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Case Study Of Depression

Case Study of Depression

Shanikqua J Piner

Course name and numberInstructor’s nameJuly 25, 2019

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Author Note

Case Study of Depression

Applied behavioral science concerns itself with applying the knowledge of human behavior to solve their problems. It is particularly useful in tracing the source of mental and behavioral disorders in people to help select the treatment which is more appropriate to their condition. Within behavioral science, applied behavioral psychology helps individuals, as well as organizations, to change undesirable behavior and develop self-efficacy to solve their problems. In the case of depressive disorders, behavioral psychology can provide a critical understanding of the causes, processes, and symptoms of the condition, and it can provide efficient interventions and treatment programs suited to the individual’s needs. In the paper, the case of Joe and his major depressive disorder will be explored from the clinical psychology perspective. The etiology of Joe’s condition will be examined and analyzed from a theoretical and empirical perspective to narrow down the therapies more suited to Joe’s condition. In addition, the benefits and efficacy of the proposed psychotherapy intervention, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), alongside its pre-requisites will be examined to treat major depressive disorder.

Case Background

The case discusses the condition of an individual, by the name of Joe, who is struggling with major depressive order. Joe was genetically predisposed to the condition and also went through life events that brought substantial grief and personal loss. His parents, grandparents, and two uncles suffered from the same condition which proved fatal for one of them. Joe’s depressive symptoms were triggered by losing his job and increased in severity after his wife and children left him. Currently, Joe suffers from severe depression which is classified in the DSM-V as a mood disorder. The condition is characterized by a persistent feeling of hopelessness, sadness, and loss of interest CITATION She19 \l 1033 (Shelton, 2019). Joe’s condition has reached a clinically unhealthy state and is likely a case of unipolar depression.

Potential Causes

A range of factors could potentially contribute to depressive symptoms. Joe’s condition can be traced to both genetic and social factors that triggered and complicated his condition. Joe's family has a history of depressive disorder, which is of particular importance in this case. Biological and genetic influences have been known to predispose people to develop depressive symptoms; however, the inherent complexity in tracing the precise genes responsible for the condition makes it difficult to predict inheritance patterns CITATION Bec09 \l 1033 (Beck & Alford, 2009). Nevertheless, family history is known to play a significant part in making an individual vulnerable to develop the disorder at some part of his life. In Joe’s case, certain life-events which included losing his job and subsequently his loved ones and his home, triggered the disorder which led to the onset of symptoms. Such events can be traumatic for any person; however, they can be particularly devastating for a person already suffering from a depressive disorder. It is possible that Joe witnessed his inability to cope with depression, which ultimately led to his suicide. This prior experience possibly combined with Joe’s recent traumatic experiences to cause severe depression.

Analysis from a theoretical perspective

Behavioral psychology does not concentrate on people's perceptions, thoughts, and expectations as much as their measurable and directly observable, external behavior. Hence, behavioral psychology-based theories understand depressive symptoms as a product of negative behaviors and environmental changes; therefore, these theories focus more on the avoidance of certain behaviors that inhibit reinforcement and rewards CITATION Car11 \l 1033 (Carvalho & Hopko, 2011). A behavioral psychology-based therapy would propose that Joe limits his contact with internal and external sources of distress through cognitive coping and avoidant behavioral strategies.

A prominent theory among behavioral psychology is behavioral activation (BA) therapy which would aim to increase Joe’s exposure to positive reinforcement through engaging in healthy behavior. At the same time, it will aim at reducing escape and avoidance behavior. BA theory understands Joe’s condition to be a consequence of lacking positive reinforcement. Based on that understanding, it will attempt to increase his engagement in adaptive activities, decrease engagement in activities that increase or maintain depressive symptoms, and attempt to resolve issues that increase aversive control or limit access to reward CITATION Man10 \l 1033 (Manosa, Kanter, & Busch, 2010). BA-theory, therefore, provides a unique and individualized understanding of Joe's condition by targeting behaviors that are particular to him and increase or maintain symptoms.

Current Understanding of Depressive Disorders

The current understanding of depression and its severity is outlined in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V). Severity is measured by the number of symptoms, impairment caused by the symptoms, and the resulting distress from them. A number of symptoms are listed in DSM-V to help make the diagnosis CITATION She19 \l 1033 (Shelton, 2019). Some common factors that correlate with depressive symptoms are associated with poor-quality of family relationships in younger ages, loss of a parent, and reduced social-support during adulthood. Traumatizing life events, such as parental loss, coupled with poor familial and social support are found to be associated with psychosocial characteristics that become health-damagingCITATION JLu00 \l 1033 (J Luecken, 2000). A range of cognitive processes have been identified that are unique to depressed individuals; a range of these processes are linked to emotional dysregulation. Specifically, certain cognitive biases and deficits in processing particular forms of emotional information impair the individual’s ability to regulate or adapt to their emotions CITATION Joo10 \l 1033 (Joormann, 2010).  These cognitive biases were found among currently depressed as well as remitted depressed individuals who demonstrated impaired abilities for emotional regulation CITATION Tho08 \l 1033 (Ehring, Fischer, Schnülle, Bösterling, & Tuschen-Caffier, 2008).

Recent studies have also demonstrated that depressed individuals find it difficult to divert attention away from negative behaviors distractors CITATION Man10 \l 1033 (Manosa, Kanter, & Busch, 2010). Moreover, individuals with relatively severe depression also experience a correlated activity between their internal-attention and cognitive control symptoms, which suggests that negative experiences and triggers lead to greater attention to negative internal thoughts. In turn, these external experiences interfere with their goal-directed behavior CITATION Ros15 \l 1033 (Roselinde H. Kaiser, 2015). It is evident from research that depressive symptoms are a product of both cognitive and behavioral factors that are interlinked to one another. Therefore, a psychotherapy-based treatment for Joe has to integrate the cognitive approach to psychotherapy with the behavioral aspect, which would not only focus on avoidant behavioral strategies but also attempt to modify any faulty information processing characteristics or dysfunctional beliefs that Joe might have.

Plan of Action & Trends in Treatment

One of the most widely accepted psychotherapeutic approaches of treating depression is CBT. A range of studies have demonstrated its efficacy as equal or superior to antidepressants and simple behavior therapy. CBT includes a wide range of specific and related interventions which follow certain underlying assumptions and principles that the model relies on. According to the CBT model, the dysfunctional and distorted thinking that develops in an individual suffering from major depression is a result of faulty information processing which, in turn, leads to emotional dysregulation and maladaptive behaviors. The therapy, therefore, is based on correcting distortions at the cognitive level that is affecting behavior by means of a problem-solving and a goal-oriented approach CITATION Cul08 \l 1033 (Cully & Teten, 2008). The CBT-therapist forges a special therapeutic relationship with the patient to first identify and evaluate any distorted cognitions, which will then be modified to produce more adaptive and realistic thinking patterns.

The CBT-based plan of action for Joe would first let Joe and his therapist to engage in a process known as ‘collaborative empiricism’. In this stage, the two would work together to identify and evaluate certain cognitive distortions which the therapist would later attempt to replace with more adaptive and accurate cognitions. The evaluation phase would also include conducting sessions that involve using behavioral experiments and techniques to identify Joe’s distorted predictions. The following sessions would then be based on correcting the cognitive processes and distortions that are, in turn, causing behavioral problems. During this time, Joe would be asked to do his ‘homework’ by practicing the skills that the therapist would teach him, especially related to specific cognitive or behavioral tasks taught to him. The therapy would normally extend over a 12-week period comprising of 12 to 15 sessions in total CITATION Gau08 \l 1033 (Gaudiano, 2008). Gradually, the therapy will begin to correct the distorted cognitions, and associated maladaptive behaviors, that are increasing or maintaining depressive symptoms in Joe. A notable improvement should be visible in Joe’s behavior and mood as an indication of success.

Although CBT is widely recognized for its efficacy, some individuals are not able to enjoy its full benefits owing to a number of reasons. One reason for the patient’s resistance to CBT psychotherapy is a lack of motivation. Certain patients with severe depressive disorders find themselves unable to engage with the CBT therapist or to regularly attend the sessions which, in turn, may render the treatment ineffective. Conversely, antidepressant treatments require relatively lower levels of motivation. CBT also tends to place an overemphasis on the role of cognitions as traditional approaches tend to see irrational thinking to be the prime cause of a patient’s depression without considering other factors CITATION Gau08 \l 1033 (Gaudiano, 2008). For this purpose, researchers suggest a combination of medication and CBT to boost rates of recovery CITATION Voo08 \l 1033 (Voorhees, Smith, & Ewigman, 2008). Additionally, severely depressed patients may also respond better to behavioral activation interventions than traditional CBT. Thus, if traditional CBT sessions prove ineffective, BA therapy can be combined with CBT to alter both dysfunctional attributional styles as well as negative thinking CITATION Jac96 \l 1033 (Jacobson, et al., 1996). Here BA intervention can overcome some of the potential shortcomings of traditional CBT psychotherapy.

Building Rapport

CBT therapy for Joe would be goal-directed and structured. However, the techniques which are involved require the therapist to adopt a collaborative stance and, therefore, pay attention to the affective and relationship aspects of the therapy. In this regard building rapport with Joe is very important in order to instill trust, hope, and a sense of collaboration in him. To develop such a relationship requires demonstrating genuineness, empathy and positive regard. Empathy is the most important component in this respect and is necessary to facilitate feelings of mutual respect and trust between Joe and his therapist CITATION Cul08 \l 1033 (Cully & Teten, 2008). This will allow Joe to validate his experiences whereas any attempts of being critical of him will make him defensive and feel judged. Thus, validating his responses is important to demonstrate empathy and build rapport. Secondly, it is also important to demonstrate genuineness in this relationship, as it allows the patient to see the therapist as an individual who is free of hypocrisy and dishonesty. He will begin to welcome critical feedback based on this credibility and feel connected to the therapist and the process CITATION Cul08 \l 1033 (Cully & Teten, 2008). In addition, helping Joe understand that depression can change his brain may provide him some relief from repeatedly blaming himself for his condition CITATION Gau08 \l 1033 (Gaudiano, 2008).


To conclude, Joe’s severe depression stems from both a genetic predisposition and certain social factors that intensify and maintain symptoms. An analysis of his condition from the cognitive and behavioral perspective allowed us to develop a psychotherapy approach which takes both components into consideration. CBT therapy is particularly useful in Joe's case to provide him with an effective treatment plan and to build a good rapport with him. However, traditional CBT, while effective, has its sets of limitations. Other interventions such as BA therapy are equally known to be effective and easier to implement, especially in the case of individuals with severe depressive symptoms such as Joe. However, developing a treatment strategy which combines CBT and BA can overcome potential contraindications that can arise from an overreliance on the cognitive component. Although combining these approaches have been found to be successful, certain logistical and economic barriers serve as barriers to streamlining them. Nevertheless, CBT therapy is still a highly effective approach and with certain tweaks and modifications to the traditional approach, an effective treatment plan for Joe can be developed that would optimally incorporate all the components.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Beck, A. T., & Alford, B. A. (2009). Depression: Causes and Treatment (2nd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Carvalho, J. P., & Hopko, D. R. (2011). Behavioral theory of depression: Reinforcement as a mediating variable between avoidance and depression. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 42(2), 154-162. doi:10.1016/j.jbtep.2010.10.001

Cully, J. A., & Teten, A. L. (2008). A Therapist’s Guide to Brief Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (1st ed.). Houston, TX: Department of Veterans Affairs, South Central Mental Illness Research.

Ehring, T., Fischer, S., Schnülle, J., Bösterling, A., & Tuschen-Caffier, B. (2008). Characteristics of emotion regulation in recovered depressed versus never depressed individuals. Personality and Individual Differences, 44(7), 1574-1584. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2008.01.013

Gaudiano, B. A. (2008). Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies: Achievements and Challenges. Evidence-based mental health, 11(1), 5-7. doi:10.1136%2Febmh.11.1.5

J Luecken, L. (2000). Attachment and loss experiences during childhood are associated with adult hostility, depression, and social support. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 49(1), 85-91. doi:10.1016/S0022-3999(00)00151-3

Jacobson, N., Dobson, K., Truax, P., Addis, M., Koerner, K., Gollan, J., . . . Prince, S. (1996). A component analysis of cognitive-behavioral treatment for depression. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 64(2), 295-304. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8871414/

Joormann, J. (2010). Cognitive Inhibition and Emotion Regulation in Depression. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19(3), 161-166. doi:10.1177%2F0963721410370293

Manosa, R. C., Kanter, J. W., & Busch, A. M. (2010). A critical review of assessment strategies to measure the behavioral activation model of depression. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(5), 547-561. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2010.03.008

Roselinde H. Kaiser, J. R.-H. (2015). Distracted and down: neural mechanisms of affective interference in subclinical depression. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 10(5), 654-663. doi:10.1093/scan/nsu100

Shelton, J. (2019, March 18). Depression Definition and DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria. Retrieved July 25, 2019, from Psycom: https://www.psycom.net/depression-definition-dsm-5-diagnostic-criteria/

Voorhees, B. W., Smith, S., & Ewigman, B. (2008). Treat depressed teens with medication and psychotherapy. Journal of Family Practice, 57(11), 735-739. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3183842/

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 6 Words: 1800

Case Study One

Title page

Case study

The issues faced by Krista depicts that she is suffering from ASD. The girl is facing speech and language problems since her childhood, as the mother reported that she was unable to understand the meaning of ‘rats in her hair’ at the age of 5. She has been unable to understand simple sentences and statements. Her inability to understand the sentences caused complications and affected her relationship with her parents. The overall condition of the child depicts that she experiences complications in communications. She faces difficulty in understanding the use of words. The conditions indicate that Krista is diagnosed with Asperger syndrome, which is categorized with problems and language and intellectual disability.

Expressive and receptive communications are identified in cases of Asperger syndrome. She is unable to communicate with her parents due to her wrong interpretation of words. She is even unable to understand the timing and meaning of the words CITATION Mal14 \l 1033 (Pennington, Cullinan, & Southern, 2014). Delays in understanding what is said reflect the conditions of speech and language impairment. Inability to learn simple, abstract concepts, such as time and space, are also identified symptoms of this autistic disorder. Different interventions are adapted for treating a child with the language problems. Sequelae of speech are also identified in the case of Asperger syndrome. Krista also struggles when listening accurately, because she is unable to link the words with exact details. Inaccurate listening is one of the common symptoms of Asperger’s syndrome because the patient is unable to interpret what is said. Asperger syndrome also undermines the intellectual ability of the children because they are unable to focus on the meaning and sense of words. Language issue also has negative impacts on the cognitive functioning of the child.


Pennington, M. L., Cullinan, D., & Southern, L. B. (2014). Defining Autism: Variability in State Education Agency Definitions of and Evaluations for Autism Spectrum Disorders. Autism Research and Treatment.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Case Study One

Case Study One


The fact that not all students are at the same level does not mean that students are not at the level, or even creating levels in the school structure. In other words, the question of student differences has always been a fact: cognitive heterogeneity has become increasingly prevalent in classrooms, even though social heterogeneity and cultural heterogeneity. But this fact has been handled in very different ways. We will avoid going back to Antiquity or even the Middle Ages on this point, even if everyone remembers that at the university the students who listened to the same teachers had very different ages and came from a diversified curriculum.

There are three levels of management of student differences and special classroom for instruction. At first the institutional level is then a question of distributing the pupils in different and hierarchical institutions, which can take several forms: primary / secondary, private / public, general / professional, compensation by so-called positive discrimination. An organizational level is the differences are then recorded within the institution itself, which ranks internally by sectors, options, groupings, temporary or permanent specific assignments. Finally pedagogical level assumes that the issue of managing differences between students is taken into account within the class itself, through a pedagogical device that is supposed to respond to everyday reality.

The history of special school policy clearly reminds us. For our part, we will consider here only the pedagogical level and we will retrace the history of the educational consideration of the differences between students in the classes. First, it justifies them by equal opportunities: the school for all is given to all (the same knowledge, the same teachers), so much so that the inequalities do not come from the functioning of the institution but from individuals themselves in their school investment. In short, a whole system is put in place that makes it possible to distribute the different pupils in heterogeneous circuits between them but more homogeneous in each one. Finally, it reduces the internal heterogeneity of each class by a regulatory device responsible for ensuring homogeneity of functioning on behalf of all: grades, classifications, repetitions, non-presentation to exams, etc. The order of the same must prevail: the same class, the same master, the same contents, the same pupils. The simultaneous teaching supposes the maintenance and the succession of the same in the order of the school. He manages the differences by reinforcing the similarities. Somehow, it excludes pluralism in the class to refer to the organization of the school system. But what to do when the latter, for example in the name of the fight against disability or in the name of the single school, reduces its external management of heterogeneity and tends to strengthen it within the class itself, knowing that the simultaneous mode is based on the opposite principle? In general education assume homogeneity is one thing, to live it is another. The idea of ​​different pedagogies within the class will not cease to arise, as we will see. Knowing that the simultaneous mode is based on the opposite principle? Because to assume homogeneity is one thing, to live it is another. The idea of ​​different pedagogies within the class will not cease to arise, as we will see. Knowing that the simultaneous mode is based on the opposite principle? Because to assume homogeneity is one thing, to live it is another. The idea of ​​different pedagogies within the class will not cease to arise, as we will see.

A move to full inclusion a result to the students are separated into small groups and receive learning and assessment tasks that cover the same general subject, but with varying levels of difficulty. Choice of difficulty levels for classroom learning tasks and associated assessments can be done by the student or the teacher. The intervention of the first stage takes place in ordinary class. The teaching methods and pedagogical strategies used here reflect the approaches to pedagogical differentiation and the principles of universal design of learning. Lessons are structured and planned for all students in the class, regardless of anomalies, and curriculum expectations are not changed. Throughout this process, the classroom teacher monitors students' progress to identify those who are struggling and falling behind their peers.References

Daniel, L. G., & King, D. A. (1997). Impact of inclusion education on academic achievement, student behavior and self-esteem, and parental attitudes. The Journal of Educational Research, 91(2), 67-80.

Idol, L. (2006). Toward inclusion of special education students in general education: A program evaluation of eight schools. Remedial and Special education, 27(2), 77-94.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Causes Of Depression

Causes of Depression

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Causes of Depression

Position Statement

Depression is caused by external factors such as specific incidents and happenings in our lives. It disturbs the whole body of a person and internal chemical reactions. These reactions may cause many complications to the human body.

Depression is the mental disorder which causes the patient the symptoms of sadness, loss of interest in the material world, lack of concentration and focus, tiredness and pain in the body, reluctant to socialise, loss appetite, lower self-esteem and feeling guilt (Rungreangkulkij et al., 2018). The reasons that cause depression are financial problems, unemployment, other major medical illness, significant changes in life, loss of a loved one, and work stress. These are some of the major causes of this mental issue that mostly lead to suicidal ideation and other serious diseases. According to Young and Morgan (2018), Japan is one of the least depressed countries in the world, having the rate of diagnoses less than 2.5 per cent.

Here We will discuss the biological, and hormonal disturbance created in our body due to depression (Albert, 2015). Depression in women is higher than men because of the estrogen the female sex hormones, at the stage of puberty the menstruation, and then the pregnancy could cause depression ultimately to a woman (Willard et al., 2009). These estrogens are also found as well, but not dominant, so comparatively men face less depression as compared to women. Kendler and Gardner, (2014) revealed that dizygotic twins, a girl shows more sensitivity and better interpersonal relations with her family. While the boy is found less sensitive toward his surrounding, Depression can make the Amygdala (part of the brain) more active due to the tension and worries. Amygdala activates when a person recalls its frightening conditions, sorrows, problems, and depression (Bennabi, 2015).


Depression is a significant mental health disease that could lead to several physical disorders as well. The mind is the central processor of the body, and the brain and hormones control our moods, reactions, attitudes. Depression is caused by several factors, and here we discussed the psychosocial factor which is because of the loss of someone or something. The physical excursion has a great effect on the depression control (Knapen et al., 2015). Financial crises are strongly correlated with depression. Moreover, depression in women is higher than men because of the different challenges associated with woman.


Albert, P. R. (2015). Why is depression more prevalent in women?. Journal of psychiatry & neuroscience: JPN, 40(4), 219-21.

Bennabi, D., Aouizerate, B., El-Hage, W., Doumy, O., Moliere, F., Courtet, P., ... & Holztmann, J. (2015). Risk factors for treatment resistance in unipolar depression: a systematic review. Journal of affective disorders, 171, 137-141.

Kendler KS, Gardner CO, (2014) Sex differences in the pathways to major depression: a study of opposite-sex twin pairs.Am J Psychiatry. 2014 Apr; 171(4):426-35.

Knapen, J., Vancampfort, D., Moriën, Y., & Marchal, Y. (2015). Exercise therapy improves both mental and physical health in patients with major depression. Disability and rehabilitation, 37(16), 1490-1495.

RUNGREANGKULKIJ, S., KOTNARA, I., KITTIWATANAPAISAN, W., & ARUNPONGPAISAL, S. (2018). Loss of Control: Experiences of Depression in Thai Men. Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST), 16(4), 265-274.

Willard SL, Friedman DP, Henkel CK, Shively CA (2009) Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2009 Nov; 34(10):1469-75.

Young, M. D., & Morgan, P. J. (2018). Effect of a Gender-Tailored eHealth Weight Loss Program on the Depressive Symptoms of Overweight and Obese Men: Pre-Post Study. JMIR mental health, 5(1).

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Causes Of Depression Debate

Learner Name:

Debate Preparation and Summary Worksheet

To prepare for the debate in Unit 5, use this worksheet to synthesize what you have learned from your research on the causes of depression. Complete Section 1 Debate Preparation to organize your position, arguments, and evidence for the debate.

You will then complete Section 2 Debate Summary following the debate and will turn the full worksheet in at the end of the Unit 6 for grading as a summary of the debate.

Section 1 - Debate Preparation

Your Position Statement

Description of perspective

Depression is caused by environmental and cognitive behavioral factors

Position Statement

According to research, it is asserted that depression is caused by parental depression, taking into account that an individual’s behavioral and emotional functioning is not well understood. Another research highlights that depression is just a more sophisticated understanding of mental behavior that proceed with age and influence of physical factors.

Summary of arguments

Environment plays a significant role in causing depression

Depression is a realization that proceed with understanding and observation of symptoms

Depression has nothing to do with biological factors, all that matters is physical factors

Your Summary of the Arguments that Support Your Position and the Evidence from Research to Support Those Arguments.

Supporting Argument 1:

Depression is the product of age and understanding, because if an individual doesn’t think about it there are fewer chances of its causes.

Evidence: The research from Mental Health Literacy has proved this fact (Silberg, et al., 2010)

Evidence A new study has found that people living with major depressive disorder are biologically older than people without depression (Silberg, et al., 2010)

Evidence Mills-Peninsula Medical Center has proved that there are no cases of depression recorded under 12 because after 12 an individual begins to realize about mental condition. (Silberg, et al., 2010)

Supporting Argument 2:

Depression is the product of parental behavioral and environment.

Evidence Data collected on juvenile twins from the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development (VTSABD) highlighted the transmission of parental depression. (Keller & M. C, 2018)

Evidence Child behavioral and developmental outcomes are influenced by numerous factors where individual-, family-, and community-level factors are significant and one of them is the disturbed mental condition of parents (Keller & M. C, 2018)

Evidence Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development project has proved that parental behavior and disrupted homely setting causes depression in children (Keller & M. C, 2018)

Supporting Argument 3: Depression is caused by the environmental factors such as narrowed approach towards life, any disable personality or continuous reinforcement of miserable life

Evidence Depression is more like retrieved understanding (Georgakakou‐Koutsonikou, et al., 2019).

Evidence There are more cases of depression in people living underrated life (Georgakakou‐Koutsonikou, et al., 2019).

Evidence Depression is most commonly traced in broken, separated or poor families (Georgakakou‐Koutsonikou, et al., 2019).

Section 2 - Debate Summary

(Complete after the Unit 5 debate)

Counter Arguments to Your Position and Your Rebuttals – With what counter arguments did others challenge your position? How did you reply to challenge their counter arguments (these are your rebuttals)?

What opponents said to counter your arguments (paraphrase your understanding of their counter arguments—do not copy and paste them).

Your rebuttals to the counter arguments that they made to you or could have made to you based on their positions. (Please cite any sources you used):

Depression is inherited disorder

If depression is inherited disorder than there would be more cases of depression than normal because there is no staunch evidence of depression being inherited

Depression is a hint towards life, any incidents or act

Depression refers to the environmental factors where an individual gives significance to particular event because of the narrowed perspective of life. More economic families pay less attention to abuse as something causing depression

Depression is caused by medication

There is no such medication that directly causes depression, however there are medicines that increases the risk of becoming victim to depression.

Summary and Conclusion

It is proposed that depression has numerous features, there are specific and well decided causes of depression such as medication, particular incidents or genetics. All these arguments refer to the cognitive as well as behavioral causes of depression

Depression is the product of fact and figures that are fed directly or indirectly through the environment and these facts are more highlighted in undesirable or unbearable environment. Although research assert that there is a risk of depression after using some medications such as those for acne but there are no direct means.

My position is more valid and authentic because depression has nothing to do with genetic or inherited factors, it is a pattern of understanding that is either counted by self-analysis or highlighted as a way of releasing complex understanding of things and actions that are not in an individual’s hand. Moreover, depression is also an adopted behavior, it is adopted by learning such as any family member who is suffering from depression and the disorganized ways of life.

APA Reference List


Silberg, J. L., Maes, H., & Eaves, L. J. (2010). Genetic and environmental influences on the transmission of parental depression to children’s depression and conduct disturbance: an extended Children of Twins study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51(6), 734-744.

Keller, M. C. (2018). Evolutionary perspectives on genetic and environmental risk factors for psychiatric disorders. Annual review of clinical psychology, 14, 471-493.

Georgakakou‐Koutsonikou, N., Taylor, E. P., & Williams, J. M. (2019). Children's concepts of childhood and adolescent depression. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 24(1), 19-28.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Chapter 3


Chapter 3

Your Name (First and Last)

Institution or School name

Summary of Robert Kegans Transformational Learning Theory

Robert Kegan is a psychologist working as a professor at Harvard University. He had an interest in transformations. The concept of transformation from one particular stage to another, served as muse for him to take over Jack Mezirows work. Jack gave the theory of transformative learning. ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationIDa37a1fcsns,propertiesformattedCitation(Mezirow, 2018),plainCitation(Mezirow, 2018),citationItemsid132,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/zTPHp9Do/items/8IB8LGIJ,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/zTPHp9Do/items/8IB8LGIJ,itemDataid132,typechapter,titleTransformative learning theory,container-titleContemporary Theories of Learning,publisherRoutledge,page114-128,authorfamilyMezirow,givenJack,issueddate-parts2018,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (Mezirow, 2018)

Transformation states any kind of change or method. Renowned amid assimilative processes, within which novel familiarities are formed to adapt present knowledge structures. On the other hand, accommodative processes, within which the structures change to give a response to novel experiences. The irony here is, the transformation has a broad assimilated language, which in return puts it in risk of losing its transformational prospects.

It should be kept in mind that there is a big difference between transformational sort of learning and informational sort of learning. However, both carry value in various disciplines, fields and learning activities. It is also necessary to understand the form which is experiencing transformation. There is no transformation without a form. Transformational learning if not always, but is mostly in the light of the theory of the knowledge, rather than, a difference in learning range. It can also be an escalation in the fund of knowledge or amount.

The concept of transformational learning while requires to be precise by keeping an explicit focus on the epistemological, it should also be made vast by including the entire lifecycle. Transformational learning is not restricted wholly to adult education or adulthood. The adult educators who have a curiosity for transformational learning, need to understand their students better. Recent epistemologies should not create a design that unexpectedly presume a students potential, that their design may encourage. Adult educationalists need to distinguish the type of learners specific needs for transformational learning. They need to not only understand their students better, but they need to have a better idea of recent epistemologies and epistemological complications.

Yrjo Engestron Work and Theory of Expansive Learning

Yrjo Engestron basically laid the foundation for his theoretical work based on the cultural-historical approach, or some like to call it activity-theoretical approach to cerebral development and learning. It first came into existence in the Soviet Union. The theory of cultural-historical activity advanced via three generations worth of research. In his paper of Expansive Learning, he intertwined his methodology with Briton Gregorys system theoretical work. He combined his method on conundrum circumstances and learning stages. This instigated the concept of conflicts. ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationIDa188sobli6u,propertiesformattedCitationrtf (Engestruc0u246m, Lompscher, Ruc0u252ckriem, 2016),plainCitation(Engestrm, Lompscher, Rckriem, 2016),citationItemsid133,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/zTPHp9Do/items/F3CQGX5L,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/zTPHp9Do/items/F3CQGX5L,itemDataid133,typebook,titlePutting activity theory to work Contributions from developmental work research,publisherLehmanns Media,volume13,ISBN3-86541-872-4,authorfamilyEngestrm,givenYrj,familyLompscher,givenJoachim,familyRckriem,givenGeorg,issueddate-parts2016,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (Engestrm, Lompscher, Rckriem, 2016)

Take whatever theory of learning that comes to the mind, no matter what, it will need to give the answer of four questions. Number one question is who are the targeted subjects of the learning, and how one can define them and locate them The second question why do they have the need to learn, and how do they make an effort to do so Third question what are their learnings, and what results and content does learning initiate Lastly and the fourth question how can one go through with learning, and what are the main actions of procedures of learning These four questions serve to understand the expansive learning theory.

Before an individual jumps to expansive theory, it is essential to go through the progress and five pivotal ideas of activity theory. The five ideas paired with the four questions will help understand the expansion theory better. The theory of expansion learning is fundamentally the process of learning paired with expanding done in regards to activity theory.

Theory of expansive learning originally was put on wide-ranged transformations inclusive in the activity system. At times the wide-reaching transformations would distance over the age of years. In the expansion approach, learning takes place on a massive and lengthier viewpoint of a third dimension. The third dimension, is basically the dimension of activity development. ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationIDauss0r59o,propertiesformattedCitationrtf (Engestruc0u246m, 2018),plainCitation(Engestrm, 2018),citationItemsid134,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/zTPHp9Do/items/LYGZADHI,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/zTPHp9Do/items/LYGZADHI,itemDataid134,typechapter,titleExpansive learning Towards an activity-theoretical reconceptualization,container-titleContemporary theories of learning,publisherRoutledge,page46-65,authorfamilyEngestrm,givenYrj,issueddate-parts2018,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (Engestrm, 2018)


Mezirow, J. (2018). Transformative learning theory. InContemporary Theories of Learning(pp. 114-128). Routledge.

Engestrm, Y., Lompscher, J., Rckriem, G. (Eds.). (2016).Putting activity theory to work Contributions from developmental work research(Vol. 13). Lehmanns Media.

Engestrm, Y. (2018). Expansive learning Towards an activity-theoretical reconceptualization. InContemporary theories of learning(pp. 46-65). Routledge.





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Subject: Psychology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Chapter 4


Student’s name




As stated in the article, it is evident that most companies experience a lot of losses which arise from employee theft. This means that there is a need for company managers to put various measures in ensuring that a high level of security is achieved, to prevent staff members from misusing the company resources. Other forms of dishonesty also include failure of employees to report to their duties on time as discussed. This also affects the company in a negative way since most areas would be incomplete if at all workers fail to do their duties as expected. For this reason, it would also be important to set rules and regulations that are highly against this kind of behaviors among workers. Workers should also be encouraged to be honest in order to sustain the productivity of the firm. This would not only benefit the company but also the workers themselves since the income generated would also increase.


Absenteeism is another issue that has a great negative impact in the workplace. The article points out some of the effects of absenteeism which include putting much pressure on other workers. I don’t think the idea of giving workers a maximum of three callouts per month is good. This is because others might take advantage of this and even call out whenever they realize that there is a lot of work at the workplace. I believe that it would be better if the manager could allow workers to call out depending on their current situations. An early notice should also be encouraged as stated in the post so that workers can reorganize themselves well to deal with all the duties that would be left. It is also the role of the managers to employ enough workers such that even the absence of one member wouldn’t create much pressure on others. This is important in ensuring that other coworkers don’t end up quitting jobs as a result of pressure created through absenteeism.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Chapters 1 And 2

Chapters 1 and 2

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Chapters 1 and 2

The process in which the mind acquires the new methods, or modifying, the previous ones of existing skills, knowledge, behaviors, preferences or values is learning. It is the ability in possession of humans, animals, and machines CITATION Ric12 \l 1033 (Gross, 2012). Learning in humans starts right after their birth and goes on until death does them a part from the environment. The two basic processes of learning are a content dimension and incentive dimension learning. The number of factors which involve in the learning is goals and purposes, motivation to be a better version of self, interest, emotional conditions, attitude, aptitude, and learning activities, etc. In some situations, learning is immediate by the induction of a single event with a cascade of repeat experiences. The changes caused by the learning, either immediate or long-term, will last a lifetime. Sometimes, it may occur with or without conscious or unconscious awareness. There are four types of learning, cumulative, assimilative, accommodative and transformative.

Content Dimension: The content dimension focuses on what is learned. In terms of learning, this dimension is described as knowledge and skills. But, there are also other things which are learned during other things such as insights, opinions, attitudes, values, ways of behavior, strategies, and methods. This type of dimension is involved in the learning content and contribute to the building capacity of that certain learner. The main purpose of the learning is to develop that certain learning capacity is to deal with the challenges of the practical life.

Incentive Dimension: This type of dimension which directly initiates the energy in the mental being of that person, making it compulsory for the initiation of that learning process. This involves emotions, feelings, and motivation. The main purpose of this dimension is to initiate the development of a continuous mental balance in the mind of the learner, which induces a sense of personal sensitivity. CITATION Knu \l 1033 (Illeris, 2009)

Cumulative Learning: It is the learning process by which the knowledge is accumulated by the ability to serve the building blocks for some sort of subsequent cognitive development. Example of cumulative learning is the Multi-tasking.

Assimilative Learning: It is the learning process which involves the integration of the new information into the existing information and knowledge structures, without its restructuring. Assimilative Learning is comparably more efficient and economical as well.

Accommodative Learning: The new information in the brain can be stored with its integration into the previous cognitive structures, but without the reorganization of the old knowledge. Due to which, the reorganization of the facts to be done properly, the mind reconsiders the reintegration of this section. This is known as accommodative learning CITATION Rol06 \l 1033 (Roland Streule, 2006).

Transformative Learning: It involves the expansion of consciousness abilities by challenging the students thinking by disorienting them into dilemmas. This theory was developed by Jack Meizrow in the 1900s.

However, with reference to the context of the things mentioned earlier, this might not seem as easy as it is discussed. Because there are some barriers faced in the process throughout its happening. Some of them can be pretty tough, while, some are easy as well. Almost at every level, barriers in learning at school, college, high school, university or even at the workplace. This can be caused due to the misunderstandings, insufficient learning capability, lack of concentration, lack of interest in the particular subject. However, other than the subject of interest, other barriers can be focused on and can cause easily corrected. Some children or students are suffering from Learning Disabilities which are known to affect how they communication, understanding the information, learning new skills, inclusion of the difficulty in reading, and writing. Other diseases include Dyslexia, (Difficulties in reading and writing), autism and Downs Syndrome.

Internal Learning and External Learning: Internal learning is the processes which are must for a learner to present in which the learning process should occur. External learning refers to the environment which facilitates the learning process. The influences of the external and internal learning can refer to the training procedures which are done in a workplace or an institution. It is not necessary for training to take place in the workplace, and vice versa.

Examples: For the best portraying of an example of the internal and external learning is both of these practices of a workplace within the contextualization of the organization, making it more relevant and easy learning for the employees. In terms of the internal training, the environment would be more comfortable, marking a safe and easy to learn territory for the trainee's. However, in terms of external training, the external activities which might include any type of courses, online learning, conferences, workshops or seminars.

Peter Jarvis Learning Theory: Peter Jarvis is one of the best-known persons for research in International Learning. He focused on the learning theory in adult education. Jarvis's theory focused on the betterment of himself in the society through a cascade of experiences that diverted his mind for another person by a proper set of reasoning, otherwise not.

The model focuses on comprehensiveness learning through situation and experiences, which follows either practice or experimentation. After this, the memorization through the evaluation is done with reasoning and reflection of the person with whom the experiences that are being faced. This phenomenon will overall cause a change in the attitude and will gain more experience.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Gross, R. (2012). Psychology: The science of Mind and Behaviour. Hachette.

Illeris, K. (2009). Contemporary Theories of Learning. New York: Routledge.

Roland Streule, R. O. (2006). Assimilative Learning with the Aid of Cognitive Maps. Conference ICL2006, (pp. 1-8). Villan.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Chapters 14-16

chapters 14-16

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Chapters 14-16

Chapter 14

Hormones affect the physical, psychological aspects of puberty. They develop sexual desires and heightened emotions. The process initiates from an age between eight and fourteen.

Some high schools adopt later school timings to minimize the sleep deprivation from the students.

Girls with more body fats reach their puberty period earlier than the girls who are weak or with fewer body fats.

Early age puberty in girls is likely to lower self-confidence, more stress/depression, and poor body image than normal girls.

Among early maturing boys, usage of alcohol is more than other boys. They tend to more law-breaking and aggressive.

Chapter 15

Early age adolescents struggle with conflicting emotions and feelings related to friends and family. Adolescents’ egocentrism leads young people to think about themselves.

Adolescents develop an imaginary audience and believes that they are in the spotlight, everyone is watching them and noticing their behavior and appearance.

The main characteristics of formal operational thinking include the development of capability of skills like logical thoughts, reasons identification, and systematic planning.

Deductive reasoning depends on a common statement, or principle to conclude the situation through logical steps. Inductive reasoning focuses on specific facts to develop a general conclusion.

Chapter 16

Identity foreclosure occurs when a child accepts the norms and value given by parents and society without any questions while identity moratorium is developed through self-decision and choices.

Parents’ monitoring and guidance play an important role to develop the political and religious identity of adolescents.

Today, the number of careers is available and adolescents do not need to choose one, and vocational identity establishes in years. Therefore, it requires specific knowledge and skills for a good job.

A teenage boy has foreclosed on gender identity; he might show anger or attraction towards the opposite sex. He can also behave obediently towards authority and society.

Peer influence depends on the parents’ behavior. If parents are harsh, then peers influence more while when parents are friendly, peer influence is lesser.

When parents try to control their adolescents and their decision, it leads to an argument between them.

Parents think, peers are spoiling their adolescence, but in reality, they influence them to adopt desirable behaviors.

Limitations by parents and norms of society have great impact over the development of ethical identity of adolescents.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Chapters 17-19 Psych 102

Response to Questions

[Author’s name]

Response to Questions

Response to Questions of Chapter 17

Emerging adulthood recognized as the prime time for the individual in terms of biological perspective. Usually, physical strength is gained during this phase by considering the perspectives of muscles growing, bones strengthening, and experiencing changes in body shapes.

Today, practicing sexual activities are much common as compare to former time-periods. The growing trend of developing sexual relationships without any protection cause the growing prospect of STIs. The issues of sex trafficking and prostitution also encourage the paradigm of STIs.

Response to Questions of Chapter 18

This particular approach is adopted by scholar due to the consideration of the fourth stage of formal operational thinking approach explained by Piaget ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"AzRIaPCW","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Berger, 2011)","plainCitation":"(Berger, 2011)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2074,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/A3LIC5Q9"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/A3LIC5Q9"],"itemData":{"id":2074,"type":"book","title":"The Developing Person Through the Life Span","publisher":"Worth Publishers","URL":"https://books.google.com.pk/books?id=mC_LNMy2rbkC","ISBN":"978-1-4292-3205-0","author":[{"family":"Berger","given":"K. S."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2011"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Berger, 2011). It is established by many scholars that this particular perspective is not enough to define the paradigm of adult thinking.

Post-formal thinking approach is different as compared to the usual form of adolescent thought considering the overall adult phase of cognitive development. There is a need for examining the more practical approach of adolescent thought that is possible through the advance form of post-formal thinking.

Response to Questions of Chapter 19

Attending college is the form of the moratorium because it is defined as the approach of identity achievement. It is particular phase of life for someone to discover new options rather only limiting to their identity.

Emerging adulthood defines as the time-period of many changes for the individuals. The approach of self-perceived change ultimately influences the domain of self-esteem during the phase of emerging adulthood.

Changes in the form of social domain eventually influence the process of mate selection over the years. It is observed that dating frequency is different in recent times that influence the overall domain of mate selection.

It is observed that people in the phase of emerging adulthood are less interested to show their commitment in the form of marriage rather adopting the option of cohabitation. The fair of failing in the form of serious relationship encourages emerging adults to adopt the approach of cohabitation.

The major advantage of cohabitation is that it is recognized as the chance to better understand the partner. The second advantage of this approach is that it is a freeway for people to enjoy their life without any serious liabilities. The main disadvantages of cohabitation are that it is connected with the uncertainty that ultimately causes other complications.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Berger, K. S. (2011). The Developing Person Through the Life Span. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=mC_LNMy2rbkC

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Chapters 20-23 Psychology 102

Chapters 20-23 Psychology 102

Chapter 20-21

As an individual ages, the neurotransmitter production in his/her brain starts to experience a decline. In turn, this results in a nerve impulse to travel relatively slowly across neurons. Furthermore, neural fluid begins to decrease and the circulation of blood in the brain slows down. The slowing down of these critical process leads to reduced reactions times, alongside a visible decrease in processing thoughts, movements, and speech.

Even as neurotransmitter production slows down in older age, scientists have found that the formation of neurons continues in adulthood alongside the growth of dendrites. Two notable portions in the brain experience a particular development of neurons; the hippocampus region, which aids in remembering, and the olfactory region, which helps experience smells and fragrances. Furthermore, the older neurons experience the growth of dendrites that aid adults in resisting anxiety and depression.

In order for information to be perceived, it has to cross the sensory threshold in the brain. The average cognitive scores of adults unaware of their hearing loss were found to be only 2% less compared to adults who were aware. Although cognitive decline can increase with increased sensory loss, however, an individual may not recognize its effects because of the brain's ability to fill in missed sounds and sightsCITATION Ber14 \l 1033 (Berger, 2014).

Older adults tend to experience greater declines in explicit and prospective memory. This implies that it becomes slightly harder to recall information or facts that were stored, alongside the ability to remember any future plans or appointments. Moreover, older adults are also known to commonly develop source amnesia, which makes it easier to forget where the stored information originated from.

In contemporary times, source memory is particularly important as it enables an individual to trace the origins of ideas and facts. This is because of the explosion of mass media and digital sources of information where audiences are bombarded with audio, print, and video information nearly all the time. Retaining a strong source memory in such cases is important so that older adults will not give in easily to misinformation, propaganda, or false advertisements.

Chapter 22-23

Even as sexual function and desire decline with age, it is still possible for elder couples to enjoy their sexual relationships. This can be done through increasing foreplay such as kissing, cuddling, or caressing one another. It could also be improved by employing means to increase desire or fantasize about one another to make the experience more satisfying.

Even though many couples stay sexually active throughout adulthood, and some continue to maintain that frequency pass the age of 65; however, it has been observed that in most cases sex becomes less frequent and may even stop. Conversely, sexual satisfaction starts to increase after middle age and continues until older adulthood.

Since it is known that older adults can experience a notable reduction in response and reaction times, there is a need to design newer tests for older drivers which can test their peripheral vision, reaction and judgment time. One such test could be a computer simulation in which the driver is asked to perform various driving functions while watching video screens and manipulating input devices that simulate an accelerator, steering wheel, gear, and brakes. Older adults that pass the test could have their driving licenses renewed for a marked period.

In primary aging, the vascular network in the heart becomes less flexible and heart-pumping rates begin to reduce which, in turn, can increase the risk for cardiac arrest and stroke. Moreover, heart diseases caused by repeated or chronic stress can also signify secondary aging.

Some of the after-effects of the Tuskegee study is the continued mistrust of prescription medicine by African American men. This results in delayed treatment or seeking alternative therapies that they trust. In turn, it serves as one factor, among many, which leads African-American men to be at a higher risk of heart disease than other ethnic groups.

A broken hip from a fall could lead to a range of complex conditions for an older adult. The lack of mobility can further cause bodily systems to deteriorate, cause stress and infection, and make it difficult for the individual to perform basic functions and manage themselves.

Early detection of osteoporosis in older adults can indicate a weakening of the bones before they experience a fracture. With appropriate medication, exercises, and improved diet, older adults can maintain bone strength and reduce the likelihood of fracture from any potential accidents. This, in turn, can lead to the compression of morbidity.

The notions of racism and ageism are closely connected. The former is based on stereotyping and prejudice based on race while the latter on age. Both lead the affected party to be treated based on qualities that they have no control over and which should not matter. They both lead to discriminatory treatment that causes detriment to the receiving individual or party.

Benevolent ageism is also harmful because the impact of ageism itself causes detriment to the individual in various forms. It can erode an older adult's self-esteem, sense of confidence, and identity, which in turn, leads to the accumulation of anxiety, stress, and morbidity.

Older people in long-term relationships have usually been observed to be accepting of each other’s needs and dependencies. They are aware of their earlier times when they were relatively more self-sufficient, and thus, they are not bothered by how other people may judge their relationships.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Berger, K. S. (2014). The Developing Person Through the Lifespan (9th ed.). New York, NY: Worth Publishers.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Chapters 5 & 6 &7

Chapters 5 & 6 &7

Your Name (First M. Last)

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)

Chapters 5 & 6 &7

The rate brain growth is more than any other organ during the first two years after birth. At birth, the brain is around 25% of adults’ weight. It increases up to 75% of adults’ weight at age 2.

The brain and spinal cord make central nervous system CNS. The communication within CNS starts through neurons. Neurons are the nerve cells, and during the last half of fetal life, these neurons increase.

The major difference between experience-dependent and experience-expectant brain function is that experienced-dependent brain functions require a particular variable experience while experience-expectant requires some basic experiences.

Vision is immature at birth where an infant is sensitive to bright light. By two months, infants stare at the face and recognize perception and cognition. By three month, the infant becomes able to decide the path to follow while crawling.

Experiences from parents enable the infant to develop hearing as most mature sense while vision at least matured. However, through all senses infant develop a strong social interaction.

In the first two years "sensorimotor intelligence," Piaget observed that infant learn rapidly. They try to understand complex experiences and observations.

Object permanence in infant development indicates the understanding of infant related to the objects. They try to understand and search for hidden objects.

The 3-month-old infant can remember things only under two specific circumstances. Firstly, the conditions when things are repeated and secondly a reminder session as the initial training are the two prominent conditions.

Chapter 7: Emotional Development

At birth, the infant nurtures emotions of contentment. 2 weeks old infant advance to adopting emotions of social smiling.

1-year-old has two types of fears. Firstly fear of separation when someone is about to leave and secondly, fear of the stranger, when an infant sees unfamiliar people are the common fears.

During the first year of life, the infant has more fear and anger which become lesser until the second year of life and beyond.

Emotions are connected to the hormones and activity of the brain. Excessive stress leads to an increase in cortisol which is harmful for the development of the brain.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Chapters 8-10

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of Instructor]




Chapter 8: Body Changes

Q1. Ans: The breast-feeding for first 6 months provides the nutrients to the body that help in development of the body in gaining weight and height.

Q2. Ans: Malnutrition causes stomachaches, headaches, genital pain, sleepiness and overweight.

Q3. Ans: Due to the malnutrition some of the brain parts cannot develop properly and it effects the cognition of the brain.

Q4. Ans: It is important to reprogrammed their brain by shifting from left-handed to right-handed at early age.

Q5. Ans: Myelination is important during the early childhood because it transfers messages from one part of brain to the other part and speeds up the thoughts by transmission of impulses from neuron to neuron.

Q6. Ans: Corpus Callosum connects the two hemispheres of the brain and helps in the coordination of left side and right side of the brain.

Chapter 9: Early-Childhood Education

Q7. Ans: There is quality learning at preschools that provide healthy, learning and social skills development environment.

Q8. Ans: They give children a platform to learn through their own interests. Children are allowed to selected their own activities from the areas teachers have arranged for them.

Q9. Ans: Schools are still working because research has identified that children can advance their cognitive skills and language learning more effectively at school. These are child-centered.

Q10.Ans: Reggio Emilia are different because they teach advance skills to the children like writing and using dangerous tools like hammer and knives at very early ages. They do not provide lessons or instruction; every child learn him or herself.

Chapter 10: Moral Development

Q1. Ans: According to the nature perspective moral development takes place through genes, the outgrowth attachment, connection and intellectual maturation.

Q2. Ans: Nurture perspective speaks of the culture as an essential element for the moral development.

Q3. Ans: With the help of social experiences and minimization of egocentrism empathy or antipathy is developed.

Q4. Ans: Empathy is understanding people’s feelings whereas prosocial behavior is being helpful and kind. Empathy leads to prosocial behavior.

Q5. Ans: The four tiypes of aggression are Instrumental aggression, Reactive aggression, relational aggression and bullying aggression. The difference between each type is based on the causes of aggression. Each has different causes and similarity is that there is a reaction.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Characteristics Of Ted Bundy

Characteristics Of Ted Bundy

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Characteristics Of Ted Bundy

Ted Bundy was graduated in Psychology, and he was a highly intelligent and intellectual person. He knew how to influence people through his talks and actions. He tried to look insane or sometimes sane intentionally. In reality, he was the combo of both these states of life. He was narcissist type person, who always thought out of the box. He was facing certain mental and personality disorders. Being a psychopath a person could not be insane, by definition insane is a person who is unaware regarding his actions.

A person who has narcissist characteristics are found extremely intelligent. Moreover, these people including Ted are considered as insane or abnormal by society. He was not insane by law because he was intelligent and he was fully aware of his actions. Insane by law is not responsible for his actions if he might harm a person or someone's property. Because he doesn't seem aware of what he does, due to episodic disease or persistent psychiatric illness, an insane person cannot differentiate between right and wrong, furthermore insane person doesn't understand the criminal in nature actions1. He was well aware about his actions, and he knew that his actions were illegal and immoral. Aside from the insanity, he had certain psychiatric disorders. However, these disorders have no relation with insanity, and unawareness of a person to differentiate right from wrong. Additionally, he was aware that his actions and behaviors were criminal.

He had the antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), the patients of this disorder have a lower sense of empathy, and a higher level of selfless, as they hold their definition of right and wrong to select their alternatives for life. Ted had these problems due to extreme exposure to violent pornography, that led his sexual satisfaction through violent behavior. All the discussion proved that he was a sane and sound person, he had certain mental disorders, however legally that doesn't prove his insanity.

End Notes

1. Ted Bundy. Biography. https://www.biography.com/people/ted-bundy-9231165. Published 2018. Accessed January 6, 2019.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Child Observation

Child observation

Your Name (First M. Last)

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)

Child information

A child of three years has been selected for conducting this observation. The selected child is a male and most of the time his mother takes care of him. Before starting this observation, I took baby’s parents in confidence by ensuring them that I am not an expert who would be using the taken information in any professional report. I assured them that I am a student and needs to conduct an observation on the topic of “Lifespan Development". After guiding the parent about all the facts and taking them in confidence about things I am going to doing, I was permitted to conduct my observation. I started observation the child closely without letting him now that he was under my observation and research. After selecting this child, a made one thing clear to me that there are different domains of child development and early learning that I need to be focused on. Following are the main domains of my observation:

Physical domains

The domain of physical development means development of physical skills of the child commonly known as motor skills. In the child I was observing, I noticed, he was moving in the room by keeping his surrounding environment in considering. He was well- aware where and when to move.

For example:

When his mother showed him a ball and threw it, he started taking small steps in the direction where the ball was rolling. When he was moving towards the ball, I observed and found that his motors skills were well-developed. I witnessed a perfect coordination between his eyes and fingers while he was picking the ball. When he was throwing the ball towards his elder brother even at that time, he was having a strong grip. His control on reaching, grasping, releasing and turning his wrist was quite good. During this observation, I realized that his small muscles movement did not develop over the night rather with time and practice he got control on his physical movement. This child was moving and was depicting that he is trying to have full control over his body while moving from one place to another. He was taking small steps with full concentration on things he was doing.

Cognitive domains

This domain deals with the processing of information and learning. This domain includes imagination, language, reasoning, thinking, memory and problem-solving. He was playing puzzle-solving with his father and what I noticed was that he was unable to solve it smartly. Only one of the pieces rightly matched. What I noticed in this child was, being a three-year-old child, he was unable to understand concrete logic. Secondly, he was not able to manipulate the information as well as he started repeating words of his mother as it is. His elder brother was dictating him while they were playing but this child did not question him about anything or showed any resistance as at this stage of life, he did not develop critical thinking in him. He did not question his brother why he should do what he told him to do.

Social/emotional domains

Social and emotional development means change in the way how we interact with others and show our feelings. In the case of this child, I have observed that his expressions were the clear picture of his feelings. When I first entered this home, he was not happy as I was a stranger, he stayed away from me. After spending some time with me, he became little familiar and comfortable with me. He started showing me his toys after some time. What I noticed was, both cognition and emotions go hand in hand. Another important thing that I learned from this observation was that social and emotion domain helps children in understanding emotions of others as when this child was playing with his six years old brother who pretended being hurt by his ball that he threw, this child quickly hugged him, so I would say that social and emotional attachments teach a child how to interact and behave with others.

It has been witnessed that children start getting frank with others when they start spending time with them. Parents need to make their children confident so that they could interact well with others. Conversations, playing games and let them play with other children are best practices for making them socially connected. Once while playing, his brother snatched his toy, so he started crying which depicted that he is unable to control his emotions. Suddenly he started laughing when his brother started making funny faces to him, which showed he was not much stable emotionally.

Cultural influence

When I was noticing this child, I observed that children in the developing years mostly copy actions of surrounding people (parents in most cases). This child was repeatedly coping his parents. Children belonging to different cultures, follow and practice behaviors and actions of people who mostly spend time with them.

For example:

This child was looking at his parents and before taking food he prayed like his parents. Being at the development stage, he does not know what he was copying and what those actions meant but culture is being transferred to children when they simply follow or imitate their elders. When I first entered and met this child, he welcomed me by shaking hand and asked me "how are you" this showed his cultural influence as children receive specific inputs from their environment. He adopted a conversational style that resembled his parent’s style which was dependent upon culture. The way, this child was walking, talking, playing and treating me showed me a glimpse of the culture, he belonged to.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Childhood Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

Title page

Childhood post-traumatic stress disorder

Darcy Maccann

Course name

Instructor’s name



The study aims at determining the impacts of art therapy and talk therapy on children suffering with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PSTD). Evidence suggests that children who have undergone negative events in the past are unable to participate in life activities normally. The study is thus focused on studying how PSTD leads to disturbed behaviors that could further cause educational and social problems. It will evaluate the effectiveness of art therapy and talk therapy in enhancing the behaviors and educational performance of students. The findings of the study can be used for examining the practical benefits of using both therapies in treating children who are victims of PSTD. The study assumes that engaging children in interactive activities such as art and talking will offer them opportunities of overcoming their behavior problems and anti-social attitudes.

Research question

RQ1: Is art therapy a practical tool for helping children with PSTD?

RQ2: Is talk therapy a practical tool for helping children with PSTD?


H0: Art therapy removes behavioral problems in children with PSTD.

H1: Art therapy does not remove behavioral problems of children with PSTD.

H0: Talk therapy removes behavioral problems children with PSTD.

H1: Talk therapy does not remove behavioral problems children with PSTD.

Literature review

Meshcheryakov (2012) explored the role of arrt therpay in helpoing chuldren with PSTD. The study depicts that children who have undergone bad expereinces need guidance and therapeutic treatments for developing coping mechanisms. Repetition compulsion is experienced by the traumatized children because they develop negative feelings with the incidents. Past events haunts then and they experience them in their nightmares that generate disturbed behaviors. Their inability of forgetting those events results in behavioral complexities. Art therapy plays practical role in encouraging children to develop positive attitude and overcome their behavioral problems and social issues. After receiving art therapy children develop skills of coping with stress. Art therapy is based on the idea that engaging children in art activities can be a useful method of helping them. This is a practical strategy that allows them to play with colors and use their minds for creating something. These activities thus offer them opportunity for using their creativity and improving self.

Neilson et al., (2019) determined that engaging children in daily art activities is a practical method of treating children with psychotic problems. The therapy is focused on offering different activities that encourage children to do art work such as coloring and drawings. The study examined patients of 12-18 years age who had negative episodes in nightmare and had not recovered. By using non-verbal therapy the psychologist relied on images and graphics. The findings of the article depicts that children with behavioral problems improve significantly after performing art activities. Therapists use art such as drawings and pictures for studying the thoughts of the children. Arts is a positive way of motivating children to play and interact with other children. They learn to overcome their anti-social attitudes by doing art work in group. Westrehen et al., (2019) explored the impacts of creative art on children. The therapy was adopted for the children aged between 7 to 13 years. The findings depicts that art has positive impacts on moods and help children in overcoming negative feelings. Campbell et al., (2016) studied the relationship of art theory with behaviors of children who had traumatized past. The Study accepts the effectiveness of art therapy on controlling fears and negative moods of the children. Thus is an effective way of enhancing concentration and attention of children. The study used randomized controlled trials for examining the behaviors of the children after adoption of art therapy. The findings depicts that the children also develop social skills through art therapy. Children who received therapeutic interventions exhibited positive signs and improved in terms of behavior.

Said and King (2019) studied the impacts on narrative therapy on behavior of children with PSTD. The study depicts that children who are encouraged to talk manage to share their past experiences that make them feel better. The results were determined by analyzing behaviors of children who exhibited behavioral disturbances. Smith et al., (2018) determined the relationship of talking therapy with behavioral changes in traumatized children. Children with PSTD undergo fears, behavioral complexities and negative moods. The findings based on empirical evidence proves positive correlation between talking therapy and behavioral improvements CITATION Pat183 \l 1033 (Smith, Dalgleish, & Meiser‐Stedman, 2018).

Kolaitis (2017) studied the role of talking therapy on the behaviors of children. The study was based on examining the children who had experienced traumatized events and faced dofficulting in coping with past. The research used emprical evidence for examining the role of this therapy. The findings confirms positive impact of talking therapy in promoting positive feelings. This is an effective way of assisting children in overcoming their fears, traumas and behavioral problems. By talking they develop positive association with others that plays a positive role on improving their mental health. Sharing of narratives allow chldren to recreate the events that allow therapist to identify the cause of fears. This helps them in developing appropriate stretgy for addressing their needs.


The present study will use qualitative research that relies on using questionnaire. A questionnaire will be used for assessing the role of art and talk therapy on behavior of children with PSTD CITATION Fra19 \l 1033 (Nielsen, Isobel, & Isobel, 2019). Quantitative survey include face-to-face interaction with the respondents in which they respond to the questionnaire. The questionnaire include closed-ended questions because they are easy to compute and can be represented in numerical figures.

The qualitative research requires that the researcher conducts it in natural settings which is difficult to identify in the present study (Cresswell, 2012). The research methodology also allows the researcher to postulate interpretation and observe understanding. The reason for rejecting the qualitative research is the fact that it does not fulfills the purpose of present research. Compared to quantitative data, qualitative surveys cannot be presented in a clear way such as in graphs or charts.


The survey will target 30 parents of the children who have undergone art therapy or talk therapy. The sample will include 15 parents of the children who received art therapy who have been victims of PSTD and 15 parents of the children who received talk therapy. Random sampling (is a type of non-probability sampling that involves the sample being drawn from that part of the population that is close to hand. Experiences of the children will be examined by relying of parents responses. The experiences of parents will be used for determining the potential benefits of art and talk therapy on children. In the survey the researched will approach the participants of the survey. They will be explained the purpose of the survey and assure participants that their information will be kept confidential. Face-to-face interaction will be required for explaining the purpose of research. Questionnaires will be handed to the participants and they will be asked to fill them CITATION Glo19 \l 1033 (Said & King, 2019). The participants will fill the questionnaire and return to the researcher. Only completed questionnaires will be considered for the purpose of the research.

The duration for completing the survey will be of 25 minutes. The research project involves different phases such as the approval of the research instrument, permission for conducting research and survey conduction. It requires taking into consideration different issues and covering all aspects of research.

Ethical concerns

The research will comply with ethical concerns by maintaining confidentiality of participant’s information. Before conducting surveys the participants will be informed that their information will be kept secret and not disclosed to anyone. Ethical standards of research also depict the need for taking consent from the participants. The participants are explained the purpose of the research and informed about the possible benefits and harms. It is an ethical obligation of the researcher to share complete information with the participants of the research.


The results are computed by using statistical software SPSS. Descriptive statistic are used for studying the role of both therapies on the behavior of children. The mean, median and standard deviation are calculated for determining the characteristics of the variables. Empirical evidence is also used for proving the results. This provides evidentiary support to the findings of the research. Empirical studies reveal positive correlation between art therapy and improved behavior of children. PSTD has negative implications on the personality of children and undermines their performance in every aspects of life. It is important to adopt timely intervention for helping the children (Guetermann et al., 2016). By providing art opportunities, students develop skills of interacting with others. This is a productive way of overcoming their fears associated with past incidents CITATION Glo19 \l 1033 (Said & King, 2019). Creative art is a powerful tool adopted by therapists for helping traumatized children. The most visible benefit of the therapy was improved social behavior of children because they developed the capability of interacting with others CITATION Nad19 \l 1033 (Westrhenen, Fritz, Vermeer, Boelen, & Kleber, 2019). This proves the hypothesis that art therapy removes behavioral problems children with PSTD.

Evidence also suggests positive association of talking therapy with improved behavior of children with PSTD. Feelings of depression, sadness and low self-esteem can be removed by using narrative therapy. Therapist encourage children to talk and express their feelings associated with past events. This brings them to a point of determining the problematic behaviors. The therapy this allow therapist to improve the feelings of children that leads to improved behaviors CITATION Fra19 \l 1033 (Nielsen, Isobel, & Isobel, 2019). Talking plays positive role in developing coping behavior and encouraging children to overcome their fears that might further cause disturbed behaviors CITATION Ger172 \l 1033 (Kolaitis, 2017). The findings confirms that talking therapy is linked to the positive changes. This proves the hypothesis that talk therapy removes behavioral problems children with PSTD.


The research aims at determining the role of art and talk therapy in improving the behaviors of children who have experienced negative events that resulted in development of PSTD. Children with PSTD exhibit behavioral issues that include depression, lack of attention, anti-social attitudes, aggression and maintains distance from others. It is thus important for find the practical intervention techniques that could help children in improving their personalities. The study has used quantitative methodology that focus on conducting survey through questionnaires. Parents of the children with PSTD are investigated who have undergone art and behavior therapy. The empirical evidence confirms positive relationship of these therapies with behavioral development of children. The research suggests adoption of art and talking therapy for helping the children with PSTD. The findings confirms that art and talk therapy help children in overcoming their behavioral problems and social issues, leading to better personalities.


Gutermann J., Schreiber F., Matulis S., Schwartzkopff L., Deppe J., & Steil R. (2016). Psychological treatments for symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in children, adolescents, and young adults: A meta-analysis. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 19(2), 1–2.

BIBLIOGRAPHY Smith, P., Dalgleish, T., & Meiser‐Stedman, R. (2018). Practitioner Review: Posttraumatic stress disorder and its treatment in children and adolescents . The Journal of Child Psychology , 60 (5), 500-515.

Westrhenen, N. v., Fritz, E., Vermeer, A., Boelen, P., & Kleber, R. (2019). Creative arts in psychotherapy for traumatized children in South Africa: An evaluation study . PLOS One .

Campbell, M., Decker, K. P., Kruk, K., & Deaver, S. P. (2016). Art Therapy and Cognitive Processing Therapy for Combat-Related PTSD: A Randomized Controlled Trial . Art Ther , 33 (4), 169–177.

Kolaitis, G. (2017). Trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents . Eur J Psychotraumato , 8 (4).

Nielsen, F., Isobel, S., & Isobel, S. (2019). Evaluating the use of responsive art therapy in an inpatient child and adolescent mental health services unit. Australasian Psychiatry , 27 (2), 165–170.

Said, G., & King, D. (2019). Implementing Narrative Exposure Therapy for unaccompanied asylum-seeking minors with post-traumatic stress disorder: A pilot feasibility report. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry , 1-4.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 6 Words: 1800

Childhood Trauma

Topic 2: Effects of Childhood Trauma Worksheet

Examine the effects of childhood trauma during childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Complete the table below by adding at least three examples to each category. The first line in each category below is an example. As you complete the worksheet, remember there can be many different reactions, which, in turn, result in different learned behavior and can result in various forms of psychopathology.

During Childhood

Emotion Experienced

What They Learned

Short-Term Effect for Child

Long-Term Effect for Child

Long-Term Effect for Family/Social Circle

Possible DSM/ICD Diagnosis


My dad is not a safe person; he scares me.

Emotionally needy…may seek extra attention in school or be needier towards mother or siblings.

Difficulty focusing on learning, falling behind with academics.

Overall fear of men, either overly shy child who may only play with siblings who are protective or hide behind mother.

Specific Learning Disorder

Parent-child relationship problems

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Parental Separation

(being with mother)

More attached to the mother…. She cares about her

Face difficulties to get involved in a new relationship or environment especially with a male person

Feel isolated or lack of confidence to communicate with the teacher which decrease learning power.

Increase in insecurities or attraction towards men. Also, the increase in the complex after watching children with their father.

Parent-child relationship problems

Behavior problems

Physical abuse

I am not secured in my own house

Trust issues, pain, fear and risk of injury

The child loses confidence, unable to concentrate on studies, fewer chances of getting good learning power

Fear of being abused by an adult or a powerful person. The child becomes unable to share his feeling and isolate himself from the social circle.

Learning problem

Social development delay

Cognitive delay


People do not like me. I am weak.

Helplessness and fear of being hurt

The child does not trust anyone and feel insecure to share problems, lack of confidence reduces learning power

Feel annoyed from family members. She may feel cursed to be born in a particular race. Avoid people of other race.

Bad mental health

Cognitive delay

Social development delay

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During Adolescence

Emotion Experienced

What They Learned

Short-Term Effect for the Teen

Long-Term Effect for the Teen

Long-Term Effect for Family/Social Circle

Possible DSM/ICD Diagnosis


My dad is not a safe person; he scares me.

Fight or flight…adolescent may learn to provoke father and then feel more in control when the abuse will take place, and/or she may frequently flee the home and stay with friends.

Difficulty focusing on learning, falling behind with academics. There is no stability at home, so focusing on homework seldom occurs.

If she chooses to provoke, then, most likely, she will become a target and become her siblings’ protector. She will most likely find a group of friends who are “tough” to help her be stronger and help her feel more in control.

She will be seen as a trouble maker.

Specific Learning Disorder

Parent-child relationship Problems


Conduct Disorder

Parental Separation

(being with mother)

More attached to the mother… She cares about her

Men are not good. They are mean and bad.

While studying with the children who talk about family and both the parents living together make him uncomfortable. She faces difficulties in learning due to a confused personality.

She becomes introverts. She feels happy around mother because of the fear of losing her make her less confidence and bound to the house.

Parent-child relationship Problems

Behavior problems


Identity development problem

Physical abuse

I am not secured in my own house

Fear of serious injury and death.

Family do not pay attention to the growth of the child which make her unable to learn new things or to develop an interest in studies

She tries to be away from the family especially the person who abuses. Make new friends and spent more time with them



Specific Learning Disorder



People do not like me. I am weak.

Finds difficult to face people. She may feel insecure outside her home

She loses her confidence and tries to away from children in the class. This behavior results in bad grades and academic record

Hate for dominant people increases. The child tries to be in the social circle from other weak people.

Try to make a relationship with strong people to be safe from people who bullied her.

Specific Learning Disorder

Low self-esteem


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During Adulthood

Emotion Experienced

What They Learned

Long-Term Effect for the Adult

Long-Term Effect on Adult Relationships

Long-Term Impact on Ability to Parent Safely

Possible DSM/ICD diagnosis


My dad is not a safe person; he scares me.

Men are not safe and can’t be trusted.

Choose to stay away from relationships because they are dangerous.

Pick a relationship similar to her mother’s because she already knows her defense and this would be her comfort zone since this is what she was raised with and she most likely believes she is not worthy of someone respectful and loving.

Have multiple relationships and fleeing frequently when triggered.

Not have kids due to the fear of being just like her mother.

Parent the same as her mother and allow unsafe behavior towards her children.

Anxiety disorder

Major Depressive Disorder

Mood Disorder

Parental Separation

(being with mother)

More attached to the mother. She cares about her

Mother is the only trustworthy one. Men are not good. All men are the same.

Feel jealous of the people who talk about their father and admire them.

She does not trust men and feels insecurities and fear while making a relationship with the opposite gender.

Avoid boys as much as possible or simply become flirt to take revenge from men because of father

The relationship ends early and avoids marriage due to the fear of divorce.

All men are the same. My man will also leave me with my child.

Major Depressive Disorder

Separation anxiety disorder

Behavior problems

Physical abuse

I am not secured in my own house

The family does not pay attention to the growth of the child which make her unable to learn new things or to develop an interest in studies. She may put her trust in mother and avoid all other relations.

Family bonding becomes weak and adult blames other family members equally for her condition.

She makes a space between her and family and tries to make the relationship outside.

My man will abuse my children in the same manner. I should not marry

Should not have a kid so they don't experience what I did

Major Depressive Disorder




People do not like me. I am weak.

She loses her confidence and tries to away from children in the class. This behavior results in bad grades and academic record

I should avoid people from other race they can hurt me.

Why I am not acceptable by all? Why they abuse me?

God has done injustice by making me weak and I deserve better

I should take revenge from these people with the help of strong friends.

I cannot do anything, I should die


Suicidal Ideation


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ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Chen, C. V., Chaby, L. E., Nazeer, S., & Liberzon, I. (2018). Effects of Trauma in Adulthood and Adolescence on Fear Extinction and Extinction Retention: Advancing Animal Models of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2018.00247

Definition of childhood trauma, which includes abuse. (n.d.). Retrieved September 17, 2019, from https://www.blueknot.org.au/Resources/Information/Understanding-abuse-and-trauma/What-is-childhood-trauma

nctsnadmin. (2018, March 5). Complex Trauma in Children and Adolescents [Text]. Retrieved September 17, 2019, from The National Child Traumatic Stress Network website: https://www.nctsn.org/resources/complex-trauma-children-and-adolescents

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Children Observation

Student name

Submitted by



Child observation

For this assignment Alex Michael is selected, who is 3 years old male child. His weight is 31.0 lb. (14.0 kg)with height 37.5" (95.2 cm) is observed with the permission of his parents. And consent letter signed as well for observation. His mother is Mexican, but father is white American from middle social class. Alex is the second child of his family. He is having 6 years old sister. His mother I prime care giver however his grand mother also lives with family.

Physical domains

His weight is 31.0 lb. (14.0 kg)with height 37.5" (95.2 cm). He is very active and speak clearly with short sentences.

Global motricity:

I can see that he can freely go up and down stairs, feet alternately (one foot per step) and

run without any difficulty. He jump on the spot and can throw a ball over their head very smoothly.

Fine motor skills:

He can make vertical, horizontal and circular lines with a pencil or color . He can hold pencil properly. In two fingers and write in proper position with good grip. He can build block tower up to 6 blocks . He can easy screw the box of candies and then unscrew it. He can use beads and put them in strip. But he was not able to cut properly. He pick the paper scissor in proper manner but cannot cut straight.

Social and linguistic abilities:

He is well aware of language and usually speak lots of Spanish words with English. He can explain with verbal and non-verbal cues. He knows the concept of mine and for him mother is his property. He can shows affection and emotions like crying, pain or joy. He take part in daily activities with her mother and ask lots of question. He likes to stay with her mother in kitchen and a small garden where he is mother have some plants. He love to play with his toys and more likely to ask help when he need something. He knows his name and his sister’s name and he love to go play with his sister. His toys are neat and in good condition.

Cognitive abilities:

He knows his body parts especially face parts very clearly and he knows the difference between various colors . he can match different figures in book and can tell the difference between big and small by pointing out with his finger. He can do short puzzles with 2-3 puzzles pieces and knows the difference between 1 and 2. He can pick thing according to size and like to play with keys. He can use mobile and knows how to turn on computer and few more steps. He can turn on TV nad mobile and knows how to play game on cell phone.

Cultural influences

He likes many foods and he is very obedient. He want to go any where with his mother or sister. He is afraid of Halloween objects and don’t like them. He is also afraid of darkness she his mother is having some phobia from darkness. He like to meet people and talk to them. He loves to play with his dog and his father take him to walk daily. culture has a profound effect on behavior, determining the socialization of children; how to dress and educate children, what behavior is considered reasonable. Possibilities and the formation of a child’s behavior are determined by culture, even if this behavior is considered as determined by biological factors.

The culture in which he develops, and lives affects the physical, intellectual, emotional, and social growth of the individual to varying degrees. There is plenty of evidence that the newborn’s reflexes are independent of the culture and form of organization of society. The ability of children to mimic behavior in the early stages of infancy does not depend on culture.

Formation of knowledge, skills and abilities for environmental monitoring , prevention and assessment of anthropogenic and environmental emergencies . Culture has a great influence on social development. At first glance it can easily seem that the baby is an exclusively asocial creature. He is devoid of human speech. His life is largely limited to the satisfaction of the simplest necessities of life. It is to a much greater extent an object than a subject, i.e., an active participant in social relations. With complete biological helplessness, the infant is not able to satisfy a single vital need. (Whiting,2010).

The most basic and basic needs of a baby can be met no other way than with the help of adults. Nutrition and movement of the baby, even turning it from side to side, is carried out only in collaboration with adults. Decisively everything in the infant's behavior is permeated with social. It is thanks to the immaturity of biological functions that everything that will subsequently relate to the sphere of individual adaptations of the child and is performed by him independently, can now be accomplished only through others, not otherwise than in a situation of cooperation. Thus, the child’s first contact with reality turns out to be entirely and completely socially mediated. (Turiel, 2002). Thus, culture plays a decisive role in the development of a child’s personality. The cultural environment forms the worldview, intelligence, physical, moral and spiritual development. A child learns to be a member of society, thanks to love, he identifies himself with members of his group and, thus, prepares to accept the rules of behavior and laws of his community


Turiel, E. (2002). The culture of morality: Social development, context, and conflict. Cambridge University Press.

Whiting, B. B. (2010). Culture and social behavior: A model for the development of social behavior. Ethos, 8(2), 95-116.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Chris Kyle From American Sniper

Chris Kyle from American Sniper

Chris Kyle from American Sniper suffered from a mental disorder. He did not develop a civil life. After his discharge from service, the Marine never got a permanent job, worked as a carpenter, and at least once he was arrested for drunk driving. It is worth noting that after the slaughter in Newtown Elementary School, Kyle gave an interview in which he called for the arming of school teachers and objected to restrictions on weapons owners. However, he stated the need for thorough training of its owners. In America, meanwhile, an epidemic of suicide war veterans is rampant. Recently published data made many Yankees grab their heads. In the past, the number of suicides in the army exceeded the losses in hostilities in hot spots: 177 vs. 176. An alarming trend appeared not only in the army, but also in all types of US forces. In total, 349 soldiers committed suicide in the Armed Forces last year, while only 295 were killed on the battlefields.

As for Chris Kyle, his war is over. “It was my duty to shoot at the enemy, and I don’t regret it,” he told the Texas Monthly. “My regrets are for people I could not save: marines, soldiers, friends. I'm not naive, and I'm not going to romanticize the war. The worst moments in my life fell just at war. But I can stand before God with a clear conscience, as I did my job.” The film "American Sniper" refers to the category of films that inevitably attract general attention and cause a lot of controversy. This film, shot by Clint Eastwood, is based on the life story of Chris Kyle, a marine and a sniper, who became the record for the number of enemies he killed. Kyle was in Iraq four times, and during his service there he killed more than 160 enemies. Then he returned to the United States, retired from the army and founded a company engaged in training and self-defense. He also assisted other veterans who went through the war. It was one of these veterans who, according to rumors, suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder, and killed Kyle when they went to the training ground together.

The main symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder are obsessive thoughts about the injury, hyper-arousal, and sometimes shame, guilt. Sometimes people can not experience emotions and behave like robots in everyday life. In other words, people do not have any emotions or do not have any particular emotions like pleasure. In addition, they constantly feel that they must defend themselves, they are in a state of anxiety, they have some symptoms of depression. These are the main groups of symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder.

It would be nice if there was some kind of biological test that would tell us if a person has PTSD, without checking the symptoms. But in general, PTSD is diagnosed by obtaining from the patient all the details of the story that happened to him, and then examining the history of each symptom. (Yehuda, 2002).

According to the most important theorist of this paradigm of psychology (Sigmund Freud, 1856-1939).The most common type of treatment for PTSD is, on the one hand, either psychotherapy or psychological counseling, on the other hand, the use of special drugs. Today, no one else forces people who are upset and preoccupied with trauma to tell a traumatic story again and again immediately after a traumatic experience. Previously, however, this was practiced: the “traumatic debriefing” technique was used, because it was believed that if it was possible to make people tell their story, the latter would feel better. But later it was discovered that too much insistence and pushing towards storytelling, as a rule, only intensified memories and negative reactions to trauma. Nowadays, there are a number of techniques that are used to very carefully guide people to their memories and talk about them - advisory or psychotherapeutic techniques that are very useful.

The relations between the concepts of nature and nurture have undergone, in the twentieth century, profound upheavals, even questioning or reversals of value, which are fairly representative of the general state of contemporary thought. Traditionally, indeed ("traditionally" refers to the period before the transformations of thought, in the field of physics but also anthropology, occurred in the early years of the twentieth century), the relationship between nature and culture were characterized by the difference, even the opposition, between these two concepts. (Helzer, et.al. 1987).

The first step of treatment is to talk to a health care provider to do an evaluation. Biochemical recovery: on the basis of complex laboratory tests, we determine the chemical deficiency. We restore the neuro-and biochemical balance of the brain through an individually selected complex of trace elements and amino acids. In most cases, it helps to alleviate the symptoms of PTSD or even forget about it, since proper functioning of brain biochemistry is of paramount importance for emotional health. A healthy diet and lifestyle advice will help restore biochemistry for the long term.

Intensive psychotherapy: we use a range of psychotherapy methods to combat PTSD. We are also working with the method of DPDG (desensitization and processing by the movement of the eyes) - a method that has proven itself in the treatment of negative emotional experiences associated with injuries. We also use cognitive behavioral psychotherapy. We teach our clients relaxation techniques, including self-hypnosis, a suitable fitness training program, biofeedback, yoga, Tai Chi and meditation. Due to the fact that PTSD affects not only the individual, but also those close to him, family therapy is very effective, and we strongly recommend spending several days of intensive family therapy as part of a treatment plan (Davidson, et.al 1991).

There are several diagnostic criteria, and if you observe enough symptoms, then you can diagnose PTSD. However, there are people whose disorders do not meet the criteria for diagnosis, because they do not have all the symptoms, but nevertheless there are symptoms associated with PTSD. Sometimes, even if a person do not fully meet the criteria for diagnosis, you still need help to deal with the symptoms.

To conclude, when there are difficulties with people after painful experiences, we talk about post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) . Sometimes this re-experiencing is called psychopathic reproving. This is another fascinating area where medicines are developed not only on the basis of the visible symptoms of the disease, but also in the context of the work of the brain circuits. This is a rational, scientific approach.

Thus, from the point of view of biology, a lot of interesting research is now being conducted, work is underway to study and disseminate psychotherapy, research on genetics is continuing, and attempts are being made to develop medicines. Much of what happens has the potential to change our understanding of things about PTSD..


Davidson, J. R., Hughes, D., Blazer, D. G., & George, L. K. (1991). Post-traumatic stress disorder in the community: an epidemiological study. Psychological medicine, 21(3), 713-721.

Helzer, J. E., Robins, L. N., & McEvoy, L. (1987). Post-traumatic stress disorder in the general population. New England Journal of Medicine, 317(26), 1630-1634.

Yehuda, R. (2002). Post-traumatic stress disorder. New England journal of medicine, 346(2), 108-114.

Subject: Psychology

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

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