Home >> Free Essays >> All Subjects >> Sociology

Sociology Examples and Topics

Homework 3

Response Paper

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the institution]

Word count =



Since antiquity, the human race has been divided into classes. Although they varied from time to time from feudal to bourgeoisie, slave to workers the dimensions of differences in the class have remained constant. With the invention of steam engines, the industrial revolution took place. It consequently resulted in the concentration of wealth into fewer hands. Hence, creating those who owned the means of production; bourgeoisie and those who work for them to earn returns i.e. proletariat. This brought along difficulties for the working class, poor working conditions and long working hours created exploitation inequalities and resentment towards those managing them. Consequently, creating a tussle of interest between them leading to a struggle to eliminate the difference and creating equality, the chapter suggests that owing to the means of communication this struggle will eventually reach all over the world ending in a revolution. The second part of the chapter narrates differences between a capitalist and a communist society and as to how the abolition of private property is the most important constituent of a Communist society that distributes wealth equally amongst its members of the society. The writer presents communism as a cure to all the ills created by capitalism.


We have studied the perspectives with the main emphasis on the sociological structures and the features of their functioning. The theories of sociology help better comprehend situations and interpretations as far as the existence of social structures as concerned. The Marxist theory here aids in the understanding role and the application of Karl Marx's and Engels works in the real world. The emerging paradigms in sociology create comparative analysis and different viewpoints all through which other theories like functionalism can be better comprehended. The theory of Marxism discusses the inequalities in the social structures and how they dominate the institutions, governance systems and lives of individuals within the society. The excerpt encompasses the emergence of social stratification that can subject individuals to certain prestigious lifestyles while others to harsh realities. Marxism, therefore, states that those subject to exploitation will eventually retaliate and oppose to the system, resulting in a better governance system known as communism as compared to capitalism.


The Marxism is a theoretical perspective within which the harsh realities of the social setting are recognized, they state that few have the power to control over the economic means over those who don't, through exploitation and subjugation to increase the returns. The macro Marxist analysis reflects upon the international system inclusive of nation states of conflict, where the capitalist states with their abundance in resources, and free market trade policies, exploit the underprivileged (Mouzelis, 1998). The meso level of analysis Marxist theory, however, suggests that the capitalist ideological economic and governance systems that serve the interests of the privileged few. Marxist, microanalysis recognizes that the stratification is an integrated factor within the structure of the society, where the distribution of economic wealth is unequal distribution amongst those in the society creating stratification, mainly two classes ‘bourgeoisie i.e. owners of means of production and proletariat i.e. workers (Wright, 2005). These differences and unjust behavior lead to conflict amongst them.


Marxist is criticized for its protagonist views on the distinctions and differences in the social structure. proponents of the social-democratic theory suggest that conflict does not always resolve through revolution or violence, but by negotiation as history claims (Acemoglu & Robinson, 2014). Marxism is largely criticized for over analyzing the capitalist system and that the economic system of communism is not future sustainable and cannot handle the pressures of existence. The school of thought states that inequalities persist due to the ownership of the means of production only, however, Max Weber states that factors like statuses and prestige also create power relations amongst societies. Critics suggest that class stratifications have moved forward from just two broader classifications in the society, the skilled are protected through rights, working hours and skill acquired. The Marxist social structure does not acknowledge the value of culture, religion, and ideas that they equally contribute just like the economy to the foundations of social structures (Marx, 2001).


BIBLIOGRAPHY Acemoglu, D., & Robinson, J. A. 2014. The Rise and Decline of General Laws of Capitalism. NBER Working Paper Series.

Marx, K. 2001. Preface to a Critique of Political Economy. London: The Electric Book Company.

Mouzelis, N. 1998. Marxism or Post-Marxism? New Left Review; London Vol. 0, Iss. 167, 107.

Wright, E. O. 2005. Approaches to Class Analysis. Cambridge University Press.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Homework 4

Response Paper

Black Feminist Thought by Patricia Hill Collins




Response Paper

Black Feminist Thought by Patricia Hill Collins


The paper has discussed the summary of the article by Collins, in which she talked about the rise of the black feminists and their thought. She has argued that the black feminists did not emerge overnight; however, it was the result of the years of their suffering and stigmatization. They proved their capabilities through their contribution to different fields of life. The relevancy, analysis, and critique section of the paper provide an insight into the article while eating it to the course contents.

Response Paper

Black Feminist Thought by Patricia Hill Collins


The article “Excerpts from Black Feminist Thought” by Patricia Hill Collins has talked about the role and potion of the black women in society. The article has highlighted the fact that black women were portrayed as incapable and were confined to their homes. Even after the end of slavery, they have faced the negative attitude and stigmatization of society. Collins has argued in her article that the black women have always stood tall against the oppression and stigmatization of the white society. They did not let the society hold them back from achieving the appreciated statuses in society by challenging the status quo and striving hard to make their own position in the white dominant society. Black women were objectified and treated as mules, without being paid for their services. In addition to it, they had to face violence and abuse at the hands of their white masters. After all the struggle of making their place in the society, the black women and mothers strengthened their children by providing them education and teaching them to not stay silent towards the oppression and violence directed towards them. Finally, Collins has shared that the black women emerged as the powerful figures by sharing their experiences and stances through literature and fiction, which made it clear to the world that they are not incapable, but equally intelligent and competitive human beings, who deserve to be appreciated (Collins, 1990).


The article is related to the class lectures and text in the way that it has shed light on the struggle of the black feminists. The article also relates in the way that it highlights the black women rose to their position and status in the society by facing the violence, oppression, and humiliation of the society. The thought process of the black feminists is the result of their hardships and they have portrayed it through their literary works. They have educated their children and made them able to move in the society, without submitting to the oppression and stigmatization of the society which their mothers had faced. The article is also related to the text because it talks about the fight and determination of the black women do not submit to the derogatory standards of the society and make their position on the basis of their competencies (Collins, 1990).


The article by Collins is related to the understanding of the society at the micro level in the way that it sheds light on the oppression and violence black women had to face in their households. They were treated as maids and mules, in addition to facing the abuse of their masters. The article also relates to the understanding of the society at the macro level by highlighting that all the black women had to face the same kind of struggle in the society and they were specifically deprived of recognition in the society. The article relates to the understanding of the society at the mezo level by highlighting the struggle of back women, belonging to all spheres and sections of the society.


The critique of the article is that it has perfectly shed light in the struggle for the black women to get their due recognition in the society. They faced oppression, violence, abuse, and humiliation, yet did not accept it. They rose as the authors, feminists, and activists and forced society to accept the fact that they are not lacking in any way and have the capabilities of making progress. The article did not lack anywhere and has perfectly shed light on the role of the black mothers in the upbringing of strong next generation (Collins, 1990).


Collins, P. H. (1990). Black feminist thought in the matrix of domination. Black feminist thought: Knowledge, consciousness, and the politics of empowerment, 221-238.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Homework 6

Your Name

Instructor Name

Course Number


Title: Homework 6

Response 1: According to Nancy Holt “second shift” is used to describe as the end of one’s day when an individual is finished working on their first shift. The first shift is considered a full-time job that is done during the day in which a person is away from home while the second shift consists of various tasks that are left to do after completing the first shift. These tasks include responsibilities like shopping, cooking, watering plants, paying bills, taking care of children and pets and, etc.

The story of Evan and Nancy's story discusses the importance of the couple’s ability to maintain an emotional balance between one’s home and work as it is not the responsibility of only women to do all the households. task She focused on equally sharing the second shift work. Her story depicts how girls and women perform more household tasks as compared to men even if they work in their first shift.

Response 2: In the story, Nancy was described as feminist. Her aim after marriage was to maintain equality between her and her husband at their home and work. However, her husband Evan resisted sharing household work although he supported Nancy to develop her career. Due to this, conflict arose between them and to solve this Nancy took the initiative to do some changes and reduce tension between them as this tension could affect their child. She developed an upstairs/downstairs agreement with her husband. According to this agreement, she would take care of her house, child and cooking meals while Evan would be responsible for taking care of the dog and garage area.

In spite of all this division, the duties were still not even as she was under the impression that she fairly distributed the work when in reality she was doing most of the work and her husband was just helping her a little bit.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Homework 8

Homework 8

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Homework 8

Social mobility can be described as the shifting of people from one social status to another within a given society. This movement can be either upward or downward. Generally, societies are organized by social class allowing greater social mobility (Tellioğlu & Strohmeier, 2019). Social mobility depends upon multiple factors like gender, urbanization and industrialization, means of transportation and communication and education, etc.

Specifically talking about education, it plays a vital role in social mobility and is valued a lot in modern societies. Education helps an individual to learn new skills that are necessary to get a better job that will in turn benefit in achieving higher social status because the high level of education directly corresponds to high salaries (Nazimuddin, 2014). However, this is not always true as the research shows that children of wealthy people will get better opportunities than children of people with average or low income. Hence education does improve social mobility, yet it has few limitations as well.

In both developing and developed countries education is considered as a key to get out of poverty. Educational credentials are required to access a high-status job. Typically, in developing countries, there is a huge demand for highly educated and skilled labor as a result regardless of a person’s social background companies are more interested in the educational credentials of an individual. This is the reason that helps in social mobility.

However, education sometimes hinders social mobility as most of the people living in extreme poverty are not able to access education. The division of public and private schools also acts as a barrier to social mobility as children in private schools are given more opportunities to flourish rather than public school children. This is the reason that high-income families have a choice and they let their children study in private schools while on the other hand low-income families do not have a choice and they have to let their children study in public schools CITATION God15 \l 1033 (Godsey, 2015). This income inequality is of the main reason that children are not having access to better education. Thus, there is a need to maintain a balanced system that provides children with equal opportunities to increase social mobility.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Godsey, M. (2015, June 15). The inequality in public schools. 1-8.

Nazimuddin, S. K. (2014). Social mobility and role of education in promoting social mobility. International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Research, 1-4.

Tellioğlu, H., Berger, M., Kirchberger, C., & Strohmeier, F. (2019, June). Mobility Transformation: What does mobility mean in the future?. In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Communities & Technologies-Transforming Communities (pp. 349-353). ACM.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Homework 9

Student name

Submitted by



Mother Love in the Context of High Poverty and High Child Mortality?

When life is dominated by hunger, what kind of face will love to become? How will trust evolve when it comes to daily violence and premature death? Based in northeastern Brazil, this is a narrative of everyday experiences of want, disease and death that revolve around the lives of women and children in mountain slums. Nancy Scheper-Hughes took the reader to the impoverished area on the modern plantation hill in Bom Jesus de Mata. She worked as a field base for twenty-five years, tracking the three generations of shantytown women working hard, fraudulent and Differentiate the experience of trying to survive. This is a story about class relations through the bottom of the body, emotions, desires and needs. The most disturbing and controversial thing is her discovery: maternal love, understood in the traditional sense, is actually a bourgeois myth, a luxury for those who can reasonably expect their children to survive. And these women can't even have such expectations.

According to Scheper-Hughes, motherlove in modern context is the bonding among mother and their infant child. It is biologically determined process that occurs naturally and starts with the life of infant. It is also shaped due to cultural or demographic transaction that permit any female give the birth to her child or children till they grow to adulthood. Hughes believes that the bond among mother and child is by no means inborn. “In more cases, the mother-child association can be formed several years after the baby's death” (Hudges2). This seemingly lagging parent-child binding pattern is closely related to the high infant mortality rate of the poor in Brazil. If the mother has a strong bondage when the child falls to the ground, then she is entirely likely to be saddened by her early death.

In other words, only in a social environment with low fertility and low mortality, people do not have to worry about the baby's living conditions and will be convinced of the mother-child "binding" and adhesion theory. The idea of ​​ Hughes sparked a debate in the anthropological world about the universal value of maternal love.

Work cited

Scheper-Hughes, Nancy. Death without weeping: The violence of everyday life in Brazil. Univ

of California Press, 1993.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Homework Questions

Homework Questions

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Homework Questions

6.1 Framing Deviance

It differs through individuals or societies, or the norms that are broken. Sociologists play a critical role in differentiating deviance. The norms which determine what action is deviant are through analyzing the rules and standards. An act that may be considered deviant for one group but no the other may be suicide. Different groups have a different explanation for deviance acts, which is why there are more examples through certain rules, norms, and taboos. There are similar examples of deviance for different groups in everyday life, such as robbery, theft, rape, or assault.

6.2 The Policy Implications of Incarceration

The factors that have contributed to an increase in incarceration are damage to social networks, social relationships, family functioning, physical health, political infrastructures, etc. Alternative forms of punishments can be suggested such as community service, probation, restitution, etc. To address this issue of increasing incarceration rates, the United States can start an awareness program or particular interventions. This would affect and define criminal acts to a considerable extent and would even help solve the problem of incarceration. The policy that I have discovered in my earlier research on crime and deviance is the intervention control policy for different crimes and deviance.

7.1 Analysis of High Schools

The high school that I attended was a private sector school which was huge, almost 1000 square feet. The socioeconomic composition of the school was focused on high-income students and the curriculum taught was GCSE standard. The racial composition of the school included all the children, including black, brown, white, Hispanic, Indian, etc. The school was located in the urban sector, and the percentage of graduates from the school was almost 95 percent. There was no hidden curriculum of the school which may apply to my high school experience. Those statistics which I found on the National Center for Education Statistic was the challenges most students face in high school. I believe that education reproduces some existing inequalities.

7.2 Cultural Differences in Education

Its education system somehow reflects a country's culture. However, most countries follow a similar pattern of education, but they do slightly differ from each other. The way of conducting the education system in the UK varies majorly from the US in certain aspects. For instance, the time duration for the completion of a degree is longer in the US as compared to the UK. The courses that are being offered in the UK are generally of a short period as they tend to be more focused on the main subject while in the US they also consider other connected aspects as well. Furthermore, the educational institutions in the US start their session in August.

7.3 Discussing Peer Review

Peer review is important because it involves subjecting the author’s scholarly work to check the validity of the work. The crucial questions to ask when reviewing a peer's paper is to know which audience the paper is intended for? What is the writer's main point? Which part of the paper interests the reader? The important elements of a peer review paper are to see whether the paper is thorough, thoughtful, and timely. The main concerns there are regarding a peer review paper get identified as unreasonable rejection, mordant criticisms, and resentment and jealousy towards the author's work.

8.1 US Healthcare and You

The US spends so much money on healthcare but still, fail to provide healthy outcomes to its citizens due to multiple reasons. Initially, the habit to avoid home cooked meals and prefer to order as it doesn’t require efforts and time, and excessive consumption of alcoholic drinks is the first reason of the increasing number of deaths in America. The people over there cannot afford medications and treatments due to being highly expensive. Comparing to the system in Canada even if the people are not able to afford their medical by themselves they don't have to bother about that as the National Health Care System covers their medical. However, the health of an individual is also affected by the environment in which they are living as a polluted environment can cause serious harm.

8.2 Obesity and the Sociological Imagination

The article discusses the major causes of obesity and the sociological imagination. It also explains the influences different factors have on the person which enhance obesity. The main points of the article illustrate the significance of child factors and the prominence each activity has on the growth of the person through obesity terms. The article identifies the problem of obesity as a public issue and not personal trouble. The social and cultural factors which lead to childhood obesity are social characteristics, sex or gender, age life stage, race, employment, occupation, income, education, marital status, etc.

9.1 The Impact of Power

Initially, the political system is responsible for the prosperity and development of any country. A disturbed or unfair political system can weaken the country in term of economy, social status, education, etc. the aspect that suffers the most is the group of minorities, Africans as being the largest group of minority in the US become continuous victim of racism, bullying, and discrimination on the basis of financial status. They get discriminated on every platform educational, professional or social, and despite this fact people they try to deal with such everyday incidents very professionally and by staying under the law.

9.2 Censoring Terrorism

By keeping a logical approach, it is extremely hazardous for the citizens of the USA if the terrorist group is having access to the internet. They can psychologically influence the minds of people to do something that they are unwilling to do. However, the government should have complete access and right to share things that can make them aware of the intentions of terrorist and can prevent people from getting hurt. They should execute campaigns on the internet and reach out people, apart from that they can also make them aware of the intentions of terrorist if they get notified on time.

10.1 Stereotypes in the Media

Media plays a primary role in shaping our society. The relation between mass media and social construction is that it shows what appears to be natural and obvious to people, but they may or may not be real; they are artificial. They provide material what we want to read and watch because the majority of people are a racial stereotype. A stereotype in media have some worst impacts, mostly they show how crimes are performed, and it harms society, as our generation got strictly affected by this. Media should avoid those programs or news which have a terrible impact on a generation, like the use of drugs or guns.

10.2 Impact of Technology on Society

The United States is one of the most technologically advanced nations in the world.  American culture linked to technologies such as the internet and automobile. Drawbacks of this technology are: crime rates are high, some benefits are: people can easily communicate, easy access to information. The US strengthened its culture by showing positivity of its culture on social media. Sometimes technology is not the cause of problems; basically, they are caused by the mismanagement of cultural shortcomings. Overuse of technology leads to significant issues.

10.3 Competency Reflection

Everyday life and sociology have a very close relationship. Every day when we wake up what we do and what we speak to people is sociological. The important tools are Survey, Observation, and Experiment, the significance of social stratification is that it refers to a society’s categorization of people into ranks of socioeconomic based on wealth, income, race, education, and power. More we socialize with individuals or society more we come to know about culture. Verbal and written communication skills play an important to present sociological concepts.

A – 7.1 Analyzing Argument

The writing strategy that is mainly used by the authors in their published articles is argumentative. The authors are trying to explain the invalidity of the use of Wikipedia for multiple reasons. One of these is mainly because it is recognized as a tertiary source and is not allowed for students to cite due to its open-source editing (Waters, 2007). However, the author of this essay tries to agree with Wikipedia as he wants his students to research and prepare for a topic through using this authoritative source. Although it may be erroneous from time to time due to its multiple editors, the strategy itself is convincing enough.

A – 9.1 Argumentative Essay


Waters, N. L. (2007). Why you can't cite Wikipedia in my class. Communications of the ACM, 50(9), 15-17.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

Homework Questions

Essay Response and Discussion

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Essay Response and Discussion

Essay Response 1

Cyberbullying is More Prevalent Amongst Girls

The stance that is being provided here is that how there might be a case that the prevalence of the cyber bullying among girls is on the higher side. Despite the fact it is an important topic, the more appropriate area of research is that how girls are more the victim or perpetuator of the cyber bullying. The fact that the article has many times made assumptions that are rather easy to identify but the problem is that they are not being packed by great supporting evidence. The argumentative response is easy though that how girls are the ones who instigate cyber bullying at the first place. The thesis is not specifically located but can be seen resonated during the course of the essay. The major problem is that there is not much credible. The in-text citations are also not used across the paper to make sure that some sort of empirical support is being provided to the assertion that is being made primarily during the course of the article. As the evidence is not provided, the integration is not there to be seen in a very smooth manner. So, it’s a very critical aspect as far as the way things are supposed to be provided. As far as the logic is concerned, it has been showed that as how girls do not have the physical prowess, they tend to sit behind and opt for cyber bullying. At the same time, the emotional appeal with regards to the fact that how girls most of the times are victims themselves as far as the instigation of the cybercrime is supposed to be carried out is also a major issue. The opposing argument is made but it is also not done in a very convincing manner.

Essay Response 2

Unit 8 Assignment 1

The first thing that stands about the article is that how it goes to show the effects of the cyberbullying and later on the thesis statement is being made. At the same time, the argumentative stance that is being presented during the course of the article is such that there are lot of backing in terms of the empirical evidences that goes a long way towards providing sense of credibility to the way article has proceeded. The thesis is presented later on during the course of the essay, but it is being done in a very convincing manner. At the same time, there is other effort that is made during the course of the article is that the exact reasons that why the cyberbullying is provided are given and the support of peer reviewed articles as well as the literal evidences are being used during the course of the essay. The credibility of the paper is enhanced due to the fact that the way argument is being presented, the support and the broader research has been referenced to that makes the authenticity of the claims that are being made during the course of the article to be much more valid to say the least. The logos is being used in the manner that there is lot of discussion about what are some of the apparent reasons for the increase in the cyber bullying and how it can be made sure that the broader themes of cyber bullying are needed to be catered in an appropriate manner to say the least. The arguments that are raised are quite valid in the sense that they make use of the confession to enforce it. The only thing that can be seen is that the opposing argument has not been provided.


Subject: Sociology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Hostile Online Environments

Hostile online environment

The state must build a policy for punishing the people who are involved in creating hostile online environments. This will discourage people from misusing electronic platforms. The common practices include sexual harassment, sexually oriented comments or jokes, hateful comments on disability, race, religion or gender. The policy can take measures for addressing the issue of hostile environments. The people involved in derogatory comments will be charged for creating hostility. Due to increased reliance on youth on the internet and social media, the probability of online hostility has increased.

It is important for the state to make online platforms safer for the public. People who are victims of online hostility suffer mental health issues such as stress, extreme depression, and isolation. The only way for stopping wrong activities is by creating a policy for punishing perpetrators who are involved in creating hostile environments. Online harassment has increased due to easy access to the internet and electronic gadgets. Victims suffer from emotional stress that influences their studies, work or routine lives. In 2017 Pew Research Institute revealed that half of the American population had experienced online harassment. Abusive and threatening behaviors are highly reported issues CITATION Ann18 \l 1033 (Goldfarb, 2018).

Laws can be implemented for undermining the culture of the hostile online environment. Adoption of adequate policy will allow victims of hostility to launch complain against the plaintiff. Cyber laws on online abuse protect the victims. Law enforcement or a civil lawsuit can be an effective tool for controlling such offensive activities. The policy must also emphasize on providing awareness to the internet users about online harassment and related issues. As a larger population of students are victims of online hostility, the state can implement procedures at schools and colleges for educating students about the procedures of reporting.


Goldfarb, A. (2018). Expert Advice on How to Deal with Online Harassment. Retrieved 02 17, 2019, from https://www.vice.com/en_ca/article/bjp8ma/expert-advice-on-how-to-deal-with-online-harassment

Oh, Y. W. (2019). Who Expresses Opinions in a Hostile Online Forum Environment and When. Mass Communication and Society.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

How Does Religion Affect Global Ideas Of Marriage?

How Does Religion Affect Global Ideas of Marriage?

Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees

How Does Religion Affect Global Ideas of Marriage?

Marriage is the opinion of two souls where two people decide to not only live with each other but also share moments of happiness and support each other in sorrows. Every religion in the world has different ideas regarding marriage yet every religion promotes marriage (Booth & Sica, 1995).

Specifically discussing Christianity, marriage is considered as a covenant that two individuals make before God. Christians have always honored marriage as a lifelong and divinely blessed monogamous union between man and woman. In Christianity, there is no concept of same-sex marriage. Although, Christian teachings have never held that marriage is essential for every person as for many centuries, priestly or monastic celibacy was highly valued. However, the priests and Christians who do not want to marry are expected to refrain from indulging in any sexual activity. Typically, a wedding ceremony is held in a church where the Christian couple makes a promise in the presence of God and reflect on their love by their wedding rings that symbolize their everlasting love for each other. According to Christian beliefs, marriage and family are not human conventions that are based on temporary consensus but the family was the idea of God and marriage is divine, not a human institution (Marks, 2005). Similarly, in Islam as well, marriage is considered as a legal contract between a man and a woman according to their free wills. Like Christianity, Islam also recognizes the importance of companionship and therefore advocates marriage as the foundation for families and is therefore, regarded as half of an individual’s faith.

Typically, in Islam, couples get married by a formal binding contract that outlines the responsibilities of both the groom and the bride. Also, two Muslim witnesses of the marriage contract must be present during a marriage ceremony. Unlike Christianity, in Islam, a man can marry four women at a time if he can fulfill their needs (Marks, 2005). Also, there is a need for the consent of the bride’s guardian before getting married. In Christianity, especially Catholic Christians prefer to marry people that are also catholic while in Islam, Muslim men can marry a woman who is Christian or Jewish. However, the women have to change their religion and embrace Islam.

Comparing the marriage ideas of Islam and Christianity with those of the Jews, the Jewish view regarding marriage is that it is a contractual bond that is commanded by God in which a man and woman bond with each other by directly involving God. Typically, a Jewish marriage is expected to fulfill the commandment to have children. A Jewish man is considered incomplete if he is not married. Like Islam and Christianity, Orthodox Jews also consider marriage as a bond between a man and a woman and discard the concept of same-sex marriage. However, non-orthodox Jews consider marriage as a bond between two people regardless of their sex. Marital harmony is highly valued in Jewish tradition. According to the Jewish religion, a man must not only love his wife but also honor her as much as he loves and honors himself (Marks, 2005). Additionally, marriage obligation in Judaism is based on the rules and regulations presented in the Bible.

In Hinduism, marriage is the bond that harmonizes two individuals for eternity. According to the beliefs of Hindus, a marriage is considered incomplete without consummation. Marriage in Hinduism is regarded as sacred this is because according to Hindu beliefs, all the Gods they worship are married and have families so they also should marry and have families. Since marriage is considered sacred, both parties cannot dissolve the marriage as they are bound to live together until the death of either one of them. Marriage is also considered as a social duty towards both parents and the society. Like Christianity, monogamy is highly valued in Hinduism.

Religion plays a vital role in determining the married life of an individual. Religion does affect the idea of marriage as it provides boundaries and obligations that both men and women of a specific religion should follow (Call & Heaton, 1997). Religion provides guidance, rules, and regulations that can facilitate an individual in living a happy married life.


Booth, A., Johnson, D. R., Branaman, A., & Sica, A. (1995). Belief and behavior: Does religion matter in today's marriage?. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 661-671.

Call, V. R., & Heaton, T. B. (1997). Religious influence on marital stability. Journal for the scientific study of religion, 382-392.

Marks, L. (2005). How does religion influence marriage? Christian, Jewish, Mormon, and Muslim perspectives. Marriage & Family Review, 38(1), 85-111.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 2 Words: 600




[Name of the Institution]



Social work practice refers to the professional application of techniques and values for helping people and communities through counseling and tangible services. There are diverse social welfare programs that work for the betterment of communities. In this paper, two important core social work practices i-e community development and social activism are discussed and evaluated on the basis of their distinctive performance and response to social problems.


Social work values and standards are the foundation for practice fields in order to address societal problems. Social workers identify and assess the problem before any intervention and scrutinize the possible implications for the community. There are several areas of intervention such as counseling, advocacy, case management, and group work. However, the most effective practices are community development and social activism. Both practices cover the majority of the population under a single involvement.

Community development practices are focused towards active participation from community members and providing them full representations in the policies that affect their lives referred to as a people-centered approach. firstly, the community members are educated about any social, environment or psychological issues and its impact on the community, which are then associated with the course of action. This practice encourages the diverse interests of the community and asks for their support as well. The practice also works to enhance the leadership roles of community members and utilize all the available resources and strategies for the long term and sustainable welfare of the community. Initially, these programs were focused on economic welfare and finances were utilized in business activities. The concept has lately evolved and considered health and social issues as an important concern for community development such as child care, hygiene concerns, mental health, protection for disabled people and migrants and refugees CITATION Pay15 \l 1033 (Payne, 2015).

Community development was highly focused on social issues and proposed that community relations and connections are significant for the overall growth of the community. The concept of self-help has arisen as a result of community development practices where people become self-sufficient to cope up with unpredictable issues. Communities started helping each other in difficult times and even in some areas collected and saved money to be utilized in difficult situations. the self-help groups of India is a great example where locals are trained in first aid medical facilities to cope with any alarming situations. They collect funds from every house and utilize it by the community collectively to develop sewerage systems.

Social activism is a deliberate action to fight for bringing about social change. If the activist feels that there is a cause and it should be changed, he sets an intentional objective of pursuing his goals. Social activism is more concentrated towards social issues as compared to a health issue. They are more concerned about the negativity persisting in the society, for example, women harassment, gender rights, fighting for transgender, domestic violence, safeguarding the minorities. Social activism is interconnected with political activism where society gathers to challenge a government, institutions, right to vote and public policies. Media has a significant role in social activism, as it is the most convenient platform to spread awareness among the masses. Most of the cases are solved due to social media pressures on the authorities in recent times.

Role of Social workers

In community development, social workers mostly perform on the grounds and worked connectedly with the community. They identify the potential issue, aware the community about the consequences of that issue, and then plan by keeping the views of the community in first place. It is described as a people-centric approach, which is planned and executed according to the desires of community members. It is also called as community mobilization, where the issues require a transformation and social workers perform their tasks effectively by awareness of community members.

Social activism required a sudden and quick response to the social issue. It is mostly a result of unintentional incidence which has negative effects on the masses. Social activism is influenced by emotional attachment to the cause or any political affiliation and threat with that particular issue which needs to be made reliable and acceptable for the people. correct. The social workers perform reliability consenses before intervening in sensitive issues. They look into the pros and cons, and the long term impact of changes brought by social workers. However, at times, activism is done through social media to reach out to maximum people and get the attention of public representatives CITATION McW01 \l 1033 (McWilliams & Siegel, 2001). Although, it's the easiest way but not reliable because many opponents get the advantage of the opportunity and exploit the activism activities. Social activist makes sure that their voices reach and heard by the targeted portion of the population. They also involve government sensitive causes and intervene through their supporting awareness campaigns. It educates people to fight for their rights and get full advantage of available resources without any discrimination


Social Work Practices

Social work practices are based on the concept of responsibility, care, empathy, and compassion towards social issues. Without social workers, people go to hospitals for minor issues. However, social workers have made all the facilities available at doorsteps. In court cases, people do not have to struggle hard to make their voice heard and file cases against the culprits. Social workers help people in distress and share their problems and involve the right organization. The core success of social workers is their determination to work for the rights of communities, they work hard to bring justice in peoples lives. They make sure that the refugees are at better conditions in the new area, they provide them with assistance to support their families. All the families are properly registered in terms of getting benefits.

Social work practices are not easy, especially performing in underdeveloped areas. Certain target groups are hard to deal such as mentally disturbed individuals. They require one to one sessions with them and also struggling to bring them into connections with their family members. Similarly, child protection, vaccination and ensuring that they grow up in a healthy and peaceful environment is not easy. Social workers decide different strategies for each case. Sone nay is solved with peer coordination, while some with family support CITATION All03 \l 1033 (Allan, Pease, & Briskman, 2003).

Every individual is unique for the social worker and one solution does not fit for everyone. Therefore they make sure that their particular intervention is beneficial for the target group. For social activism, social workers involve the police department and law enforcement agencies to smoothly appeal for their concerns and bring them to international platforms. The cases of acid attacks, harassment, child abuse are the issues that are hard to eliminate from societies by just condemning and awareness. But it also requires the lawmaking representatives to make strict laws against such acts of cruelty and punish their culprits.


Social work is essential practiced carried out in every country for different issues. Some countries are experiencing the issue of underdevelopment while others are facing the consequences of modernization. Social worker plays an important role in all aspects; their practices have gain peoples trust with time. Communities are strongly dependent on them for solving their issues and bringing them to international concerns. Social workers play an important role in the growth and development of societies and intervene in every sensitive issue and solve them efficiently. Social work is not only the responsibility of professionals but each citizen has a responsibility to serve for the betterment of people.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Allan, J., Pease, B., & Briskman, L. (2003). Critical social work: An introduction to theories and practices. dro.deakin.edu.au.

McWilliams, A., & Siegel, D. (2001). Corporate social responsibility: A theory of the firm perspective. Academy of management review,

Payne, M. (2015). Modern social work theory. Oxford University Press.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

Human Cost Of Amazon

Human Cost of Amazon

Handy W Georges

[Name of the Institution]

Human Cost of Amazon


Amazon is one of the largest retailer company that provide dozens of online products around the world. The company consists of global customers that require higher efficiency from the employees to provide them with the best quality products. However, due to increasing customers, the human cost of Amazon is also increasing. The company initially offered e-books but later expanded its business to several other products. It provided online books, gaming, goods such as electronics, apparel, food items, furniture and other accessories. The market expansion of Amazon has required the company to hire maximum employees to fulfil the demands of customers worldwide. The employees are obliged to work under strict conditions and keep the customers satisfied with the company. The current employees are unskilled to perform in every department and it required to recruit new employees. However, this recruitment resulted in the high human cost of Amazon.


The market expansion was a necessary strategy for the sustainability of Amazon. The company is facing high competition from eBay and other online companies. Thus, it requires the company to efficiently respond to the changing trends in the surroundings. However, it is also a fact that Amazon has compromised on the working condition of its employees in order to capture the vast majority of people globally. The employees were subjected to work under strict conditions to fulfil the orders and demand of people. The working conditions in Amazon were extremely poor, thus this paper discusses the Human Cost of Amazon which has taken place due to the changing strategies of the company.

Lack of Proficiency

The new expansion required high technical skills to perform online gaming and other technologies. It required employees from IT and Engineering department to work competently. Employees are proficient in certain fields and are not masters to perform all the tasks. The increasing business asked for more talented employees that can manage the technical aspects of the company. The employees were required to develop software which makes the work and monitoring easy for the company. Later, the company developed software such as Prime through which customer was able to access the products with a single click. They also provided live streaming of shows on Netflix and other websites. This has also increased the loyalty of customers to the company ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"x75PHsTh","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Ind)","plainCitation":"(Ind)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":14,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ZeEdB6mD/items/VKS9SMMM"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ZeEdB6mD/items/VKS9SMMM"],"itemData":{"id":14,"type":"article-journal","title":"Inside out: How employees build value","container-title":"Journal of Brand Management","page":"393-402","volume":"10","issue":"6","author":[{"family":"Ind","given":"Nicholas"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2003"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Ind).

Poor Working Conditions

The Human resource of Amazon is mostly criticized due to poor working conditions. The employees are obliged to work for extra hours without getting extra compensation. They were also subjected to walk 15 miles to pick orders from the warehouse. If the employees ever failed to achieve specific targets, they were subjected to notices and termination. The working capacity of employees was also monitored regularly. The scanners would measure their response to work and would monitor their pace of performing the tasks. This has greatly impacted the health of their employees that resulted in poor performance. It was believed that when employees are overburdened, it decreases their productivity and thus the company’s targets are not achieved. The single employee of Amazon is believed to confirm 60 packages per hour which require high efficiency. During the training sessions, employees figure out that it's a tough job to work for Amazon. There are mandate breaks which are strictly monitored. At times the employees do not have any lunch break, thus no one eats for approximately 12 hours ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"DwUrjBRv","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(O\\uc0\\u8217{}Connor)","plainCitation":"(O’Connor)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":13,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ZeEdB6mD/items/94A66VEU"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ZeEdB6mD/items/94A66VEU"],"itemData":{"id":13,"type":"article-journal","title":"Amazon unpacked","container-title":"Financial Times","page":"2013","volume":"8","author":[{"family":"O’Connor","given":"Sarah"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2013"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (O’Connor).

The orders and packages in the company has an accurate time in which they need to be dispatched. Thus the employees are noted for their time and pace in picking and packing the order. Amazon tracked everything from employees to orders and from orders to customers and suppliers. At times the employees do not have time for bathrooms because they need to focus on the system and react immediately. If someone would be off task for more than 30 minutes, they would be immediately fired from the job. Also, on Black Friday the employees tend to work for six days a week. It's mandatory overtime and employees are on their feet. The work shift starts a 5 am in the morning and employees are obliged to maintain the discipline and stay stable. There is no space for chaos at Amazon or else employees are directly terminated.

Professional Training

Amazon needed to provide professional training to its employees to cope up with the emerging market trends. This requires software development, graphic designing and quick response to the emerging technologies. The employees are primarily trained to perform their work. Online business requires a maximum understanding of the software and technologies so that the employees would be in a better position to respond to customers demands. Amazon has invested a high amount to train its employees around the world. The training was not only determined to increase the sales but it also encouraged to build strong networks within the company. It was supposed to increase the level of support among the employees so that they will efficiently respond to customers queries. The training helped the employees to increase their efficiency and product delivery to the customers globally ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"6FV1aPMq","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Cloud)","plainCitation":"(Cloud)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":10,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ZeEdB6mD/items/RZLX2CUK"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ZeEdB6mD/items/RZLX2CUK"],"itemData":{"id":10,"type":"article-journal","title":"Amazon web services","container-title":"Retrieved November","page":"2011","volume":"9","author":[{"family":"Cloud","given":"Amazon Elastic Compute"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2011"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Cloud).

Power Politics

Amazon is one of the largest revenue generating company. The company has formed a well-established communication system through which the customers can directly respond to their products. They rate the products and provide reviews about the quality. The review of each customer is available for other people so that the can check the reliability of products prior to their confirmation. They also rate the efficiency of employees and their customer care performance. This, helps the employees to improve their performance and do more hard work. The rating is also incorporated in the monthly performance of employees which leads to their promotion. Thus, the evaluation is not based on any internal politics but a fear method of ratings. However, this can have negative consequences as well. The company regularly checks the ratings, thus the customers at times may not be loyal in providing fair reviews which reflect on the performance of employees negatively ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"x8lCPIsr","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Sboner et al.)","plainCitation":"(Sboner et al.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":9,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ZeEdB6mD/items/ZPSRJLMZ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ZeEdB6mD/items/ZPSRJLMZ"],"itemData":{"id":9,"type":"article-journal","title":"The real cost of sequencing: higher than you think!","container-title":"Genome biology","page":"125","volume":"12","issue":"8","author":[{"family":"Sboner","given":"Andrea"},{"family":"Mu","given":"Xinmeng Jasmine"},{"family":"Greenbaum","given":"Dov"},{"family":"Auerbach","given":"Raymond K."},{"family":"Gerstein","given":"Mark B."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2011"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Sboner et al.).

Multilevel Sales Strategy

The employees not only just built relation with the customers but with the suppliers as well. They are required to build strong relations outside the organization in order to get the best products for their site. Due to increasing competition, it is highly technical to attract suppliers and make them loyal to the company. Thus the company has developed customer to customer strategy that offers them to control the vast majority of customers. This helps the customers to view the ratings of sellers on the website and select quickly from millions of products. This facilitates the transactions as well as it helps the employees to save time ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"oE2eD69p","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Kantor and Streitfeld)","plainCitation":"(Kantor and Streitfeld)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":12,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ZeEdB6mD/items/5YGHMEHA"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ZeEdB6mD/items/5YGHMEHA"],"itemData":{"id":12,"type":"article-journal","title":"Inside Amazon: Wrestling big ideas in a bruising workplace","container-title":"New York Times","page":"74-80","volume":"15","author":[{"family":"Kantor","given":"Jodi"},{"family":"Streitfeld","given":"David"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Kantor and Streitfeld).


One of the frustrating parts of working at Amazon was that the company would offer promotions and raises in the holiday seasons. Initially, employees were happy to get bonuses on Christmas and other events but later they realized that it was in benefit of the company and not the employees. The holiday time which the employees would want to spend with their families was utilized in work. This has resulted in negative impacts on employees personal and professional lives. The work becomes stressful and ultimately employees were frustrated to work with a company

Work Cited

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Cloud, Amazon Elastic Compute. “Amazon Web Services.” Retrieved November, vol. 9, 2011, p. 2011.

Ind, Nicholas. “Inside out: How Employees Build Value.” Journal of Brand Management, vol. 10, no. 6, 2003, pp. 393–402.

Kantor, Jodi, and David Streitfeld. “Inside Amazon: Wrestling Big Ideas in a Bruising Workplace.” New York Times, vol. 15, 2015, pp. 74–80.

O’Connor, Sarah. “Amazon Unpacked.” Financial Times, vol. 8, 2013, p. 2013.

Sboner, Andrea, et al. “The Real Cost of Sequencing: Higher than You Think!” Genome Biology, vol. 12, no. 8, 2011, p. 125.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

Identity Exploration Essay




Identity Exploration Essay

Identity formation is basically a significant lifelong process. The process of identity formation basically starts from childhood, it becomes interesting and important during childhood, and then once a person becomes mature during adolescent then it continues during the lifetime. Some aspects of identity are such that they cannot be taken for granted; sexual or gender identity is one of them. Although there are people who, most of the time are comfortable with their gender and sexual orientation but there are people who are although in the minority, generally do not fit in this mold. Normally such people are referred to as homosexual who are attracted to same-sex partners. Other types are known as transgender who believe that they belong to the opposite sex wearing the wrong body type, external characteristics to the contrary. As for my journey of gender identity is concerned I was very comfortable with my gender and the body type I had. My sexual orientation was also in the right direction, so when I say that I was comfortable in my body, I mean that I strictly belonged to the gender that I have been given and there was no doubt in my mind about my gender and sexuality.

As gender identity is based on how you present and identify yourself, for example as a man or boy or woman or girl, in other words, gender is about how you present yourself. Some people identify themselves as transgender that means gender identity does not align with their biological sex. Normally a person is free to present his/her sexual or gender identity. It is believed that your race, culture, ethnicity and even your personality affects the way that you think about yourself. Gender identity is fluid that can change throughout life. So in my case, I was completely comfortable in my skin and gender and also my sexual orientation was completely normal.

Most of the people believe that the sexual orientation or identity is not something rigid, but it is fluid, which means that gender identity lies along an emotional and physical continuum, that means that depending on our education, emotions and needs for sexual intimacy preference also change along with the time. There are times when therapists use this concept to treat patient’s who normally think that their sexual orientation is being changed from heterosexual to homosexual. Over the time I used to think that gender identity and sexual orientation are two same things, but with experience and observation, I came to know that sexual orientation and gender identity are different and they are not linked. Normally it is said that people who are transgender are also gay, but it is not always the case. Gender and sexuality are two completely different things and to distinguish between the two is very important. Some of my friends who used to have relationships with the opposite sex and used to be happy but over the period of time they realized that the relationship is lacking something and they are not satisfied with it so by switching their sexual orientation to homosexuality they found the true happiness and are completely happy now. From the very start, I was more interested in the opposite sex, and there was no doubt in my mind about my sexual orientation. I think that being connected with someone with the opposite sex you gain the true purpose of the relationship. It becomes quite easy for both the partners to know the real meaning of life, the true essence of relationship and then to support each other through every thick and thin. Along with that, both the partners learn a lot from each other, there are different traits that are present in both genders and that are instilled in them from nature, so naturally also the sexual orientation towards the opposite sex is also quite beneficial.

Naturally males are quite strong and also they can handle the situations quite logically and wisely than women, while women are physically quite weaker as compared to males and also they are less capable of thinking logically when they are under pressure. Women are good in maintaining the finance of the household and also in a relationship they are able to make the relationship stronger by giving sacrifices so keeping in mind these points that I experienced in my lifetime I am a huge supporter of heterosexuality. Having said that, for some people this is not a universal feeling their sexual orientation as well as their gender identity changes over time. Some people change their sex or gender by using different surgeries because with the passage of time they understand their sexual priorities and interest. Although the people who are completely in favor of heteronormative beliefs that homosexuality is not normal and people who are more prone towards same-sex they have psychological problems and they need help but the reality is that every person has different sexual interest while some people like to hang out with the opposite sex and they find satisfaction and happiness in that, there are people who find the same joy and pleasure in homosexuality.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Identity Paper

[Your Name]

[Instructor Name]

[Course Number]


Sociology: Identity Paper

A wonderful thing and fact about the United States is that there are masses of people from different cultures and backgrounds and there is a multitude of diverse cultures that have different ways of identifying themselves. According to my personal view, I think about my life and self and to identify myself can be done in many ways. For identification, I identify myself by dealing with different aspects of my life such as class, race, religion, and gender, etc.

The role of race and ethnicity is very huge in my identification due to my proud that who I am and where I am from as well as I always stand for my gender. The language also has a huge role as it aided me to appreciate my belongings and backgrounds as well as enabled me to enjoy and learn more than I already know. My manners are also crucial in my identity and they are shaped in a fine way by different aspects of my life including my culture. It also made me think and do that looks right to me while denying the wrongs and do not even agree with the things that are found wrong in life. This is a crucial point that I use to identify myself. I had grown up with the culture because my parents are raised in the American style.

In terms of other perspectives, I will reflect on myself and my family as a middle class that leans to the financially weak side. But we live enough comfortable life while struggling for the best. In education I also find myself working for having scholarship because by nature I always find myself looking for self-support while I am much cautious with the financial resources and do not prefer to spend money on useless things. Additionally, this aided me in the way that I consider myself enough competent to struggle for the best and become independent up to the possible even I am female.

As I am a girl, I identify as a female. Growing up I sometimes find myself interested in boy-ish activities that strengthen me in my life a lot. But by nature, I am comfortable enough and enjoy the stereotype and interests of a girl as I grew with time. It took enough time (some years) but I knew that what the role of female for me and in my life while what the role my gender plays for me in my life as well as how I think about myself as a person.

I grow up in a typical type of family and I know that “God is the almighty savior and we must believe and in him and everything he does and can do”. So from such background, I am exposed to the varying religion perspectives and I always decide good and bad based on religious aspects. I also prefer and believe in a high position and like to explore things and the world and that is why I also want traveling. Furthermore, I also several other spiritual beliefs but I never tie myself down only to the one title while I find many things right from other religions which I consider right when it comes to beliefs of mine.

As my gender is female, so it is more than clear that I would date and marry a man and that is why I see myself connected to other sex sometimes. In short, I straight forward identify myself as woman sand find connected to females while having an association with men as required.

By each of the factors mentioned in my life, I am clever to replicate on them and know what is the role of each in defining me and how and why. The main and actual fact behind who I am is due to the way I use to identify myself in the listed groups or categories as well as what I find that affect me and almost my entire life.

Work Cited

Rothenberg, Paula S. Race, class, and gender in the United States: An integrated study. Macmillan, 2004.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 2 Words: 600


Title page

Persuasive message

Announcement of banning plastic: “Every year, over 8 million tons of garbage is dumped into our beautiful oceans. And when you think of that number, I mean, to think 8 million tons, and I would say it’s probably senators, I think it’s probably more than that, based on what I’ve seen and based on the kind of work that I’ve seen being done”.

Trump made a public announcement on banning plastic. The message is persuasive because he used provocative tone to highlights the adversities of using plastic. Use of strong words allowed the speaker to convince the audience about the social issue. The choice of words depicts that he has attempted to convince the audience for his reason of signing the bill against plastic use.

I think that the message was effective because the speaker has used logos, pathos and emotional appeal in the message. The use of logic is apparent as he quotes the figures or 8 million tons. This indicates that an effective strategy has been used as Trump managed to back his argument with data. Another strategy used by Trump for influencing the audience is by emphasizing on how garbage is threating the lives of Americans. This is a practical way of evoking emotions of the audience and persuading them to understand the need for plastic ban. The tone of the speaker has also made the message persuasive because it alarms the listeners about how plastic use will further damage their environment and the planet. Trump has managed to build a connection with the audience by talking about them.

I think the approach that the speaker could have used was to support his claims by including scientific evidence such as by telling how plastic will be a cause of more diseases and deaths. I also believe that by stressing on the negative role that plastic already did to the country would add more persuasive effects for the audience. Another strategy that I believe would have been more effective was to start with the benefits that the bill will bring for the entire society.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

If You Can, Create The Title For Me

Social Inequality in Theoretical Perspectives

Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees

Social Inequality in Theoretical Perspectives

Social inequality and poverty are a topic that is debated all around the world. Social inequality is an umbrella term that describes the subsistence of unequal opportunities for people belonging from different social statuses or positions. The disparities that are observed in the distribution of economic assets had a great impact on not only a single person but on a whole society (Kendall, 2012). Several reasons are there due to which the social inequality in the society emerges. For instance, the occurrence of social stereotyping or discriminatory legislation is few reasons due to which social inequality exists. The existence of social inequality is not limited to the different racial groups, but it also exists among various religious groups. Due to this reason, social inequality is often linked to racial, wealth, and gender inequality.

Specifically discussing the US, it is undeniably true that despite being one of the prosperous countries in the world, social inequality still exists. Especially, income inequality in the US has increased tremendously. According to the article published by the Economic Policy Institute (EPI), the pay of CEO had increased up to 30 times more than an employee in 1980. The huge pay gap among employees and the CEO still exists. The article also highlighted that in 2007 the pay of CEO increased up to 360 times more than it was in 1980 (Mishel & Wolfe, 2019). This means that rich people are getting richer and richer while poor people are becoming more poor day by day. The huge pay gap results in increasing social inequality among various groups of people as it seizes social mobility, therefore increasing class differences. Moreover, differences in the pay gap are also due to gender discrimination as males are paid more as compared to females. Similarly, racial and religious factors also influence pay gaps. For instance, most of the authoritative positions are held by Whites rather than black people. In short, the issue of social inequality is still prevailing not only in the US but around the globe.

While discussing social inequality from the theoretical perspective, there are three main theoretical perspectives according to which differ in explaining the issue of social inequality. In sociology, theoretical perspectives can be defined as a set of assumptions regarding any issue. According to the functionalist perspective, every member of society works together to attain success and common good for all citizens. In sociology, inequality among a group of people is known as stratification (Kendall, 2012). The functionalists consider that stratification is good for the growth in society. They believe that authoritative positions or in other words, good jobs with high pay scale belong to those who are talented and hardworking. Also, the reason that poor people are poor is that they are not very talented and do not work hard to attain success and qualify for the best positions. The functionalist theory was proposed by Davis and Moore (Grimes, 1988). They believe that society can only progress if talented people are given difficult jobs. Also, according to them, if all the people are paid the same, the concept of hard work will vanish, and people will only do the easy jobs that will damage the balance of a society. The rewards are given to the people who work hard to serve as a motivation for other people, and they also work hard to attain rewards. So if every member of society is paid equally, then no one will be able to utilize his or her talent. However, this theory neglected the concept of structural inequality as factors like racial and gender discrimination was not considered. Additionally, the lack of job opportunities and school funding were also neglected.

In contrast, the conflict perspective regarding social inequality is way different than the functionalist perspective. From a conflict perspective, a conflict is a normal feature that is necessary for the fair distribution of power. The equal distribution of power will, in turn, bring a social change that can benefit society. In the context of social inequality, conflict perspective views stratification as a threat to society. According to the conflict perspective, stratification can change dysfunctions society and therefore hinders the chances of social progress. For instance, a conflict theorist believes that it is wrong that a baseball player is paid more than a public school teacher who barely earns money to attain the basic necessities of life. Conflict theory is based on the work of Karl Marx. According to him, due to the industrial revolution, people are divided n into two groups, that is they either own the factories, or they work in them. This unfair distribution resulted in social inequality as upper-class people become richer while working-class earn less money and therefore are struggling to survive. Thus, people in society are divided based on wealth and power. Additionally, the government also promotes capitalism, and therefore, they provide subsidies and tax breaks to support the owners of the industries (Georg, 2004). According to the government, providing incentives to the industrialist will facilitate in increasing the growth rate of the economy. However, in reality, these subsidies make rich people richer, and poor people have to suffer a lot. Although, many functionalists deny the conflict perspective as they think that conflict theorists neglect the abilities and talent of the people. They also argue that rich people do not always think about their self-interest; for instance, it is very well known that Bill Gates gave half of his wealth to facilitate poor people, so conflict perspective regarding stratification is wrong.

Thus, it is undeniably true that there does exist a structural social inequality based on religion, people, and gender due to which there is an imbalance in the society that is the ultimate reason for poverty.


Georg, W. (2004). Cultural capital and social inequality in the life course. European Sociological Review, 20(4), 333-344.

Grimes, M. D. (1988). The functionalist perspective on social inequality: Some neglected theoretical and conceptual roots. Sociological Inquiry, 58(2), 182-193.

Kendall, D. (2012). Sociology in our times. Cengage Learning.

Mishel, L., & Wolfe, J. (2019). CEO compensation has grown 940% since 1978: Typical worker compensation has risen only 12% during that time. Retrieved 31 October 2019, from https://www.epi.org/publication/ceo-compensation-2018/

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Immigration And Poverty

Immigration and Poverty

[Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees]

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Author Note

[Include any grant/funding information and a complete correspondence address.]

Immigration and Poverty


The title of this social campaign will be "Striving For What Matters!”

State legislator (Representative of the communities)

This plan will be submitted by Katherine Clark, who assumed office in the capacity of United States Representative in the 5th Congressional District of Massachusetts since 2013. Representing a diverse district that comprises twenty-four towns and cities, Katherine has a real fight on her hands, whereby she is striving to ensure affordable healthcare for the immigrants and unprivileged segments of the society. The communities under her jurisdiction stretch from the coasts of Winthrop to the economic hub of Metro West. The proposal will impact Middlesex, Worcester, and Suffolk counties.

Immigration and Poverty

Analyzing the data from 2009 it can be seen that a significant number of residents in the state of Massachusetts were immigrants, and most of them originally belonged to Asia and Latin America. According to a study, this percentage turned out to be 14.4% CITATION Cla12 \l 1033 (Clayton-Matthews, 2012). In the pursuit of economic prosperity, these immigrants arrived here so that they can provide a decent standard of living to their families and have better access to inclusive opportunities but the reports maintain that the multi-dimensional poverty rate is higher in Massachusetts than many other states. CITATION Luc19 \l 1033 (Ciurczak, 2019). There was also an unprecedented increase in the illegal population of migrants in Massachusetts than in any other state. This illegal migration brought a dramatic increase in the annual cost that the taxpayers in Massachusetts had to pay for the welfare of all these citizens regarding healthcare, education, and other social amenities.

Different organizations and welfare associations in Massachusetts are also targeting their collective efforts to fight against many cruel policies imposed by the federal authorities. These policies also entail various anti-immigration laws that pose barriers for the immigrants to feel safer and more welcome in the recipient state. Specifically, in Massachusetts, several cities have enacted many policies that restrict the collaborative efforts of organizations mirroring the spirit of federal deportation laws. Immigrants play a pivotal role in the economic growth of any country, and the United States is a true depiction of this case. The change in immigration rates is a driver for effects in the poverty rate of the nationals due to increased competition caused by immigrant labor. There is a strong correlation between periods of high immigration and rapid improvements in living standards. Yet, many immigrants face discrimination and barriers to an opportunity at different levels.

Similarly, poverty is a highly pervasive issue that needs immediate attention from governmental authorities at all levels. Although Massachusetts is one of the most privileged states in the United States of America, one in every ten of the households still has to face untoward circumstances because of poverty incidence CITATION Jac16 \l 1033 (Jacobs, 2016). The official poverty line is significantly low, according to federally generated data; therefore, problems associated with this social level are a real challenge for the state.

Strategies and Goals

The long-term objectives of the campaign are:

Investment in those organizations that solely focus on job skills training so that defined career pathways driven by employer needs can be introduced to the immigrants.

The Development of a model with integrated services is inclusive of public placement, financial training, and career placement.

Management and oversight of a wide range of social needs of the local community of immigrants involving food security, potable water, sanitation facilities, job opportunities

Solving the problems as a result of poverty locally through collective efforts of the community

Designing and implementing a new set of revolutionary measures to tackle poverty which can redress the compound problems faced by those immigrants who have low-income jobs

Keeping the focus on shaping the new narrative on individual immigrants and not on the policies and structural barriers that are responsible for this situation

Formation and maintenance of an adequate social protection platform that protects the unemployed immigrants for a temporary period. This can also assist in the well-being of the immigrants through the provision of conditional cash transfers.

Intermediate goals:

Propagation of awareness regarding the problems stemming from immigration and poverty

Championship and endorsement of a proactive dialogue among the general public of Massachusetts and the stakeholders of the educational and health facilities

Establishment of live web lectures and informational videos about the dangers of poverty in different meetings

Addressing the children in schools and parks and teaching them the grave consequences of poverty through skits and dramas.

Firstly, there is a huge potential in immigration reforms for the creation of a pathway that can enable many immigrants and unprivileged people to seek opportunities in the pursuit of financial prosperity. Endorsing this issue will help to achieve substantial improvement in the lives of immigrants by educating the general public. It will be a bilateral and informative process where all the agents of socialization will actively learn from each other and adapt practices in the pursuit of securing the future for the coming generations.

A few short-term or intermediate victories that can be achieved while pursuing long-term goals include awareness developed among the children who have impressionable brains. Resultantly, they will become functional citizens of the society in the future, targeting their efforts to improve conditions for the unprivileged.

Potential constituents, allies, and opponents


Following associations and non-profit organizations will be the potential constituents of the campaign apart from the general public:

United Way (UW): Working with almost 1,250 local offices across America, United Way is a non-profit organization which is striving day and night to raise funds for the immigrants who are facing troublesome circumstances.

Massachusetts Law Reform Institute (MLRI): Securing the economic rights of low-income immigrants, Massachusetts Law Reform Institute is instrumental in developing and coordinating state-wide strategies so that the immediate legal needs of the immigrants can be accommodated.

The Boston Foundation: Extending a significant chunk of its resources to the unprivileged, The Boston Foundation envisions to break the vicious circle of poverty for almost all the poor households currently dwelling in Massachusetts.

In addition to these organizations, different communities from Massachusetts will also be actively involved in the campaign. Primarily, the Dominican and Latino diaspora from Massachusetts, who undergo problems of social exclusiveness and racial discrimination daily, will be the front faces of this campaign to instill empathy in people. Discouragement of anti-immigration laws is also possible through the active participation of racial minorities and various communities of the state. There will also be different demonstrations from the student community in promoting potential solutions against poverty incidence.


The allies of this social campaign will be participants from the local church of Massachusetts, local schools, and universities, Marty Walsh, who is the former mayor of Massachusetts, and regional media groups. The regional and local media groups will serve the cause in two noble ways. On the one hand, they will cover all the events of the campaign free of cost, and on the other hand, they will support the campaign with utmost enthusiasm. Zazil media group and Beasley Media Group Boston are especially noteworthy in this sense as they have always been forthcoming in broadcasting social campaigns. Other political leaders and clergy of the local community will also act in the capacity of allies of this campaign.


The followers of Republican senators, specifically, David Perdue and Tom Cotton, who strongly support anti-immigration laws and bills are predicted to oppose this campaign. Similarly, the adherents of RAISE Bill, which entails reforms in the immigration policies to focus on the natives' rate of employment, are also thought to pose barriers in the smooth proceedings of this campaign.

Communication tactics

Historically, many social issue campaigns have deployed a plethora of communication tactics to galvanize different communities regarding a special problem. The intensity of the problem can be successfully mitigated if the right communication and engagement tactics are sued in a campaign. Disseminating compelling stories according to a story-based strategy helps to capture the attention of media groups in an efficacious manner, and distinct symbols are also employed to pressurize a specific target in many instances.

Besides these communication tactics, which are meticulously detailed below, the campaign will be covered by local and state-wide newspapers and TV channels so that communities and organizations across America can get aware of the problems and untoward circumstances faced by immigrants.


In the print media, different articles and reports will be published in a multitude of local newspapers and magazines. Different communication tactics, for instance, graphics and strong advertising, will be used to engage the local communities. Story-telling through publishing real accounts of the problems of immigrants and poor households will also prove to be instrumental in galvanizing people regarding anti-immigration policies by the federal government. Signage, posters, and banners posted across the state with powerful messages and distributing brochures detailing the proceedings of the campaign can also be deployed as communication tactics. This tactic will achieve goals through the principles of mass media. Inclusive portrayals and life stories of the immigrants will call for the attention of the brands and advertising industry; thus, this media coverage will become a pre-cursor for raising funds and donations for the poor.


Different performances will be scheduled at different points of time during the official period of the campaign. The communication tactics will involve various demonstrations with meaningful backdrops. In one of the demonstrations, the students of the local schools and colleges will march while enclosed in wheeled cages. This will prove to be a strong symbol of the recent immigration policies and bans. In another proposed idea of demonstration, the effects of poverty will be shown by the march of a homeless group of men. Additionally, the people who are suffering at the hands of anti-immigration policies will also be presented as the front face of this campaign.

Public speaking by the state's mayor and other political leaders will also be a special event of this campaign.

Social Media

Blogs, mailing of various newsletters, social story-telling through Facebook posts, broadcasting the campaign on different channels on YouTube are some of the communication tactics which can be corroborated through social media. Popular Instagram accounts, such as “Immigrants of Massachusetts’’ and going live through the official accounts of Massachusetts’s mayor and local clergy will also engage the stakeholders and general community in proposing further solutions to this problem. The promotion of press-releases of the campaign on social media is also a powerful communication tactic.

Potential upsides and liabilities of social media usage

There are many potential advantages to broadcast this campaign on social media. Promotion of the message through social media will help to create a direction, and every part of the campaign will be tailored to engage the stakeholders through proper usage of social media. Measurement and reporting of any progress in the circumstances of immigrants will easily be done through indicators of social media. Cross-platform campaigns, for instance, live broadcasting of the campaign through Facebook and Instagram simultaneously will make the process more efficient.

On the other hand, there is an off-chance of the propagation of hate speech and negative information about the campaign. Followers of republicanism and the new anti-immigration laws will not be hesitant in bullying the immigrants and propagate large amounts of violent speeches on social media platforms. A lot of misinformation can also be forwarded from the social media sites, which will render the unprivileged people vulnerable to a lot more hateful attitudes in society.

Allocation of the fund

Half a million will be invested in those associations and non-profit organizations that are striving to create job opportunities for the immigrants. There are special training and career counseling sessions conducted by United Way and Boston Charity, so after carefully monitoring and evaluating these sessions, a portion of half a million will be granted for further improvement and enhancement of those training sessions. Additionally, highly qualified and experienced career counselors will be hired by some philanthropist organizations, and their salaries for the initial period will be given from that amount. From the rest amount, two hundred thousand dollars will be given to the immigration reform institution for smoothly carrying out the permanent residency processes of the immigrants. This money will also be allocated to bring the estranged families of the immigrants to the United States. The rest three hundred thousand will solely be allocated for creating awareness about the issues across America. A million dollars cannot suffice for transforming the lives of immigrants and the poor households, so propagation of the message will be the first constructive step towards raising more funds.

New narrative (stories and keywords)

The manifestations of the helplessness and poverty of immigrants (e.g., inadequate education, school dropout, lack of healthcare, propagation of disease, abject hunger, malnutrition) are evident in the contemporary world, and the new narrative will revolve around the gravity of this problem. The potential theme to build the new narrative would be to make people realize that all these strict immigration reforms and policies at the cost of immigrants’ lives are a catastrophe, and no one will be exempted from its harmful effects. Everyone is equally responsible, and everyone is equally a victim.

Stories that connect stakeholders with various agencies promote shared values, for instance, security and mobility. Thematic stories about those immigrants who have succeeded in managing a successful position in American society will build the new narrative.

Some of the keywords used for stressing on the importance of this campaign are as follows:

Poverty, Immigration, Human Rights, Sustainable Development Goals, Inclusiveness, Innovative Solutions, Career Development, Fundamental Rights.


Bobo, K., Kendall, J., & Max, S. (1996). Organizing for social change. Santa Ana, CA: Seven Locks Press.

BIBLIOGRAPHY Ciurczak, L. S. (2019, September 11). Poverty in Massachusetts Higher Than 24 Other States. Retrieved from https://www.bostonindicators.org/: https://www.bostonindicators.org/article-pages/2019/september/supplementary-poverty-measure

Clayton-Matthews, A. a. (2012). "Massachusetts Immigrants by the Numbers, Second Edition: Demographic. Institute for Asian American Studies Publications.

Jacobs, D. &. (2016). Politics and economic stratification: Power resources and income inequality in the United States. American Journal of Sociology, 469-500.

Reinsborough, P., & Canning, D. (2010). Re: Imagining change

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 7 Words: 2100

Incident Of Age Discrimination

Incident of Age Discrimination

Carleen Gates

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Author Note

Incident of Age Discrimination

Age discrimination is unfair treatment towards an employee due to his or her age. Age discrimination laws protect an employee in all aspects of employment. The incident under discussion is about Kelber, who was not hired on a junior position due to his age. Kleber had eight years of experience as a general counsel and in jobs related to general management. When he failed to get a job on a senior position, as per his experience, he started applying for junior positions to increase the likelihood of his employment. CareFusion hired a 29-year candidate and did not call him for an interview for senior counsel job. The job ad specified that they do not require experience of more than seven years. According to Kleber, the company has violated the law by ADEA which aims at protecting the older workers. The Age Discrimination in Employment Act 1967, protects the applicants over 40 years of age from any age discrimination based on hiring, firing, promotions and terms and conditions of employment CITATION Mil18 \l 1033 (Miller, 2018).

In the US, laws against age discrimination were introduced with the intent to protect older workers from stereotypes, however, as the U.S. population ages, the law on discrimination often serves as a way to reduce entitlement program costs. Lahey (2010) found that that age discrimination law generally protected employed workers but posed adverse effects on those seeking employment. In contrast, EU legislation regarding age discrimination is motivated partially by political and economic considerations CITATION Ell12 \l 1033 (Ellis & Watson, 2012). The legislation allows for more exemptions compared to the U.S. CITATION Lah10 \l 1033 (Lahey, 2010). A key factor was the increase in the older population relative to the ‘working age' which puts mounting pressure on public finance and welfare systems. Modern EU laws, however, bar advertisements from explicitly mentioning age limits in the majority of occupations, and many EU members already had social norms that did not find age-based advertisements to be acceptable.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Ellis, E., & Watson, P. (2012). EU anti-discrimination law (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Lahey, J. N. (2010). International Comparison of Age Discrimination Laws. Research on Aging, 32(6), 679-697. doi:10.1177%2F0164027510379348

Miller, M. (2018, September 5). U.S. court cases aim to rein in age-discrimination hiring practices. Retrieved January 20, 2019, from Reuters: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-column-miller-agediscrimination/u-s-court-cases-aim-to-rein-in-age-discrimination-hiring-practices-idUSKCN1LL2FP

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Incidents Of Inequality

SOC-100 Incidents of Inequality

Instructions: After researching the GCU library to find articles that describe incidents of gender, age, racial, and ethnic discrimination, please answer the questions for each scenario. Write your response as a full paragraph using a minimum of 200 words for each scenario.

Scenario #1: Gender discrimination.

Summarize the incident.

How might this situation affect the victim?

How might it affect the offending person or institution?

How do situations like this affect society as a whole?

Write your 200 word paragraph for scenario 1 below:

For years, women in our society were considered second class citizens. They had no rights and were heavily discriminated against. Some might think it has changed now. To some extent, it has. But there are some incidents where women are discriminated against. In this paper, it is described that women in the corporate sector are discriminated against. The employers and colleagues develop an uncalled for bias towards the women colleagues to stop them from progressing. Gender-based discrimination can bear a negative effect on women. For instance, the women who are discriminated against are prone to become depressed over the behavior of the colleagues and employers. Moreover, discrimination strips women of their rights that enshrined in the constitution. The women who are discriminated against are forced to quit their jobs due to growing biased attitudes. Any institution where gender discrimination is practiced is bound to fail sooner or later. Moreover, this hateful practice will take a toll on the reputation of the organization as well. The offenders of this hateful act are squandering decades-long struggle of right activists who have fought for equal rights of women. Certainly, any incident of gender-based discrimination has negative effects on society. An incident of this type tends to polarize society unwittingly. This triggers a never-ending debate about the superiority of man or woman.

Scenario # 2: Racial discrimination.

Summarize the incident.

How might this situation affect the victim?

How might it affect the offending person or institution?

How do situations like this affect society as a whole?

Write your 200 word paragraph for scenario 2 below:

African American teenagers are no stranger to racial discrimination. It is sad to see that African American teens have to go through such a bad experience. The article described that after experiencing racial discrimination against them, African American teenagers are more susceptible to take up drugs and alcohol. Once they take up drugs, they feel left behind. The effects of racial discrimination force them to become drug addicts. Racial discrimination can prove detrimental for not only African American teens but any teenager. The affected victims of racial discrimination take up drugs that destroy their health. With deteriorating health, they are forced to quit schools and jobs. The offending person involved in the racial discrimination incidents might not have an exact idea about the consequences of their actions. The offenders in this kind of incidents exhibit their sick mindsets. When an offender racially discriminates against any teenager of any ethnicity without any interruption, they are encouraged to discriminate against more and more teenagers. The incidents of racial discrimination are a test for society to show resistance against these hateful incidents. The incidents of racism affect society in negative as teenagers take up drugs and forced to quit their colleges. Once they do not have respectable jobs and means to earn a living, they are motivated to commit crimes and defy the law to make money.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Free Essays About Blog

If you have any queries please write to us

Invalid Email Address!
Thank you for joining our mailing list

Please note that some of the content on our website is generated using AI and it is thoroughly reviewed and verified by our team of experienced editors. The essays and papers we provide are intended for learning purposes only and should not be submitted as original work.