali refugees is Migration Policy Institute that was aimed at contemplating how refugees were managed in the short run. It demonstrated that key goal of the Refugee Settlement Program in promoting the early employment of migrated individuals is now being achieved (Hammond 2013). Along with the short term picture, this report helped to clarify the idea about what happens to the refugees in long run.

In the long run, refugees retrospect and utilize their internal strengths and resources to cope with the multicultural environment. Over time, they gradually overcome cultural, language and employment barriers for integrating into the American labor market. Their professional and economical development is inspected through wage data obtained at various intervals (Jeanne 2008). This data provides a profound comprehension of how refugee men and women struggle to enhance their quality of life and improve their living conditions with the passing time. Data obtained from the Somali refugees who are just about to get a foothold in the market or working for less than 10 years and those who are working since last ten years indicates that their annual earnings rose from $24,000-$40,000 (Capps 2015).

Researchers attempted to inspect the underlying causes behind economical progress of Somali refugees and came up with the predictable results i.e., with the passing time, they learn other cultures and languages and advance their skills due to which they can easily shift their working place instead of sticking to one market for longer time (Zamora, 2014). Moreover, they fly where there are better opportunities for them to grow economically. They become more established in the communities first, develop new communities at the newer workplaces that help them moving up to the occupational ladders.

Moving to the nature of jobs that Somali refugees tend to acquire; it becomes evident that five broad categories of occupational choices are widely embraced by them; blue collar, white collar, service, farming and related jobs. There has been inspected a huge shift in the acquisition of jobs from initial steps in the occupational life and after ten years of working (Zamora, 2014). Their altered occupational choices overtime are the justified indication of how refugees became more established in the economical scenario.

Here are presented some statistics about the proportion of Somali refugees working in the varying nature of jobs; approximately 23% of the men and women are performing white-collar jobs in United States when they are working for nearly ten years in the market. This rate gains additional 6% increase when their working years become greater than ten (Zamora, 2014).

Most of the Somalis are working as professors, artists, social activists, librarians, teachers and social scientists and their share becomes 4-9% when they spend more than ten years in the working class. As far as farming is concerned, limited numbers of Somali men go for agriculture and poultry i.e., only 2-3%, for example, in San Diego, grow lablab beans and pumpkin leaves that are otherwise unavailable. Somali refugees also helped the local farmers to reinvigorate traditional farming methods (Capps et. al., 2015). Interestingly, U.S born farming professionals gravitate away from farming as more refugees take part in the traditional farming practices in United States. American Community Survey indicates that approximately 3-5% Somali refugees are currently working in farms.

Moving towards trading and business statistics; estimation indicates that refugees (from different part of the world) are more likely to acquire business as their way of income than U.S born individuals. For example, there are total of 34 business owners per 1000 refugees whereas the number reduces to 30 per 1000 for U.S born individuals. On the other hand, there are about 15 Somali owners per 1000 people and they are more likely to be travel agents, shop owners and transportation owners (Capps et. al., 2015). Other independently working Somali refugees encapsulate engineers, architects and scientific consultants. Business owner can be defined as a person who has incorporated business in possession or whose exclusive job is to maintain or run a business.

When new immigrant communities undergo economic inclusion, the opportunities for upward economical mobility are enhanced to a great degree. It not only proves to be advantageous for immigrant community but also for the ones who are receiving their services through economic incorporation. This point will be clarified quoting a ground breaking example of economic recovery in Lewiston which has the potential to stand as a case in point. Low-skilled labor force was lacking in Lewiston with an overabundance of untenanted rental units, prior to the arrival of Somali immigrants (Zamora, 2014). Both of these problems get resolved when Somali residents arrived in the area that not only filled the employment gap but also helped altering perception of U.S born residents about Somalis—as an intimidation for the class of productive stakeholders.

Like other refugee communities, Somalis too, arrive in the US with the substantial ability to acquire legal employment instantaneously. However, majority of Somali refugees does not possess advanced educational qualification and degree along with limited English language proficiency skills. This situation acts as a barrier for their economical development and attempts to limit their upward economical mobility; as a result, most of the refugees get low-wage and low skilled jobs that ordinarily do not provide them with the opportunities of advancements. However, passing time relieves their economic hardships (Zamora, 2014).

Because of the ongoing war in Somalia, it lacks reliable and functional economical structure. Hence, Somali refugees tend to support their family financially through gaining upward development in the economical scenario of United States (Horst, 2002). Due to these reasons, majority of the Somali refugees send money, food or other resources to their families, deducing a definite portion of their earnings every month. The common reasons of remittance include paying for medicines, food, shelter, and education for their children, siblings or relatives.

Due to these reasons, a super colossal burden is placed on their shoulders which might raise significant concerns regarding their physical, mental and emotional health. A study (Horst, 2002) conducted on this issue addressed the difficulties regarding new restrictions on remittance for the Somali refugees. They feel exaggerated economic pressure to remit their families back in Somalia due to which their economic incorporation in the United States is over shadowed.

There was found a huge difference between the refugees and immigrants with respect to challenges that they encounter economically (Horst, 2004). For the immigrants who come to Unite States specifically for finding work and sending money back to their homes are more likely to be psychologically deteriorated and often suffer from chronic stress if they get limited earnings; inadequate to meet the expected level of remittance (Horst, 2004). However, for the immigrants who travel along the family and have least concerns about financial support for their families are less likely to have physical, psychological or emotional issues (Horst, 2004).

The potential barriers in the remittance practices are well documented. Most of the Somali refugees send money to their families who are suspected to flow monetary resources to terrorist organizations e.g., al-shabaab which resulted in substantial remittance barriers for them. According to the report of refugee settlement (2013), approximately $1.3 billion enters Somali economy each years in form of remittance from migrant and refugee Somalis, out of which 16% amount flows from United States (Orozco and Julia, 2013).

Before the 1991 Somalia Civil War, remittance amounts were primordially sent for helping family and relatives with economic ventures, school fees, weddings and investments. Somali network that aid remittance practices is known as “xawilaad” which emerged in 1980s in order to establish fast, secure and reliable channels for funds transfer (Horst, 2002). After 1991, initiation of civil war led the xawilaad to set out a more climacteric purpose; revolving around the survival of family members back in Somalia and in the refugee camps of other countries (Ali 2011).

Dahabshil is a Somali remittance company which plays vital role in the distribution of monetary resources because as mentioned above, Somalia lacks stable government and banking system due to which unemployment is highly prevalent in country. Moreover, neither World Bank nor International Monetary Fund (IMF) provides financial aid to the Somali nationals due to country’s economical and political instability (Ali 2011). Hence, the only way to uplift economy is financial remittance.

During the past few years, United States has changed its remittance policies for Somali refugees as a post 9/11 reaction. These changes were powered by the concerns that Somali nationals are involved in money laundering to support terrorist organization Al-Qaeda. U.S government also identified some instances where Somali remittance organizations were found involved in the financial funding of terrorist organization (James and Shetre, 2012). In 2011, it was revealed that two Somali women had provided money directly to the terrorist organization al-Shabaab, due to which Barclays Banks ended their contract with the Somali remittance companies (Hatcher, 2015). In 2015, there was only one state bank that continued working with Somali Remittance Companies—the Merchants Bank in California—but it ended its contract with organizations in February 6, 2015 which was called by the congressman Keith Ellison a “catastrophic decision.”

The final word

Researchers argued that for the economic advancements of Somalis, their economic incorporation is inextricably irrevocable. Ideally, the business structure of economic opportunity is open and welcoming for new comers but for only those who are willing to take advantage from the available conditions. With the technological advancements, it has become more laborious today to earn a good living as compared to that of previous generations, particularly for immigrants. Hence, immigrant community is expected to show development towards economic self-efficacy after considerable period of time.

In a nutshell, the above presented textual activity not only demonstrates the statistics about the economical placement of Somali refugees in the United States but also the economical and political position of Somalia and significance of remittance practices for their families back in country. Although refugees are provided with the employment opportunities yet due to lacking qualification and language skills, they initially do not get high skilled jobs with handsome amount of money. Moreover, during the post 9/11 era, they encountered more economic hardships particularly in carrying remittance practices as they were allegedly found guilty in providing financial aids to terrorist organizations. This paper pointed the economic challenges that Somalis encounter and identified the areas which require consideration from policy makers, educationalists and private-sector leaders to ensure their economical growth.

Three strategies proposed by sociologists for uplifting their financial conditions are: Targeted Recruiting of Somalis, Public Sector Employment and provision of Occupational Training Opportunities (Rumberger, 1982; Eisinger 1986; Guajardo 1999; Boyd 1994; Parks 2011). This model of strategies will give fruitful result not only for Somali immigrants but for other refugees as well. Need of the hour is to develop new strategies and implement already developed strategies aimed at exhilarating their fiscal growth.

References

Horst, Cindy, Marta Bivand Erdal, Jørgen Carling, and Karin Fathimath Afeef. 2014. “Private Money, Public Scrutiny? Contrasting Perspectives on Remittances.” Global Networks 14 (4): 514–532.

Horst, Cindy, and Nick Van Hear. 2002. “Counting the Cost: Refugees, Remittances and the 220 \ References ‘War against Terrorism.’” Forced Migration Review 14:32–34. Available at http://www.fmreview.org/sites/fmr/files/FMRdownloads/en/FMRpdfs/FMR14/fmr14.13.pdf

Office of Refugee Resettlement. 2013. Annual Report to Congress. Available at http:// www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/orr/arc_2013_508.pdf.

Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (OASE). 2010. 2010 HHS Poverty Guidelines. Available at https://aspe.hhs.gov/2010-hhs-poverty-guidelines.

Park, Robert E. 1928. “Human Migration and the Marginal Man.” American Journal of Sociology 33:881–893.

Portes, Alejandro, and Min Zhou. 1993. “The New Second Generation: Segmented Assimilation and Its Variants.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 530 (1): 74–96.

Orozco, Manuel, and Julia Yansura. 2013. Keeping the Lifeline Open. OxFam America. Available at https://www.oxfamamerica.org/static/media/files/somalia-remit tance-report-web.pdf.

Ali, Ihotu. 2011. “Staying Off the Bottom of the Melting Pot: Somali Refugees Respond to a Changing U.S. Immigration Climate.” Bildhaan: An International Journal of Somali Studies 9 (11). Available at http://digitalcommons.macalester.edu/bild haan/vol9/iss1/11.

James Cockayne, , and Shetret Liat. 2012. Capitalizing on Trust: Harnessing Somali Remittances for Counterterrorism, Human Rights and State Building. Global Center on Cooperative Security. Available at http://globalcenter.org/wp-content/up loads/2012/07/CapitalizingOnTrust.pdf

Hatcher, Jessica. 2015. “Ending Somali-US Money Transfers Will Be Devastating, Merchants Bank Warned.” The Guardian, February 6. Available at http://www .theguardian.com/global-development/2015/feb/06/somali-us-money-transfersmerchants-bank-remittances

Boyd, Robert L. 1994. “The Allocation of Black Workers into the Public Sector.” Sociological Focus 27 (1): 35–51.

Eisinger, Peter K. 1973. “The Conditions of Protest Behavior in American Cities.” American Political Science Review 67 (1): 11–28.

Guajardo, Salomon A. 1999. “Workforce Diversity: Monitoring Employment Trends in Public Organizations.” Public Personnel Management 28 (1): 63–85.

Parks, Virginia. 2011. “Revisiting Shibboleths of Race and Urban Economy: Black Employment in Manufacturing and the Public Sector Compared, Chicago 1950– 2000.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 35 (1): 110–129.

Rumberger, Russell W. 1983. “Social Mobility and Public Sector Employment.” Stanford: Stanford University, California Institute for Research on Educational Finance and Governance.

Putman Diana Briton, Noor Mohamood Cabdi, 1993. The Somalis: Their History and Culture. Center for Applied Linguistics. p. 1.

"2014 MAA-CBO Directory" . Minnesota DOH.

Afrah M.M., Minneapolis, Minnesota 2004. "Talking Point: Somalis in America, Two Thumps Up".

"Immigration & Language". 2008. Minnesota State Demographic Center.

Lee Cassanelli. The Shaping of Somali Society: Reconstructing the History of a Pastoral People, 1600–1900. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1982.

Minnesota State Demographic Center. Available at https://mn.gov/admin/demography/data-by-topic/immigration-language/

Capps Randy and others, “The Integration Outcomes of U.S. Refugees: Successes and Challenges” (Washington: Migration Policy Institute, 2015), available at http:// www.migrationpolicy.org/research/integration-outcomes-us-refugees-successes-and-challenges

Hammond Laura, “Somali refugee displacements in the near region: Analysis and Recommendations” (Geneva: U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees Global Initiative on Somali Refugees, 2013), available at http://www. unhcr.org/55152c699.html

Jeanne Batalova, Michael Fix, and Peter A. Creticos, “Uneven Progress: The Employment Pathways of Skilled Immigrants in the United States” (Washington: Migration Policy Institute, 2008), available at http://www. migrationpolicy.org/research/uneven-progress-employment-pathways-skilled-immigrants-united-states

Zamora Lazaro, “Immigration 101: Path to Citizenship” (Washington: Bipartisan Policy Center, 2014), available at http://bipartisanpolicy.org/library/immigration101-path-citizenship/.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 10 Words: 3000

Three Major Sociological Theories

The Sociological Theories

[Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees]

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Author Note

[Include any grant/funding information and a complete correspondence address.]

The Sociological Theories

Response one

Functionalist theory suggests that the social world is organized in frameworks, and these frameworks are inter-related to each other, while these are named as the institutions. Society is shaped in the structural frameworks, which are complex, and people interact with each other to create relationships by using the social institutions, which forms a complete society ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"4rJFiT4c","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Wallace, 2017)","plainCitation":"(Wallace, 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":590,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/F0XOCTdk/items/TVCX8YID"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/F0XOCTdk/items/TVCX8YID"],"itemData":{"id":590,"type":"book","title":"Sociological theory","publisher":"Routledge","ISBN":"1-315-12996-5","author":[{"family":"Wallace","given":"Walter"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Wallace, 2017).

Conflict theory suggests that people compete to get the limited resources available, and this is a macro-level perspective ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"xREXoNkq","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Parsons, 2017)","plainCitation":"(Parsons, 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":587,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/F0XOCTdk/items/98GNP6TG"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/F0XOCTdk/items/98GNP6TG"],"itemData":{"id":587,"type":"webpage","title":"The Present Status of “Structural-Functional” Theory in Sociology","container-title":"The Idea of Social Structure","abstract":"The author well remember at a meeting of the International Sociological Association, held in Washington, D.C., in 1961, Robert K. Merton very cogently made the","URL":"https://www.taylorfrancis.com/","note":"DOI: 10.4324/9781315132563-5","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Parsons","given":"Talcott"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017",7,12]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",11,13]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Parsons, 2017). The social world has limited resources for which people compete and struggle to get them to fulfill their needs. There is a social class system in society, which is formed by the individuals, and these individuals have to compete to fulfill their needs. People who possess more power will acquire more resources, and the lower classes will be left behind. This will create a gap and disturb the social interactions of individuals with their societies.

The interactionism perspective states that people in social world communicate with each other, and with their society, and this interaction is carried with the help of symbols. The social interaction, according to interactionism, is that humans respond to other individuals, and with the environments. The interactions of individuals, and environmental patterns can be understood with the help of communication tools, and symbols ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"jjgVi2xf","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Strauss & Maines, 2017)","plainCitation":"(Strauss & Maines, 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":591,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/F0XOCTdk/items/VNCDQLHG"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/F0XOCTdk/items/VNCDQLHG"],"itemData":{"id":591,"type":"chapter","title":"An interactionist theory of action","container-title":"Continual Permutations of Action","publisher":"Routledge","page":"47-72","author":[{"family":"Strauss","given":"Anselm L."},{"family":"Maines","given":"David R."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Strauss & Maines, 2017).

The conflict theory is identified as a suitable theory; however, this theory suggests that the society is divided into different classes, in which people compete to grab the limited resources. Societies are indeed divided into the social structures and class system, where the powerful, authoritative individuals and the groups grab the resources which creates injustices in the societies. People do compete and they must compete, but the government and the institutions which exist in the societies should be a medium to provide justice to people rather than encouraging the individuals to misuse their power and authority. The injustices and the class systems create a communication gap and hinder the social interactions among people and their societies.

References

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Parsons, T. (2017, July 12). The Present Status of “Structural-Functional” Theory in Sociology. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315132563-5

Strauss, A. L., & Maines, D. R. (2017). An interactionist theory of action. In Continual Permutations of Action (pp. 47–72). Routledge.

Wallace, W. (2017). Sociological theory. Routledge.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Understanding Inequality In Race, Class And Gender.

Understanding Inequality in Race, Class and Gender

Shermaine Nash

Understanding Inequality in Race, Class and Gender

Inequality has been a massive concern for people and the government of all ages around the world. Inequality is a complex phenomenon to define and measure because it exists at multiple levels in various forms. In a broad spectrum, inequality can be described as a state of being unequal or lack of equality ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"ZD7C52U4","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Reinert, 2017)","plainCitation":"(Reinert, 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":70,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/YgsdZK9k/items/RDNUWMEA"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/YgsdZK9k/items/RDNUWMEA"],"itemData":{"id":70,"type":"book","title":"Handbook of Globalisation and Development","publisher":"Edward Elgar Publishing","number-of-pages":"584","source":"Google Books","abstract":"Characterised by conceptual diversity, the Handbook of Globalisation and Development presents contributions from prominent international researchers on all aspects of globalisation and carefully considers their role across a whole host of development processes.The Handbook is structured around seven key areas: international trade, international production, international finance, migration, foreign aid, a broader view, and challenges. Adopting a multi-disciplinary approach, the section on ‘a broader view’ delves into dimensions of globalisation and development that go beyond the mere economic, such as: culture, technology, health, and poverty. Carefully crafted, the chapters herein offer a rigorous and comprehensive assessment of the available research to date and provide an assessment of policy options across all areas considered.","ISBN":"978-1-78347-865-1","note":"Google-Books-ID: P3hHDgAAQBAJ","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Reinert","given":"Kenneth A."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017",3,31]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Reinert, 2017). In other words, the uneven distribution of resources, opportunities, and rights is categorized as Inequality. It is observed in numerous forms in a society like wealth inequality, unequal income despite the same position, discriminatory treatment by government or judicial system, limited opportunities of growth or limited access of educational and health resources for a specific group of people, based on race, gender, geography or class. In the last century and today, social inequality is a significant theme for judiciary matters, political debates, legislation, social movements and protest ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"IxC3T80F","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Prudence L. Carter & Sean F. Reardon, 2014)","plainCitation":"(Prudence L. Carter & Sean F. Reardon, 2014)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":64,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/YgsdZK9k/items/ASITG43D"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/YgsdZK9k/items/ASITG43D"],"itemData":{"id":64,"type":"webpage","title":"inequalitymatters.pdf","URL":"https://ed.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/inequalitymatters.pdf","author":[{"literal":"Prudence L. Carter"},{"literal":"Sean F. Reardon"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2014",9]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",11,7]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Prudence L. Carter & Sean F. Reardon, 2014).

Gender inequality is one of the aspects of social inequality which influences different people in unique ways. It takes numerous forms according to the social and economic organization of a region. Mostly, women are influenced by gender inequality. They are given lesser opportunities to grow and offered lesser pay than men for the same set of responsibilities and work. If this situation is closely analyzed, women are held responsible for household and childcare as well. Despite that, at work, they put the same effort as men but the outcome and facilities for them are lesser. It is assumed generally that men are more capable and deserving of promotions and leadership roles. It is concluded that women doing comparably more effort like teaching and nursing are paid less than men working in mines and construction. Other than economic differences, females are deprived of opportunities of getting quality education and adopting male dominating careers ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"15y7x2Zn","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Judith Lorber, 2010)","plainCitation":"(Judith Lorber, 2010)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":74,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/YgsdZK9k/items/NFDW9ZPI"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/YgsdZK9k/items/NFDW9ZPI"],"itemData":{"id":74,"type":"book","title":"Gender Inequality: Feminist Theories and Politics","publisher":"Oxford Univresity Press","edition":"Fourth","URL":"https://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/25340325/lorber_feminisms_2010.pdf?response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DGender_inequality.pdf&X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Credential=AKIAIWOWYYGZ2Y53UL3A%2F20191108%2Fus-east-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Date=20191108T063617Z&X-Amz-Expires=3600&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Signature=0e96d5979227fb83586a7bc7767b69dae036a157ac2c8087bd0fd7457f1b7f33","author":[{"literal":"Judith Lorber"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2010"]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",11,8]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Judith Lorber, 2010). Gender equality affects women socially, financially and psychologically.

It is also observed that in many instances, individuals receive benefits and rewards based on their social standing. The social status can be based upon earning, ranking in an economic structure, or association with an ethnic and cultural group ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"cda7m8ce","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Rothman, 2015)","plainCitation":"(Rothman, 2015)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":79,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/YgsdZK9k/items/22VZ5JWG"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/YgsdZK9k/items/22VZ5JWG"],"itemData":{"id":79,"type":"book","title":"Inequality and stratification: Race, class, and gender","publisher":"Routledge","ISBN":"1-317-34418-9","author":[{"family":"Rothman","given":"Robert A."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Rothman, 2015). Today, in a world where technology has reached its peak and almost all sectors of life are automated and advanced, the truth of the rate of inequality is extremely shocking.

Functional Inequality

Inequality can be functional in some cases, depending upon the economic standing of that region. It is observed that whenever a new technology or methodology is introduced in a society, those who are quick to implement it, get the economic and social advantage. Also, in adversity, those who adapt quickly or who have planned earlier tend to benefit or at least prevent harm. This group of people increases profit and growth rate. Their savings and profit are utilized to invest in more projects which further improve the financial status and provide job opportunities. Accumulation of capital with those who tend to improve the market increases the overall growth rate. Moreover, when other people in society observe the situation and implement similar techniques, they advance. In this way, the inequality ratio drops ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Hj7lOXnR","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}Economics 448 Lecture 15 Functional Inequality}, n.d.)","plainCitation":"(Economics 448 Lecture 15 Functional Inequality, n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":59,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/YgsdZK9k/items/CSAQ4KT6"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/YgsdZK9k/items/CSAQ4KT6"],"itemData":{"id":59,"type":"article-journal","title":"Economics 448 Lecture 15 Functional Inequality","page":"36","source":"Zotero","language":"en"}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Economics 448 Lecture 15 Functional Inequality, n.d.).

Dysfunctional Inequality

Inequality is more dysfunctional and negatively affect individuals as well as organizations. When people are deprived of resources, financial stability, and health benefits, society as a whole starts to get affected. Individuals living in a society where inequality prevails, are more likely to suffer from tension and distress. Mental and physical health deterioration appear to be the consequences. Unequal societies have a lower rate of growth and a higher rate of violence and crime. One of the major consequences of this situation is that rich people are getting richer while less-privileged ones are even losing what they had. The next generation of fortunate families tends to maintain or increase their wealth and social status. On the other hand, children of less fortunate ones take lower roles or less paying jobs. Inequality affects the behavior and mental approach as well and more deeply than it is thought to.

Factors contributing to dysfunctional inequality

The increasing gap between poor and rich is not a coincident or a simple consequence of social factors. It involves understanding, beliefs and practices of numerous groups at different levels of society. The factors involved in promoting inequality include the classification of people based on ethnicity, gender, and social class. These factors are not developed overnight, in fact, it takes years to build beliefs strong enough to effect on this large scale. In almost all the studies, inequality is discussed from an income perspective, however, inequality is also measured based on property, luxuries, and property. It is because, for most of the research, only data of income is available. Assets and such possessions have the benefit that they are not affected by spontaneous or brief fluctuations in earnings. As much as politics impacts the economy, the economy influences the political dynamics and it is correlated to the inequality. Public strategies for investments, redistribution and revenue are influenced by politics. They can either decline the rate of inequality or broaden the gap. In the U.S., political elements have had a crucial role in increasing inequality. Less-radical tax system helped citizens of America to accumulate wealth and property. Powerful union and central trade in Europe enhanced equality in industrial and average income earners. Many unions struggled due to inequality because of the difference in race and class which weakened the bond. Apart from the unequal income distribution, restraining employment conditions and common unemployment factors guarantee that less industrious European employees exit the market. Due to this factor, the less skilled people will be eliminated from the count of income inequality. If inequality in skills and expertise is the reason behind the unequal income, then first, the pattern of inequality of proficiency must be explored. It is a clear fact that lack of skills is due to lack of opportunities to learn, and this is directly linked to educational and training policies enforced by the government. The government’s decision to financially support certain territory or age groups affect inequality. Racial diversity and political establishments are two common factors of inequality. It reduces the chances to develop an equal and balanced society because people seem to be reluctant to help people from different races or classes ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"b6hBIuOY","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Alesina & Glaeser, 2004)","plainCitation":"(Alesina & Glaeser, 2004)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":77,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/YgsdZK9k/items/8REXGM7M"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/YgsdZK9k/items/8REXGM7M"],"itemData":{"id":77,"type":"book","title":"Fighting Poverty in the US and Europe: A World of Difference","publisher":"Oxford University Press","source":"www.oxfordscholarship.com","abstract":"This book explores the difference in the distributive policies of the United States and Europe. It seeks answers to why Americans are less willing than Europeans to redistribute from the rich to the poor. It finds that redistribution is influenced by political institutions, ethnic heterogeneity, and beliefs about the nature of poverty.","URL":"https://www.oxfordscholarship.com/view/10.1093/0199267669.001.0001/acprof-9780199267668","ISBN":"978-0-19-160215-3","title-short":"Fighting Poverty in the US and Europe","language":"en_US","author":[{"family":"Alesina","given":"Alberto"},{"family":"Glaeser","given":"Edward"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2004",3,25]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",11,8]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Alesina & Glaeser, 2004). Data collected from surveys, voting pattern and inter-state results in the US, including past research concludes that cultural diversity decreases relocation of resources ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"z9BTZrIs","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Edward L. Glaeser, 2005)","plainCitation":"(Edward L. Glaeser, 2005)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":76,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/YgsdZK9k/items/YXM2N4NG"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/YgsdZK9k/items/YXM2N4NG"],"itemData":{"id":76,"type":"article","title":"Inequality","publisher":"NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH","URL":"https://www.nber.org/papers/w11511.pdf","author":[{"literal":"Edward L. Glaeser"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2005",6]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",11,8]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Edward L. Glaeser, 2005).

Conclusion

To eradicate inequality from all walks of life, it is very important to highlight the alarming issue of inequality at every possible platform. The government must take responsibility and educate people on the effects of inequality. Reforms and projects to eliminate factors contributing to inequality are essential in the world of today. It is not possible for a single organization or country to single-handedly fight inequality, rather a global effort has become a necessity in this regard. Providing equal benefits and opportunities are fundamental human rights belonging to everyone. A society can only flourish when societies are strong, and economies are stable.

References

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Alesina, A., & Glaeser, E. (2004). Fighting Poverty in the US and Europe: A World of Difference. Retrieved from https://www.oxfordscholarship.com/view/10.1093/0199267669.001.0001/acprof-9780199267668

Economics 448 Lecture 15 Functional Inequality. (n.d.). 36.

Edward L. Glaeser. (2005, June). Inequality. Retrieved from https://www.nber.org/papers/w11511.pdf

Judith Lorber. (2010). Gender Inequality: Feminist Theories and Politics (Fourth).

Prudence L. Carter, & Sean F. Reardon. (2014, September). Inequalitymatters.pdf. Retrieved November 7, 2019, from https://ed.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/inequalitymatters.pdf

Reinert, K. A. (2017). Handbook of Globalisation and Development. Edward Elgar Publishing.

Rothman, R. A. (2015). Inequality and stratification: Race, class, and gender. Routledge.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

"The Future Of Music And Newspaper Industries"

"The Future of Music and Newspaper Industries"

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

"The Future of Music and Newspaper Industries"

Music Industry

The future of the music industry is very bright and up to date, as it is easily perceivable through the success of pop artists (Nielsen, 2015). The record-breaking music has been launched in this recent year, and its accessibility is easy due to smartphones, iPods and CD players. The three main reasons behind the success of music industry and its prevalence till twenty or more years are; firstly, it has been observed that there are no throttling points of insufficiency which formerly influenced the companies of production, endorsement, and supply. Secondly, the recording tools of studio-quality are cost-effective and on the gadgets of almost everyone. Lastly, the availability of limitless “airtime” enables anyone to post their music on online websites and applications like SoundCloud, YouTube, and Spotify. There are no longer limits to the number of shelves in a record store because digital music has no physical location.

Newspaper Industry

The future of the newspaper industry in the coming twenty years is perceived declining till the time there would be no newspapers left. This is all due to technological advancement, such that internet, smartphones, and tablets. But other main reasons include no journalism, impractical approach and aging audience (Nielsen, 2015). The first reason of newspaper decline is that it has left no journalism in it by getting politicized. Secondly, the impracticality of stock of newspaper in this technological period, where people only take things that come in handy, such that they read the newspaper on their mobiles and tablets. Thirdly, the aging lot is only interested in reading the actual newspaper, whereas the younger one has no time and interest for that. They scroll through social media sites for the news sake. Hence, there is no apparent good future for the newspaper industry; sooner or later they will all collapse.

References

Nielsen, R. K. (2015). Local journalism: The decline of newspapers and the rise of digital media. IB Tauris.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

"What If Libraries Weren’t Public?"

What if Libraries Were Not Public?

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

What if Libraries Were Not Public?

Public libraries are a potential source of information for the public. If libraries were privatized, the circumstances would have been entirely opposite. In essence, the privatization of libraries will cast adverse impacts. The primary aim of privatization is the inclusion of private companies as the stakeholder of public libraries. Since public libraries prefer not to generate potential revenue, they can best serve the interest of the public service. The quality of the information on ground and monopoly to make further profit will emerge in libraries under the influence of private companies.

To begin, private companies will advance to make a profit. The private library companies are immune to risk to a certain extent in a manner that they are not vulnerable to risks form the council. Moreover, the cost of the privatization process is also exorbitant. The utilization of libraries essentially declines in the libraries run by private companies because of the cost factor ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"GkXhW2wF","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}The Creeping Privatization of Public Libraries,\\uc0\\u8221{} 2018)","plainCitation":"(“The Creeping Privatization of Public Libraries,” 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":110,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/h6KbaPMu/items/ZAWDY8KC"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/h6KbaPMu/items/ZAWDY8KC"],"itemData":{"id":110,"type":"webpage","title":"The Creeping Privatization of Public Libraries","container-title":"San Diego Free Press","abstract":"By Susan Grigsby / Daily Kos\n\nAt 17,566, there are more public libraries in the United States than there are Starbucks coffee shops. And just like at Starbucks, patrons have access to free wi-fi.…","URL":"https://sandiegofreepress.org/2018/08/the-creeping-privatization-of-public-libraries/","language":"en-US","issued":{"date-parts":[["2018",8,1]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",3,3]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“The Creeping Privatization of Public Libraries,” 2018). The fundamental purpose of public services is the authorization of control as book loans, librarian support and public space to the public. Once they are privatized, their purpose will be undermined and the public influence on the service will gradually decline.

Moreover, the mechanism of social mobility will become challenging after the privatization of public libraries. Information is a crucial factor involved in mobility. When private companies take charge, they will exercise the privilege to monetize the very right to information. It is one of the most detrimental aspects of privatizing public libraries. They will proceed to maximize growth at the cost and provision of information. In a well-informed democracy, citizens possess the right to be informed thoroughly. Thus, information ought not to be translated into a commodity for trade and maximizing profits.

References

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY The Creeping Privatization of Public Libraries. (2018, August 1). Retrieved March 3, 2019, from https://sandiegofreepress.org/2018/08/the-creeping-privatization-of-public-libraries/

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

#waterwednesday

#WaterWednesday

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

#WaterWednesday

Introduction

The official website of Aqua Optima states that: “#WaterWednesday is a national campaign launched on Wednesday 6 June 2018, which will aim to encourage UK families to ditch sugary drinks for water every Wednesday” (Quench your thirst with #WaterWednesday, N.P). The participants of this campaign pledge to reserve every Wednesday to use water instead of the other drinks and to consider their daily use of water. Intended audiences of this campaign were initially the UK citizens, but now it has become a worldwide campaign where people from different continents participate. On the other hand, scholars have mixed views about the integrity of this mode of communication.

Body

Had there no water, there would have no human civilization rather life on the face of earth. The critical study of history proves that all the ancient civilizations were born and flourished on the banks of rivers. The citizens of the UK have almost abandoned the use of water for drinking instead they drink artificial sugary drinks as juices and energy drinks etc. On the other side, pure water resources are getting scarce throughout the world that can be called a time-bomb for humanity. This is a threat to human civilization. Aqua Optima promotes the use of water with the help of bloggers and research analysts using all the social media platforms. There is a formal membership page on the website of Aqua Optima where people get registered to be a part of this campaign. People make video clips of their activities like replacing the sugar filled drinks with fresh water. Moreover, they tweet about the benefits of staying hydrated while working. An Instagram blogger @sarah_montelongo writes that she has become water-addict since the campaign has started. A British YouTuber Kris Carr makes emotive videos to help people understand what happens when they use water in excess instead of artificial sugary drinks. As mentioned above, the campaign has become universal and Africa has become its focal point. Africa is a water scarce continent. Water scarcity becomes the cause of food scarcity because of little irrigation. South African authorities have become the part of the campaign as they spread awareness about the water use using their media. There are YouTube channels that make the videos about the pathetic state of water-supply throughout the continent. #WaterWednesday campaign has fueled the other campaigns regarding environmental deterioration. People write about the significance of plants, vegetables, and fresh water for the survival of human race.

This campaign is important because it has spread awareness about the human-health and life. The post-modern world is too busy in exploring Mars to look at the harms we are doing to our home: Earth. Mars would have no importance if we lose our health or our home. This is very important because it has become the cause of many other campaigns like #SaveNature, #GlobalWarmingIsReal, and #SaveWaterSaveLife. I am not yet a formal part of this campaign, but I intend to become it because of its vibrant way of encouraging people to do good for them and for the world. It influences the thoughts of people when bloggers and literate people share their motivational experiences after being used to the habit of drinking water. It appeals a large number of people for it demands no money for being its part or doing the asked job. Additionally, this campaign enables people to have savings when they purchase cheap and cheerful pure fresh water instead of expansive drinks.

Hash-tag campaigns have got much fame on social-media platforms. It is very easy for social-media activists to campaign in favor of something or against it. Little controversial acts of public-figure personalities cause storm on social-media. Brands are exposed to the millions of people using hash-tags in little time. Every user takes part in the campaigns, and a particular issue or items becomes the hot-topic in a few minutes. Gongs of campaigns are beaten on social-media platforms every day. This is the cause that scholars have different views about the effectiveness of such campaigns. Some scholars consider them useless word battles without having executive power, but the others credit them differently. Clifford Joseph Harris Jr. writes that : “Our society’s issues are deeper than social media posts, there’s a long list and if you think solely making them a trending topic is going to solve them, then you are a part of the problem” Anschuetz, N. (2009). Ahron Burstin on the other hand calls it “One of the most engaging and effective ways you can use social media to boost visibility and get people talk” about the topic we want to publicize (Digital Defense: Black Feminists Resist Violence With Hashtag Activism, 2019).

Conclusion

#WaterWednesday was intended to spread health awareness among the UK citizens, but it has contributed to spread awareness about many other global issues like global warming, water scarcity, and food scarcity in Africa. Hash-tag campaigns are both boon and bane as discussed by the scholars. Their productivity or counter-productivity is decided after they get viral. Such campaigns do not produce the absolute result. We start a hash-tag campaign and wait what comes-out.

References

Quench your thirst with #WaterWednesday | parkrun UK Blog. (2018). parkrun UK Blog. Retrieved 31 October 2019, from https://blog.parkrun.com/uk/2018/06/05/quench-your-thirst-with-waterwednesdays/

Anschuetz, N. (2009) Is hashtag-based activism all talk, no action?Retrieved 1 November 2019, from https://www.usatoday.com/story/college/2015/10/26/is-hashtag-based-activism-all-talk-no-action/37407851/

Digital Defense: Black Feminists Resist Violence With Hashtag Activism. (2019). Feminist Media Studies. Retrieved from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/14680777.2015.1008744?journalCode=rfms20

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

(will Edit)

Your Name

Instructor Name

Course Number

Date

Philosophical Paper on “Good and Evil”

Introduction

This universe is full of different philosophical concerns that require the necessary attention to better understand the real nature of this world. Active consideration of these factors or paradigms is also necessary to build a strong association between various philosophical notions. The philosophical theory of knowledge encourages people to critically think about the universe and explore better grounds to live in this world. It is noteworthy to mention that the concepts of good and evil play a critical role in every individual’s life. It is imperative for everyone to have a basic understanding of the fundamental principles of good and evil to live life on ethical foundations. The notion of good and evil also got great attention from many philosophers since the beginning of the original domain of philosophy. It is established by many great philosophers to correctly deliver its stance on the practical approaches of good and evil ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Pgw1lnM8","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Fromm)","plainCitation":"(Fromm)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":301,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/qLzeF6Hj/items/VFLCBYZL"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/qLzeF6Hj/items/VFLCBYZL"],"itemData":{"id":301,"type":"book","title":"The heart of man: Its genius for good and evil","publisher":"Lantern Books","ISBN":"1-59056-253-4","author":[{"family":"Fromm","given":"Erich"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2011"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Fromm). However, active consideration of these two prospects is mandatory for human beings to judge their every action according to the correct perspective of right and wrong. This response paper focuses to critically examine the topic of good and evil by considering the philosophical standpoint delivered by Kant, Buddha, Plato, and Sartre. 

Discussion

The practical actions of good and evil are characterized as moral concepts for human beings that eventually define their will in case of every act they performed. It is significant to identify the prevalence of philosophical difference that exists between good and evil. This form of examination is critical to characterize the individual’s direction in life. Undoubtedly, it is one complex idea to explicitly illustrate what is good and what is evil because people are different from each other. The one thing which might be good for one might be ranked as evil by another individual. The complexity of this approach can be assured through careful examination of the philosophical theories shared by some great philosophers of all time. It is vital to reflect on good and evil by exploring great philosophers’ main ideas of philosophy separately. 

Kant’s Philosophy on “Good and Evil”

 The moral theory presented by one great philosopher, Kant is one helpful theoretical foundation to better assess the concepts of evil and good in the form of actions. The human’s will to perform any action is connected by a philosopher with the broader domains of good and will. According to him, moral goodwill is a basic idea that helped people to identify the existing difference between good and evil. The approach of goodwill is also characterized as a direction for human beings to attempt good actions as compared to evil ones due to their goodwill. A detailed examination of the idea of evil helped to identify the prevailing difference between the main ideas of good and evil. The fundamental idea of good and evil presented by Kant is that human beings can be recognized as morally good entities only if they choose to select morally right actions. This form of consideration is important for individuals because they are morally on the right side and ready to reject the idea of evil will. 

 Immanuel Kant has strong philosophical standing when it comes to defining existing differences between good and evil. The nonspiritual theory of evil presented by Kant, considering both the main prospects of good and evil. He characterized the influence of good and evil on an individual’s will. It is critical to indicate that his philosophical concept of evil does not build any form of association to the domain of supernatural or divine aspects ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"TItG4Gq1","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Grimm)","plainCitation":"(Grimm)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":302,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/qLzeF6Hj/items/YGHDPQAA"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/qLzeF6Hj/items/YGHDPQAA"],"itemData":{"id":302,"type":"article-journal","title":"Kant's argument for radical evil","container-title":"European Journal of Philosophy","page":"160-177","volume":"10","issue":"2","author":[{"family":"Grimm","given":"Stephen R."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2002"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Grimm). Moreover, this theoretical approach to explain evil can never be ranked as a response to the concern of evil. Three critical conflicting facets of human nature are established by Kant as basic domains to recognize the features of good and evil. He developed a philosophical argument that all human beings are radically free that gives them the freedom to perform any action. The second critical argument presented by Kant on the issue of good and evil is that humans are naturally persuaded toward goodness. This philosophical statement is further established by Kant that by nature, human beings are also inclined to the perspective of evil. It is imperative to indicate that this basic philosophy of evil is greatly rejected by other experts on the grounds that Kant insignificantly connects the factor of evil with the approach of free will adopted by human beings. This critique requires further explanation of ideas of good and evil developed by Kant in the form of his theory of evil. 

The basic thoughts on the evil and evil presented by Kant as human beings have moral goodwill only if they are inclined to adopt ethically correct actions just because they are morally right things to do. In a simple manner, any individual who never adopts morally good action eventually has an evil will that appears in the forms of various thoughts and actions. It is significant to establish that the idea of evil is further assimilated by Kant by defining it in the form of three main stages. The first phase of evil is defined as the paradigm of frailty that helps to define the magnitude of evil and good persisted by any individual. Considering this phase of evil, a person is recognized as the one who is willing to perform good actions because these actions are established as the right things to do, but their will is weak enough to never allow them to follow their domain of morality and eventually adopt the option of evil. The second stage of evil approach is illustrated as the prospect of impurity that categorize individuals as an impure entity who does not willing to perform any right action just because these actions are defined as morally good actions. People referring to this particular stage are interested to perform good deeds due to the existence of some form of self-interest. In other words, personal aspiration is the main cause for human beings to perform good deeds over evil actions. The last stage of evil developed by Kant is recognized perversity or wickedness under the domain of corruption. This form of moral ethics of evil established that the factor of self-love is prioritized by an individual as compared to the approach of moral standards of good and evil. This argument can be better apprehended in case of the situation when an individual is willing to morally right action just with the objective of promoting the idea of self-interest. 

Buddha’s Philosophy on “Good and Evil”

The Buddhist philosophy presented by Buddha also established some strong philosophical arguments referring to the concepts of good and evil. The platform of primal duality is considered in the case of the philosophical basis of Buddhism to clearly illustrate the prevailing difference between good and evil. The persisting problem between good and evil is argued by Buddhist philosophy by establishing the concept of the original form of dichotomy. The problems of good and evil are defined under the spectrum of language, which is characterized as Pali according to Buddhist philosophy. It is argued in Buddhist philosophy that it is important to recognize the ideas of good and evil by considering the context of diverse situations of disparity.

The Law of Karma is the foundation in Buddhist philosophy to successfully depicting the ideas of good and evil considering the main context of every situation. The specific terms of Kusala and Akusala used in this philosophy to defines the perspective of ethics under the qualities of the original law of Karma. The two terms of Kusala and Akusala are used to better apprehend the features of good and evil but it is important to establish that these philosophical domains are not the same ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"d2f17Esf","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Loy)","plainCitation":"(Loy)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":303,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/qLzeF6Hj/items/742FT3YZ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/qLzeF6Hj/items/742FT3YZ"],"itemData":{"id":303,"type":"book","title":"On the nonduality of good and evil: Buddhist reflections on the new holy war","publisher":"na","author":[{"family":"Loy","given":"David"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2002"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Loy). The philosophical term of Kusala is used to critically establish mainly aspects of goodness, intelligent, skillful. Contrary to this concept, Akusala is used to defines the elements of evil, unskillful, etc. Both social priorities and psychological laws are used to define the elements of good and evil adopted by human beings in different situations. Both the conditions of good and evil are recognized as essential parts of the antagonistic duality that needs to be overcome by the continuous adoption of Sunyata. 

Plato’s Philosophy on “Good and Evil”

           A platonic theory of evil has great philosophical significance when it comes to characterizing difference between good and evil. He established the argument that all human beings are naturally gifted with the knowledge of good and evil aspects in life before they come to this world. According to his thoughts, this precious form of knowledge or understanding prevails in the human soul that directs him to wisely choose between good and evil in life. He also indicates, that with time, human beings forget any form of knowledge that is instincts by them that eventually cause the reason of bad deeds by people. He explained that a forgotten form of innate knowledge can be recollected by adopting fruitful options of meditation on nature, etc. Furthermore, the spectrum of experience also helps people to identify the existing difference between the factors of good and evil acts accordingly ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"v77cF7n9","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Clark and Dudrick)","plainCitation":"(Clark and Dudrick)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":304,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/qLzeF6Hj/items/ACG469G5"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/qLzeF6Hj/items/ACG469G5"],"itemData":{"id":304,"type":"article-journal","title":"The Naturalisms of Beyond Good and Evil","container-title":"A Companion to Nietzsche","page":"148","author":[{"family":"Clark","given":"Maudemarie"},{"family":"Dudrick","given":"David"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2006"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Clark and Dudrick). He developed philosophical idea that all forms of good and evil are innate in human beings that leads humans in their lives. 

Sartre’s Philosophy on “Good and Evil”

           The broad philosophical idea of existentialism is utilized by Sartre to illustrate problems of evilness in the scenario of the 20th century. This is the consideration of the entire struggle of human beings to correctly address the issue of evil. The original form of evil is defined by the philosopher as any action with the conscious approach to destruct the liberty of any individual. It is one complex idea relevant to various aspects of considerations. According to Sartre, the existence of evil in various forms in this world can never be ignored as it comes to the exploitation of many individuals who are potentially weak in the complex world scenario. It is further explained that the objective of goodness in life can only successfully be achieved by understanding and address different struggles of a factor of evil ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"8zx0oRXO","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Lawler and Ashman)","plainCitation":"(Lawler and Ashman)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":305,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/qLzeF6Hj/items/I4QGPJT7"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/qLzeF6Hj/items/I4QGPJT7"],"itemData":{"id":305,"type":"article-journal","title":"Theorizing leadership authenticity: A Sartrean perspective","container-title":"Leadership","page":"327-344","volume":"8","issue":"4","author":[{"family":"Lawler","given":"John"},{"family":"Ashman","given":"Ian"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2012"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Lawler and Ashman). He indicates that there is no proper or fixed design for humans to play their role in this world, and this concern can only overcome by clearly identifying the distinction between good and evil. 

Conclusion

           To conclude the critical discussion of different philosophers’ views on good and evil, it is mandatory to establish that all these great philosophers considered various and diverse approaches to recognized these concepts. It is imperative to characterize ideas of good and evil by considering three major areas of morality defined as meta-ethics, normative-ethics, and applied ethics. Understanding these aspects is an essential condition to better apprehend different moral issues concerning practices of good and evil. 

Works Cited:

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Clark, Maudemarie, and David Dudrick. “The Naturalisms of Beyond Good and Evil.” A Companion to Nietzsche, 2006, p. 148.

Fromm, Erich. The Heart of Man: Its Genius for Good and Evil. Lantern Books, 2011.

Grimm, Stephen R. “Kant’s Argument for Radical Evil.” European Journal of Philosophy, vol. 10, no. 2, 2002, pp. 160–77.

Lawler, John, and Ian Ashman. “Theorizing Leadership Authenticity: A Sartrean Perspective.” Leadership, vol. 8, no. 4, 2012, pp. 327–44.

Loy, David. On the Nonduality of Good and Evil: Buddhist Reflections on the New Holy War. na, 2002.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 6 Words: 1800

. What Characteristics Are Associated With A Successful Marriage?



What characteristics are associated with a successful marriage?

Author

Institutional Affiliations

What Characteristics Are Associated with a Successful Marriage?

Marriage is a natural courting between two individuals and it requires the partners to have a satisfying relationship. To maintain a healthy and peaceful relationship, there is a need for proper understanding. According to research, an alarming ratio of 40-50 percent of marriages lead to divorce. It has been proven that the majority of these divorces are not because of physical abuse or addiction issues, however, the main reason people adopt for divorce is to get rid of that partnership that has been painful, tasteless or loveless for a long period. They also tend to search for a greater and pleasurable lifestyle that their unmarried friends are enjoying or want to test their luck to find another soulmate. In contrast, individuals can be amazed to find out that their problems or disappointments, nevertheless, exist even in an unmarried lifestyle or adopting a new life partner. They have the perception that with a new marriage and a new partner, their current problems will be solved. Unfortunately, in most cases, their problems still exist. Divorce is not the solution, otherwise; the issues would have disappeared with a new marriage. Research also shows that the rate of divorce is even higher for second and third marriages. Thus, divorce is not a sound and authentic way of avoiding personal life problems, rather it creates more problems in some cases. The impact of divorce has extreme implications for both people and society ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"KW9gAm0e","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Lazarova, McNulty, & Semeniuk, 2015)","plainCitation":"(Lazarova, McNulty, & Semeniuk, 2015)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":510,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/7XSYX34S"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/7XSYX34S"],"itemData":{"id":510,"type":"chapter","title":"Expatriate family narratives on international mobility: Key characteristics of the successful moveable family","container-title":"Work and family interface in the international career context","publisher":"Springer","page":"29-51","author":[{"family":"Lazarova","given":"Mila"},{"family":"McNulty","given":"Yvonne"},{"family":"Semeniuk","given":"Monica"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Lazarova, McNulty, & Semeniuk, 2015). Divorce creates several social and cultural issues. Divorce can push an individual to lose their major support and can cause short or long-term mental problems. It can also incite financial problems as according to a study, around 50 percent of the couples with kids are in poor financial conditions when they get a divorce. Similarly, the children of divorced parents have the possibility of having behavioral and emotional conditions.

Many people outline the success of marriages on many selective methods. According to some, a marriage is prosperous, when a married couple is satisfied with each other at present time, but many believe that a good marriage is when two individuals spend life together until their death. Some also think that after marriages couples find ways to live together with each other and avoid divorce at any cost. That is why the definition of a prosperous marriage depends upon the success of couples to find good traits in each other that can bind them with one another throughout their lives. Some certain theories and therapies define and explain successful marriages which include a theory of cognitive self-disclosure that states the idea of marital intimacy by increasing a couple’s relationship and family functioning. A couple gets predictability by being intimate with each other ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"xO0v2Rik","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Leeuw, 2015)","plainCitation":"(Leeuw, 2015)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":511,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/AZMSJJC9"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/AZMSJJC9"],"itemData":{"id":511,"type":"article-journal","title":"Making Marriages Work: Common Factors of Marriage Theories","author":[{"family":"Leeuw","given":"Jilynn"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Leeuw, 2015). A triangular theory of love is another theory based on research that describes passion, intimacy, and commitment. Gottman method couples therapy is another theory that presents analyses of the differences in partner’s behaviors. For a marriage to be successful there are seven basic principles. These principles improve the love map of a person that is stored in the brain of partners which explains and focuses on the information about each other. A drastic change in this information and behavior may lead to some issues. The third characteristic of a successful marriage is fondness and admiration, which describes that the relationship between a couple is worthy of respect and honor. The next characteristic of best marriage is to turning of couples toward each other instead of turning away from each other. This aspect presents that married couples are emotionally connected and they support each other at the time of need. Another principle of a good marriage is influencing each other. Problems solving and approach to the problems in a smart way is also a reason for happy marriages. Different problem identification and approaches to those problems in a strategic way create a healthy environment for a couple. Overcoming any holdups is also related to healthy marriages, as the support of a spouse is the basic required to fulfill the dreams of a partner. Involvement in dialogues and practically completing any holdups will increase the stability of marriages. Sharing the life goals of each other in a relationship is yet another characteristic of healthy marriages. Deeper conversation and practically working together on the same goal can help in the achievement of mutual goals.

Another important theory of successful marriages is the usage of love during communication in a relationship. First of all, it was suggested that words of affirmation play an important role in marriages. The helping acts like doing laundry, grocery and shopping can promote love and understanding between couples. Buying gifts help in showing the love and worth of the spouse and is considered an important tool for improving the relationship of partners. Spending time together is another characteristic of a happy marriage. The fifth characteristic is physical touching, as it shows how much a couple wants each other and how much they want to stay together. Solution-oriented brief therapy primarily focusses on the things that be positively influential and promotion of relationship and how to work with those positive aspects to get good relationship results in life. This type of therapy alters the minds of couples to a rational way of thinking. It has been established that the identification of misconceptions between spouses and resolving them can be useful for healthy marriages ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"GlDxHa23","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Vanover, 2016)","plainCitation":"(Vanover, 2016)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":513,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/X7Y2QABH"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/X7Y2QABH"],"itemData":{"id":513,"type":"article-journal","title":"Important Factors in Marital Success and Satisfaction: Marriage Counselors’ Perspectives","author":[{"family":"Vanover","given":"Bradley"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Vanover, 2016). Certain misconceptions and old school ideas like “human nature cannot be changed” have paved the way for divorce. By identifying and addressing these misconceptions, the negativity in marriages can be reduced significantly. Setting a goal can be helpful to accomplish the desire of staying focus and hold on to each other to achieve the desired targets. Both behavioral and mental boundaries should be defined for identifying and achieving the desired goals. It has also been described that examination of differences between the good and bad times is also necessary for a successful marriage. Behavior during good and bad times should be considered and then acting accordingly to address those problems will help in the promotion of healthy relationships.

Some sociologists also put lights over the pattern and ways of solving a particular problem by responding differently from already tried ways which could not solve the problem. A different approach to a particular problem can be helpful. As a whole in simple form the basic things to describe successful marriages and healthy relationships are Intimacy, Commitment, overcoming conflicts, Cognitive Self-Disclosure and honoring each other. Besides no relationship is without conflict, it is the response of individuals during conflictual times to resolve the situation. Also, the important thing to notice is that whether these interactions have any serious impacts on a relationship or not, as it describes the marriage success and satisfaction. Similarly, the age factor also plays a role in the success of marriages. Research has proved that marrying after the twenties has greater chances of survival than getting married in early and mid-twenties. Mindfulness is another factor to be considered that describes the success of marriages. Similarities between married couples can make it easier for spouses to get along. To find out the reason and characteristics of a healthy relationship some researches were performed that put lights on the factors that are not present in healthy relationships. For a relationship to be prosperous, along with necessary things, some factors should not be present.

During many studies, married couples were interrogated and they responded that relationships should not have an addiction, abuse, and infidelity. Threats from a partner can also have a negative influence on marriage life. Emotional integrity and the absence of mental illness can also be useful for a stable relationship. Selfishness and the absence of respects are also some of the bad factors for best relationships. The rigidity can also destroy a good relationship. Compromising and being elastic is important in relationships as in life there are multiple where the couple is faced with a certain situation that can be addressed with a cool mind and smart approach rather than forcing and trying to solve it inappropriately and improperly ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"bKFgS75c","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Finkel, Cheung, Emery, Carswell, & Larson, 2015)","plainCitation":"(Finkel, Cheung, Emery, Carswell, & Larson, 2015)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":512,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/EWELXGNR"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/EWELXGNR"],"itemData":{"id":512,"type":"article-journal","title":"The suffocation model: Why marriage in America is becoming an all-or-nothing institution","container-title":"Current Directions in Psychological Science","page":"238-244","volume":"24","issue":"3","author":[{"family":"Finkel","given":"Eli J."},{"family":"Cheung","given":"Elaine O."},{"family":"Emery","given":"Lydia F."},{"family":"Carswell","given":"Kathleen L."},{"family":"Larson","given":"Grace M."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Finkel, Cheung, Emery, Carswell, & Larson, 2015). In conclusion, it is hard to find a perfect solution to overcome all the problems in marriages to perfection. Many books, theories, techniques, and therapies are introduced overtime for the solutions of problems in marriages, but still, it is difficult to say which method is best for the problems to solve through, because almost all these theories and therapies are somewhat similar. However, by studying and attempting to understand the characteristics of successful marriages some important common traits that are present and proved to have a great and positive impact over successful marital relationships.

References

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Finkel, E. J., Cheung, E. O., Emery, L. F., Carswell, K. L., & Larson, G. M. (2015). The suffocation model: Why marriage in America is becoming an all-or-nothing institution. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 24(3), 238–244.

Lazarova, M., McNulty, Y., & Semeniuk, M. (2015). Expatriate family narratives on international mobility: Key characteristics of the successful moveable family. Work and family interface in the international career context (pp. 29–51). Springer.

Leeuw, J. (2015). Making Marriages Work: Common Factors of Marriage Theories.

Vanover, B. (2016). Important Factors in Marital Success and Satisfaction: Marriage Counselors’ Perspectives.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

1. Arreola Daniel 2004. Hispnic Spaces/Latino Spances: Community And Cultural Diversity In Contemporary America. Austin: University Of Texas Press.

Book Analysis

Author1Firstname Author1Lastname

Enter the University Name here

INTRODUCTION

In U.S, the Hispanics and the Latino people constitute the largest ethnic minority. Still, yet they are unable to get themselves used to with the customs of the U.S. It is not just that they live while keeping a difference with the U.S culture and traditions but these people also have differences within themselves considering their way of living. In the U.S the Mexican American have been living for centuries. They have made themselves accustomed to the traditions of the U.S, and there exists much cultural diversity with the presence of Mexican America. Compared to other immigrants from the American continent, Mexican immigrants are the oldest of all. Some historian thinks that Salvadorans and Dominicans are also as old as the Mexican immigrants, but it is not true for this. As many research findings suggest otherwise. Similarly, the Cuban Americans and immigrants from Guatemala share different occupational and employment level. Both these group of immigrants are much new to the U.S, these group of immigrants is largely based in Florida and Virginia. They also constitute the largest poultry workforce in the U.S, many of them are also industrial workers. That is how they all constitute a healthy workforce balance for the U.S. The historians who have worked on their history claims that the only thing common in all Hispanics and Latinos are their Spanish ancestry. The major work for this book has been compiled by sixteen geographers and two sociologists. All of these have mapped the regional diversity and the cultural diversity of the Hispanic and Latino communities. They have explored every facet of these communities. For example, how much they are useful to their own selves and how they constitute a healthy workforce in the U.S. in this book these sociologists and historians have also explored that how these people form relations with the nation- Hispanics. They have analyzed the pattern of their interactions. The conclusion of this book is based on the findings that how these Hispanics and non- Hispanics create cultural diversities in the U.S.

ANALYSIS

The book has been classified by many people as the best compilation to seek each information about the Latinos and the Hispanic communities. How they came to the U.S, how they have developed themselves with ages, what they do for their earnings and most importantly how they interact with the communities around them. This is interesting to note that, despite the presence of much data about the cultures, linguistics and the living pattern of these peoples, this book has not relied upon the existing knowledge. The geographers and the sociologists have worked with a totally new perspective for the compilation of this book. They have also viewed things from a different perspective. For example, the previous findings of the Latinos and the Hispanics have relied upon the qualitative studies and had not included in any way the quantitative studies, which shows the limited scope of those readings. Compared to those readings, Daniel Arreola has worked much by traveling on the field. He has interacted with his team to the Latino people and has compiled the data in a very understandable manner. This is the reason that the geographers and the social scientists consider this book as a welcome addition for those who are interested in the study about the Latino culture. The methodology applied to conduct the study for this book was qualitative. That is the explorers have gone on to discover the historical linkages of the Latino and the Hispanic people to their own land and with the land, they now live on. They have studied in every form of their culture, their political ideologies, their way of living and their perception of things (p.1). They have also included in their study the reasons why once these people have remained the target of hate and racial discrimination ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"XveeUwi4","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Arreola 2004)","plainCitation":"(Arreola 2004)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":302,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/8ABBKEEI"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/8ABBKEEI"],"itemData":{"id":302,"type":"book","title":"Hispanic spaces, Latino places: Community and cultural diversity in contemporary America","publisher":"University of Texas Press","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Hispanic spaces, Latino places","author":[{"family":"Arreola","given":"Daniel"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2004"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Arreola 2004).

What the culture had indifferent? The Latinos and the Hispanics now constitute an important part of the population which reside in the U.S. they have very different things compared to the U.S inhabitants. Some of them also compare their cultures with those of the Asians and the Europeans who have just shifted to the U.S. it must not have been done. Since the Asians and the Europeans had faced much different working conditions back in their countries, compared to what the Latinos and Hispanics have faced. There is a reason for them being so hardworking. According to many researchers, their hard work is the reason so that they can make a place for themselves in the new land. One other thing which is different is their customs and traditions. These are outdated for not just the Americans but for the other immigrants like Europeans or the Asians. Their outdated culture shows that they have never explored the religious side of them. They have remained so stuck in their social interactions and in getting the sources for the incomes that they had no time to think about the religious lives of them. This is also the reason that they have faced racial tensions too (p.7). Their demographics also suggest that they have remained quite detracted from their people. They have never felt any compassionate feelings for their people and have never practiced being sitting together. Such weirdness in their interaction has led them toward the racial tensions and toward the ill feelings for each other. If one thinks about the racial tensions and the bad feelings within a tribal setting, everyone is right to opine that wherever there are cultural distractions or a kind of religious distractions, the results have remained the same. Another thing what appears from the study of their cultures and political views is their ultimate affection toward the political class and the cultures. Their culture is therefore so intact despite the passing of the centuries.

The demographics: For the research compilation of this book, the geographers have been selected from the 2002 meeting of the Association of the American geographers. This 2002 meeting took place in Los Angeles and the majority of the authors and the researchers were not Latinos or the Hispanics. One more interesting fact is this that neither of the researchers was a female. The reason why the team was kept so selective is to maximize the outreach to the maximum area possible. This practice has been observed much time before in some studies. Dan Arreola, the editor of the book has placed the demographics findings, first by describing the background of the Latino cultures. This book is also a kind of an effort in recognizing the cultural and political diversity of the Latinos who are living in the U.S. The assertion created by the findings of this book is that the cultural diversity of the Latinos are so simple. There is nothing hard or non-understandable things about their cultures, which has restricted the findings of the study anywhere. The author has opined that the only characteristics these people share in the U.S are the Spanish language. The author believes that the Spanish language has restricted in some areas in the U.S, and the cultural diversity is therefore not much expanded. In studying their demographics it has also been noted that they share the language similarities and culture affinities in parts. Nothing is the same for the major part of the population. The reason why it happens that culture's phenomenon gets stick to some specific places is the availability of the resources. People tend to live there and start expanding the population. Similar is true for these immigrants in the U.S, as they had found their destinies close to the industrial areas of Florida or close to the poultry hubs, (of which they are now the experts in). Their population is therefore divided into two ways. One is on the basis of cultural or linguistic features and the other is on the basis of the resources (p. 14). In writing so, it has also been noticed that it is a norm that the cultures and the population gets divided on some basis. In the case of the Hispanics and the Latinos, the bases are their cultural identities and their language abilities. Experts, therefore, opine that it is not necessary that if any community is sharing the same cultural traits in one place (or at the place of their origin), will also share the same living patterns elsewhere. This aspect has been applied in the demographic study of these communities in the U.S.

Space and Place perspectives: space and place perspective as described by Arreola is much different for these communities, compared to any other immigrant community around the world. For example, these people could have developed a space affection to their community if in case they would have lived there. They migrated from those place quite a long time ago (p. 27). This was the reason that the geographers who were involved in the search of the space links for this book, got influenced at the very first instance. The case at the end appeared however different. The reason is that the space links in case of the Hispanic community are vivid. They have remained for quite a long time the travelers over the continent of America. If one generation has developed affection to one place, the other generation has passed his times at some other place. Arreola has presented the table of categorization of these communities in the book, and every aspect is different from the previous ones. This stamps the opinion that it is true that space affection is dependent on many factors. Some people can live in a place for the whole life, but will not be able to develop that affection which should have been developed within a life span. There is also another perspective to this study which is the place perspective. The place perspective is when people stars attracting a place. They start thinking about that place in a more pleasant manner. For example, if one community associate good times with a specific place it is their place association. In many cases, it has been noticed that people when to moving from a place and get settled to another place, they normally think about their past association. This perspective has been considered for the Latinos and the Hispanics too. The geographers conclude that in the communities they live in, they have developed so rich attraction that it becomes much time difficult to differentiate between the real and the re-imagined world of them. Arreola has also mentioned about the place factor in a more cultural way. The editor has seen this thing much differently compared to many other readings. For example, the culture is a different thing and the association with any place is totally a new thing. There are many kinds of literature available about the place factor. This literature suggests that the place is just merely not a factor for the residential association. With time- the people living there start developing feelings to those places. They come here and think about the sad or the good times they had spent there. This book dispels the perception that the Latinos are the homogenous people and they are just been characterized on the basis of their place affection. A few writers have although considered the time of the stay of Latino people in the U.S as important for considering the place factor.

Along with these three important themes of the books some other areas have been addressed. Arreola has mentioned about the distinctions between the gender and the ages. More specifically these distinctions are mentioned in one chapter and lack the debate in other chapters. Arreola opines that the gender and the age difference have remained an important aspect in deciding about the workforce, and in deciding about how their population will take part in making the cultural diversities (p. 197). The culture has apparently nothing to do with the workforce balance or with the age or gender considerations. Since every person of a community adds an aspect to the cultural diversity therefore, the culture and gender remain pertinent in the study of the Latinos and the Hispanic people. The sociologists have also attempted to discover the transnational perspectives of the Latinos and their cultural associations with the Bolivian people. They opine that the globalization has changed the way of their interaction. The people living in the communities at present has a totally different view of the issues that their community faces. It has also been noted that they place themselves at a position at par with many other communities, which are mainly not the immigrants. This book also addresses the issues of the Transnationality of the Latino people. Arreola opines that the globalization has not significantly impacted over the Latino settlements but it has however remained pertinent in impacting over the issues of them. In doing this they have created six ecologies. The compilers of the research findings suggest that the language barriers, the space of the Latino or Hispanic communities, the global tourism trends and the housing issues are some areas that have witnessed a disturbance or an impact by the immigrants in the U.S. In doing so, the writers have provided the layout of the new metropolitan settings that conforms to their findings (P. 86).

In an effort to trace the exact linkages of the Latino people with the new settings they have inhabited into, Haverluk has suggested some five stages. These five stages are about how the Latino people get themselves interacted with the places (the U.S in this case) when they immigrate into that. These five stages include entering the territory, organizing themselves, creating occupational diversification, dealing with the social and cultural differences and finally the domination. The domination actually is the control and then use of the resources for their own benefits. Haverluk has also mentioned this as the general procedure followed by the Hispanic communities when they move from a place to another. Some parts of the books are totally related to the geographic consideration of the cultures of the Hispanic communities. They have worked on them just in relation to their physical attributes, over their fertility rates and many such aspects. This pattern has been observed in such other readings also, but this book presents this in a different manner. They have worked on it in a more systematic manner. The geographers and the sociologists who had been searching over the cultural attributes of the Hispanic communities opine that in their case, the geography of their population is linked with their culture. Every age group person takes part in one way or another, in making the culture richer. Since they live in close proximities to each other and share similar living standards, therefore, a rich and a kind of common living style is so evident.

There are more factors about the Hispanic and the Latino communities of the U.S, which are shared in the book. They have compiled this in a manner that the readers get a thorough background about these two communities and then how they have affected the cultural settings of the U.S. it has been presented in almost every chapter of the book that these new communities are an equal part of the U.S cultural settings. In some areas the people of these communities are living for centuries, which is the reason they make a rich addition to the culture of the U.S. Since the book is more like a compilation of the results based on both the quantitative and the qualitative research, therefore it appears that it has touched upon each facet of the living pattern of the Hispanic and the Latino community. There have appeared no extraordinary traits that shows that these communities have introduced totally different cultural traits. There are some other reasons also for an amalgamation of the U.S culture with that of the Hispanic or the Latino culture. The reason is the U.S own cultural diversity. As not any time in the history of the U.S, it has been noticed that the people or the culture of the U.S has opposed or differentiated with the inhabitants of the new culture. This richness in the U.S culture makes it more broad and appealing towards the other newcomers in the United States. Such attributes of the host country have helped them evolve in a more productive way. The authors have also opined that the occupational diversities of the inhabitants of Latin America also adds much skill set to the workforce in the United States.

THE QUALITY OF ARGUMENTS

There are many books written on the cultural aspect of Latin American and Hispanic people. Much of this literature is about their history, their norms and traditions and the differences these people have. The literature which existed prior to this book was more of the kind of qualitative. The literature has not included or talked about the quantitative aspect. For example, in some literature, the authors have talked about in more of the kind of qualitative manner. They have included the comparative studies in their literature which just present a narrow scope of the culture. For example, the book Cultural Code by Philip Penix presents an outlook about Latin American culture but does not talk how they are actually related to the culture where they migrate ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"qf9EWA2g","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Penix-Tadsen 2016)","plainCitation":"(Penix-Tadsen 2016)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":304,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/WCHLDGDW"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/WCHLDGDW"],"itemData":{"id":304,"type":"book","title":"Cultural Code: Video Games and Latin America","publisher":"MIT Press","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Cultural Code","author":[{"family":"Penix-Tadsen","given":"Phillip"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Penix-Tadsen 2016). The authors have again talked about the community settings of the Latin people throughout the world but again has left many flaws in presenting more specifically about their cultural traits. The authors have focused on the Cultural Code on the gaming trends of the early people of the Hispanic and Latin communities. He then has drawn a comparison between different cultures and the culture of the Latin people. Unlike this book, the Cultural code has a too narrow scope.

Contemporary Latin American Cultural Studies by Stephen Hart and Richard Young is also another good read about Latin American culture. The authors have presented the hidden traits of the Latin American people to the readers ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"IrwEYnrh","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Hart and Young 2014)","plainCitation":"(Hart and Young 2014)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":309,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/LUMWAE62"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/LUMWAE62"],"itemData":{"id":309,"type":"book","title":"Contemporary Latin American Cultural Studies","publisher":"Routledge","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Hart","given":"Stephen"},{"family":"Young","given":"Richard A."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2014"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Hart and Young 2014). They have talked about the skill set which has made them different from the other people of the world. This book is actually a collection of essays about the culture of Latin America and how it has evolved throughout the times. The authors have attempted to provide the readers with the different cultural and communal aspects of the Latin communities. They have also worked in a much Broadway, but have not considered the quantitative aspect anywhere. The quantitative aspect is about studying the traits of the communities' more precisely. Such readings help in understanding the situations more clearly. This book is different from the above two books and many such other books because of any reason some of them includes the editorial curiosities and the amalgamation of the qualitative and the quantitative findings. This compilation has used the census of the year 2000 and has compared the data findings with other research findings relevant to this study. It has also looked on why the results show a different figure, when the international community opines differently about the Latin and the Hispanic communities, the cultural and the communal findings also suggest that the U.S culture has remained very welcoming towards them. This is the reason they have developed themselves in more a kind of general way. There were other curiosities in the minds of the compilers of this book. For example, the authors have everywhere supported their findings on the studies which they conducted on more than six million people who listed themselves as the Latinos or Hispanic. This reading is ranked among one of the best books on the Latin culture which has been properly supported by the figures that were just relevant to these communities. On these bases, the quality of the arguments has been maintained.

WHY THIS IS A MUST READ?

The book is a must read for many reasons. The content has been designed in such a way that it takes the readers inside deep into what exactly the culture is, and how the communities are developed. It then takes the turn and tells about why the communities and the immigrants with time develop some strong bonds with the host communities. It also searches for what are the basic traits of the immigrants which they offer to secure a place in the next country where they are heading towards. It has also presented for the readers some chapters on the history of the immigration of Latinos and Hispanic communities towards the U.S. The editors have placed very attention towards presenting the fact in a more orderly way, which is not a normal and a more used to practice in such literary works. It also creates confusion in the minds of the readers about the aspect they are searching for. The numerical data has also substantiated the opinions of the authors. Although the concluding paragraphs of this reading appear some kind of distracted and not giving a proper outlook of the book, still up till then it presents the readers with a much thorough understanding of the subject. This book is the best read for the students of history, arts and the literature. For the students of history, it offers a broad understanding of world affairs as to how they have changed and were a factor in creating mass immigration. For the students of arts, it presents the understanding that how art remains relevant despite the different borders and the regions. Finally, to the students of the literature, it presents an understanding about the evolution in literature, and how it changes its form when people start to think differently and join hands in order to present themselves in a more united manner.

REFERENCES:

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Arreola, Daniel. 2004. Hispanic Spaces, Latino Places: Community and Cultural Diversity in Contemporary America. University of Texas Press.

Hart, Stephen, and Richard A. Young. 2014. Contemporary Latin American Cultural Studies. Routledge.

Penix-Tadsen, Phillip. 2016. Cultural Code: Video Games and Latin America. MIT Press.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 12 Words: 3600

13th Film Analysis

Student

Course

Instructor

Date

13th Film Analysis

Ava Du Vernay’s extremely powerful documentary named as ‘13th’ introduced the world to the thirteenth amendment in the constitution of United States. It stated that;

Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

This amendment argues that albeit slavery was apparently abolished in 1865, this particular clause of the amendment legally inculcated a malicious form of slavery in to American institutions. This specific loophole has since then been considered as a shattering political tool in the terms of mass incarceration and other processes of criminalization. 13th is basically a comprehensive historical survey that establishes strong links between old age slavery to the present day’s prison industrial complex. This film has given the opportunity for the plot to unpack that loophole that how amendment was made a tool for exploitation right after the Civil War. It depicted how African Americans were subject to imprisonment on a mass level just for extremely minor kinds of crimes. It was substantially done in order to guarantee that the economic system flourishing due to the free labor in the South could still remain intact. Traditionally, this new era has also been affected by the sight of beginning of what it should be termed as ‘mythology of black criminality’. It is unfortunate that this concept still persist in our society and we have not been able to fully understand it or make any efforts to end it once and for all.

The film has traced back some century and a half old history of race, the phenomenon of incarceration and disempowerment of the communities that were not quite dominant in the United States. As the Jim Crow Era and the Civil Rights Movement came to an end, the United States went through the termination of legal segregation in its institutions and the inculcation of the Voting Rights Act in the constitution. However, it was not expected what followed along with this change in the system. It caused a surreptitious turn of events to erupt in the form of a new racial control policy. The system that was full of open ended violence and discrimination was horrendously replaced by the racially coded pomposity under the name of law and order and the war on crime. This film exposes the Southern Strategy of Nixon as an attempt to quietly veil off the ideology by decimating the black people while appealing to the white voters ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"zCfENqYz","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(CJPC)","plainCitation":"(CJPC)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":398,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/Q63CXFEU"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/Q63CXFEU"],"itemData":{"id":398,"type":"post-weblog","title":"13th: A Lesson on Race, Justice, and Mass Incarceration | Carolina Justice Policy Center","URL":"https://www.cjpcenter.org/13th-a-lesson-on-race-justice-and-mass-incarceration/","title-short":"13th","language":"en-US","author":[{"family":"CJPC","given":""}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017",9]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",11,10]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (CJPC). In particular, the war on drug was a specified attempt to target only the people of color as it could be easily seen by the difference in the categories of the sentencing for dealing the crack and powdered cocaine. These things were highly concentrated in the poor, black urban communities in the society.

It became the significant political strategy to score winning records in the State by being extremely ‘tough on crime’ while this concept was propagated by the racially based fears that the black Americans were the super predators. It has been established that both the political domains, Republicans and Democrats were liable for the adoption of such legislation. The crime bill stated that financial incentives would be provided for the expansion of the prisons and filling them in with black people. These absurd laws compelled millions of people to be incarcerated, who could have easily been living their lives like they were supposed to. However, these laws broke apart thousands of families while vanishing an entire generation of black males. Black Americans have been the subject of brutality and violence throughout the film and numerous statistical numbers were even more shocking for the audience.

13th takes us along to the present day social system by highlighting the events of police brutality against several individuals including Michael Brown, Sandra Bland, Jordan Davis and many more. It scrutinizes the disturbing prison industrial complex and the economically driven bonds between the corporations and the lawmakers ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"gcoD7QEN","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Mock)","plainCitation":"(Mock)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":395,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/PRY6TB6P"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/PRY6TB6P"],"itemData":{"id":395,"type":"webpage","title":"A New Film Explores the Ties Between Slavery and Mass Incarceration","container-title":"CityLab","abstract":"Director Ava DuVernay’s new documentary lays bare the connections between America’s history of slavery and its broken prison system.","URL":"http://www.citylab.com/crime/2016/10/documenting-the-ties-between-salvery-and-mass-incarceration-ava-duvernay/503165/","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Mock","given":"Brentin"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016",10]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",11,10]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Mock). It has also highlighted the increasing indignation over the institutionalized racism and the intensification of the movement ‘Black Lives Matter’ as a comeback to the years of violence and impunity at the hands of the state. This phenomenon can be backed by the statistics that the United States has imprisoned over 25% of the incarcerated population of the world. It has also been stated that around one in every three Black men are expected to live lifetimes or a major part of their lives in the prisons. It can be seen today as the population of prisoners in the United States have increased multifold over the years. Today, more Black men are imprisoned than they were enslaved in the 1850s ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"SkiYc8Or","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Browning et al.)","plainCitation":"(Browning et al.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":401,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/IKK72VHI"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/IKK72VHI"],"itemData":{"id":401,"type":"chapter","title":"Criminal incarceration dividing the ties that bind: Black men and their families","container-title":"Impacts of incarceration on the African American family","publisher":"Routledge","page":"87-102","author":[{"family":"Browning","given":"Sandra Lee"},{"family":"Miller","given":"R. Robin"},{"family":"Spruance","given":"Lisa M."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Browning et al.). It can be argued if a new wave of slavery is underway, yet not in the traditional way, to highlight the White supremacy.

This film has anatomized the racial and the capitalist underpinning of this era of mass incarceration such a way that the 13th amendment can be considered as an ineradicable act of our social and political inquiries. DuVernay has made it clear by connecting all the links in the history to disclose a series of events that got United States in its current position. The psychodynamics and the economic logistics of the slavery never really left the society. However, these evils went underground while mutating and adopting different forms to reappear ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"eIjURegT","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(White)","plainCitation":"(White)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":402,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/KU8ZWK3V"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/KU8ZWK3V"],"itemData":{"id":402,"type":"webpage","title":"The 13th via the Un-talented Tenth","container-title":"National Review","URL":"https://www.nationalreview.com/2016/10/13th-documentary-politically-correct-dull-cowardly/","author":[{"family":"White","given":"Armond"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016",10]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",11,10]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (White). The Catholic social themes that were the underpinning of this film were the ‘Dignity of the Person’, ‘Solidarity’ and ‘Respect for Life’. The criminal theory that can be best applied on the film are the critical, labelling and conflict theory. In the critical theory of crime, select few of the society define the crime and the punishments while the criminals involved in it do not agree on the laws. It is basically the product of oppression, racism and class division. The labelling theory is the stereotyping of particular individuals with any crime and is primarily dependent on labelling the minorities. Such a negative label on an entire race can affect their self-concept and identities. The conflict theory, on the other hand, states that the crimes within any society arise due to conflicts and disparities of the social and economic system ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"dkV7NfNT","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Muzzatti and Smith)","plainCitation":"(Muzzatti and Smith)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":400,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/RFFJ7SYV"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/RFFJ7SYV"],"itemData":{"id":400,"type":"chapter","title":"Cultural criminology","container-title":"Routledge Handbook of Critical Criminology","publisher":"Routledge","page":"107-119","author":[{"family":"Muzzatti","given":"Stephen L."},{"family":"Smith","given":"Emma M."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Muzzatti and Smith). The standards are set by the elite and standardizations are made for the rest of the classes.

This film has challenged us to move beyond the simple ideas of bringing about reforms that can only reshape a system full of oppression that has been among us in several forms since the Civil War had ended. Its objective was calling out for the humanization, to label the mass incarceration as a thoughtful moral crisis. It is imperative to change the views by which United States has defined the concept of human dignity. It is also a call for all people to take a profound stand to fight against the racial injustice. The film ends at some haunting words that leaves us a question to ponder upon;

People say all the time, I don’t understand how people could have tolerated slavery, how could they have made peace with that? How could people have gone to a lynching and participated in that? How did people make sense of this segregation, this 'white' and 'colored only' drinking—that’s so crazy—I just—if I was living at that time, I would have never tolerated anything like that!

Works Cited

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Browning, Sandra Lee, et al. “Criminal Incarceration Dividing the Ties That Bind: Black Men and Their Families.” Impacts of Incarceration on the African American Family, Routledge, 2018, pp. 87–102.

CJPC. 13th: A Lesson on Race, Justice, and Mass Incarceration | Carolina Justice Policy Center. Sept. 2017, https://www.cjpcenter.org/13th-a-lesson-on-race-justice-and-mass-incarceration/.

Mock, Brentin. “A New Film Explores the Ties Between Slavery and Mass Incarceration.” CityLab, Oct. 2016, http://www.citylab.com/crime/2016/10/documenting-the-ties-between-salvery-and-mass-incarceration-ava-duvernay/503165/.

Muzzatti, Stephen L., and Emma M. Smith. “Cultural Criminology.” Routledge Handbook of Critical Criminology, Routledge, 2018, pp. 107–19.

White, Armond. “The 13th via the Un-Talented Tenth.” National Review, Oct. 2016, https://www.nationalreview.com/2016/10/13th-documentary-politically-correct-dull-cowardly/.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

42 1

Karl Marx and Martineau

[Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees]

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Author Note

[Include any grant/funding information and a complete correspondence address.]

Title: Martineau and Karl Marx

Introduction

Within a social structure, societies tend to proliferate and expand economically. The resources for the progress and how they could be used to achieve dominance, are what the society provides inherently to each community. In a democratic system, there is inequality among people. The only way to conquer these inequalities is to grab the skills and perform better compared to others. This could be possible only if everyone has the same opportunity and equal advantage. During the nineteenth century, both Karl Marx and Martineau developed their theories about why the inequalities are maintained in a system. This essay, by using their sociological explanations, will compare and differentiate their theories about economic inequalities put forward by Karl Marx and Martineau. Finally, this essay is based on the thesis that Marx's critique on capitalism, though a decade old is still viable today; as the gap between rich and poor is increasing, it has become evident that capitalist economic system results in mass exploitation of lower strata (I.e. working class).

Martineau and Karl Marx

Karl Marx is the founder of Communism, his writings remained relevant to the critique of capitalism and why capitalism is devastating. Marx had not gone too far in explaining the ideas of communism, rather it was Lenin who offered a through development into the ideas of communism. So one can argue that Marx contribution to communism was the critique on capitalism. Marx could be more precisely referred to as anti-capitalist ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"AWef7PsO","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Marx 2004)","plainCitation":"(Marx 2004)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":762,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/XSY2QZZR"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/XSY2QZZR"],"itemData":{"id":762,"type":"book","title":"Capital: A critique of political economy","publisher":"Penguin UK","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Capital","author":[{"family":"Marx","given":"Karl"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2004"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Marx 2004). The Communist Manifesto written by Marx, was, in reality, a call to the working classes to stand against the economic system and work to bring revolution. The communist manifesto offered the way hoe to stand against the existing economic system but not offered an alternative economic system. In his book, Das Kapital Marx has offered his economic theories. Marx has opined many reasons in this book which he considers would be the reason for the fall of capitalism.

Karl Marx has remained material in his approach awhile, describing the relation between the economy and society. He argued one thing very early in his scholastic career that material approach has been the tool of the capitalist classes ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"iEiz4FrA","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Marx 2004)","plainCitation":"(Marx 2004)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":762,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/XSY2QZZR"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/XSY2QZZR"],"itemData":{"id":762,"type":"book","title":"Capital: A critique of political economy","publisher":"Penguin UK","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Capital","author":[{"family":"Marx","given":"Karl"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2004"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Marx 2004). The working classes, on the other hand, becomes their resources and this is how capitalists use to create more opportunities for themselves. He suggests that the only way out of this system is throwing away the system by revolting against it. In doing so, a better and a new system could be made that could comply with what the working class needs. His work has focused over the economy, just for the reason that he considered that the economy leads to the basics of life and the social sphere revolves around economy too ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"7sRoWju5","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Marx 1972)","plainCitation":"(Marx 1972)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":764,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/9S8QZHCW"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/9S8QZHCW"],"itemData":{"id":764,"type":"book","title":"The marx-engels reader","publisher":"Norton New York","volume":"4","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Marx","given":"Karl"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1972"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Marx 1972). The poor economic conditions led to cause alienation from the self too, which becomes the reason for conflict. In his work titled "Communist Manifesto," he has offered explanations as to how exactly the capitalist economists take advantage of the poor working classes. He explains this relation by presenting the formula that more the exploitation of the working class, more will be the revenues in the hands of the capitalist.

Whereas on the other hand, Martineau offered insight to study societies. She was the most acclaimed sociologist of the nineteenth century. Her mile stonework was a translation of August Comte's work. Through her efforts, the English sociologist was able to learn about Comte's contribution to sociology ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"lOpxEcDC","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Hill and Hoecker-Drysdale 2002)","plainCitation":"(Hill and Hoecker-Drysdale 2002)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":768,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/SQNC4EXT"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/SQNC4EXT"],"itemData":{"id":768,"type":"book","title":"Harriet Martineau: theoretical and methodological perspectives","publisher":"Psychology Press","volume":"3","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Harriet Martineau","author":[{"family":"Hill","given":"Michael R."},{"family":"Hoecker-Drysdale","given":"Susan"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2002"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Hill and Hoecker-Drysdale 2002). Her primary work is related to political economies. She based her opinions over Adam Smith's principles of free trade. She used to write articles in the newspapers to make ordinary people understand as to how to understand things in a better way. Her articles were related to tax, tariff and state's budgeting. In the sociological perspective, she studied the American culture and analyzed it on the stated principles of sociology.

Compared to Marx, Martineau has offered insights into the societal structure. Her analysis if the American society suggests that she remained apprehensive of the presence of slavery in America. She viewed this system of America, in a comparative analysis to the principles of sociology as argued in the Lockean philosophy and the positivist philosophy. She has based her arguments also based on the philosophy of Unitarianism. This shows that she has remained influenced by the non- material forces, unlike that of Karl Marx. She has then expanded her work toward necessarianism ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"HzIP3HBB","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Hill and Hoecker-Drysdale 2002)","plainCitation":"(Hill and Hoecker-Drysdale 2002)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":768,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/SQNC4EXT"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/SQNC4EXT"],"itemData":{"id":768,"type":"book","title":"Harriet Martineau: theoretical and methodological perspectives","publisher":"Psychology Press","volume":"3","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Harriet Martineau","author":[{"family":"Hill","given":"Michael R."},{"family":"Hoecker-Drysdale","given":"Susan"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2002"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Hill and Hoecker-Drysdale 2002). Martineau's in her work has talked about how people could be motivated, and then be made allowed to free form the enslavement that exists ion their minds. She mentions that the principles of interests guide how people use to see their selves as individual life which has all right to enjoy the freedom which exists around them. She has basically referred to as freeing people from the menace of slavery. She has also written much about educating people and how the principle of equity could benefit the people of the society. she argues that if one is able to trap the circumstances on which relations are built, society can easily then move toward the establishment of a just society. In a nutshell, Martineau has focused primarily on the non- material basis, which she thinks should be solved at the very first instance.

Martineau and Karl Marx works- Similarities

Although Martineau has worked quite differently to that of Karl Marx, and her work has remained relevant to the study of a specific community that is American, what is interesting is that she has studied it in the very same manner as what Marx opines in Das Kapital. She has not referred the proper terms as like Marx did, but the ideas in her work remain the same. Marx has generally referred toward capitalism and the working class, which she has proved with the example reasoned over the epistemological understandings of her. She has aligned her work with what Marx have opined and predicted that education and making people free of the enslavement could help in benefiting the societal importance. They both have referred toward capitalism differently. Marx has remained critical on a material basis, whereas Martineau has refereed toward it in a non-material basis which is the enslavement of the mind. There is another similarity in the work of both, which is emphasizing over the root causes of the emergence of such biased systems. Marx has argued about the exploitation of the working classes, whereas Martineau has highlighted the reason such as slavery and the inequities among the people in a society ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"B80CcieV","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Wigelsworth 2006)","plainCitation":"(Wigelsworth 2006)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":760,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/5LRS43UL"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/5LRS43UL"],"itemData":{"id":760,"type":"article-journal","title":"A history of science in society: From philosophy to utility","container-title":"University of Toronto Quarterly","page":"165–166","volume":"75","issue":"1","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"A history of science in society","author":[{"family":"Wigelsworth","given":"Jeffrey R."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2006"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Wigelsworth 2006). Marx has also established his stances over the application of society in general. For Marx, capitalism remained the enemy of the society in general and for Martineau slavery was the reason for the inequalities in society.

Martineau and Karl Marx works- Differences

Although they both do agree on some principle understandings in their works, despite this they have some difference too. For example, Marx work has not been based on the epistemological understanding, whereas Martineau has worked over things in an epistemological manner. This basic difference suggests that the ideologies of these two could be conflicting in certain ways ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"XrOYkDDz","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Martineau 2017)","plainCitation":"(Martineau 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":757,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/8QEVG52F"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/8QEVG52F"],"itemData":{"id":757,"type":"book","title":"How to observe morals and manners","publisher":"Routledge","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Martineau","given":"Harriet"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Martineau 2017). For example, if working classes are on the losing end in Marx works, Martineau's losing end is the destruction of ideas and thoughts. She has called out to society as a whole through the analysis of the particular community. But since in those times, that was the only society that could be called an ideal society, therefore Martineau's audience remains the general society and just not the America community ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"TlsHz7vw","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Wigelsworth 2006)","plainCitation":"(Wigelsworth 2006)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":760,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/5LRS43UL"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/5LRS43UL"],"itemData":{"id":760,"type":"article-journal","title":"A history of science in society: From philosophy to utility","container-title":"University of Toronto Quarterly","page":"165–166","volume":"75","issue":"1","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"A history of science in society","author":[{"family":"Wigelsworth","given":"Jeffrey R."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2006"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Wigelsworth 2006). There are some other differences in both works. For example, Marx has categorized the economy which is material and which has an immediate impact over the situations of the people. Whereas Martineau has referred toward some non- material things such as the lack of freedom to human minds and lack of educational facilities. In simple words, it could be argued that Marx has remained critical and have employed a top to bottom approach to study human behavioral patterns. Martineau's approach, on the other hand, has remained different from Marx which is self-centric and focuses over the bottom to top approach ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"qVgnNPfk","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Wigelsworth 2006)","plainCitation":"(Wigelsworth 2006)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":760,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/5LRS43UL"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/5LRS43UL"],"itemData":{"id":760,"type":"article-journal","title":"A history of science in society: From philosophy to utility","container-title":"University of Toronto Quarterly","page":"165–166","volume":"75","issue":"1","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"A history of science in society","author":[{"family":"Wigelsworth","given":"Jeffrey R."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2006"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Wigelsworth 2006).

Why the difference matter

The differences matter over the ideas of capitalism put forward by Marx. Although Martineau has not come in the opposition of the ideas of Marx, her ideas also not somehow conforms to what Marx has opined for capitalism. For example, considering the thesis of this essay one can argue that if capitalism takes away the opportunities from the poor ones than hoe Martineau's ideas offer an alternative to capitalism ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"cg2vdtXo","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Marx 1972)","plainCitation":"(Marx 1972)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":764,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/9S8QZHCW"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/9S8QZHCW"],"itemData":{"id":764,"type":"book","title":"The marx-engels reader","publisher":"Norton New York","volume":"4","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Marx","given":"Karl"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1972"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Marx 1972). For example, if Marx critique on capitalism is true than what Martineau has to offer as an alternate. This contradictions in the ideas of both suggest that they differ in the very basic tenet of their philosophical understandings. The other reason why the difference between these both matter is the way they have completed their philosophical inquiries. Marx has directly criticized capitalism as the foe factor. He has taken this approach in all his work and has suggested the solutions. Whereas Martineau offers insight just to the very basic drawback in society. Martineau thinks that inequalities among the resource distribution are the reason for the disturbed sociological structures, whereas Marx mentions that just the wrong way of earning results in the inequality in society ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"hQQDwMgu","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Marx 2004)","plainCitation":"(Marx 2004)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":762,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/XSY2QZZR"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/XSY2QZZR"],"itemData":{"id":762,"type":"book","title":"Capital: A critique of political economy","publisher":"Penguin UK","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Capital","author":[{"family":"Marx","given":"Karl"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2004"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Marx 2004). Their differences matter because, in an attempt to explore the root causes of societal disturbances, they both have different solutions to address the problems of society.

The reasons for the differences

Although both Marx and Martineau belonged to the same period of the time, they both have analyzed different societal circumstance. This differences led their inquiries to result differently. For Marx, the unjust distribution of wealth was not the reason for concern and neither had he considered slavery as the reason for economic injustices ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Wa3KSYkv","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Wigelsworth 2006)","plainCitation":"(Wigelsworth 2006)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":760,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/5LRS43UL"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/5LRS43UL"],"itemData":{"id":760,"type":"article-journal","title":"A history of science in society: From philosophy to utility","container-title":"University of Toronto Quarterly","page":"165–166","volume":"75","issue":"1","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"A history of science in society","author":[{"family":"Wigelsworth","given":"Jeffrey R."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2006"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Wigelsworth 2006). The reason for the difference remained the way they both have looked toward the issues of society. Marx differs because he places the working class in the forefront and analyzes the system. Martineau, on the other hand, puts forward the slavery and views things in the same manner. A very general reason for their difference is also their understanding of societal issues. Marx has never looked toward things in a non-material way as like Martineau. Nonmaterial for Marx results in just the emergence of new problems and offers no solution to problems. Nonmaterial for him also not result in shaping better opportunities for the future. Unless some concrete measures in terms of changing the material circumstances are not taken over the economy will keep on benefitting the capitalist class. Martineau, on the other hand, offers a very nonmaterial solution. Her way of addressing such pressing concerns of the society is not based on the pretext of economies, rather on the pretext of values and ideals.

Sociological importance of Martineau and Karl Marx works

In a sociological perspective, the works of both Martineau and Marx remains significant. They both have addressed the issues of society. They have viewed the root causes of the inequalities differently and therefore have offered the solution in a different manner. For both these sociologists, the lower strata of the society remain for the primary concern ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"SnjgRJ2Q","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Hill and Hoecker-Drysdale 2002)","plainCitation":"(Hill and Hoecker-Drysdale 2002)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":768,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/SQNC4EXT"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/SQNC4EXT"],"itemData":{"id":768,"type":"book","title":"Harriet Martineau: theoretical and methodological perspectives","publisher":"Psychology Press","volume":"3","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Harriet Martineau","author":[{"family":"Hill","given":"Michael R."},{"family":"Hoecker-Drysdale","given":"Susan"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2002"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Hill and Hoecker-Drysdale 2002). They have based their opinions on the notion that if the society remains intolerant toward the lower strata of the society. It can result in the up emergence of a misbalanced society. Since they both have much difference of opinions in the manners they have taken things, therefore they lack in assimilating their ideologies to present any solution. Their work offers an in-depth understanding of the issues in a society, which offers the students of sociology to study society as a general phenomenon ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"4qlh4T3f","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Freedgood 1995)","plainCitation":"(Freedgood 1995)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":770,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/26VR2S8E"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/26VR2S8E"],"itemData":{"id":770,"type":"article-journal","title":"Banishing Panic: Harriet Martineau and the Popularization of Political Economy","container-title":"Victorian Studies","page":"33–53","volume":"39","issue":"1","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Banishing Panic","author":[{"family":"Freedgood","given":"Elaine"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1995"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Freedgood 1995). Their works also offer an understanding to study the root causes as to why society remains reluctant in addressing the issues of the lower classes in society.

Conclusion

Society is still an important constituent of human civilization. The ideas presented by these thinkers are still valid as they were at those times. The world of today is based on the very notion of the economy which Marx presented centuries before. The major economic institution of today is set on the notion of capitalism. The middle-income countries and the people living there are subject to the negative effects of the capitalist economy of today ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"9C7httUi","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Freedgood 1995)","plainCitation":"(Freedgood 1995)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":770,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/26VR2S8E"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/26VR2S8E"],"itemData":{"id":770,"type":"article-journal","title":"Banishing Panic: Harriet Martineau and the Popularization of Political Economy","container-title":"Victorian Studies","page":"33–53","volume":"39","issue":"1","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Banishing Panic","author":[{"family":"Freedgood","given":"Elaine"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1995"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Freedgood 1995). Similarly, slavery not in its classic sense but in the form of exploitation is there. Such issues of today, therefore, suggest that capitalism is as much destructive today as it was in the times of Marx. To eliminate such ills from the international monetary system, one needs to look toward the alternatives offered by Marx. Similarly, to end the mass exploitation of the people today, they are needed to be provided with equal opportunities.

References:

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Freedgood, Elaine. 1995. “Banishing Panic: Harriet Martineau and the Popularization of Political Economy.” Victorian Studies 39(1): 33–53.

Hill, Michael R., and Susan Hoecker-Drysdale. 2002. 3 Harriet Martineau: Theoretical and Methodological Perspectives. Psychology Press.

Martineau, Harriet. 2017. How to Observe Morals and Manners. Routledge.

Marx, Karl. 1972. 4 The Marx-Engels Reader. Norton New York.

———. 2004. Capital: A Critique of Political Economy. Penguin UK.

Wigelsworth, Jeffrey R. 2006. “A History of Science in Society: From Philosophy to Utility.” University of Toronto Quarterly 75(1): 165–166.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 7 Words: 2100

43 A

The stranger and double consciousness

Author name

University name

Word count = 2100

Introduction

Social theories give an insight into the association between individuals and societies. Social theorists proposed these theories to provide a way to comprehend the existence of societies and their formation. Georg Simmel and W.E.B. Du Bois have significant contributions in the area of social sciences. These have put forward the concepts of “the stranger” and “double consciousness”. Simmel concept of stranger refers to a person who is although the part of the system but has no strong association with the system. This person has social bonds with the society but he is not freely connected. On the other hand, W.E.B. Du Bois presented his idea of “double consciousness”. Double consciousness refers to the sense of looking at one’s self through the eyes of others. This results in the development of two personalities in a person. One factor behind these double personalities is the result of having different races in society. This essay will compare and contrast the Simmel’s concept of the stranger and Du Bois’ concepts of the double consciousness and the veil.

Discussion

Earlier classical sociologists considered self as a result of social processes. Mutual recognition and communication between individuals in society have a significant role in the development of self. However, some points remained unaddressed by these theorists; limits to communication and effect of racialization on mutual recognition. Du Bois addressed these points through his concepts of double consciousness. Du Bois first presented his idea of double consciousness in his publication, “The Souls of Black Folk” in 1903. He had presented this idea in the context of race relations in the United States. He concluded the problem of the twentieth century as the problem of the color-line.

American society had historically repressed Blacks and debased them making difficult for Blacks to unify their black identity with their American identity. Therefore, Blacks not only view themselves from their own point of view but also from others point of you ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"YBMdfrcj","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Lewis 1993)","plainCitation":"(Lewis 1993)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2484,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/KAMGI3XZ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/KAMGI3XZ"],"itemData":{"id":2484,"type":"book","title":"WEB DuBois: Biography of a race, 1868-1919","publisher":"H. Holt New York","ISBN":"0-8050-2621-5","author":[{"family":"Lewis","given":"David Levering"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1993"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Lewis 1993). Du Bois work is mostly related to the period immediately following the Civil War. After the revolution, Africans, who were slaves, became American citizens. However, whites were not ready to accept them and they mistreated them and did not give them access to education, health care and businesses. Black then started considering them as inferior to the whites as they started seeing them through the eyes of other people. His idea of double consciousness had emerged as a result of his encounter with radicalization. His everyday experiences of radicalization led him down the path of critical race theory. Moreover, Du Bois also analyzed the Freedmen's Bureau's role in reconstruction ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"YBMdfrcj","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Lewis 1993)","plainCitation":"(Lewis 1993)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2484,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/KAMGI3XZ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/KAMGI3XZ"],"itemData":{"id":2484,"type":"book","title":"WEB DuBois: Biography of a race, 1868-1919","publisher":"H. Holt New York","ISBN":"0-8050-2621-5","author":[{"family":"Lewis","given":"David Levering"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1993"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Lewis 1993). According to him, the Bureau's failures were the result of biases of courts along with the Southern opposition. His double consciousness is also a cause of conflict within the black American, as they fight to settle their individuality as a black person as well as an American citizen.

Du Bois theory consists of three elements; the veil, twoness, and second sight. The first element is veil refers to the color line. In practical, this concept is about white people’s absence of clarity to realize Black people as factual Americans ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"YKunLYuD","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Du Bois and Marable 2015)","plainCitation":"(Du Bois and Marable 2015)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2485,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/SB5ZE6VJ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/SB5ZE6VJ"],"itemData":{"id":2485,"type":"book","title":"Souls of black folk","publisher":"Routledge","ISBN":"1-315-63199-7","author":[{"family":"Du Bois","given":"William Edward Burghardt"},{"family":"Marable","given":"Manning"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Du Bois and Marable 2015). Moreover, it is also about Black people’s absence of clarity to realize them outside of what white America labels and recommends for them. The second element twoness refers to the phenomenological explanation of the situation of self-formation behind the veil. Twoness can produce different responses to the veil. In addition, the second sight is people’s capability to view themselves from their and other perspectives. People having second sight are able to see the past rulings and biases and their effects over their lives.

Thus, Du Bois has taken race both as an objective demographic categorization, as well as a figurative and empirical reality. Du Bois pointed out the color line as the central problem of the society. Racial prejudice in society is a veil that splits black people from whites. This subjectivity develops into double-consciousness that forced Black people to experience cruelty. When African Americans strained to position themselves within American society, then they got the feelings of double consciousness. African Americans even after their liberation from slavery did not get their significant citizenship as a result of “veil” of race in their society. Blacks can see this veil while Whites cannot as they belong to the governing group. Resultantly, Blacks got the challenge of evolving a self-conscious within a white society. Whites and Blacks are different in terms of intelligence and their capacity to work hard. Thus, European whites were superior to Blacks ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"YBMdfrcj","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Lewis 1993)","plainCitation":"(Lewis 1993)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2484,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/KAMGI3XZ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/KAMGI3XZ"],"itemData":{"id":2484,"type":"book","title":"WEB DuBois: Biography of a race, 1868-1919","publisher":"H. Holt New York","ISBN":"0-8050-2621-5","author":[{"family":"Lewis","given":"David Levering"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1993"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Lewis 1993). Prior to Du Bois, these differences were attributed to biological differences. Conversely, Du Bois rejected this and argued through his 60-year career that racial inequality was not entrenched in biological variances. He considered the society responsible for these differences. Thus, the history of the American Negro can be considered as the history of their dissertation. Throughout history, they tried to attain their self-conscious.

Simmel, on the other hand, proposed his concept of a stranger. He was born in Berlin to a Jewish family that later converted to Christianity. He had faced social marginality in his family as well as in his career. In 1881, he got his doctorate in philosophy from Berlin and also got a lecturer position there. He was a great intellectual due to his interest and knowledge in a wide variety of subjects. However, he did not get good positions in his career due to his link with Jewish society. His race prohibited him from conquering the prominent academic post. Based on his experience, he proposed his theory related to the creation of social marginalization in societies.

He introduced the principle of emergence that refers to the emergence of higher levels from lower levels. Moreover, his theory has four basic levels of concerns. He was concerned with the psychological workings of social life. He was also interested in sociological mechanisms of interpersonal relations and structure and changes in the Zeitgeist. Likewise, his theory also included his concept of nature and inescapable destiny of humankind.

According to him, society consists of a web of patterned interactions and sociology must study these interactions as they happen and recapped in assorted historic eras. Sociologists must study these forms of these interactions. Simmel did not agree with theories of Comte and Spencer ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"OKHV79HS","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Simmel 1950)","plainCitation":"(Simmel 1950)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2482,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/ASU7FW32"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/ASU7FW32"],"itemData":{"id":2482,"type":"book","title":"The sociology of georg simmel","publisher":"Simon and Schuster","volume":"92892","ISBN":"0-02-928920-3","author":[{"family":"Simmel","given":"Georg"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1950"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Simmel 1950). They stress the continuity of society and social processes. Simmel rejected these views and did not take society as an organism. He put his own perspective to understand a self-conscious. He considered society a number of individuals who are linked by interaction. Society has different super individual structures such as state and family which are the products of manifestations of this interaction. These interactions bind society and allow it to perform different functions.

Moreover, he proposed the idea of a stranger in society. There must have strangers to bring innovations in societies. A stranger has partial involvement in group affairs and is thus a valuable member of the society and provide benefit to society ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"yDUZcCf2","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Simmel n.d.)","plainCitation":"(Simmel n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2483,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/ZJ8CFQD3"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/ZJ8CFQD3"],"itemData":{"id":2483,"type":"chapter","title":"The Stranger","author":[{"family":"Simmel","given":"Georg"}]}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Simmel n.d.). Likewise, society has no fear of him as it knows that it is not closely connected to anyone and cannot cause harm. He has a special position in the group and is responsible for carrying out special tasks. The stranger can serve different functions in the society such as of judgment as he does have to develop strong ties with any group.

The classical example of Simmel can be taken as of Europeans Jew who had been serving as a trader. He being the middlemen carried out the possible exchanges among individuals who are outside the boundaries of groups. Jews were part of the society but they were not given rights such as legal, political and property rights. Thus, they indulged into mobile activities such as trading. Simmel considered this as the mobility of this group. Moreover, their unattached relation to that society also gave them objectivity. Objectivity here can be regarded as the freedom of acting in the desired direction.

This stranger of Simmel is one of his proposed social types. In order to supplement his catalog of social forms, he has also proposed other types such as mediator, poor, adventurer, a man in the middle as well as a renegade. All these types result from the specifiable reactions and prospects of others in society. One group assigns a certain position to others and expects the fulfillment of certain roles. In addition, Georg Simmel also worked on the sizes of groups and effect on the interactions among groups and society.

He has analyzed the social units using the approach of dynamic interconnectedness. During these interactions, there also emerge conflict and tension between the individual and society. Individuals have dual relations with society; they live in society and stand against it. When there arises conflict, then further relationships develop. He classified a group of two people as Dyad, having deep interactions such as marriage. He also considered it as the least stable category of groups. According to him, a Triad is a group of three people. This group is more stable as compared to Dyad, as now there is a third person in a group, which can resolve conflicts. In most cases, it is believed that larger groups are more secure as compared to smaller groups. However, larger groups have less intense interactions. Simmel focused on the social physiological features of modern urban culture. In urban culture, anonymous people meet with each other in their lives. However, they do not have any emotional connections and social bonds. They live in this society and during their interaction with society, there also develops tensions.

There are many similarities between the concepts of the stranger and double consciousness. Both provide a way of linking with any group despite having a sense of otherness. These theories do not allow persons to have a sense of self. The stranger has its place in the group collectively; however, it also subsists outside of the group. Both the stranger and double-consciousness provide the explanation of this existence of a person both within and outside the group. With this, there are also differences between these concepts. Simmel’s stranger can be regarded as the positive and sure kind of contribution. He due to his position within the group can get many benefits. In contrast, the marginal position of Blacks in society is an undesirable and sure system of cruelty. Simmel’s concept of the stranger is frequently recognized as the marginal man, which is a dissimilar social type.

Conclusion

Georg Simmel can be regarded as the forefather of sociology along with Du Bois. Simmel’s concept of the stranger, the marginal man provides the basis for the field of intercultural communication. Furthermore, it also offers an apprehension about the nature of social order: Du Bois double consciousness also has an importance in understanding the classes in society. Moreover, Du Bois double consciousness has many similarities with Simmel’s discussion of the stranger. Both theories highlight the sense of otherness that impedes social solidarity. Moreover, both theorists use the metaphor of a veil that defines the social distance between people. These concepts are also prevailing in today society. For example, feminists are using these concepts extensively. These concepts also analyze Black American culture effectively. From Jim Crow to Million Man March, there can be seen a color line in American society. In American culture, Blacks consider themselves at the hatred of white America as they also see themselves from the eyes of others. They do not contribute positively due to this double consciousness. However, Du Bois was not only applying his concept to the American society but he was applying it worldwide. Georg Simmel concept of society’s segmentation is also applicable to all societies worldwide.Individuals perform their multifaceted roles that lead to the need for division of labor.

In addition, Du Bois was principally anxious about the nature and connection of race and class. Georg Simmel and Du Bois both highlighted the sense of otherness that not only slows up social solidarity but also foils the configuration of a unified sense of self. Moreover, both Simmel and Du Bois used the concept of a veil to explain the social distance between people. However, Du Bois had viewed his concept as having positive attributes. His concept assists in understanding the class lines in societies. This concept highlights the social bonds in societies. On the other hand, the concept of a stranger does not account for the strong ties in the societies. Although the stranger performs the positive roles in groups and societies due to lack of strong ties there always creates a sense of social discord.

References

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Du Bois, William Edward Burghardt, and Manning Marable. 2015. Souls of Black Folk. Routledge.

Lewis, David Levering. 1993. WEB DuBois: Biography of a Race, 1868-1919. H. Holt New York.

Simmel, Georg. 1950. The Sociology of Georg Simmel. Vol. 92892. Simon and Schuster.

Simmel, Georg. n.d. “The Stranger.”

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 7 Words: 2100

Accessing Non-Renewable Resources

Accessing Non-Renewable Energy Resources

[Writer]

[Institution]

Accessing Non-Renewable Energy Resources

Energy is the main concern of all the countries and economy of any country is mainly hinges upon its energy resources. The energy resources are categorized in two main resources i.e. renewable energy resources and non- renewable resources. This paper is concerned about non-renewable resources, which are running out at decent pace and it takes thousands of years to replenish them. The biggest constraint for most of the developing and under-developed countries in their economy is energy crisis. The reliance on non-renewable resources by rich economies hinders most of the developing or under developed countries to have a fair access to these resources.

Non-renewable energy resources mainly include petroleum, natural gas, coal and nuclear energy. Data reveals that most of the growing of developed economies is the top consumers of the products of non-renewable resources. United States, which is a developed economy, is a top consumer of the petroleum reserves. United States uses 21% of the total production of petroleum. Its share in total petroleum production is 13.7% and the population is only 4.4% of the total world’s population. China and India, the population of both of these is 36.7% of the global population and both are growing economies. The rapid growth of their economies has made them more reliant on non-renewable resources. The consumption of China and India, if commingled, is 14.1% of the total consumption of petroleum reserves. Same trend is followed in coal consumption by India and China. Even China consumes nearly half of the coal produce beneath the surface of this planet. United States has also a fair share in coal consumption. ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"U3aiKpw7","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Ahuja & Tatsutani, 2009)","plainCitation":"(Ahuja & Tatsutani, 2009)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":103,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/IH6FLXTP"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/IH6FLXTP"],"itemData":{"id":103,"type":"article-journal","title":"Sustainable energy for developing countries","container-title":"S.A.P.I.EN.S. Surveys and Perspectives Integrating Environment and Society","issue":"2.1","source":"journals.openedition.org","abstract":"Overall, at least 1.6 billion people—one-fourth of the world’s population—currently live without electricity and this number has hardly changed in absolute terms since 1970. And yet, the electricity required for people to read at night, pump a minimal amount of drinking water and listen to radio broadcasts would amount to less than 1 percent of overall global energy demand. Developing and emerging economies face thus a two-fold energy challenge in the 21st century: Meeting the needs of billions of people who still lack access to basic, modern energy services while simultaneously participating in a global transition to clean, low-carbon energy systems. And historic rates of progress toward increased efficiency, de-carbonization, greater fuel diversity and lower pollutant emissions need to be greatly accelerated in order to do so. To a significant extent, fortunately, the goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions may be aligned with the pursuit of other energy-related objectives, such as developing indigenous renewable resources and reducing local forms of pollution. In the near term, however, there will be tensions. Sustainable energy policies are more likely to succeed if they also contribute toward other societal and economic development objectives. Governments should look across policies to maximize positive synergies where they exist and avoid creating cost-cutting incentives.","URL":"http://journals.openedition.org/sapiens/823","ISSN":"1993-3800","language":"fr","author":[{"family":"Ahuja","given":"Dilip"},{"family":"Tatsutani","given":"Marika"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2009",4,7]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",4,26]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Ahuja & Tatsutani, 2009)

Above data exposes a glitch in the energy consumption policies of these countries. They produce less and consume more, they are densely populated and their industrial units are reliant on non-renewable resources. These countries must take measures to provide developing or under developed countries a fair access to these resources. These energy resources must be considered as common heritage of the mankind and share of all the countries must be proportional to their population. Shifting industrial units to renewable energy resources like hydro, solar, thermal would definitely cut their consumption of non-renewable energy resources. The big powers and United Nations must join hands to save these resources and provide a fair share to developing or poor countries. The top consumers must reduce their share and increase their reliance on renewable energy.

References

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Ahuja, D., & Tatsutani, M. (2009). Sustainable energy for developing countries. S.A.P.I.EN.S. Surveys and Perspectives Integrating Environment and Society, (2.1). Retrieved from http://journals.openedition.org/sapiens/823

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Accessing Non-Renewable Resources

Accessing Non-Renewable Resources

Name

Affiliation

Date

Accessing Non-Renewable Resources

The population of the world societies is growing tremendously; however, the energy resources are not increasing at the same rate. Some developed countries of the world have greater access to the energy resources of the world, which is providing them the opportunity of making progress at a fast pace. On the other hand, the developing, as well as the underdeveloped countries of the world are not self-sufficient in the natural energy resources. They do not have enough resources, as well as the technology to access the naturally existing energy resources. One of the major drawbacks in this regard is that they are also not able to get access to the non-renewable resources, which is causing a tremendous strain and hindering their chances of making development.

The developed countries of the world, having access to the resources of the planet have a greater responsibility of helping rest of the countries of the world to access the resources, and become developed. The developed countries can use the existing resources to make renewable energy, in order to meet their needs. On the other hand, they can also use their resources to provide the nonrenewable energy resources to the underdeveloped countries at the cheap rates. They can also help the underdeveloped countries to use the modern technology, in order to explore the means of natural resources, as well as use the modern technology for the purpose of extracting these resources (Twidell, & Weir, 2015).

The responsibility of the developed countries is also greater because they need to play their part in developing the world by helping the underdeveloped countries. The non-availability of the non-renewable resources would compel the underdeveloped countries to use the expensive means of energy, which they would also not be able to afford. So, the developed countries need to play their role so that other countries can also become progressive.

Reference

Twidell, J., & Weir, T. (2015). Renewable energy resources. Routledge.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Advertisement Analysis

Student’s name

Course id

Submitted to

Date

CPAs are boring

Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zx6Uf21qY9k

Chartered Professional Accountants is pushing back against the misconception that the expertise of certified financial accountants ends at the edge of a ledger. The organizations representing Canadian accounting professionals are rolling out a new campaign that tackles that perception head on, showcasing their members’ breadth of knowledge and wider business leadership skills. In doing so, the CPA is targeting the stereotype that accountants are “pencil-pusher” types with an important, albeit narrow area of expertise.

The television spot that launched the campaign this week claims that CPAs are only “boring” if one considers things like “changing music’s business model,” “starting your own brand,” “fighting cybercrime,” “advancing AI” and “rethinking tomorrow’s currency” to be boring. Closer to the end of the month, additional assets in print, out-of-home and online will be added in support of the television commercial. The campaign is being expanded with regional examples and profiles of CPAs who illustrate the ingenuity that they bring to the business sector, says Heather Whyte, SVP of marketing, communications and public Affairs at CPA Canada.

“CPAs are widely recognized as business leaders owning the finance space,” she says. “There’s no question that that’s our biggest strength. But where we have a challenge is a recognition among business leaders that CPAs can do more than just great finance, that they’re the folks that can actually connect the dots within an organization for everything from strategy to finance to analytics.” Each provincial CPA organization has been given the opportunity to take up the national campaign and expand it within their respective regions, says Carol Wilding, president and CEO of CPA Ontario, who chairs the CPA’s national brand committee consisting of CPA Canada and provincial CPA representatives. The chosen channels will also vary by region, to accommodate for regional differences, says Wilding, such as having no subways in P.E.I., where OOH executions will appear within the bus system instead.

It’s the first work to come out of a new agency relationship with DentsuBos, which is also overseeing the media spend. CPA Canada previously worked with DDB Canada, including on last year’s “Record Label” campaign that positioned certified CPAs as valuable assets for businesses heading into unfamiliar territory The CPA profession has been running annual campaigns and tracking its brand health since it launched the CPA designation in 2013, says Whyte. While that research showed strong awareness of the CPA brand when it came to finance, many people did not have as strong an association of the designation when it came to strategy, entrepreneurship and executive-level thinking, adds Wilding. From a strategy perspective, the organization recognized that it needed to drive greater association with the notion of CPA leadership across different sectors and help leaders better understand how CPAs influence business development. Working with Dentsu, it arrived at the strategic concept of “CPA ingenuity is everywhere,” which it aimed to express in the creative.

References

CPAs are boring... (30 seconds spot). (2019). Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zx6Uf21qY9k

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Age And Ageism

Age and Ageism

[Name]

[Institute]

Author Note

Age and Ageism

Since the dawn of time, people have celebrated the wisdom of the ages. The older members of the family were often given the role of decision-makers in various prevalent cultures across the globe since they placed wisdom and age before youth and beauty. They knew that aging wasn’t a process of decay, but one of nurtured growth, that had emerged from the divine and miserable confines of the youth to its present state of knowledge and experience, the sort that can help them evolve into better versions of themselves ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"rmNO8DXY","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Ayalon & Tesch-R\\uc0\\u246{}mer, 2017)","plainCitation":"(Ayalon & Tesch-Römer, 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1075,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/5VyEEXyp/items/N87NIZ63"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/5VyEEXyp/items/N87NIZ63"],"itemData":{"id":1075,"type":"book","title":"Taking a closer look at ageism: self-and other-directed ageist attitudes and discrimination","publisher":"Springer","ISBN":"1613-9372","author":[{"family":"Ayalon","given":"Liat"},{"family":"Tesch-Römer","given":"Clemens"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Ayalon & Tesch-Römer, 2017).

At present, it seems as if the society, as a whole, holds a grudge towards the mere concept of aging. The older segments of society are fine with the process of aging, considering that there is nothing they can do to reverse the biological process of aging ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"oBpUd1r6","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Novak, 2015)","plainCitation":"(Novak, 2015)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1078,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/5VyEEXyp/items/34EIAXC7"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/5VyEEXyp/items/34EIAXC7"],"itemData":{"id":1078,"type":"book","title":"Issues in Aging","publisher":"Taylor & Francis","URL":"https://books.google.com.pk/books?id=vPI5CgAAQBAJ","ISBN":"978-1-317-34709-5","author":[{"family":"Novak","given":"M."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Novak, 2015). However, given how the times have changed, these individuals are no longer aging psychologically aging. They are still young at heart and having the time of their lives. They even enjoy the process of social aging, by giving up their roles in society and seeing the younger generation step up and take on the responsibility they left behind with a sort of grace and poise ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"YB1KT3qN","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Donizzetti, 2019)","plainCitation":"(Donizzetti, 2019)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1077,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/5VyEEXyp/items/5RHWY5MH"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/5VyEEXyp/items/5RHWY5MH"],"itemData":{"id":1077,"type":"article-journal","title":"Ageism in an aging society: The role of knowledge, anxiety about aging, and stereotypes in young people and adults","container-title":"International journal of environmental research and public health","page":"1329","volume":"16","issue":"8","author":[{"family":"Donizzetti","given":"Anna Rosa"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Donizzetti, 2019).

However, in a culture that worships youth and puts them on a high pedestal, the older segments of society are treated unfairly. They are marginalized on the basis of their age by various social institutions and not given the room to enjoy the luxuries they have been bestowed by life. It is society as a whole that is subjecting the older adult population to ageism by immaturely discriminating against them and makes it difficult for them to be anything but what the society dictates them to be – old, demure, and unable to enjoy all that life has to offer ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"cVOlrjsb","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Officer & de la Fuente-N\\uc0\\u250{}\\uc0\\u241{}ez, 2018)","plainCitation":"(Officer & de la Fuente-Núñez, 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1076,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/5VyEEXyp/items/WVBTSAD8"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/5VyEEXyp/items/WVBTSAD8"],"itemData":{"id":1076,"type":"article-journal","title":"A global campaign to combat ageism","container-title":"Bulletin of the World Health Organization","page":"295","volume":"96","issue":"4","author":[{"family":"Officer","given":"Alana"},{"family":"Fuente-Núñez","given":"Vânia","non-dropping-particle":"de la"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Officer & de la Fuente-Núñez, 2018).

This acute fear of aging has kept people from growing and discovering that age is truly just a number. It is an intrinsic part of life and is only feared by those that have lived a life completely devoid of meaning.

References

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Ayalon, L., & Tesch-Römer, C. (2017). Taking a closer look at ageism: Self-and other-directed ageist attitudes and discrimination. Springer.

Donizzetti, A. R. (2019). Ageism in an aging society: The role of knowledge, anxiety about aging, and stereotypes in young people and adults. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(8), 1329.

Novak, M. (2015). Issues in Aging. Retrieved from https://books.google.com.pk/books?id=vPI5CgAAQBAJ

Officer, A., & de la Fuente-Núñez, V. (2018). A global campaign to combat ageism. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 96(4), 295.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Free Essays About Blogs
info@freeessaywriter.net

If you have any queries please write to us

Invalid Email Address!
Thank you for joining our mailing list

Freeessaywriter.net is a platform where students can find free online tools for paper writing. With the help of these instruments, you are more than capable of composing the content according to any academic requirements.

@ All Rights Reserved 2023 info@freeessaywriter.net

Back to top