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Forum 2 Week 2

Classmate Responses

Response 1: Chynar Ashirmyradova

I strongly agree with your point of view that Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (DSM) intends at creating profound understanding of clinicians and psychologists about mental health issues, making fine distinction between various disorders i.e., personality, mood, psychosis and intellectual disability, and guiding the therapeutic interventions accordingly. With all this convenience, DSM carries central place in the professional lives of mental health professionals because they make important diagnostic, prognostic and treatment decisions on the basis of its classification system. Other point that you raise that DSM is satisfactorily not credible is quite true as well; it can rightfully be said so because some criteria for mental disorders were completely accepted even in the presence of insufficient research material. Some disorders can only be diagnosed with sufficient 2-months or 6-months period and surprisingly, symptoms were completely disregarded if it happened prior to a 2 or 6 month period.For example, diagnostic criteria for depression requires 2 month duration and treatment are only valued after 2 months but what about the maladjustment and misery that client suffered during these two months? His symptoms clearly show depression but he cannot be diagnosed, so just because he has to complete 2 months; this point does not make any sense in my perspective too. Your point is quite compelling. Can someone answer; why do DSM developers put 2-month, 6-months criteria for disorders?

Response 2: Tami Sloan

It was another interesting answer; I specifically favor this phrase of yours: “there is categorical diagnosis where you either have a disorder or you don’t and it does not give leeway to environmental stressors” because DSM is like a black-white publication that neglects various significant shades of grey possessed by the individuals who embrace predisposed or environmental factors distinctively and uniquely including their mental disorders too. For example, some people might feel sad with insomnia even for one week; some might feel sad without insomnia and other symptoms throughout the year, some might feel sad every other day but depression can only be diagnosed when their symptoms (sadness and other associated symptoms) complete two months period but what if they have only few of these symptoms i.e., only sadness, only sadness and insomnia and only sadness without eating disturbances and suicide ideation? Would they be left undiagnosed? These points require authors of DSM to look at such problems more profoundly because mental health issues are not mere mathematical problem that can successfully be addressed in discrete categories. For that matter, DSM authors are working hard to put its next edition in the market which will hopefully attempt to address and minimize these draw backs.

Response 3: Brent Fleetwood

Dear fellow! you propounded the most unique notion about theclassification of DSM that it depends on our personal perspective that how we perceive the classification of mental health disorders i.e., a person who belongs to biological school of thought would perceive this manual differently as compared to the one who favors psychoanalytical approach. Likewise, individuals with genetic, behavioral, cognitive and social perspectives will have different viewpoints on its classification. Moreover, psychology students would view this manual differently from mental health professionals because their understanding and approach towards mental health issues is different. Hence, DSM authors cannot please all the stakeholders at the same time so it is a bit inconvenient for them to address the concerns of all. Another reality is that Darwin’s theory of individual differences must be kept in view because thinking patterns and behaviors of individuals, even identical twins follow holistically distinctive patterns; it is quite hard to make universal classification on the basis of variety of behavioral approaches as behavior is strongly affected by cultural and environmental factors which are completely different from each other’s. Hence, DSM must follow an all- inclusive approach which explains and incorporates the behaviors of individuals belonging to all cultures.

Week 2 Quiz 600 words submitted on portal

Current Event Paper 1

I was scrolling news articles and instantly an event that grabbed my attention as a student of abnormal psychology was a news headline: “HBO to add mental health alerts before some programs including The Sopranos and Euphoria” published in culture section of the Independent Section news agency. I found this article interesting because it was related to mental health and demonstrated that many media masterpieces might trigger mental health concerns in the viewers.

Full description of this event

Realizing the importance of media in learning, HBO on Thursday, announced that it must highlight mental health issues and prospective triggers and increase awareness about such issues through introducing characters that acquire and struggle hard to undermine their depressive, substance abuse and obsessive- compulsive symptoms (Harris, 2019). It emphasized the behaviorist nature of mental health issues that one can develop immunity or coping against such redundant elements of psychological health by watching role models on television.

This initiative was named as its okay and it was further stated that alerts and trigger warnings will be mentioned prior to on-airing the episodes if they contained any models having mental health issues for example one example of alter was, “this following program may contain depression” such alerts will not only be added in the new series but also to existing mental series including “Euphoria,”The Sopranos” and “Barry”(Harris, 2019). In the end, any viewer who feels like requiring help will be encouraged to contact the National Alliance on Mental Illness for further assistance at the end of episodes. The Voice President of HBO stated it clearly that these triggers are only invitations, not warnings for the audience. He further stated that we would not say that viewer’s discretion is advised rather the need of the hour is to say “viewer’s conversion is advised.”

Besides this initiative, Dr. Ali—a mental health professional and clinical psychologist—will discuss prospective scenes focused on psychopathological content in the series including their historical background, possible etiologies, adversities and treatment options in a thread of videos named “Doctor Commentaries” broadcasted by HBO network (Harris, 2019). First video of this thread was released this Thursday that explored the character of Hannah Horvath in a series “Girls” having obsessive compulsive disorder. Although other TV shows, for example, a Netflix series named “the Politicians” have also added advisories about devastating political issues but it is all about a warning that viewers may or may not watch it—it is less guiding this way.

In the same way, another Netflix series named “13 Reasons Why” have also added warning notice for viewers including “abuse and suicide” after a research paper was released in 2017 by the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry which claimed that in the month of April, the suicide rate among boys jumped to 10-17 after this series was aired in 2017 (Harris, 2019). The suicide scene was removed in July 2017 in response to criticism and appeal from mental health professionals. In a nutshell, it can be concluded that media plays mandatory role in the lives of viewers either directly or indirectly, consciously or unconsciously which can be explained by the “priming” theory of media psychology.

The Text book concept

Cognitive and behavioral perspectives in relation to abnormal behavior and wellbeing

In the textbook, I studied that human beings are social animals that observe each other and learn new things. These observed attributes are first used for changing already existent mental schemas and associated behaviors at micro level; massive alterations at macro level also happen when individuals observe each other and acquire certain cognitive patterns and behaviors collectively. Like other learned entities, mental illness and wellbeing is a learned phenomenon too. I would hereby mention and explain cognitive-behaviorist approach in which we learn new ways of thinking and behaviors on the basis of experiences that we gain from our daily life experiences. There are two ways to learn behaviors through our experiences; classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning says that people learn new behaviors through making associations between two neutral stimuli. Eventually, we start associating neutral and other unconditioned stimuli and learn new set of benchmarks for committing certain behaviors. According to this view, we learn many abnormal behaviors through associating neutral stimuli with the unconditional stimuli.For example, we develop phobias when negative feelings are erroneously conditioned with the neutral objects such as crowd, people, places, water, blood, height, events and animals (Maddux & Winstead, 2016). On the other hand, operant conditioning is inspected when individuals learn on the basis of consequences of their own and others’ behaviors. If something positive is done by us and we receive positive reactions, we are more likely to commit certain behaviors again and again. On the other hand, an individual is less likely to eliminate certain behaviors if he is subjected to negative experiences. Operant conditioning explains the interplay between reinforcement and punishment. Munchausen’s Syndrome can be explained using this type of conditioning for example when mother hurts her child and gains sympathy and attention which is positive reinforcement for the mother (Maddux & Winstead, 2016). With the passing time, she becomes more likely to hurt her child and gain positive outcomes. Another explanation of abnormal behavior is Social Learning Theory; when we see someone committing abnormal action and getting rewarded; we are more likely to acquire such behaviors or strengthen such already existent behaviors. For example, girls might observe their models and try to be the same in figure because they receive immense applause and fandom from common people. In order to gain similar desirability, they develop abnormal eating condition called anorexia nervosa (Maddux & Winstead, 2016). This is how cognitive-behavioral perspectives suggest the acquisition of abnormal behavior.

Integration and synthesis of the textbook concept with the selected current event

The above stated section attempted to explain the selected current event and i.e., HBO’s attempt to mention mental health notes and alerts at the start of each episode and instructional videos regarding mental health issuesdemonstrated in the scenes, their background, etiologies, risk factors, prevalence and treatment options. Besides this, the next section encapsulated text book concepts of my choice; cognitive and behavioral perspective regarding abnormal behavior. After deliberate analysis, in this particular section, it will be explained how HBO’s attempt is linked to the cognitive-behavioral perspective.

The HBO network decided to broadcast informational videos regarding mental health awareness in which Dr. Ali—a Subject Matter Expert and Clinical Psychologist—will provide individuals with the essential information regarding mental health issues depicted in the scenes including how do we develop these issues with the passage of time, what might be the potential risk factors for these, how can we overcome such issues and what self- help and professional interventions might help us leading a normal and happier life. The basic rationale behind this attempt falls under the conceptualization of social learning theory. For instance, as mentioned earlier, a teenager boy suffering from depression who watched “13 Reasons Why” developed strong identification for the characters of series because of their age, physical attractiveness, appealing dialogues, similar problems and emotional congruence. With the passing time, he observes these characters are starts acquiring the same behaviors because he them due to some common personal and environmental attributes. A favorite character of series suffering from depression fails to survive the traumatic life experiences i.e., physical abuse, rape and bullying and finding all the efforts to survive futile; he commits suicide. Now, the teenager boy will figure his life circumstances and a spell of uncertainty and hopelessness coupled with “how his favorite character coped depression” will provide him a fine solution for his problems; suicide. He will pay attention to those characters, develop congruence, commit same actions and will ultimately attempt suicide because this was what his model did in similar situation. This is the point where Social Learning Theory of Bandura finds it application and requires mental health professionals to take strict notice of what individuals are taught on the media. HBO’s director realized the urgency of media models and attempted to minimize the ongoing spell of suicide and homicide promotion that is worth appreciation. Besides this, the concept of operant conditioning can also be applied here; a teenager watching his favorite super hero, performing heroic actions disregarding the right and wrong and breaking the laws; will definitely develop the feelings of grandiose. He would think that he can do well for the society even if he breaks the laws because laws are just man- made conventions established to ensure their wellbeing and it is alright if one breaks them for the sake of common wellbeing. He would try to commit certain actions in the real world, if he acquires positive outcomes i.e., he is praised by his fellows or certain section of society; the likelihood of committing certain act will become twofold. Hence, series full of superhero content might influence the audience negatively through developing grandiose and law-breaking tendencies. Based on these principles, we can conclude that HBO’s attempt is quite satisfactory because the impact of media characters on the viewers particularly teenagers is quite well documented.


Maddux, J. E., & Winstead, B. A. (2016). Psychopathology: Foundations for a contemporary understanding.4th ed.New York: Routledge.

Harris, A. E. (2019). HBO to add mental health alerts before some programmes including The Sopranos and Euphoria. Independent.co.UK. retrieved from https://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/hbo-mental-health-alerts-depression-ocd-the-sopranos-barry-euphoria-a9153051.html

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 10 Words: 3000

Weekly Assignments

Part 1


Client centered therapy propounds the most satisfying notion that people are essentially trustworthy. They are capable of not only understanding their problems but also resolving them without any direct intervention; they have a vast potential for self directed growth. Besides this, Client Centered Therapy emphasizes some essential rapport building qualities of the therapists and appropriate client-therapist relationship. I personally liked this notion that clients are powerful enough to solve their problems; all that they need is to develop sufficient insight about their problems and available internal and external resources. The second most striking feature of this theory includes three components essential for rapport building with the client; empathy, congruence and unconditional positive regard (UCPR). Empathy is the ability of therapist to understand client’s concerns and enter his world. Congruence is the act of making the client realize that therapist is equally insightful about his problems and suffered similar circumstances at some point in life. UCPR justifies the non-judgmental attitude of therapist towards client so that he could express his feelings, emotions and opinions without any fear of humiliation. This point is although the main strength and distinctive point of this approach however we can assume it equally threatening for the process of healing for some clients because individuals with mental illness lose a sense of right and wrong; they might have erroneous self concept where they consider themselves complete failure and find it hard to think rationally. In this situation, they find no strength or coping mechanisms to utilize in problem solving. Since, Rogers stressed on the “non directive” approach of therapist, we cannot assume good results of this approach on the client’s wellness because he might find it hard to develop appropriate problem solving or decision making skills. Moreover, this therapy cannot be used for the patients of psychosis because they lose sense of self and are completely unaware of their problems. Hence, this therapy is suitable for the clients with less severe conditions and symptoms intensity.

Part 2

Psychoanalysis and Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy


This paper is aimed at making a fine elaborative distinction between two famous therapeutic interventions—the psychoanalytical therapy and rational emotive behavioral therapy. After deliberate contemplation, it will be demonstrated that both these approaches follow different orientations regarding personality development, psychopathology, and psychotherapy. In the conclusion section, meaningful inferences will be deduced from the whole textual activity.

Personality/Human Development

Personality is typically referred to as a veil that individuals wear to show themselves to others and use this mask to develop desired interpersonal relationships; this mask encapsulates cognitive, behavioral and affective components. In psychoanalysis and CBT, different approaches to personality development are followed that enable us to gain different understandings about human personality. The nature and contributing factors of personality development in Freud’s psychoanalysis and Albert Elis’ rational emotive behavioral therapy is presented below:

In the psychoanalysis approach, Freud emphasized childhood experiences, structural components of personality (Id, Ego and Super ego), structure of mind (conscious, sub-conscious and unconscious) personality dynamics (Eros and Thanatos) and focus of psychic energy (libido) that directs our behavior and further personality development. He was in view that human personality is reshaped by the way individual develops interaction with his mother, father, siblings, relatives, friends, peers and teachers. He overemphasized the first five years of child in his personality development. Moreover, many of his behaviors that he performs unknowingly are caused by the repressed thoughts, memories and emotions that are potentially “forgettable” for him.

Elbert Elis suggested that human personality is developed through the collaborative interplay between cognition (thinking patterns, feelings and perceptions), emotional and behavioral components of individuals in his personality development. He was in view that behavioral predispositions and environmental experiences both take active part in the personality development and impact his thinking patterns, behaviors and feelings to a greater degree. This is how both the perspectives emphasize the significance of developmental experiences in patients’ lives which might differ with respect to the nature of schemas and environmental experiences.


Psychopathology is referred to as the development of maladjusted thinking patterns and behaviors in individuals due to multifaceted risk factors including biological, neurological, genetic, psychological and social ones. Psychopathology, in other words, is the illness of individual’s mind with varying intensity i.e., it can impair his personal, academic, social and occupational life depending on the number and severity of risk factors. Psychoanalytical and Rational emotive behavioral therapies have deliberately focused to define the underlying precipitating causes behind mental illness because this particular understanding guides the process of prospective healing.

According to Freud, problematic mother-child relationships are the crux of mental illness. He presented five stages of personality development in which first three stages predominately discussed the nature of relationship between mother and child; in the first stage (oral), a child acquires feelings of adequacy, warmth, compassion, trust, affection and security from his mother when she feeds him, hugs or kisses him and keeps her child in her arms. If she fails to nurture his needs, he may develop paranoid, histrionic or borderline personality in future which is specifically linked to interpersonal relationships. Moreover, in the second (anal) and third (phallic) stages, mother is responsible for the appropriate toilet training and development of gender identity of her child; if she fails to do so, some obvious outcomes include obsessive- compulsive and anti-social tendencies and gender identity disorders. Besides this, the nature of repressed and unresolved thoughts, emotions and memories in the unconscious is another potential cause of mental illness near Freud.

On the other hand, Albert Elis suggested that mental deterioration is caused by the active participation of individuals i.e., they attribute slightly problematic issues as deteriorating troubles and upset themselves in response to this misperception. Besides this, he stressed over- generalization as the basis of mental deterioration in which individuals exaggerate their disturbed evaluation about their personality and events ignoring the positive side of context. Constant generalization leads to frustration intolerance in which individual considers something to be too difficult, tedious and painful and disregards his coping mechanisms. In his way, it can be defined that mental illness is the ramification of individual’s own misperception about his own strengths and events outside his control.


Psychotherapy is referred to as a process intended at treating mental health issues and maladjustments through active and systematic talking with psychiatrics, mental health providers and psychologists. During this process, one comes to know the condition of his thoughts, feelings, behaviors and moods and enables him to develop appropriate control over his life circumstances and coping mechanisms. Although there is variety of psychotherapies yet the appropriateness of treatment depends on the nature and severity of individual’s situation. Psychotherapy is famously known as counseling, psychosocial therapy, talk therapy or simply therapy.

Psychoanalysis was originally employed by Sigmund Freud which is regarded as the first model of modern therapy. With the Freud’s original design, an abundant of adaptation was developed till this day which is often called talking therapy or talking cure. This talk therapy is aimed at exposing the unconscious motives, thoughts and conscious behaviors that may end up in neurosis. In the modern day psychoanalysis, time-honored lounging couch has been replaced by simple chair. He first used simple muscle stimulation technique, massage and hydrotherapy for treating depression and anxiety. Another technique that he used was hypnosis to treat hysteria because he was in view that such disorders are deeply rooted in our unconscious. His basic aim was to explore the unconscious forces through free talk, dream analysis, slip of tongue and hypnosis. This therapy helps the patients getting rid of the unconscious repressed thoughts and feelings because once they are brought in conscious; we can resolve them actively. Psychotherapy strongly emphasized the significance of “catharsis” and free talk that provides the patients suitable channels to vent their frustrations and feelings out. In this way patients feel relieved.

On the other hand, REBT is termed as a therapeutic system of both practice and theory aimed at making the patients realize the ways through which they needlessly and erroneously learn to upset themselves through wrong perception of the events and situations. It focuses on the techniques through which they could “un-upset” themselves and empower them to lead more fulfilling and happier lives. REBT suggests that it is not necessary to develop caring and warm relationship with the client because sometimes they feel dependent and fail of develop autonomy which is an essential component of psychological healing. Therapist is only responsible for understanding patient’s concerns from his perspectives and to work as an encourager, teacher or facilitator. REBT is used in broad range of clinical problems such as family therapy, group therapy or individual therapy. It is also used for a variety of psychological problems such as stress management, development of coping skills, social skills, grief management, addiction control, weight control, career changes, assertiveness and coaching settings. Hence, REBT specifically focuses on the negative emotions associated with the events and situations that are tried to be eliminated after rational talking.


This paper attempted to explain the comparative analysis between psychoanalysis and rational emotive behavioral therapy (REBT). In the first section, it was explained that both approaches define personality development in different continuum i.e., psychoanalysis approach signifies the childhood experiences and repressed thoughts and memories whereas REBT stresses on the personal “perception” that enables us develop views about ourselves and environment. In the second section, it was demonstrated psychoanalysis approach regards painful repressed memories and negative childhood experiences as a strong determinant of personality whereas REBT favors present experiences and personal factors i.e., the way we embrace situations as a powerful determinants of personality. In the last section, it was elaborated that dream analysis, free talk and hypnosis comprise psychoanalysis whereas REBT includes active-directive approach of talk and replacement of the upsetting thoughts with the un-upsetting ones based on the logical reasoning.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

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Response on portal

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

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Initial post

Reply 1

Reply 2

Reply 3

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 3 Words: 900

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Integrative perspective

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

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Subject: Psychology

Pages: 3 Words: 900

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300 words reply on student’s portal

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

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Subject: Psychology

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

What A Phony Paper


Instructor Name

Art 101

19 November 2018

What a Phony Paper

Today's teens have never experienced a world without Internet. Most have smartphones and spend hours every week on social networks. Some parents may feel calmed of their children’s selflessness's disinterest to drink, drive, drink etc. They may bypass the effect of constant Internet access on their children's mental health. In an eye-opening article written for the Atlantic, Psychology professor Jean Twenge points to a rising set of evidence suggesting that the wide use of smart phones among teens leads the Young generation to "get on the verge of a mental health crisis". Changes in behavior from one generation to another usually occur increasingly. However, the changes in the behavior of adolescents from the millenarian generation to the generation that has succeeded have been unprecedented and drastic. These profound changes began around 2012 when the percentage of Americans that own a smartphone exceeded 50%. Jean M. Twenge discovers the idea that modern technology devices have allowed children to feel more alone and depressed than ever. He shows several trends related to the use of the mobile phone, such as suicidal tendencies and increased depression, low emphasis on independence, limited face to face interaction among adolescents.

All over the article, Twenge compares the "iGen", both to the children of the nineties and to her own generation. Her findings are related to the idea of ​​a paradigm shift or an important ideological and cultural change over time. When Twenge grew, face-to-face communication was more common than it is now, as she remembers that she spent numerous hours almost every day with her friends. Instead, apparently, society has evolved to fully exist among devices, and face-to-face interaction is always low. This lack of private communication, complemented by an extremely virtual communication, has made the teens of today depressed more than ever. This represents a paradigm shift because it marks an ideological change that took place in society; the transition from virtual existence to interpersonal experience. Twenge also notes that generational changes are depictions of paradigm changes. Since she has seen such a severe change in modern society, Twenge has created a new generation to correspond to this change, called "iGen." IGen represents the generation that has grown almost completely around intelligent devices and they are not familiar with the time. Additionally, one could claim that Twenge's awareness on this topic could be considered a paradigm shift. Smart phones and computers are so groundbreaking inventions that they have done so well in the world that people infrequently reflect of their negative aspects and the Twenge article points a cultural change that is causing people to think more critically about the time that goes on the internet. The Twenge article raised some questions about these negative components of smart devices so that people think more about how to let their children use technology in the future.

Adolescents in the United States reach age at a time when digital technology is truly pervasive, where mobile phones are constant companions. “Sleep experts say adolescents should get about nine hours of sleep a night; a teenager who gets less than seven hours a night is largely deprived of sleep. Seventy-seven percent of adolescents were deprived of sleep in 2015 compared to 1991. In only four years from 2012 to 2015, 22 percent of adolescents failed to get seven hours of sleep ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"VHDDMioC","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}Have Smartphones Destroyed a Generation? - The Atlantic})","plainCitation":"(Have Smartphones Destroyed a Generation? - The Atlantic)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":435,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WcSf8WB9/items/U95PMBHT"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WcSf8WB9/items/U95PMBHT"],"itemData":{"id":435,"type":"webpage","title":"Have Smartphones Destroyed a Generation? - The Atlantic","URL":"https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2017/09/has-the-smartphone-destroyed-a-generation/534198/","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",11,15]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Have Smartphones Destroyed a Generation? - The Atlantic).” The author points that the increase in suicide rates among teens may be due to a greater number of teens who are deprived of sleep, which is also related to the use of smartphones. Of course, statistics on these issues are shocking and must be undertook. However, though I agree that using a smartphone has affected the way we live our lives on a daily basis to dramatically change both good and bad ways, I see it is simply normal, given that the world is dramatically transformed by the advent of technology. Yes, our generation is very diverse from earlier generations, but this is the consequence of technology becoming essential in all aspects of life. As the use of technology is comparatively new, society is trying to acclimate to the new way of living and absorb the risks of increasing screen time. Although iGen faces many challenges to well living due to smartphones, it is important to remember that each generation has experienced its own set of concerns for growing adolescents related to time-bound conditions. Twenge statistics on suicide and depression were very shocking to me; I feel that social media is a threat to the mental health of young people.

The research tend to discuss a variable ‘screen time’ which means that the teens spend their time on smartphones, laptop, TV or anything on screen. For a few results such as sight and sleep, the amount of hours staring at the screen may be a really valued procedure. But I argue that when trying to assess whether an individual's use of digital technologies will negatively or positively affect happiness, anxiety, or depression, "screen time" is a terrible measure. Texting different people have different effect on individuals. Texting your mother, sister, friend or life partner have different effect. These activities involve different mental processes such as language, social interaction, emotion, spatial navigation but these have harmful effect on well-being because they are delivered through devices. The passive use of social media is associative negatively with well-being, but the use of social media actively is positive and it is associated with well-being, while receiving personalized content is predictive of well-being. When you run statistics on very large datasets, you can observe statistically significant effects that will make no practical difference in everyday life. Several major smartphone / mental health studies point to statistically significant effects, however, explaining it with half a percentage point of variation in the extent of participants' depression - in other words, about 99.5% of adolescent depression levels predicted other factors. This does not mean that smartphones are not connected to well-being, but that means that panic may be unwarranted. By making slightly different choices about which elements of depression to consider and how to classify screen usage, you can find that smartphones expect higher well-being, less well-being or no relationship at all. They also found other variables that statistically predicted very small proportions of psychological performance similar to the effects of using the screen - including, not drinking milk, wearing glasses, and eating potatoes.

If the harmful effect of smartphones is the basis of iGen, Twenge has two main conclusions: "In general, iGen is a kind of good news for managers" and "iGen'ers are afraid, perhaps even terrified." Instead of investigating the possible links between these two outcomes, Twenge offers managers suggestions to attract iGeners, such as referring to a “safe environment” for the office. But at the end of the day, companies don't care to make their workers feel more secure when fear makes them “less likely to expect more pay for less work ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"yGDVDOv9","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}Have Smartphones Destroyed a Generation? - The Atlantic})","plainCitation":"(Have Smartphones Destroyed a Generation? - The Atlantic)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":435,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WcSf8WB9/items/U95PMBHT"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WcSf8WB9/items/U95PMBHT"],"itemData":{"id":435,"type":"webpage","title":"Have Smartphones Destroyed a Generation? - The Atlantic","URL":"https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2017/09/has-the-smartphone-destroyed-a-generation/534198/","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",11,15]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Have Smartphones Destroyed a Generation? - The Atlantic)”. (Twenge could have formulated this in the opposite direction, where “we are likely to expect lower salaries for more work,” which would have illustrated the risks for employers.) This relationship between increased exploitation and increased fear within the cohort would be by far the toughest argument in iGen, if Twenge had bothered to make it. The study is correlational, meaning that researcher has just noticed correlations between some variables, such as smartphone use and depression. The study leave open the possibility that these correlations are due to smartphones that cause depression, depressive symptoms that cause bigger use of smartphones, or a third variable, such as the number of extracurricular activities, leading to both rising and falling. To see if the use of smartphones is causing depression, we will have to set large groups of teenagers that exactly match each number of variables for a long time as one group uses smartphones extensively while the other does not, and then we watch to see if depression levels rise more, in one group versus the other group. The studies she reviews chiefly ignore social settings and how people vary, rather than reporting average influences and relationships. Developing evidence suggests that psychologists can consider asking a question about human behavior. The use of the screen and its association with psychological well-being varies depending on many contextual and personal variables, such as how media is used, when used, and what happens in your life. Twenge's bias seems clearer to me than the research she has reviewed, but she concludes that she is apparently not related to her thesis - the enormous counter-evidence of the "devastating generation" thesis in her headline. In the introduction to this article, I noticed that this generation has sharply reduced rates of alcohol abuse, car accidents, teenage pregnancy, smoking, and unprotected sex compared to previous generations. This is what a destructive generation looks like?

Work Cited:

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Have Smartphones Destroyed a Generation? - The Atlantic.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

What Effect Does Punishment Have On Behavior?

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What effect does punishment has on behavior?

Punishment is a measure of control that is used since the birth of the human race, but it is in recent years that the study of its short and long term consequences have generated an enriching debate that is surprising society in general and parents in particular.

When we prevent our child from going to the concert of his favorite singer or we forbid him to use his computer for a couple of days because of his behavior, we try to penalize bad conduct. In fact, punishment in children tries to suppress a series of unwanted actions. There are two main benefits to punishment. On the one hand, it has a very rapid effect and on the other hand, it eliminates inappropriate behaviors and reorganizes the desired behaviors.

However, the punishment of children produces a series of later side effects that are often not identified by adults. This series of reactions, mainly of an emotional and behavioral nature, makes us think that punishment may not be the best way to eliminate or reduce the frequency of bad behavior.

Effects of punishment on behavior

People act motivated and repeat behaviors or attitudes for which they receive rewards. Nevertheless, when this philosophy is transferred to infant learning, the punishment of children is not always the best way to educate them. Some disadvantages are as follows.

Emotional responses

The emotional state of a person who has just been punished is usually very frustrating. It is associated with negative thoughts against the person who administers or generates this feeling of helplessness. For this, we can produce a series of emotional responses such as pons, screams, kicks, anger and even aggressive behavior. These answers are not only directed to the person who administered the punishment, but also to the rest of the people involved.

Emotional response in punished children

Stimulation of signals

The person who gives the punishment as well as the other stimulations of the environment can be converted into unpleasant stimuli for the child or in warning signals being associated with unpleasant consequences. For this, the punished behavior will no longer appear in his presence, but in his absence. This side effect is the prototype of classroom behavior: children behave badly when there is no teacher in class and behave better when it enters.

Substitution by other inappropriate behaviors

The punishment of children can promote the substitution of behaviors punished by other inappropriate behaviors. It is therefore important to apply the sanction with an alternative so that the child can be made to understand what is needed and what not to do. Although the punishment allows to suppress certain behaviors, its application causes behaviors of flight or removal of the own consequences of these.

"No" to physical punishment

The person giving a lesson can get carried away. Of course, when the physical punishment involves the administration of a slap or a spanking, the effect is doubly negative. First, it is punishable by law because parents must be an example to children and the example is not to hit. Children learn everything that is shown to them. Bad habits and bad behavior are therefore not favorable, even when they are intended to correct their behavior.

Moderation and discipline

When there are several alternative responses, and one of them is the one that should not be performed, one can reward the achievement of the other responses if they are incompatible with the unwanted action. This method known as differential reinforcement of incompatible behaviors gives better results in the long term than the punishment for undesirable response.

Discipline instead of punishments

It is important not to educate children in a constant exchange of rewards and prohibitions. They will not learn to value the discipline. In fact, they will not do it because they consider it important for the future, but because they know they can go out on weekends with their friends. This will yield results, but they will have intrinsic motivation and memorizing without learning and only seeking to reach the price. Hence, the punishment must be applied with care and moderation because it’s excess can turn the child into an anti-social being.


Punishments are therefore not only ineffective for a change in behavior, but counterproductive. The parent has natural authority. If this authority is recognized, no need to be authoritarian (Baumrind, 887-907). We have spent enough time trying to counteract our children and teenagers, this only leads to daily battles and multiple breaks in connection. Considering situations from the paradigm of attachment, we will get much better results.


Baumrind, Diana. "Effects of authoritative parental control on child behavior." Child development (1966): 887-907.

Church, Russell M. "The varied effects of punishment on behavior." Psychological Review 70.5 (1963): 369.

Walters, Gary C., and Joan E. Grusec. "Punishment." (1977).

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

What Motivates White Supremacists?

What Motivates White Supremacists?

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

What Motivates White Supremacists?


In order to understand the motives and the way of thinking of any group, it is very important to make sure that some sort of understanding is developed with regards to what they stand for and what are their underlying beliefs. At the same time, it is also crucial that some sort of insight is developed with regards to the belief set of these people. Coming towards the white supremacists, these are the group of people who tend to believe that the white people are superior to the other people and races (Glaser et al, 2017). Due to this superiority, they should be dominant over them (Lanzerotti et al, 2018). Coming towards the root of white supremacy, it can be seen that some of the roots of the white supremacy are witnessed in the scientific racism (Glaser et al, 2017). At the same time, the pseudoscientific arguments also play a major part in the propagation of the set of beliefs that are termed as the white supremacy (Derman-Sparks & Ramsey, 2017). In this paper, it is going to be seen that what are some of the things that tend to motivate white supremacy (Derman-Sparks & Ramsey, 2017).

Basic Interpretation of the Term

Before one goes into the minds of the white supremacists that tend to believe that they are better than other people, it is important to make sure that sort of insight is developed with regards to the mindset that these group of people tend to believe (Adams & Roscigno, 2015). It is a political ideology that perpetuates and maintains the social and political as well as the institutional domination of the other people (Glaser et al, 2017). The idea has been put forth by various people who tend to believe that just due to their skin colour, they have some other underlying superiority over the other ethnic groups and races (Glaser et al, 2017). The extreme side of the white supremacy is that is that they tend to consider other groups and races as the part of their enemy. The critical race theory and the intersectionality also plays an important part when it comes to the fact that how the concept behind the white supremacy is supposed to be understood. Now some context is developed, it is going to be seen what some of the motivations of these set of people are (Glaser et al, 2017).

Research Question

The basic question that the paper seeks to answer is that what are some of the underlying motivations of the people that are called white supremacists and what are some of the things that tend to make their cause valuable for them (Derman-Sparks & Ramsey, 2017).

Research Methodology

During the course of this research, it is going to be seen what the sense of purpose of these people who is are being termed as the white supremacists (Glaser et al, 2017). The key thing that has to be kept in mind in this regard is that how the research is going to pan out and what is the structure that the research is going to be following (Adams & Roscigno, 2015). As there is hosts of literature that is already available on the given subject, what is going to be done during the course of this research is that the rationale behind the hate is going to be seen in the context of the political theory (Derman-Sparks & Ramsey, 2017). The political theories are going to give good insight about what are some of the motivations of these people. At the same time, the other thing that is going to be done during the course of the research is that it would be seen that how the how the existing literature has looked at the issue. What is the current research that has happened in this regard (Lanzerotti et al, 2018)? The current and past literature is going to provide a good perspective when it comes to understanding the underlying motivation of these people (Adams & Roscigno, 2015). The secondary data is going to be used during the course of this information and corresponding literature review (Derman-Sparks & Ramsey, 2017). Now some clarity of purpose is being developed with regards to how the research is going to be proceed, in the next section, the already existing literature with regards to the subject is going to be reviewed (Adams & Roscigno, 2015).

Literature Review

In this day and age, most of the people might have assumed that the concepts that are as radical as white supremacy are going to be obsolete due to the fact that here is so much focus on the racial equality and diversity at the workplace (Adams & Roscigno, 2015). It is not the case though as there are large number of people who still tend to believe that the white supremacy is something that still holds relevance and these people tend to practice their belief with full force even today (George & Wilcox, 2016). The recent research has suggested that the point of view and the presence of the white supremacists is becoming louder and louder with the passage of time (Adams & Roscigno, 2015). The presence of the social media has given these groups a new outlet where they can come out and discuss and propagate their hate monger at the broader group of people (Sutton & Wright, 2018). The impact that social media has on their presence can be measured by the fact that how 25,000 of the people have signed their allegiance of how they are going to be making sure that they would take care of the white supremacy (Adams & Roscigno, 2015).

Primary Motive Behind the Concept of white supremacy

The main question remains that what are some of the underlying reasons for their hate monger and what are the primary reasons that they tend to have developed strong hostility towards other racial groups (Adams & Roscigno, 2015). It can be seen that the tendency towards the aggression and the dark triad personality traits play an important part when it comes to making sure that people tend to be able to identify with the movement that is as radical as this one (Derman-Sparks & Ramsey, 2017). Looking father closely at the mental makeup of these people (George & Wilcox, 2016), it can be seen that how the people who are suffering from narcissism are the ones that tend to suffer the most from these ailments at the given point of time. Narcissism as a matter of fact plays an important part when one talks about the set of beliefs that are propagated by these people at the given point of time (Derman-Sparks & Ramsey, 2017). The other important aspect that plays a role in the sense of hatred towards some of the other nations is that how they have strong sense of belonging towards their racial sensibilities (Adams & Roscigno, 2015).

Lack Of Rationality And Logic In White Supremacy

The key thing that has to be noted when one talks about the behaviour aspect of the white supremacists it that there is no underlying theory or perspective that is needed to be kept in mind when one looks at the plight and the issues of the white supremacists (Derman-Sparks & Ramsey, 2017). There are no strong set of rationales or logic that one might be expected to follow when one is looking at the cases and the plight of the white supremacists (Adams & Roscigno, 2015). Looking at all the other radical belief systems across the world, one thing tend to stay consistent is that how there is drive among people to make sure that they are fighting and advocating for the rights of the white people despite the fact that it is one of the racial groups that is least likely to face any type of racial profiling or abuse at any given point of time (Adams & Roscigno, 2015).

Political Grievances

As there is a change in the global policy making and effort is being made to make sure that the more inclusive world is being created, there are many political grievances that one can get to see from the sight of these people (Adams & Roscigno, 2015). One of the key thing that is being talked about by these people is that how they are facing abuse and the policy making that is being carried out these days is such that it is not allowing them to make sure that their rights are being taken care off (Derman-Sparks & Ramsey, 2017). There is sense of alienation among the white supremacists at the moment despite the fact that globally effort is being made to create a culture that promotes equality among all the people at the given point of time (George & Wilcox, 2016). One area in which there is particular anger that is being exhibited by the white supremacists is that how the affirmative action policies that are being carried out these days (Derman-Sparks & Ramsey, 2017). The main thing that is needed to be taken care off by the white supremacists is that they need to make sure that they are looking after the affirmative action policies that are witnessed these days (Adams & Roscigno, 2015).

Affirmative Action And White Supremacy

There are many underlying arguments that are carried out among the people who tend to practice the ideology of the white supremacy (Derman-Sparks & Ramsey, 2017). The basic argument is that how the idea of the cultural diversity is something that is bound to rob them of their rightful place (George & Wilcox, 2016). The idea on their part is that as the white supremacy is such a powerful concept, the people who tend to practice must be given higher pedestal as far as the way they are supposed to be treated other people at the given point of time (Derman-Sparks & Ramsey, 2017). The point of view that is presented in this regard is that how they tend to feel alienated in the current system where equality and the diversity is talked about at a greater level (Sutton & Wright, 2018). When they see that how the people from the other races are getting up and taking up their rightful place, the thinking on the part of the white supremacists is that how they tend to get there (Adams & Roscigno, 2015).

White Supremacy And Christian Identity

Christian identity is one of the other things that is quite closely linked with the concept of the white supremacy (Adams & Roscigno, 2015). There are many people that tend to reject the notion that how the white supremacy is supposed to be related with the Christian identity (Sutton & Wright, 2018). The assertion though is made that how there are white supremacists bodies that still tend to feel that how the Christianity as a religion is something that can actually be understood and practices by the white supremacists in a better manner (Adams & Roscigno, 2015). They have this twisted belief that the religion was actually the one that was for the white people and how it is the race of the people that is supposed to make sure that they tend to take the Christian mindset to the other level (Adams & Roscigno, 2015). There are many white supremacists who are having this belief that the other races other than the white are mud races and the religion also tends to seem to talk about the same thing (Adams & Roscigno, 2015). This is not only witnessed among the Christian people, there are some other radical groups that tend to believe the same thing (Sutton & Wright, 2018).

Emergence Of The White Supremacists In Today’s World

Interestingly, in most parts of the world, the selection of the nationalists has made sure that the concept of the white supremacists and the other such radical concepts are going to be gaining momentum (Adams & Roscigno, 2015). The core idea of the nationalist ideology is that how the nation is supposed to be better than everyone else and how one should be making sure that they must be working towards the right cause. In this regard, the selection of Donald Trump is considered to be an important moment in terms of the re-emergence of the radical mindset of the white supremacists (Derman-Sparks & Ramsey, 2017). During the course of his election, there were many instances when it was seen that how conscious effort was being made by Trump (Adams & Roscigno, 2015). The interesting thing that has to be kept in mind during the course of the whole process is that how during his election campaign, he himself propagated the concept (Derman-Sparks & Ramsey, 2017). This emergence at the office goes to show that there are still people who tend to have a belief over this ideology and the idea on their part is that how they can use the presence of Dundalk Trump as a major outlet as far as the way they can propagate their ideology at the moment (Price et al, 2017). Already there are enough signs that seem to show at the moment that effort is needed to be carried out to make sure that the element of control is witnessed in this regard (Adams & Roscigno, 2015).


In the hindsight, it can be said that the white supremacy is the concept that still has its takers across the world (George & Wilcox, 2016). If one looks at the underlying motivation of the people who tend to practice this belief, the key thing that can be seen here is that how radicalization and nationalism is one of the core reasons behind the apparent increase in the nationalist agenda that one gets to see these days (George & Wilcox, 2016). The other major issue that has to be the religious sensibility that white supremacists have developed these days (George & Wilcox, 2016). The thinking on their part is that how they are working in the manner that they use the religious sentiments and ideologies (George & Wilcox, 2016). The need of the moment is to understand the underlying motivations of the white supremacists and effort has to be made to ensure that the radical sentiments of these people are kept in check (Derman-Sparks & Ramsey, 2017). The nationalist governments that one gets to see these days are likely to use this situation for their advantage (George & Wilcox, 2016).


Adams, J., & Roscigno, V. J. (2015). White supremacists, oppositional culture and the World Wide Web. Social Forces, 84(2), 759-778.

Derman-Sparks, L., & Ramsey, P. G. (2017). What if all the kids are white?: Anti-bias multicultural education with young children and families. Teachers College Press.

George, J., & Wilcox, L. M. (2016). American extremists: Militias, supremacists, klansmen, communists & others (p. 354). Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.

Glaser, J., Dixit, J., & Green, D. P. (2017). Studying hate crime with the internet: What makes racists advocate racial violence?. Journal of Social Issues, 58(1), 177-193.

Lanzerotti, R., Mayer, M., Ormiston, W., & Podwoski, L. (2018). Racism in Queer Communities: What Can White People Do?. Race, Gender & Class, 55-71.

Price, P. C. (2017). Psychology research methods: Core skills and concepts v. 1.0.

Sutton, M., & Wright, C. (2018). Finding the Far Right Online: An exploratory study of white supremacist websites. Internet Journal of Criminology.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 8 Words: 2400

Whether Or Not Medication Should Be Used To Treat ADHD.

Whether or not medication should be used to treat ADHD.

[Authors Name]

Whether or not medication should be used to treat ADHD.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder that affects children and can continue into adulthood. Over the past few decades, ADHD prevalence has increased. According to one news report of the USA, the medicine of ADHD has risen to more than 40% (39.5 million ADHD prescriptions) in the last 5 years ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Kim</Author><Year>2019</Year><RecNum>1144</RecNum><DisplayText>(Kim, King, &amp; Jennings, 2019)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1144</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="axzrwpxxqvwtw5evsf3xrer2arfwsa5f0e5d" timestamp="1567947471">1144</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Kim, Margeum</author><author>King, Marissa D</author><author>Jennings, Jennifer</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>ADHD remission, inclusive special education, and socioeconomic disparities</title><secondary-title>SSM-Population Health</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>SSM-Population Health</full-title></periodical><pages>100420</pages><dates><year>2019</year></dates><isbn>2352-8273</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Kim, King, & Jennings, 2019). After seeing such a high prevalence, it is normal to ask questions about the treatment of this disease such as whether the treatment of ADHD is appropriate or not. The argument seems to be strong on each side but it is hard for one to believe in aspect because of extensive research done on the treatment of ADHD. Professionals around the world are concern about ADHD treatment. Fallacious arguments are usually formulated to state convincing cases like prescribing ADHD medications or maintaining their existing dose appeared as the most effective and only treatment but it is not always true. The findings of literature surveys are evidence to recognize its effectiveness in the prescribing of medications in ADHD. An argument in this essay is developed to know the effectiveness of ADHD treatment on the basis of two articles.

Historical perspective

ADHD is a condition in which imbalance occurs in the noradrenaline and dopamine (brain chemicals). Both of these chemicals are important in slowing impulses and also self-control. Due to imbalance in these chemicals ADHD patients experience hyperactive behavior, inattentiveness, and difficulties in learning. Although today physicians have more information regarding causes, diagnosis, and treatment of ADHD. An important history of this disease is present which revolves around many beliefs and theories. ADHD is not a recent disease it was discovered 100 years ago. In 1902 George Still who was an English pediatrician first describe the ADHD after observing a group of people and recognized them as overactive, inattentive and lack of control. After his discovery, many controversies occur. Previously it was believed that ADHD is caused due to the damage of the brain. After that physicians recognized that most of the children with this disease had no brain damage and this idea was rejected. After that ADHD was replaced with hyperactive child syndrome and then all the focus was given on hyperactivity. Dr. Ben Feingold developed a link between hyperactivity and diet but it was also proven to be not much authentic so this was also rejected. Today in the recent world it is a belief that this disease is strongly hereditary and occurs due to the imbalance of noradrenaline and dopamine, which causes hyperactivity, inattentiveness and other symptoms (Mahone & Denckla, 2017).

Whether medicine should be given in ADHD treatment

Psychotropic medicines that are used to regulate mood, treat the mental disorder and to control behavior in children with ADHD is another controversy. The first article ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Martinez-Raga</Author><Year>2017</Year><RecNum>1141</RecNum><DisplayText>(Martinez-Raga, Ferreros, Knecht, de Alvaro, &amp; Carabal, 2017)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1141</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="axzrwpxxqvwtw5evsf3xrer2arfwsa5f0e5d" timestamp="1567945789">1141</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Martinez-Raga, Jose</author><author>Ferreros, Amparo</author><author>Knecht, Carlos</author><author>de Alvaro, Raquel</author><author>Carabal, Eloisa</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder medication use: factors involved in prescribing, safety aspects and outcomes</title><secondary-title>Therapeutic advances in drug safety</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Therapeutic advances in drug safety</full-title></periodical><pages>87-99</pages><volume>8</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>2017</year></dates><isbn>2042-0986</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Martinez-Raga, Ferreros, Knecht, de Alvaro, & Carabal, 2017) strongly supports the view that safe and effective medication for ADHD is available and recommended as first-line treatment for the core symptoms of inattention, over activity, and impulsiveness. In this article, authors have preferred medicated treatment for ADHD and stated that the efficacy and safety profile of these medicines are well established and can be used as a first-line treatment for the treatment of ADHD. In this first article, authors have strongly proved medication effectiveness by giving references from different literature. This article supports that treatment of ADHD patients is based on multiple approach but medicine alone can prove to be very effective. The authors in this article discuss very clearly the safety profile of ADHD medication and try to prove those people wrong who states that medicines should not be given to children and also give particular attention to adverse events and risk of its misuse.

The other article ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Currie</Author><Year>2014</Year><RecNum>1140</RecNum><DisplayText>(Currie, Stabile, &amp; Jones, 2014)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1140</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="axzrwpxxqvwtw5evsf3xrer2arfwsa5f0e5d" timestamp="1567945690">1140</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Currie, Janet</author><author>Stabile, Mark</author><author>Jones, Lauren</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Do stimulant medications improve educational and behavioral outcomes for children with ADHD?</title><secondary-title>Journal of health economics</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of health economics</full-title></periodical><pages>58-69</pages><volume>37</volume><dates><year>2014</year></dates><isbn>0167-6296</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Currie, Stabile, & Jones, 2014) which is included in this essay shows that little evidence is present on the effectiveness of the use of ADHD medication in the medium and long run. This study had stated that using ADHD medicine had less positive and more harmful effects on the community. This article discusses the concerns associated with ADHD treatment. The drug is prescribed for ADHD treatment but is associated with several long and short side effects. In this article, the authors stated that the medicines are not suitable to treat ADHD. Authors give strong arguments by stating that most of the studies which are conducted in the past focus on efficacy of these medications for a short term such as between 1or 2 months after treatment ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Buoli</Author><Year>2016</Year><RecNum>1143</RecNum><DisplayText>(Buoli, Serati, &amp; Cahn, 2016)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1143</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="axzrwpxxqvwtw5evsf3xrer2arfwsa5f0e5d" timestamp="1567946018">1143</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Buoli, Massimiliano</author><author>Serati, Marta</author><author>Cahn, Wiepke</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Alternative pharmacological strategies for adult ADHD treatment: a systematic review</title><secondary-title>Expert review of neurotherapeutics</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Expert review of neurotherapeutics</full-title></periodical><pages>131-144</pages><volume>16</volume><number>2</number><dates><year>2016</year></dates><isbn>1473-7175</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Buoli, Serati, & Cahn, 2016) Therefore, authors stated that there is a lack of evidence regarding its long-term benefits and this is a key element controversy. The authors stated that controlled studies that are carried out suggested that these medications usually improve attention and performance. But all these studies were for a short time and there are only a few studies that follow children for a longer period. Therefore, authors argue that these positive short-term effects on child behavior and attention are over-estimated. Another concern which authors show in this article is that the doses which yield the most desirable behavior are not well calibrated. therefore, in this article, the author does not support the use of medicine in treating ADHD.

In the first article, authors stated that there is a clear opinion about the effectiveness of stimulant for the treatment of ADHD and it is stated that proper use of ADHD medicine is safe and effective. They stated that there are no scientific meetings which mention any kind of controversies about this disorder, its validity and about the importance of using medicines like Ritalin for its treatment. Science is overwhelming and answers to all these questions are affirmative. ADHD is a real disorder and can be managed by giving stimulants medicines in combination with other therapy. In the second article there is present authentic disagreement on the use of stimulant medication in treating ADHD, Even more, controversial is the question when to use medicines such as Ritalin which are classified schedule II drugs according to drug enforcement law authority. Is it right to place children on these drugs especially when the brains are still developing? In the US these medicines are widely accepted in the treatment of children with ADHD. Physicians prescribe these medicines even the patient is not being diagnose by the psychiatrist. It is of great argument here that without proper diagnosis, prescribing psychotropic drugs can cause complications.

The second article suggests that medicine is not effective in treating ADHD whereas the first article authors argue that medical therapy is very effective to treat ADHD, as medicine is based on benefit vs risk ratio and medicine therapy for ADHD outweighs the risk. Authors stated that although counseling is also very effective but not as compare to medication therapy. Some studies support the first article logics of the effectiveness of medicines in ADHD treatment. In the second article, the authors argued that medicines should not be given to ADHD patients as valid diagnosis is not present. Mark Fineman in one study also stated that stimulants are the drug of abuse and dangerous ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Iversen</Author><Year>2016</Year><RecNum>1139</RecNum><DisplayText>(Iversen, 2016)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1139</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="axzrwpxxqvwtw5evsf3xrer2arfwsa5f0e5d" timestamp="1567945642">1139</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book">6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Iversen, Leslie L</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Drugs: A very short introduction</title></titles><volume>52</volume><dates><year>2016</year></dates><publisher>Oxford University Press</publisher><isbn>0198745796</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Iversen, 2016). The first article finds this argument irrelevant and stated that if most of the prescription drugs are used improperly then they can cause an adverse effect. On the other hand, usefulness of these medicines can’t be ignored in treating ADHD. However, there are some points in the second article which fully support the argument raised in this study. There are some relevant concerns regarding the pharmacological treatment for ADHD. The studies which are conducted on the effectiveness of treatment of medicine for ADHD are short term. There is a need to conduct long term studies to fully assess the impact of these medicines. Secondly, there are very few studies that are conducted to determine the effect of stimulants on children.

In the second article, authors have stated that parents have the authority to decide whether medicines should be given to children but in the first article, it is stated that behavioral and dietary modification does not seem as effective as ADHD medication. Medication in ADHD proves to be a life-changer as the goal of these medicines is to help children to reduce impulsivity, helps them to focus and function effectively in a social environment. Those people who deny this fact of not treating their child with medicines, their children face consequences of not receiving appropriate care. Studies have shown that there is more chance that they drop out of their school and later in their life become unsuccessful ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Keilow</Author><Year>2018</Year><RecNum>1138</RecNum><DisplayText>(Keilow, Holm, &amp; Fallesen, 2018)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1138</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="axzrwpxxqvwtw5evsf3xrer2arfwsa5f0e5d" timestamp="1567933936">1138</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Keilow, Maria</author><author>Holm, Anders</author><author>Fallesen, Peter</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Medical treatment of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and children’s academic performance</title><secondary-title>PloS one</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>PloS one</full-title></periodical><pages>e0207905</pages><volume>13</volume><number>11</number><dates><year>2018</year></dates><isbn>1932-6203</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Keilow, Holm, & Fallesen, 2018).This article also stated that ADHD children are being abused by this type of treatment and it is an outrage, as not getting treatment is neglected.

One of the fundamental areas of controversy regarding the treatment of ADHD is whether medicines should be given to ADHD patients or not. With all facts and literature, it is still not easy to decide whether ADHD medications are effective in treating ADHD or not. If it is not sure then the decision regarding ADHD medicine should be based on the risk-benefit ratio. Increase prevalence of ADHD is seen among children in; last few years. According to the Centers for Disease Control in 2011, almost 8.7% of children were diagnosed with ADHD as compared to 7% in 2007. Children with ADHD also deserve to live a normal life and that treatment should be followed in which behavioral, educational, and psychological status of a child improves so that they can live a better life. ADHD treatment in children can create a great difference between their success and failure. Arguments from these studies suggest that research should be conducted on a large scale regarding the effectiveness of treatment in ADHD.


ADDIN EN.REFLIST Buoli, M., Serati, M., & Cahn, W. (2016). Alternative pharmacological strategies for adult ADHD treatment: a systematic review. Expert review of neurotherapeutics, 16(2), 131-144.

Currie, J., Stabile, M., & Jones, L. (2014). Do stimulant medications improve educational and behavioral outcomes for children with ADHD? Journal of health economics, 37, 58-69.

Iversen, L. L. (2016). Drugs: A very short introduction (Vol. 52): Oxford University Press.

Keilow, M., Holm, A., & Fallesen, P. (2018). Medical treatment of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and children’s academic performance. PloS one, 13(11), e0207905.

Kim, M., King, M. D., & Jennings, J. (2019). ADHD remission, inclusive special education, and socioeconomic disparities. SSM-Population Health, 100420.

Martinez-Raga, J., Ferreros, A., Knecht, C., de Alvaro, R., & Carabal, E. (2017). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder medication use: factors involved in prescribing, safety aspects and outcomes. Therapeutic advances in drug safety, 8(3), 87-99.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

Which Ever Topic You Choose From The Attached File

Mini Research Papers

The history of experiments on human behavior

Man and the features of his personality for more than one century have been the object of interest and study of the great minds of mankind. From the very beginning of the development of psychological science to the present day, people have managed to develop and substantially improve their skills in this difficult but exciting business. Therefore, now to obtain reliable data in the study of the peculiarities of the human psyche and his personality, people use a large number of very different methods and methods of research in psychology. One of the methods that have received the most popularity and have proven themselves from the practical side is a psychological experiment.

Separate examples of the most famous, interesting and even anti-humane and shocking social and psychological experiments that were conducted on people, we decided to consider regardless of the general material, because of their importance and significance. But at the beginning of this part of our course we will once again recall what a psychological experiment is and what its features are, and also briefly touch on the types and characteristics of the experiment. There are many major experiments in psychology but some have marked the minds more than others. They have often triggered controversies as they seemed revealing actions and human and / or animal reactions.

Psychology is considered "soft science" as opposed to hard sciences such as physics or mathematics because it does not rely on advanced formalisms. It does, however, provide powerful insights into our behaviors and relationships. Some of the most interesting experiments in the history of psychology are discussed as below: In 1954, at the Robbers Cave Park in Oklahoma, USA, researcher Muzafer Sherif took two groups of 11-year-old boys for a long excursion. Her experience consisted in showing how, very quickly, group identity was formed and how it could lead to antagonism and violence towards excluded members of the group. The first experiment led the boys to group together (Aronson, Wilson, & Brewer, 1998). The second led the groups to confront each other and the third to the resolution of the conflicts by solving a common problem. Performed on minors and on a small scale, this experiment led to controversy but also demonstrated our deeply gregarious attitude.

The Stanford University Jail experiment. This experience has returned to the forefront with the recent events of Abu Ghraib (torture of Iraqi prisoners by US soldiers). It is the brainchild of Philip Zimbardo, who arbitrarily divided two groups of students from Stanford University for a role play: a group of prisoners and a group of guards. The experiment had to be quickly interrupted because the "games" turned to humiliation and practically to torture (Martin, 2007). This remarkable experience has had the merit of showing that the evil is in each of us and requires only a favorable environment for the drives to materialize.

Milgram experiment was conducted in 1961 by Stanley Milgram, a psychologist. Its essence was to find out how far people are willing to follow the authority figures, even knowing that their actions can harm others. The subjects were asked to play the role of a teacher who, with every mistake the student struck, was shocked. As students there were actors who specifically gave the wrong answers. With each wrong answer, the discharge became stronger, and the actors portrayed a monstrous pain. Many subjects continued to follow the orders of the experimenter, despite the requests of the students (Huey, 1898).

To conclude, people have long been trying to find an explanation of why a person, in a given situation, behaves in a certain way. However, experimental psychology gained its active development only in the last century. With the help of experiments, scientists managed to understand a lot about the features of human psychology. Some of them are the most unusual and unexpected features of human behavior in certain situations.


Aronson, E., Wilson, T. D., & Brewer, M. B. (1998). Experimentation in social psychology.

Martin, D. W. (2007). Doing psychology experiments. Cengage Learning.

Huey, E. B. (1898). Preliminary experiments in the physiology and psychology of reading. The American Journal of Psychology, 9(4), 575-586.

The importance of Scientific Method

The scientific method is a set of ordered steps that allow us to obtain new knowledge. It is absolutely important because it allows us to obtain demonstrable knowledge and make controlled discoveries that lead to the development of theories that can be applied in the development of humanity. Not all knowledge we have about the world that surrounds us can be considered as scientific knowledge, since popular knowledge often has to have a demonstration that indicates otherwise, or that it can explain why certain phenomena occur, and it is precisely This is what science is responsible for, with its different disciplines.

It is a set of ordered steps used by science to find new knowledge. It should be based on empirical and measurement and should be subject to the principles of reasoning tests. It is a method that has characterized the natural science that consists of systematic observation, experimentation, measurement, formulation, analysis and modification of hypotheses. If the scientific method did not exist neither would the science given that no data would be presented with the character of truth (those that make up science) because there would be no way to grant them this characteristic.

The scientific method allows the creation of laws that encompass a huge amount of phenomena that occur in the world and is applied in all branches that make up science.This method is supported by two pillars: Reproducibility: The ability to repeat an experiment in any place and person. It bases the communication and publication of the results and their verification by the scientific community. Refutability: Any scientific proportion can be refuted. The scientific method rejects absolute truths (Wallach, et.al. 2018).

The scientific method aims to produce new knowledge in a reliable manner following an ordered series of steps. These steps minimize the influence of the subjectivity of the scientist in the work, this reinforces the validity of the results and the knowledge produced. The scientific method covers the practices used and ratified by the scientific community as valid to expose and confirm theories. Theories can be supported or not in experiments that confirm their validity, this means that the use of experiments is not synonymous with the scientific method. The sciences have different fields of application, but all have in common that, to produce scientific laws and new knowledge to predict the behavior of scientific phenomena, we have a specific system known as Scientific Method (Rosenberg, 2018).

This method is important not only because it offers verifiable and valid knowledge, but also allows for scientific laws that allow new discoveries and experiments that lead to the development of humanity. It also makes it possible to guarantee the safety of the experiments, since it provides a specific order and a systematization that guarantees its reproducibility and that seeks to minimize the margin of error.

The scientific method is used to generate knowledge, but, it is not considered infallible by scientists but as a method to achieve the validity of knowledge. The scientific method attempts to minimalize the effect of the bias that the experimenter may have. Even scientists with their best intentions can be partial. This is a consequence of personal beliefs and social principles, which means that any human being filters information based on their own experiences, knowledge and beliefs (Ellen, et.al. 2018). The scientific method is a rigorous observation; it is a procedure to produce scientific knowledge. Its objective is to investigate and demonstrate certain issues / hypotheses. It is important because it tests and discards some conjectures, hints, issues, hypotheses, it does not remain in thesis without foundations or verifiable supports. It is the opposite of the empirical method, in which everything is based on experience, without intervention of the scientific processes adopted.


Ellen, D., Day, S., & Davies, C. (2018). Scientific examination of documents: methods and techniques. CRC Press.

Rosenberg, A. (2018). Philosophy of social science. Routledge.

Wallach, J. D., Gonsalves, G. S., & Ross, J. S. (2018). Research, regulatory, and clinical decision-making: the importance of scientific integrity. Journal of clinical epidemiology, 93, 88-93.

Summarize a case and why the findings are significant

Asch conformity experiment was conducted in the mid-50s of the twentieth century and is aimed at identifying conformity i.e. the tendency to obey the majority when expressing one’s opinion. In fact, conformity manifests itself in the case of the group's influence on the individual, therefore, the experiment of S. Asch can be attributed to experiments related to the manipulation of the subject's mind. The experiment was that the subject had to estimate the length of three lines. In addition to the subject, several other people who were students of Ash and dummy actors had to do the same exercise. After the response of the subject (the length of the lines was obvious), all the students in turn gave a deliberately false, identical answer.

According to the results of the experiment, three quarters of the subjects finally agreed with the group’s opinion at least once (Zhang, & Wright, 2018). Most of the participants in an interview after the experiment confessed their disbelief in their conformist responses. The experiment demonstrates the socio-psychological mechanism of human dependence, even in those conditions when he is clearly aware of his rightness and the mistakes of others. And also is the fact of manipulation of human behavior. According to ethical standards, should reveal to the subject his deception caused by the essence of the experiment, thereby bringing the subject psychological discomfort, declaring it a credulous conformist.

In the experiments we considered, the organizers resolved questions about their professional competence, reliability and validity of the methods. However, the conclusions, the results of the experiment, later voiced by the participants, caused their psychological discomfort. Perhaps other people, not being direct participants, are experiencing it to the same extent. This fact is common to ambiguous psychological experiments, including less scandalous ones. In these experiments, the question arises about the legality and ethical nature of significant interventions in the mind and behavior of a person. In the prison experiment, the participants were imprisoned and mistreated. In the experiment of S. Milgram, the subject was placed in a situation of choice between duty and compassion, while some of the participants were confident that they had killed a person. The consciousness of this fact is most likely a lifelong psychological trauma (Bond, & Smith, 1996). How can you measure the effect of such stress on the participant? Do the predictions have consequences for a participant who now knows that for the sake of science and under the pressure of authority he is capable of killing? Is the goal justifying the means, and in what categories to determine the value of the potential benefits of the research results and the harm done to the subject and society as a whole?

Ethical standards and codes, it would seem, limit the freedom of scientific research. So says a significant part of the scientific community. Scientists' awareness of their personal social and moral responsibility makes it necessary to make a choice that takes into account possible negative consequences (Salomons, & Scassellati, 2018, March). Science is a great power. And like any force, it can be dangerous. The ethics of science in the modern world fulfills the function of preserving this beautiful and dangerous force. Moral norms and ethical models are formed in society both in the form of ethical codes and by transferring to young researchers the worldview of teachers and academic leaders. In any human activity, including science, the actions and actions of each member of the community are subject to a developed system of ethical norms that determine the nature of sanctions depending on the behavior of its individual member. Such norms arise in the process of the development of science itself, similar to natural selection, preserving and introducing the new in the extent that it is necessary at this stage in the development of this science.


Bond, R., & Smith, P. B. (1996). Culture and conformity: A meta-analysis of studies using Asch's (1952b, 1956) line judgment task. Psychological bulletin, 119(1), 111.

Salomons, N., & Scassellati, B. (2018, March). Trust and Conformity when Interacting with a Group of Robots. In Companion of the 2018 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (pp. 315-316). ACM.

Zhang, J., & Wright, J. D. (2018). Conformity and Obedience to Authority. In Violence, Periodization and Definition of the Cultural Revolution (pp. 100-107). BRILL.

The ethics of experiments on humans and animals

Some experiments are ethically ambiguous for another reason. It is a question of the voluntary consent and full knowledge of the future subject on the research procedure. There are experiments in which obtaining complete information about the essence of the experiment will entail not only a reduction in the quality of the results obtained, but also their complete distortion. For example, this concerns the use in the experiment of dummy persons, about which the subjects, acting according to a certain scenario, should not know. As another example, one can cite the situation when the study went beyond the control of the experimenter himself. Therefore, often in this kind of research, the subjects are given deliberately false information, revealing the truth about the true conditions of the experiment after it has been conducted.

Opponents of providing false information to future participants in the experiment speak of unethical lies and the impossibility of eliminating the damage caused by explanatory conversation at the end of the experiment. The points of contact of various ethical models today have been found as follows: the potential benefits from the results obtained in the study should significantly exceed the potential risk to the health and psychological well-being of the participants. In every experiment, there is a need to isolate variables and manipulate them. This constitutes a first methodological difficulty for the Social Sciences researcher. A feature of these sciences is the interaction of multiple variables in a situational context, which makes the isolation of variables very difficult. To this difficulty is added the possibility of manipulation of one of them, called independent variable and the measurement that causes its modification in another variable, called dependent. To the strictly methodological difficulties are added ethical precautions, which in the development of psychology as a science, were increased and specified. The human research is needed to develop new techniques in different areas of health component (Bonniaud, et.al. 2018). In psychology, the experiments produced on people are those that provide the necessary evidence to scientifically support any intervention technique. However, despite this need, the risk of instrumental zing the person -converting it in only one way to achieve scientific progress- means that all research must have clear procedures for control and ethical planning.

Scientific experiments are usually governed by a series of ethical principles that serve to ensure that the ambitions of those responsible for the study do not get out of control. Science is useful, but if human suffering is necessary to test a certain theory, it would be better to use our imagination until we come up with a better way to prove it. The cases that you will see later came into existence thanks to a series of scientists who thought: “well, a little suffering cannot be so bad” (Green, 2019). Some stayed to the limit and did not hurt their study subjects too much, but in other circumstances, several of these men of science crossed limits that should not be trespassed.

John B. Watson is responsible for conducting a classic, ethically questionable conditioning experiment on a nine-month-old baby. It consisted in relating a stimulus that used to be pleasant with another unpleasant, resulting in the fact that, when only the first one occurred, the child experienced fear, anger and displeasure. In 1939, Wendell Johnson devised a terrible study to see if positive or negative comments affected or caused speech disorders. For this, he chose twenty-two orphaned children and divided them into two groups. The former was praised for their fluent way of speaking and their excellent speaking skills. Those in the second were told that they suffered from severe stuttering, that they were not understood when they spoke and that the condition was incurable (Gravetter,et.al. 2018).

Many of the children without speech disorders in the second group suffered negative psychological effects. Some even became stutterers for life. Johnson's colleagues reprimanded them for using orphaned children to prove their theory. The University of Iowa officially apologized for this study in 2001. Many of those affected were given compensation, but the damage was already done.


Bonniaud, P., Fabre, A., Frossard, N., Guignabert, C., Inman, M., Kuebler, W. M., ... & White, E. (2018). Optimising experimental research in respiratory diseases: an ERS statement. European Respiratory Journal, 51(5), 1702133.

Gravetter, F. J., & Forzano, L. A. B. (2018). Research methods for the behavioral sciences. Cengage Learning.

Green, R. M. (2019). Ethical considerations. In Principles of Regenerative Medicine (pp. 1331-1343). Academic Press.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 8 Words: 2400

Why Are More American Teenagers Than Ever Suffering From Severe Anxiety

Why Are More American Teenagers Than Ever Suffering From Severe Anxiety


Parents, therapists, and teachers are struggling hard with students and children to help them deal with anxiety and depression as one-third of American teenagers are suffering from anxiety disorders. Not, fortunately, disappointment was one of the student’s major fears. Taking a case of Jake, he was concerned regarding failure secretly; perhaps he could not progress with his classmates, possibly he would not be able to prosper in life was his major fear ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"X3GQQqVX","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Denizet-Lewis, 2017)","plainCitation":"(Denizet-Lewis, 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":224,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/qnvKw9vm/items/SRQDPLNG"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/qnvKw9vm/items/SRQDPLNG"],"itemData":{"id":224,"type":"article-newspaper","title":"Why Are More American Teenagers Than Ever Suffering From Severe Anxiety?","container-title":"The New York Times","section":"Magazine","source":"NYTimes.com","abstract":"Parents, therapists and schools are struggling to figure out whether helping anxious teenagers means protecting them or pushing them to face their fears.","URL":"https://www.nytimes.com/2017/10/11/magazine/why-are-more-american-teenagers-than-ever-suffering-from-severe-anxiety.html","ISSN":"0362-4331","language":"en-US","author":[{"family":"Denizet-Lewis","given":"Benoit"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017",10,11]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",11,16]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Denizet-Lewis, 2017). The persistent determination to evade such a destiny appeared to come from deep inside led him to suffer from anxiety.

For adults, going to school and get bad scores in academics is a shame and the biggest disappointment. They unexpectedly sensed it impossible because they think people will certainly be judging them. They feel everything ended in the worst situation. These students think that they cannot achieve and do anything. Overwhelming anxiety is the major reason for students seeking counseling in recent years ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"lh0R1e1B","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Denizet-Lewis, 2017)","plainCitation":"(Denizet-Lewis, 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":224,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/qnvKw9vm/items/SRQDPLNG"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/qnvKw9vm/items/SRQDPLNG"],"itemData":{"id":224,"type":"article-newspaper","title":"Why Are More American Teenagers Than Ever Suffering From Severe Anxiety?","container-title":"The New York Times","section":"Magazine","source":"NYTimes.com","abstract":"Parents, therapists and schools are struggling to figure out whether helping anxious teenagers means protecting them or pushing them to face their fears.","URL":"https://www.nytimes.com/2017/10/11/magazine/why-are-more-american-teenagers-than-ever-suffering-from-severe-anxiety.html","ISSN":"0362-4331","language":"en-US","author":[{"family":"Denizet-Lewis","given":"Benoit"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017",10,11]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",11,16]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Denizet-Lewis, 2017). It is a feeling when a person has a stomach lurch after entering the classroom having a surprise quiz. Jake’s parents took their son to the primary care physician and he prescribed him an anti-depressant Prozac, the first and initial treatment that can be prescribed to patients suffering from depression.

Nothing seemed to work with anti-depressant however, the situation surprisingly changed to worst and Jake attempted to drown himself in the bathtub. He became more stressed, more anxious and more depressed for skipping school after 4 days' hospitalization as he was longing for the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, however, it seems impossible for him now. He was sent to Mountain Valley in New Hampshire for further treatment. Overhauled depression in college-going students is recurrently observed in recent years. In a yearly review of scholars, the American College Health Association established a noteworthy upsurge to 62% from 50% in the year 2016.

18% of the students reported in the year 1985 to suffer from depression or felt overwhelmed and the figure is increased to 41% last year. Combined with the double number of hospitalization of individuals attempted suicide because they felt overwhelmed is increasing in current years. Laurie Farkas, director at Northampton public schools in Massachusetts said that there is an unbiased sturdy growth of severely anxious scholars in recent years. Adolescents who reach Mountain Valley, a not-for-profit package that outlays $910 per day and proposes various need-based support and facilities for anxious students. It is generally the last option next to conventional treatment and management and prescription failure for patients suffering from depression and anxiety.

Treatment Methods

Mountain Valley Center reported that a range of depression and anxiety diseases including obsessive compulsory disease, separation anxiety, social depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder are prevailing among young students. The therapies include responses about their feelings, stresses, and major sufferings. For example, one of the sessions includes writing about three negative beliefs about themselves with a strong and powerful response ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"do5hBMz1","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Denizet-Lewis, 2017)","plainCitation":"(Denizet-Lewis, 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":224,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/qnvKw9vm/items/SRQDPLNG"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/qnvKw9vm/items/SRQDPLNG"],"itemData":{"id":224,"type":"article-newspaper","title":"Why Are More American Teenagers Than Ever Suffering From Severe Anxiety?","container-title":"The New York Times","section":"Magazine","source":"NYTimes.com","abstract":"Parents, therapists and schools are struggling to figure out whether helping anxious teenagers means protecting them or pushing them to face their fears.","URL":"https://www.nytimes.com/2017/10/11/magazine/why-are-more-american-teenagers-than-ever-suffering-from-severe-anxiety.html","ISSN":"0362-4331","language":"en-US","author":[{"family":"Denizet-Lewis","given":"Benoit"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017",10,11]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",11,16]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Denizet-Lewis, 2017). This therapy is usually easy to write about it by the patients suffering from anxiety and depression as these candidates have many negative thoughts about themselves. The therapy is delivered by a therapist Sharon McCallie-Steller for students suffering from anxiety. In the center, various therapies are offered such as equine therapy, exposure therapy, and art therapy. All of these therapies are intended to improve the mindful techniques of the students to overcome symptoms of anxiety. The most important one is exposure therapy by which students are exposed to their fears. Several therapies were offered to Jake including therapies that made him cope and tolerate imperfection, distress, and failures. Another plan that was helpful for the students is the 504 plan. It states: spend more time on homework, enter the classroom from backdoors and skip classes when found it anxious. Problem-based learning to solve their problems by thinking and equipping themselves with as many solutions for a problem. Advocacy and counseling was the major therapy that can help students to cope with their fears and failures. Yoga, virtually reality aided therapy, cleaning activities and certain medicines such as Klonopin and Prozac can aid reduce anxiety symptoms. The New England Journal of Medicine suggested that 60% effective therapy is cognitive brain therapy than the antidepressant Zoloft that is 55% effective, however, the utmost operative therapy 81% was a combination of the two.

Possible Etiological Factors

One-third of adolescents are affected by anxiety in the United States. Various etiological factors are aggravating the mental health problems in the United States including social factors, cyberbullying, fear of failure, separation problems, and violence. Some of the factors are raising and growing in an abusive family and a violent neighborhood. Poverty and low socio-economic status is also associated with developing depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescents. The largest solitary stressor for numerous young individuals is that they would never achieve the point they want to. There is always something to do to achieve success in class however, these candidates feel that they cannot achieve and the pressure and stress to compete with the peers is increasing.

Many children suffer from anxiety when they found that their parents are not at their back to support and encourage them ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"zGUqGGK2","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Denizet-Lewis, 2017)","plainCitation":"(Denizet-Lewis, 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":224,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/qnvKw9vm/items/SRQDPLNG"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/qnvKw9vm/items/SRQDPLNG"],"itemData":{"id":224,"type":"article-newspaper","title":"Why Are More American Teenagers Than Ever Suffering From Severe Anxiety?","container-title":"The New York Times","section":"Magazine","source":"NYTimes.com","abstract":"Parents, therapists and schools are struggling to figure out whether helping anxious teenagers means protecting them or pushing them to face their fears.","URL":"https://www.nytimes.com/2017/10/11/magazine/why-are-more-american-teenagers-than-ever-suffering-from-severe-anxiety.html","ISSN":"0362-4331","language":"en-US","author":[{"family":"Denizet-Lewis","given":"Benoit"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017",10,11]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",11,16]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Denizet-Lewis, 2017). Increasing terrorism in the societies and its display in the movies create stress among students of growing age that they found to go outside is not safe for them. Smartphones and social media are another related factor that acts as a tool for depression and anxiety for many students. The timeline, pictures, tours, and stories appeared to be stressful sometimes for students that they judge from these platforms. However, it appears to be a relaxed and handy tool to avoid stress for many students as well. Researcher has found that overbearing and parenting style of anxiousness predisposed children to anxiety and depression-related disorders.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Denizet-Lewis, B. (2017, October 11). Why Are More American Teenagers Than Ever Suffering From Severe Anxiety? The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2017/10/11/magazine/why-are-more-american-teenagers-than-ever-suffering-from-severe-anxiety.html

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Why Are Well Adjusted People Seen More Accurately

Why are well-adjusted people seen more accurately?

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Why are well-adjusted people seen more accurately?

Even reading people on the outside doesn't give enough clear information on what they are thinking on the inside. What I'm saying is, it can be very unpredictable to how people think or act until you actually get to know them. You may say, "I've met plenty of people and made many relationships, and a majority of them don't turn out like you think it would. Is it my personal experiences that matter, though? Not exactly, because you never know how people are until it's apparent to how their personality is. Everyone is a little different the first time you meet them compared to when you know them for, say, a year. Until you know the person's traits, knowledge, experiences, emotions, and personality, you won't really know them that well to begin with. Sounds like a lot, right? Unless you want to know what kind of behavior they possess, then you need to get to know them. You can't tell people apart by looking at them and making a judgment based on your perspective's knowledge, because we're all different than what we seem! Don't get me wrong, people can blatantly act out to make their true behavior obvious, but many people have many secrets we might not even know about.

Predicting people’s behavior goes from not super difficult to exponentially harder as you go more in-depth. In terms of responses to stimuli one can deduce multiple proper responses (responses which would provide the most gain to the person) however figuring out which one they will choose requires both a decent knowledge of that person's personality (and this is never 100% accurate, no matter how much you think you know someone, they will always find a way to surprise you). Trying to figure out exactly what they will say or do is very intriguing, not because it is impossible but because it is theoretically possible. However, this would require a fantastic amount of knowledge of that person's experiences and mentality.

In reality, figuring out how someone will react to this level of precision is phenomenally difficult but theoretically possible. I would stick to figuring out the most beneficial reactions and, if you understand the person, try to figure out what they will choose. But without full knowledge of almost every part of their entire life, you could not be 100% accurate.

This is why the idea of (ethically) locking someone up in a blank room and specifically controlling stimuli and reward for certain response is so neat. Eliminate as many variables as possible, and the answers become clearer. Life trains people as if they were dogs, giving them treats for doing the right things to the right stimulus, so they keep doing it.

Predicting people's behavior is a futile exercise. Why? The probability of a huge deviation always exists. Before generalizing, I must admit that there are specific cases where we know what we would be expecting. At a marriage reception, the host will smilingly receive guests. Probability of weeping and crying of a host is least expected. Likewise, in a difficult paper when students find easy question paper, they will be excited when they end up and meet outside the examination hall. If someone is weeping, it is going to be a rare sight and funny too!

When we say we want to predict the behavior of some of people we know partially or fully, we are basically using probability. Problem with probability is that assumptions stay mostly variable. Example is that a person may behave differently tomorrow in the same set of circumstances. So, a real assessment is, in fact, a gamble.

You can predict the behavior of large groups but not individuals very well. Not that we don't try: trial lawyers try to predict jury votes from the books and magazines they read, etc.. A Fox News watcher you can predict is more likely to vote for Trump than a CNN watcher. But if you pick any one person your odds of guessing wrong aren't so hot. You have to decide on what level of certainty you find acceptable, and what two things correlate enough. If you go into a sports bar when the UK is playing in the world cup, you can predict that certain beer brand consumption will go up there (more British ex-pats likely to be present). But predicting crime in advance is a fool's game. Most Muslims that hate US foreign policy are not likely to commit a terrorist act; if you add visits to Syria, visits to jihadi websites, age under 50, history of violence or mental instability, etc. you increase your predictive power, but even then you can easily be wrong. There are no pre-cogs yet.

In truth, you can't. As we go through life, we build up stored memories of events, decisions, and the results of those decisions. Our brains are capable of doing many things; including acting as comparison engines. We compare previous events to the ones we are currently experiencing. The closer one event resembles another, the more accurately we can "predict" the outcome.

If a person is acting in a similar fashion to what you have experienced before - either by your actions or someone else's actions you have witnessed - you can guess what the next action is going to be. It's really basic pattern recognition if you get down to it. But people are people. They do surprising things. They may be going down a certain action path only to take a surprising left turn and leave you scratching your head. It is better to stay mentally flexible and let events play out the way they go and be prepared to adjust to any "little" surprises.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Write Up The Sleep / Frustration / Memory Data Analysis In An APA Style Summary Report Draft

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Frustration, Sleep and Memory

Your Name(s)

Touro College


This paper is aimed at exploring the association between frustration (stress), memory and sleeping patterns particularly when subjects are taught that stress is a positive state of arousal. In this research paper, it will be reported how individuals with positive perceptions regarding stress responded to memory and sleep tests. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted using 12 subjects. Obtained results were analyzed using SPSS-version 21 and correlation analysis suggested that there was significant (p 0.05) correlation between these three variables i.e., frustration (stress) and sleep, frustration and memory and memory and sleep.

Frustration, Sleep and Memory

In the psychological literature, stress has long been contemplated to have negative consequences on physical, mental, emotional and social wellbeing of individuals. However, robust literature suggests that it is not the stress but perception of stress is what makes a difference individuals who are told that stress arousal is a favorable physiological reaction to encourage them combat the negative environmental situations. Stress is linked to various neurological and emotional responses such as sleep and memory and positive perception of stress is positively correlated with the sleep and memory processing of individuals (Keller et. al., 2011).

Stress is referred to as a condition in which there is slight or immense discrepancy between internal resources and external demands of individuals and is highly prevalent in todays society as one third of the Americans were found to have extreme negative perception of their stressful responses. They marked even the slightest stress as extreme and it not only affected their neurological conditions but also increased mortality rates to a considerable degree. In the past, researchers have attempted to explore the association between health outcomes and stress encapsulating mortality and have centralized their focus on specific stressors such as chronic work stress and negative life- experiences. Hence, they partially disregarded the relationship between health outcomes and perception of stress.

The amount of stress an individual experience is conceptually distinct from ones perception that stress has negative impact on health. Undoubtedly, a bulk of literature supports the fact that individuals experiencing even slight stress still believe that it has substantial impact on their health. Moreover, the perception of stress affects the physical and mental health quite differently than the level and amount of stress. A famous health perception model the transactional model of stress presented by Folkman and Lazarus in 1984 suggests that health impacts of stress are mediated by our perceptions and beliefs about the stressful situation. If one is optimistic and open-minded, the physiological responses of stress would be converted into courageous and excited ones which do not harm the functioning of vital functions e.g., heart, kidneys, brain, liver and stomach (Keller et. al., 2011).

Memory is referred to as the function of brain through which information is encoded, stored and decoded when required. Memory is an important function of brain as it helps us storing significant information about objects, individuals and situations and enables us to use this information for further decision making. It makes easier for us to maintain and use language, develop relationship and personal identity. In neurological terms, memory is thought to be a system responsible for information processing with both implicit and explicit functions exclusively made up of sensory memory, long terms and short- term memory. With the help of this processing, individuals become capable of storing and remembering their past experiences (Ferri et. al., 2008).

Sleep is a natural phenomenon of reduced interaction with surroundings that occurs with day and time-sensitivity. It is characterized by transformed consciousness, limited sensory and motor activity, reduced muscle activity and movement of voluntary muscles. In this state, one feels it hard to interact to his environment as he demonstrates less sensitivity towards external stimuli (Michael, 2012). It occurs in repetitive manner having REM and Non-REM stages. Psychologists regard sleep as an integral part of human functioning as it helps removing the brain clutters and prepares us to concentrate on the upcoming stimuli in the most sophisticated manner.

Now that a brief introduction of three variables has been presented, the association between frustration, sleep and memory will be explored using survey methodology in order to learn more about this topic or see it from a first-hand perspective. It will be investigated that what is the strength and direction of relationship among frustration (stress) and sleep, frustration and memory and memory and sleep. This article will contribute to the preexisting knowledge about the subject matter.


In order to investigate the association between frustration (stress) and sleep, frustration and memory and memory and sleep, a survey design will be used in which their level of frustration, quality of sleep and memory will be analyzed using questionnaires. Below is presented the detailed description of participants, materials and procedure


12 Participants were selected through random sampling technique which allowed all the participants to have an equal chance of selection. Their demographic characteristics included

Table 1.0

Study demographics (N12)

Sr. DemographicsDescription 1Age 25-35 years2Gender Both male and female 3QualificationGraduation 4Illness No reported sleep or memory deteriorationMaterials

In order to collect data from the sample, quantitative survey design was used for which self-administered questionnaires were designed that measured the level of frustration, sleep quality and memory functioning of 12 participants.


Participants were first debriefed about the study objectives and significance of their honest responses those who demonstrated willingness to participate, signed an informed consent stating that information obtained will be kept confidential and will solely be used for research purpose only. Moreover, their identity will not be revealed as well. After these attempts to ensure confidentiality and privacy concerns, subjects will be given these questionnaires one by one i.e., frustration, sleep and memory respectively. The process of data collection took approximately 2 hours to be completed.


After obtaining the data from the participants, it was fed to appropriate statistical softwareStatistical Package for Social Science SPSS-version 21 for further analysis. The mean scores for frustration, sleep and memory were obtained and further bi-variate correlation was run over scores. Here are presented the results from SPSS

Table 2.0

Mean scores of study variables (N12 p0.05)

Variables Mean (M)Standard deviation (SD)Frustration 4.912.12Sleep 6.052.11Memory 3.552.84

Table 3.0

Table indicating the correlation between frustration and sleep (N12 p0.05)

Correlation (r)Sleep



Table 4.0

Table indicating the correlation between frustration and memory (N12 p0.05)

Correlation (r)Memory



Table 5.0

Table indicating the correlation between memory and sleep (N12 p0.05)

Correlation (r)Sleep




Study results indicated that mean scores of frustration, sleep and memory are 4.91, 6.05 and 3.55 and that of standard deviation are 2.12, 2.11 and 2.84 respectively. On the other hand, the values of r for frustration and sleep was found to be 0.15 which indicates a weak positive correlation i.e., individuals who had substantial frustration had quality sleep as well because they had perceived that frustration is a positive state of arousal and they must not worry about it.

The values of r for frustration and sleep was found to be 0.60 which indicates a strong positive correlation between these two variables i.e., individuals who had substantial frustration had excellent memory functioning as well because they had perceived that frustration is a positive state of arousal. Hence, it can be concluded that positive perception of frustration has positive effects on memory functioning.

The values of r for memory and sleep was found to be -0.05 which indicates weakest negative correlation between these two variables i.e., individuals who had excellent memory had poor sleep where those who had good sleep showed poor memory but this relationship is quite weak so prospective association can be disregarded. Study result might have methodology limitations and cultural biasness i.e., experimental studies can be used to study the cause-and-effect relationship between these variables in future and culture specificity can also act as a threat to generalizibility.


Ferri, R., Manconi, M., Plazzi, G., Bruni, O., Vandi, S., Montagna, P., Zucconi, M. (2008). A quantitative statistical analysis of the submentalis muscle EMG amplitude during sleep in normal controls and patients with REM sleep behavior disorder. Journal of Sleep Research, 17(1), 89100. https//doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2869.2008.00631

Keller, A., Kristin, L., Lauren E. W., Maddox, T., Erika, R. C., Paul, D. C., Whitney P. W. (2012). Does the Perception that Stress Affects Health Matter The Association with Health and Mortality. Health Psychol., 31(5), 677684. Retrieved from HYPERLINK https//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3374921/ https//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3374921/

Michael, E., (2012). Attention and Arousal Cognition and Performance. Berlin, Heidelberg Springer Berlin Heidelberg. ISBN 978-3-642-68390-9




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Subject: Psychology

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

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Procrastination is the behavior termed for putting off from accomplishing a given task until the very last minute. It frequently unnecessarily defers or defers occasions or goals throughout the life of a person which can impact others. Procrastination is practically similar to a drug in one’s life because once a person starts doing it regularly, it gradually indicates a reliance that later on occurs to be a normal inclination. It is the behavior which is related to the very problem of a person which tends to procrastinate a lot. Besides the issues caused by procrastination in the everyday life of a person, procrastination is beneficial in some connotations. Chronic procrastination has maladaptive functioning. Therefore mild procrastination would not give negative consequences. There are several psychological theories related to procrastination, i.e., copying, stress, biological drives, obedience, and nature-nurture. The following paper will explore procrastination as a real-life problem in light of psychological concepts.


According to an article ‘Why You Procrastinate (It Has Nothing to Do With Self-Control) published in The New York Times, by Charlotte Lieberman, is about procrastination and its reasons for the occurrence. The writer incorporated new meanings to the word procrastination, and it is not about being lazy or delay of work due to less motivation to do it (Nytimes.com). Procrastination means to linger on or postpone action until tomorrow, but this delay is involuntary. Procrastination feels terrible to a person who is more self-aware because that person knows it will have negative consequences. It is a coping way for the negative moods and challenges, which happen due to other negative psychological issues, i.e., anxiety, boredom, frustration, insecurity, self-doubt, etc. therefore, it is considered as a problem related to emotional regulation, not associated with time management. Procrastination refers to rumination according to many studies, as the thoughts about self-blaming often occur to the person who procrastinates — these evil and self-blaming thoughts about procrastination further links to stress and distress. Chronic procrastination is adversely affecting the physical and mental health of a person. This includes stress, low satisfaction, general pain, anxiety, and symptoms of depression, chronic illness, poor health behaviors, and even cardiovascular disease and hypertension.

There are various psychological concepts related to procrastination, i.e., copying, stress, biological drives, obedience, and nature-nurture. The psychologist perceives procrastination as a misplaced mechanism for coping. Therefore people who procrastinate are in reality using the avoidance mechanism of coping to deal with the situation (Beleaua, & Cocoradă, 2016). This is also known as emotion-focused coping, as they feel good or less bad while procrastinating. The procrastination is related to escape-avoidance strategy, as in a person tends to avoid the situation by delaying it until the last moment is a great procrastinator. However, this situation leads to stress and distress, according to psychologists stress is initiated by the failure or just feeling of failure while accomplishing a task. Delaying a vital task will automatically put a strain on the mind of the person leading towards stress, and chronic stress is related to chronic procrastination. The feelings related to bad emotions causes stress and anxiety. Therefore, procrastination has a direct positive relationship with stress, anxiety, and depression (Nair, 2017).

The biological drives are the natural dispositions of the body, like thirst, hunger, temperature, sex, pain, and sleep, etc. According to various studies, procrastination may occur due to these biological drives which are inhibitory forces behind delaying the purpose of delaying the work or task until later. For instance, if a person is a sleep deprived he or she may postpone their work until the last moment so that they can take sleep, therefore this biological drive was the ultimate cause of procrastination. Besides, these biological drives, the other ultimate source for procrastination is obedience, as it has been said that obedience which is delayed comes under the notion of disobedience. There is a significant impact of disobedience on procrastination. When a person delays a task told by the teacher, employer or even parents, it appears as the disobedience. The cognitive processes related to disobedience show the same pattern as for procrastination.

Many types of researches have shown a significant link between genetics with the tendency of procrastination. However, mental health professionals agree that it is a learned behavior to delay a task, but it has some genetic bases to this issue as well. According to a psychologist, the depression and anxiety cause distorted thinking which leads towards the delaying of tasks (Kim, Fernandez, & Terrier, 2017). Therefore, procrastination is linked to the symptomatic of a mental disorder. However it is not solely characterized as a psychological disorder, but it is related to behavioral problems and other pathologies.

People procrastinate to avoid negative feelings, but it usually gives them a bad feeling about themselves after the consequences of procrastination. It is mostly seen in university students and working part of our society. In a research study about decisional procrastination among university students, authors, de Palo, and his peers find out the relationship between procrastination and decisional procrastination with positive and negative metacognitive beliefs. The mediation in this study was done by anxiety and time management. This study involved the learning strategies which are used as a predictor of decisional procrastination and a mediating role between metacognitive beliefs and procrastination.

The research design used in this article is a quantitative method in which the survey was done by using questionnaires that were filled by 273 students from Southern Italy. The questionnaires comprised of the socio-demographic section, the procrastination subscale of the Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire, the Metacognitive Beliefs about Procrastination Questionnaire, and the Time Management, the Anxiety, and subscales of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory, the Information Processing. The descriptive statistics, using SPSS were used for deducing the result of questionnaires. Therefore research design was correlational, and the results examined the relationship between the following variables, i.e., procrastination, metacognitive beliefs, time management, anxiety, and learning strategies. The procrastination is an independent variable, whereas metacognitive belief is the dependent variable. Anxiety and time management are the mediators between the dependent and independent variable.

The study by de Palo and his peers inferred the results by analyzing the relation of metacognitive beliefs with procrastination, decisional procrastination, and learning strategies, through path analysis. The mediation model has been confirmed through the findings, i.e., the anxiety and time management are the mediators, whereas, the relationship of negative beliefs with decisional procrastination and time management was not supported by the analysis (de Palo et al., 2017. The first hypothesis about the study was the relation of procrastination with metacognitive beliefs; the result revealed that these beliefs are predictors of higher anxiety levels. The other hypothesis was the effect of positive beliefs regarding procrastination on time management, and it showed a higher level of difficulty while utilizing the strategies for time management to learn. The decisional procrastination was associated with positive metacognitions. It is related to the belief of procrastination to be a useful strategy for improving the thoughtful enactment. The other hypothesis related to the causal relationship of decisional procrastination and learning strategies was supported by the results.

These findings are in contrast with real-world findings as, initially, procrastination has been utilized for either broken structures or positive or vital types of delay, even though it is useless that it suggests a pointless deferral and negative results concerning the execution and emotional prosperity. Secondly, the development has been meant by the expected possible points of view. From the differential brain science point of view, it has been viewed as a quality or social attitude comprising in the inclination to postpone the culmination of an assignment due to the absence of self-regulation. From the inspirational and volitional point of view, lingering has been viewed as a disappointment in inspiration and volition, prompting the aim activity hole. In this vein, it has been related to self-guideline, poise, the time the board, time introduction, and learning techniques.

Concerning the clinical viewpoint, the attention is on the clinically applicable degree of time-wasting and the connection between delaying and misery, or uneasiness. At last, the situational viewpoint has managed the situational highlights relating to task qualities, for example, task trouble and allure, the believability of the task. Extra methodologies have endeavored to connect procrastination with child-rearing styles, organic clarifications or extraversion as indicated by the naturally based hypothesis. In light of these complex hypothetical methodologies, procrastination can't be clarified by one point of view alone: the mix of the alternate points of view is required to accomplish its idea and elements.

Pretty much everybody puts off finishing errands, obligations, and goals eventually. Possibly it's a piece of our human instinct. Perhaps this is on the grounds that we appreciate the dramatization that accompanies a drifting due date or punishment. Dawdling, the activity of deferring or delaying something is a piece of our day by day lives. Regardless of whether it's not composing that paper until the absolute a minute ago, paying a bill the day it's expected instead of sometime before, or looking for a vacation the day of that occasion, procrastination occurs – and pretty much everybody is blameworthy of it here and there or another. Individuals procrastinate for various reasons. One is an absence of assets. An errand might be postponed until a later date if there is an absence of cash, apparatuses, time, and so on expected to finish the said task. Most occasions, tarrying is because of an absence of cash, as things like bills, installments and budgetary commitments most dependably include cash.

Individuals additionally procrastinate on the grounds that they have increasingly essential activities, maybe because they have more severe issues to illuminate. They don't set out to deliberately put off finishing something; they do it since time is of the pith and they have different things, progressively essential and squeezing targets, confronting them. An understudy may put off chipping away at a composition task in the event that they have to think about for a test or plan for a vital introduction. A parent may procrastinate on fixing something in the house since they have to spend that cash on nourishing their youngsters or paying the home loan or lease. It requires a grown-up choice on a squeezing matter, and it regularly welcomes legitimized delaying.

Different occasions, individuals procrastinate out of fear, also. They decide not to accomplish something since they would prefer not to do it, or on the grounds that the procedure or maybe the impact of doing it isn't so pleasurable or something, they need to do. What's more, it's less demanding to postpone doing it until it's essential to do – like yard work, charges, fixing a home and doing clothing.

Procrastination isn't generally an exceptionally terrible thing; however; there are a few in your life that it could turn out to be more. Whenever done what you needed will be used to doing things a minute ago, which could help you in your vocation with taking care of weight when you supervisor lets you know accomplish something inside a set measure of time. Additionally expanded measures of doing this unfortunate propensity could enable you to figure out how to take weight better, a model when you have a large paper due by the following morning, and you have to keep yourself quiet, or else it will demonstrate when your composition the paper. People procrastinate to avoid negative feelings, but it usually gives them a bad feeling about themselves after the consequences of procrastination.


Consequently, procrastination is a behavior which is related to various emotional and psychological concerns. The paper explored procrastination as a real-life problem in the light of different psychological concepts, i.e., copying, stress, biological drives, obedience, and nature-nurture. Therefore, psychologists perceive procrastination as a misdirected mechanism for coping, people who procrastinate are in real life using the avoidance mechanism of coping to deal with the situation. The summary of the article from the New York Times gives an insight about innovative meanings to the word procrastination, that is, it is not about being lazy or delay of work due to less motivation or self-controlling measures, but it is due to negative psychological issues, i.e., anxiety, boredom, frustration, insecurity, self-doubt, etc. In a research study about decisional procrastination among university students, authors, de Palo, and his peers find out the relationship between procrastination and decisional procrastination with positive and negative metacognitive beliefs. It was further told that according to psychologists stress is initiated by the failure or just feeling of failure while accomplishing a task. Many types of researches have shown a significant link between genetics with the tendency of procrastination. People procrastinate to avoid negative feelings, but it usually gives them a bad feeling about themselves after the consequences of procrastination.


Beleaua, R. E., & Cocoradă, E. (2016). Procrastination, Stress and Coping in Students and Employees. Romanian Journal of Experimental Applied Psychology, 7(1), 191-195.

De Palo, V., Monacis, L., Miceli, S., Sinatra, M., & Di Nuovo, S. (2017). Decisional procrastination in academic settings: the role of metacognition and learning strategies. Frontiers in psychology, 8, 973.

Kim, S., Fernandez, S., & Terrier, L. (2017). Procrastination, personality traits, and academic performance: When active and passive procrastination tell a different story. Personality and Individual Differences, 108, 154-157.

Nair, S. (2017). Procrastination Behaviour, Stress Tolerance, and Study Habits: A Cross-Culture Analysis. Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities, 25(3).

Why You Procrastinate (It Has Nothing to Do With Self-Control). (2019). Nytimes.com. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2019/03/25/smarter-living/why-you-procrastinate-it-has-nothing-to-do-with-self-control.html?rref=collection%2Ftimestopic%2FPsychology%20and%20Psychologists\

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 7 Words: 2100

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Blue’s clues

The intended audiences of Nickelodeon’s show Blue’s Clues is children having ages of 3-5 years. The show uses narrative style for engaging the children and creating an environment of learning. The show gears attentions from small spans and uses colorful themes for making it entertaining. The settings, ideas, themes and the content gives a clear idea of the age of intended audience. The host of the show is constantly asking questions from the children for engaging them in the show related games and materials. The speaker is also focused on extending the background knowledge by building interaction between the parents and the children. The show colorful settings for persuading young children. The red colored carpet, blue sky and green sky are adequate for holding interest of children. In the show the speaker talks about different things which adds to the knowledge of young audience. The character of Blue is also created which appeals the children only.

The show in specific ways promotes cognitive development in children. It adopts the cognitive meditation active engagement model. The concept is to allow children to construct knowledge by watching television and developing sense of the information shared. The show also offers medium for re-evaluating the learned knowledge. Some of the school related concepts are presented in a fun-loving manner which offer ample opportunities of learning to the children. The show talks about different concepts such as math, science, environment and even elements of daily use. The show addresses some very important subjects like science, pre-math, pre-reading and pre-school rituals. All these aspects have positive impacts on the learning of children. They learn to think and find answers. When the speaker asks a question and then solves it the viewers also develop the same habit of watching and relating things. Their continuous interaction with the show and the content are linked to their cognitive development. The children develops the ability of solving the problems by using their brains. The show is actually training the children to use their common sense for solving different problems. The fun and play practices are effective tools for gaining basic knowledge and helps them in building mathematical sense. The children after watching the television learns to relate the concepts in their everyday life.

The show has developed methodologies such as by solving puzzles that builds decision-making sense in the children. After viewing the show the children develops competency of solving relevant puzzles in real life. They manage to apply concepts of mathematics like addition, subtraction and multiplication in their daily lives. Decision making sense allow children to use this ability at home and schools. Children also learn the use of language because the show uses many enriched vocabulary. Children by watching the show learn the name of things and place. They make better sense of using language in daily routine. The central idea of the show is to focus on memory by making children recall what they have learned. For example in the show the host takes audience to the kitchen and take name of utensils and ingredients of the sandwich. The children learn them and use them in their daily routines. Children internalize information and memorize it, which prepares them for the pre-school. For the language development the hos Joe says the word “predict” for fifteen times in the show so the children stores it in memory and could use the word when needed.

The show in many ways promotes the social and cognitive development of the children. The concept of the show is to build connection of the host and the content with the children. Whatever children watch in the show believe that it is real and builds a positive emotional bonding. They develop the habit of watching the show everyday and enjoying it. Kids like to sit in front of the TV and watch the show everyday. This is due to the emotional bonding. The show uses colorful settings and fun-play themes which persuades the viewers and establishes emotional bonding. In one of the episodes the host interacts with the non-living things like he says Hi to the salt, paprika and other things, which are in the kitchen. Making non-living things speak makes the content interactive for the kids. These strategies have positive impacts on the learning of children and they develops a kind of emotional attachment with the show. The fact that non-living things are speaking and all objects are part of discussions, children get entertained.

I think that the show is a quality program for young children and is an effective way of teaching them math, science and language. The show is producing new episodes with different themes and colors. The content is new and focused on teaching new terminologies or concepts to the viewers. The show uses animations, good music and effective colors, which have positive and long-lasting impacts on the memories of children. The show is also a quality program because it is integrating the psychological concepts of cognitive development. Techniques are also adopted that could have direct impacts on the children. The show has used all elements that essentially contributes to the learning of the children. The host of the show is familiar with the concepts of child development and holds relevant degree. All these elements indicates that the show is of good quality and contributing to the cognitive development of young children.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Writers Choice

Sigmund Freud

The study of psychology remains incomplete without the mentioning of Sigmund Freud. He is regarded as one of the most influential psychologist of his tie who gave controversial ideas and theories about human consciousness, unconsciousness and the significance of dreams by giving various insights into the psychodynamic perspective. This perspective laid the ground work for understanding the inner person. According to him “Behavior is motivated by inner forces and conflicts about which we have little awareness or control”. Sigmund Freud was of the opinion that there is nothing like forgetting anything. Everything we see, however much trivial it is to even warrant a second glance or a second's thought, finds a place in our brain for good. When we say we have forgotten something, what actually happens is that the corresponding memory has been assigned a lower weight compared to others and hence is not registering immediately when asked for, but it is still there. So when one is walking along the footpath and a random guy with a small mole on his cheek passes by, that mole registers itself in our brain forever. It is too trivial to think about it openly, but in our dreams, over which we have no control, they can come unannounced, often with subtler implications. The same theories were established by him by giving classic example of this situation his iconic book Interpretation of Dreams.

Freud was intensely interested in those psychic processes which were out of our conscious awareness, which he discovered by his meticulous note taking and examination of his patients psychological world. He is unfortunately, still painted with a broad brush and threatening to many people who still believe that nothing is “going on” beyond their conscious awareness, asserting that each person has cent percent control and awareness of his/her mind.


Erdelyi, Matthew Hugh. Psychoanalysis: Freud's cognitive psychology. WH Freeman/Times Books/Henry Holt & Co, 1985.

Feldman, Robert Stephen, and Mark Garrison. Understanding psychology. Vol. 10. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1993.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Writers Choice

Should Animals Be Used in Research?

As stated by the author, animals must be utilized for instructing and learning in research and science and are required as models for wellbeing research. In any case, they can be taken care of in a way that their utilization can be diminished. There is no need to kill animals for the scientific research to the extent we are doing right now. Animals too have a nervous system and they feel pain the same way we do, hence, unless there are no alternative methods available, animal testing should not be an option to pursue. As the chapters entail, “Procedures that subject animals to distress are permitted only when an alternative procedure is unavailable and when the research is justified by its prospective value.”

It is essential here to define the area of animal research in which they are being used. I.e. Animals should never be used to test cosmetics, or other, non-essential products. It is one thing to cause an animal suffering in your quest to find a cure for AIDS, quite another to burn it's eyes with chemicals from your new perfume range.

Furthermore, researchers should ensure that animals should never suffer, unless it's essential for the tests. (So, if the test can be done on an unconscious animal, or one on heavy doses of painkillers without skewing results, then it should be done that way.) As reinstated by the chapter, it is impertinent to consider that if there is an alternative to animal testing, it should be used. No animal should be used for more than one type of experiment in its lifetime. Sometimes, if the tests are unrelated and will not affect each other’s results, animals go from one lab to another to participate in multiple experiments. In my book, that's a double dose of possible suffering — after one experiment, the animal has paid its dues. Obviously, if research involves several different tests on the same animal, then that's what has to be done, but it shouldn't then be passed on to another department for another set for their research.


Feldman, Robert Stephen, and Mark Garrison. Understanding psychology. Vol. 10. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1993.

Festing, Simon, and Robin Wilkinson. "The ethics of animal research: Talking Point on the use of animals in scientific research." EMBO reports 8, no. 6 (2007): 526-530.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

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