Home >> Free Essays >> All Subjects >> Sociology

Sociology Examples and Topics

Family Narrative Research

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of Instructor]



Family Narrative Research

The generation gap is real which is affected by many factors and affects all family members over time. The change in society brings change in attitude, thinking, and behavior of the people ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"BCDxWu8r","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Kim)","plainCitation":"(Kim)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1488,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/4D2XRWZ9"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/4D2XRWZ9"],"itemData":{"id":1488,"type":"article-journal","title":"A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE PERCEPTION OF MARRIAGE AND COUPLE ROLE BETWEEN MARRIED WOMEN BABY BOOMERS AND ECO BOOMERS","container-title":"Innovation in Aging","page":"106","volume":"2","issue":"Suppl 1","source":"PubMed Central","abstract":"Nowadays, Korea experiences low birth rate and an aged society. Because of a low birth rate and longevity, the rate of aging has increased rapidly. Therefore, people’s perception regarding marriage and family has become a very important social issue. This study compared the perception of marriage and couple role, and examined the effect on the perception of marriage between women baby boomers and eco boomers. As a theoretical model, social learning theory was used to find whether parenting attitudes affected perception of marriage. Additionally, eco-system theory was used to check whether spouse relation variables affect perception of marriage. The target population of this study were baby boomers (born between 1955 and 1963) and eco boomers (born 1979 and 1992) in the 4th wave of women’s panel data of Korean Women’s Development Institute. The sample size of this study was 1,118 baby boomers and 328 eco boomers. For data analysis, t-test, χ2, and multiple regressions were used. Also, ANCOVA was used to find whether the differences were due to generation or age differences. According to the research results, marital satisfaction and satisfaction with house chores were higher for eco boomers than baby boomers. On the other hand, spouse relations and activities were higher for baby boomers. Both generations’ parent relations affected traditional marriage values, which supports the social learning theory. Also, when a women has positive relations with their spouse, it reduces the traditional marriage value; this supports the micro system of eco-system theory.","DOI":"10.1093/geroni/igy023.394","ISSN":"2399-5300","note":"PMID: null\nPMCID: PMC6229452","journalAbbreviation":"Innov Aging","author":[{"family":"Kim","given":"M"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018",11,11]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Kim). This change can be easily understood by analyzing the perspective of family members from different generations. It helps to understand how each generation understands different things according to the behavior and culture they lived in ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"XXptoN8i","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Friedenberg)","plainCitation":"(Friedenberg)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1487,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/HJYF8CA5"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/HJYF8CA5"],"itemData":{"id":1487,"type":"article-journal","title":"The Generation Gap","container-title":"The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science","page":"32-42","volume":"382","source":"JSTOR","archive":"JSTOR","abstract":"The \"generation gap\" between youth and adults in contemporary American society reflects a real and serious conflict of interest rather than mutual misunderstanding. In an open, bureaucratic society, sanctions against nepotism and the attrition of property through inheritance taxes lessen the utility of each generation to the other: the young cannot succeed. Youth, moreover, is a discriminated-against minority in America-more seriously so than any ethnic minority. It is excluded from economic opportunity, and is seriously exploited by being forced to supply, as members of the Armed Forces, its services at a fraction of their market value. School attendance is less obviously exploitive, but is as much a forced subsidy of the social and economic system by the young as \"an opportunity to invest in the future.\" Compulsory school attendance, the juvenile court system, and the Selective Service System all operate as serious, age-graded constraints from which adults are exempt-these constraints, indeed, define youth as a social role. Informal and often abusive constraint by schools and law-enforcement officials exacerbate the conflict. The humiliation of, particularly, youth from the upper-middle and upper classes, especially those prone to dissent, is functional in preventing the disruption of a democratic society by the hostilities of the \"lumpenbourgeoisie.\"","ISSN":"0002-7162","author":[{"family":"Friedenberg","given":"Edgar Z."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1969"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Friedenberg). The main purpose of the family narrative research paper is to analyze the difference between opinions and values of the same family members who are from different generations. For the purpose, interview-based research has been made in which three women that is my mother, grandmother, and great grandmother were asked for various questions to identify the differences.

I am Puerto Rican which means heritage and culture filled with Europeans, Spaniards, and Tianos. The race itself is so diverse that carry ethics not from one race but three. The cultural identity that can be seen in the amazing Puerto Rican dinner that includes Malta, red beans, white rice, and fried chicken. Due to the diverse race in culture, our family does not acquire pride in blood based on color or race but we have pride in our beautiful culture and tradition. All the good norms and values are combined in this race. Therefore, the family also show generosity towards other cultures. I have asked three ladies about the background they are from. The answer of great grandmother depicts that our culture is so diverse which teaches us that respect and kindness is everything. No one has the right to feel superior based on their race. I got a similar reply from the grandmother who thinks that it is good to identify your culture and its values but you should also respect other cultures and their values. My mother has the most liberal answer who believed that why should we respect other races or cultures in our nation, even if we are meeting with the people from another country, we should show the same hospitality because humanity is the most important thing. We can be separated by boundaries but we all are human beings and cultures are made by us only.

Besides culture, I belong to a religious family, on this point I have noticed a big difference in the thinking of ladies. I have asked whether it is important to be religious and how important is catholic religion. Great-grandma believes it is important to spend life according to religion. The Catholic religion is the real religion and important to get the blessing of God. Parents should teach their children about religion and strictness is also okay to make them obliged rituals. Grandmother believes that our religion is a beautiful religion but all other religions also teach about love and peace. Therefore, it is more important to spread love and peace in society rather than just focusing on performing rituals. Visiting church helps you to seek inner peace but you can also remember God while doing the normal daily tasks. My mother believes that it is the right of the person whether he wants to follow rituals or not. It is the matter of choice and parents or guardians cannot restrict their children to follow their beliefs. It indicates that over a generation, the rigidness and stubbornness based on religion are losing its note and every new generation is more liberal than the previous one.

Marriage is also an important aspect of our society so I asked them about their perspective on marriage. The role of religion was an issue but in contemporary time, role of gender is also an issue among marriage perception. My great-grandmother explained that in their time, it was important to marry a person who was from the same religion but the race was not the priority as we are Puerto Rican. The person who tried to marry outside religion was considered a bad or sinful man. Therefore, we cannot even think about the partner outside our religion. My grandmother believed that love does not notice color, race or religion, it just happens. Therefore, we cannot put barriers on someone's choice but it is good to marry within the same religion as it helps to develop a home environment with similar thoughts and identity. My mother believes that you should marry a person who respects you and care about you. Religion tells us the way of life but with whom we want to spend life should be a personal choice. Therefore, for her, religion and marriage should be considered separately. Besides this difference, all three ladies were against same-sex marriage. They believe that it is against the nature and we should not do that.

There was an occasion when a sharp generation gap was noticed in our family. It was the day of the election and my family had different political views and choices according to which they selected their favorite party. My grandmother had chosen the party who talk more about the religious statement and promised to the public that they will raise the image of their religion. My grandmother was with the party who talked about the basic necessities and issues of the public. Whereas my mother chooses the party based on freedom of speech they talked about. The difference in their choices was based on their priority, values, culture, and belief.

Through communication with three female members of my family, I realized that every generation carry values, thoughts, and thinking from their parents. However, the present condition of society affects the nature of the new generation and changes their perceptions of different things.

Work Cited

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Friedenberg, Edgar Z. “The Generation Gap.” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, vol. 382, 1969, pp. 32–42. JSTOR.

Kim, M. “A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE PERCEPTION OF MARRIAGE AND COUPLE ROLE BETWEEN MARRIED WOMEN BABY BOOMERS AND ECO BOOMERS.” Innovation in Aging, vol. 2, no. Suppl 1, Nov. 2018, p. 106. PubMed Central, doi:10.1093/geroni/igy023.394.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Family Narrative Research Paper

[Your Name]

[Instructor Name]

[Course Number]


Family Narrative Research Essay

Guide Sheet

My father had no freedom, no money, no personal house, and no land, but he had a family; I had full liberty, much money, and a grand house, but sometimes I feel that I might have no family. What is the use of this all when I cannot ask my son to sit by my side for chit-chat? These were the words of John McCain, my grandfather, who was too anxious when I started his interview. My name is Luther McCain son of David McCain. I have an elder brother Joseph McCain. We are the Black Americans. Our family migrated from Alabama State to New York when my grandfather was an adolescent. It was soon after Negros won civil rights. Currently we are 8 members in the family. Four members have been mentioned above; the other four are Jane McCain, my grandmother, Mary, my mother, Elizabeth, my elder sister, and Kate, my younger sister. Currently, we live in Water Street, New York City. I have selected my grandfather, father, and brother to interview.

I would ask them all about their birthplace, education, life circumstances, and their sentiments about the family structure. My elder brother looks stressed when he is in family gathering and my father also looks uncomfortable when my grandpa insists him to sit beside him although he does not reject any request of my grandpa. It appears that my father feels burdened by the job pressure and he does not want to lose any moment of leisure he can have. It is apparent that he went through many tough tasks when he managed to feed the family and work for its prosperity even in hard times like financial crisis. He was educated well but he had to face some kind of racial discrimination in start. He managed to handle his financial issues and we shifted from the suburbs of New York City to the Water Street under his supervision. He is kind to my grandfather, but he cannot offer him his time that saddens my grandpa. That is all I know about the relationship of my father and grandpa. My brother is also recessive in his life that he shows least interest into the family business and the matters of our dad. My dad has almost the same kinds of complains regarding my brother that my grandpa has about my father. I will use this background knowledge to deal with my family members. My family eats breakfast together, but my father and brother miss it usually. My mother is more kind to my grandparents who is perhaps the only reason that my family is living together. Women of my family have less stress in life than the male members. I will use the technique of Psychotherapy to learn about their depression and to treat them. Systemic therapy or Psychotherapy was based on Minuchin’s Structural Therapy model (1968) followed by Bateson’s cybernetic model (1972) the first order cybernetic model considered that problems within a family system should be focused on by strategically solving problems, meeting family goals and helps change a person's dysfunctional behavior. D. Shazer (1985). These concepts in Systemic therapy were known as the major paradigms and were taught by therapists such as Minuchin in Milan until the information-processing systems were introduced. I will use the following questions to interview my grandfather, father, and my brother.

How do you define yourself and how will you write your biography if you were asked to do it?

Do you believe that your life was difficult being a Black American?

Do you think that Negros should work together with the Whites and other communities to make America greater?

What is your view about a joint family structure?

Following is the detail of answers by all the family members, every paragraph under every heading address one question. The sequence of the answers is according to the sequence of the questions.

Significance of the Questions in Sociology

Society is a complex system that consists of individuals. Feeling of association is important for the functions of society. Traditionally, family is an important segment of the society because it produces individuals. It is important to integrate the individuals for normal functioning of society. Family system in America has changed dramatically and it has become important to define what should be called a family, and it also should be considered to normalize the relationships among the individuals if we want our social system to escape any chaos. Black Americans are a major part of the country, and they had a typical joint family structure traditionally. Whereas now family structure of the Black families is also changing that causes depression among the older members of family. My research study would attempt to study those differences and to fix the issues that cause hindrance in the integration of family structure. Thus, these questions have major sociological significance.

Narrative of John McCain, my Grandfather

I am a Negro who was brought to New York by my father Edward McCain in the hope of a better life. I remember how my father was struggling in Alabama to make our migration possible. Who am I my child? A poor old man, ah! I am sad, I am sad that you pushed me to remember my beautiful past. I am sad because the life in Alabama was much painful. Look, I have a big house of my son David, but my father had not even a hut to keep us there in Alabama. He was a poor slave, son of a slave. He had no place to keep us except a small room granted by our Master. We were five in one room where two siblings of mine died because they were too weak, hahaha! Yes, they were weaker than me. I survived miraculously although my death was expected by my parents. I am too old to remember all those days with full detail my child. You asked about my education, let me tell you that I did not about such a thing until we arrived here in New York, obviously out of the city. My father was a poor Negro slave, but the way he fought for our better life, he made me his fan (Besa, David. P.p. 309-325). I was happier in the small room of my father than in this large house of my son because we had time for each other. I am sad because I cannot go back to those days.

Difficult life? Negros did not have life my child; life belonged to the White Masters. We had no rights, no liberty, and no desires. We were subjects of the Whites and the purpose of our lives was to serve the, until our last breath. We were living in a land which did not belong to us. We were Africans, we are Africans, and perhaps it is our biggest sin that it took too long for the Whites to acknowledge us as human beings. Remember, we were living under dire circumstances, but we had time to share with our family.

Yes, there is no bad thing in working together to make America greater, but what is the use of work when we break our family bonds like the Whites. What is greater America? I am an old man and I wait for my children to arrange some time for me. Whites are our brethren but it is a thing that should be known by them more than us. They should acknowledge that we are as possessors of this land as they are. We respect their European values, but they do not respect our African values. Your father wanted to marry a White girl, but he was not allowed to do so because the girl was White. I requested her family to allow her the marriage, but they showed their political influence to marginalize us. Is it America for all?

We have a joint family tradition of centuries, but the new generations have least interest in living together. Our relationships have fallen apart, look your dad has no time for his dad. I had plenty of time when he was a child, but now he has no time for me. It also is the influence of European values. They have broken their family structure and now our family structure is at stake.

Narrative of David McCain, My Father

My name is David McCain you know, the unfortunate child of a sentimental dad. I was educated in an ordinary school and then I had to do part time job besides my studies in high school. I served as a waiter in a small restaurant and then started my practical life before I could graduate from high school. I had to face discriminatory attitude of Whites when I was a young boy, but later on I realized that all the Whites were not biased. I worked on multiple low status jobs and finally I became a manager at a hotel. I don’t know what my parents did throughout their lives I only know that I had a family of 10 members when I was working in the Cherokee Restaurant to look after because my father was expecting me to help him. We were living outside the city and it was too difficult for me to travel alone from the county to the city for study and work.

Life for a Negro was difficult because we were not educated enough compete the Whites. They trained their children in schools and helped them to earn good government posts, but my father forced me to work while I was a young student. We were not trained enough to compete the Whites in society that was called the Blacks’ discrimination eventually (May, Joanne C. P.p. 221-237). Look, you and your brother are the respectable members of society because you are getting educations although your brother has chosen a strange and odd way of life.

America is our home and the home of our ancestors. Whites are our brethren in this homeland. Let us forget that they have European background and we have African. Let us respect the both cultural backgrounds, but our focus should be on the future of America. Only education and hard work are the keys to a prosper America. American Dream is a golden motivation for those who are lagging behind to rise for progress (Dallos, Rudi. P.p. 40-65). The Blacks should understand that blaming the Whites would not help us to rise to prosperity and it is only practical approach to life which can help us to be instrumental part of the society.

Joint family system is a beautiful tradition among our people, but everything suits to a particular time. Social scenarios of the past were suitable for us to have a joint family for us, but it is getting outdated now. I think joint family system would not and should not long more than the contemporary era.

Narrative of Joseph McCain, My Brother

Well, I was named Joseph McCain, and I am a student of New York University. I don’t need to write a biography of mine, I don’t have time to do so in fact. I was born on August 20th, 1990. I am a gay and I have a boyfriend Paul. My life is simple as I always have been a bright student since my kindergarten studies. I study on scholarship (Dallos, Rudi. P.p. 40-65). Life goes smooth if Paul and I are happy and feeling good. I care no one else other than him; you know I don’t care how father thinks about me, hahaha!

What is this Black and White binary? Why should we think in terms of race? They are White and we are Black, that’s all, don’t make fuss of it. Life is difficult for everyone here who expects something for free. Negros might have existed in the past, but in the present century there are only Americans.

We definitely should work together. Not only Blacks and Whites but all the communities should work together to keep our country progressing. America is home to many communities who have gathered here to live peacefully (Dallos, Rudi. P.p. 40-65). Hate mongers should not be allowed to create any rift between the peoples and all the communities should live together, and work together for the sake of our own goodwill.

Joint family is a burden; I can’t live peacefully in such a family structure. Paul is my actual family. Heterosexual dichotomy of relationships has also becoming outdated trend. Therefore, people should be allowed to live according to their wishes. And if they decide to live as joint groups, there should be no objection and no obligation or binding for the partners.

Critical Analysis

I interviewed three male members of my family and wrote down their narratives. Their speeches show three narratives that represent three generations. Grandpa’s narrative reveals that his grave concern is that his children do not give him time. Moreover, he regrets coming to New York because he has lost his strong family bond (Barry, David. P.p. 30-46). Disintegration of his family is visible to his old eyes, and he curses the Whites for influencing the Blacks wrongly (Barry, David. P.p. 30-46). His memory reminds him the bad experiences that he had with the Whites in his early age and he could not forget the marginalization he faced. My father has a practical approach to life and he is satisfied that he has earned much money to arrange a better life for his family. On the other side he might have some internal dissatisfaction that keep him away from both his son and father. He considers his father a sentimental old man because he always talks about sitting together. David McCain does not think like John McCain and Joseph McCain has totally a different approach to life than his parents and grandparents. It is apparent from their narratives that their differences are of serious kind because Joseph’s approach to sexuality is shocking for his educated father also. John is interested in having life ornamented with relationships, David is interested in pursuing American Dream, and Joseph is contended with Paul.

Psychotherapy believes that differences in family are not a strange matter, and these differences appear more highlighted when they exist in such a dynamic society like the USA (Schwartz, Richard C. P.p. 263). Psychotherapy does not believe in treating individuals isolate rather it believes that people should be treated with reference to their relationships (Schwartz, Richard C. P.p. 263). More ways of cooperation and coordination should be explored to minimize the differences among the members. I discussed the results of my research with my family members and they were shocked with my analysis that such small angles of thinking spread such strong effects. My grandpa and father appreciated my research and allowed Joseph to live with Paul in a flat near our home. They were not against keeping Paul in home but my grandpa suggested that they should learn to live in the society. He acknowledged that taking some progressive measures in the family are crucial for progress. My father also managed time for my grandpa and we started living a happier life than the past.

Works Cited

Barry, David. "Telling changes: From narrative family therapy to organizational change and development." Journal of Organizational Change Management 10.1 (1997): 30-46.

Besa, David. "Evaluating narrative family therapy using single-system research designs." Research on Social Work Practice 4.3 (1994): 309-325.

Dallos, Rudi. "Attachment narrative therapy: integrating ideas from narrative and attachment theory in systemic family therapy with eating disorders." Journal of Family Therapy 26.1 (2004): 40-65.

May, Joanne C. "Family attachment narrative therapy: Healing the experience of early childhood maltreatment." Journal of marital and family therapy 31.3 (2005): 221-237.

Schwartz, Richard C. "Narrative therapy expands and contracts family therapy's horizons." Journal of Marital and Family Therapy 25.2 (1999): 263.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 9 Words: 2700

Family Photo Analysis


Professor name



Family photo analysis

Holland and Williamson portrays the importance of family photo by relating them to different aspects of life. Photos are primarily used for preserving one’s history and reality. The authors argue that without knowing one’s past it is not possible to live in a sensible present. Photographs transmit the meaning of family and the way in which families represent themselves. Pictures speak about the lifestyle, bonding among family members and even worries. All aspects of life can be interpreted through family photos including culture, religion and ethnicities. We make sense of the world through pictures because they tell actual narratives about families. Holland’s ideas on family photo states that it is an effective tool which contributes to present day historical consciousness. Williamson also believes that the best process of understanding family is by studying the picture.

Williamson’s idea of camera as a commodity in private sphere is applicable to my family. This is because most of the pictures are used for educating the children. A child who is about to join school is shown the picture of his parents at school for encouraging him to do the same. Pictures are used in my family for teaching new generation the family values such as spending time together on weekends, doing homework with siblings and celebrating together. After seeing these events the child develop same patterns and acts accordingly. Holland’s ideas about family photo depicts that it is an effective tool for connecting to family’s history and origin. Family photo is not only an object for studying the past but it also leads to fill gap in the present. Without knowing one’s reality based on history, one cannot make sense of present. According to Holland it is thus a way of clinging to past for attaining serenity and living a meaningful life in present. He states, “making and preserving a family snapshot is an act of faith in the future” (Holland 1). This reflects that author has identified family snapshot as a crucial element for faith in future. The viewpoint of Holland depicts that picture allow members of family to search their identity and background.

Williamson had attempted to highlight differences in photos taken in different settings. He also lays emphasis on the significance of family photos by stating, “families can produce representation of themselves” (Williamson 237). The author has claimed that pictures provides a vivid imagery of the family’s way of life and gives a glimpse of all aspects of life. The clothes, settings, furniture, decorations all speak about family values and traditions. Pictures tells even more then that, consider for example the body language, postures and gestures of the members. The picture in which family members are standing too close or older members are holding children speaks about their family values. According to Williamson family photo educate viewers by encouraging them to recognize their values and adopting them. The viewpoints of Williamson reflects that without pictures, new generation would have to struggle for findings their actual values.

Pictures are valuable assets for the members of family to whom it belongs. The views illustrates that a family photo holds worth only for the people who are part of it. Holland mentions, “the intensity of one’s own family photograph cannot be matched by someone else’s” (Holland 2). A person would be less interested to see the pictures of someone else’s family compared to their own. This is because people will get bore when they fail to find themselves or people who are related to them. Williamson also claims that family pictures are crucial for understanding one’s past and searching one’s ancestors. Photos transmits culture which allow individuals to build sense of self.

Williamson claims that photography is an education because it can be used for learning one’s history. They speak about family relations, school time, marriages, birthdays, anniversaries and other celebrations. Pictures are matures which prevent memories from fading. Holland mentions, “how family albums are about forgetting as well as remembering” (Holland 9). Photo is thus a practical element which allow members of families to recall their past by walking to the actual events and happenings. This process of recalling and recreating the past keep their memories fresh and they could feel the connection with the past. Holland has also highlighted another aspect of the pictures by focusing on the darker side. Albums also contain memories which are tragic and encourage people to forget them. When members of a family view those pictures they feel like encountering the same miserable situation. This proves the argument that pictures not only transmits joy or happiness but also convey sadness.

Family albums are a way of finding one’s identity. By viewing pictures of past the members develop sense of belonging. Holland explains, “traditional family albums eschew such fluidity. There we find a series of judgments about who does and does not 'belong' to the group” (Holland 11). Without family photo people are more likely to struggle for searching self and meaning of life. Different themes are transmitted such as the reality of how people of white color were values and blacks were marginalized. A picture which convey themes of race will be unpleasant for the blacks because it will make them realize the oppression and inequality encountered by them. On contrary, if a same picture is seen by whites they would recall the privileges enjoyed by them. Family photo plays profound role in helping people to find their reality by taking them to them backgrounds. This also indicates that disconnecting from one’s past is not possible. Williamson has used similar themes by stating that pictures provide self-imagery to the viewers by taking them to the same time. They lean the roles played by their parents, grandparents and ancestors.

Pictures are used by families to repress children by guiding them to follow the same niche in society. Williamson states that family photo have a long-lasting impact on the children and encourage them to become part of the same family-like grouping. What they see becomes part of their personalities unconsciously. This is because by viewing their elders they develop the same ideology which encourage them to act in the same way. Photos are thus effective tools for educating young generation. Holland also transmit similar ideas by explaining the role of folklore stories. He states that it was only through the pictures that people accepted the actuality of these traditional and old stories. Community has always remained interpretive and focused on finding the hidden meaning shared in pictures and images. Social mores are also transmitted to the young generations through pictures. Such as a child watching a picture of marriage will develop a firm belief that he has to undergo all these ceremonies for getting married.

The analysis of Holland’s and Williamson’s views depicts that family photo is a powerful tool for reconnecting to the past. It is a way of clinging to past for attaining serenity and living a meaningful life in present. Members of family develop sense of identify, belonging and satisfaction by watching these pictures. Pictures are also used for teaching children different values, customs and traditions.

Work Cited

BIBLIOGRAPHY Wiilliamson, Judith. "Family, education and photography." Preston University Press (1993): 236-244.

Spence, Jo and Patricia Holland. Family snaps: Re meaning of domestic photography. Virago Press, 1991.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

Feeding The World


[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

The global food security has been posing grave consequences as the food demands will continue to increase. In this regard, ending hunger is the second important Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) of the United Nations. The food demand will be increased by 60% and to achieve this goal demands addressing a host of issues from aging demographics and gender parity to global warming and skills development ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"nCcsTnHY","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Breene, 2016)","plainCitation":"(Breene, 2016)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":86,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4cj2SgiL/items/RDXFLE45"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4cj2SgiL/items/RDXFLE45"],"itemData":{"id":86,"type":"webpage","title":"Food security and why it matters","container-title":"World Economic Forum","abstract":"The global food security challenge is straightforward: by 2050, the world must feed 9 billion people. The demand for food will be 60% greater than it is today. The United Nations has set ending hunger, achieving food security and improved nutrition, and promoting sustainable agriculture as the second of its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for the year 2030.","URL":"https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/01/food-security-and-why-it-matters/","author":[{"family":"Breene","given":"Keith"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016"]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",5,11]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Breene, 2016). Thus, community food security is a crucial element of guaranteeing that proper conditions are in place for the communities to live healthy and enjoy well-being.

There will be dramatic threats to the community in circumstance of food security as seen in the cases of Sudanese children who continuously suffered from malnutrition and during Hurricane Katrina in 2005 in which 56% of Houston residents went without adequate food. In such circumstances, it becomes a concern of life and death and substantial local and international resources are keen on emergency relief efforts. Health and hunger are intensely connected while people with food security are significantly affected by diet-sensitive chronic sicknesses like high blood pressure and diabetes, and possibly connected to adversarial effects on overall health. Food insecurity, is predominantly distressing for children that will have severe implications for their physical and mental, future economic prosperity and academic achievements. In 2007, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) has reported that 12.2% of all individuals and 11.1% of households that represent more than 36.2 million persons were suffering from food insecurity (Haering, S. A., and Syed, S. B. 2009). Whereas the prevalence rates for individuals and households were characterized either “very low food security” or “low food security”. Therefore, food security can be addressed by implementing appropriated social and income support policies such as establishing a coalition of a community leader. Moreover, the policy must support local farms with local sustainable management of the natural resource.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Breene, K. (2016). Food security and why it matters. Retrieved May 11, 2019, from World Economic Forum website: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/01/food-security-and-why-it-matters/

Haering, S. A., & Syed, S. B. (2009). Community food security in United States cities: a survey of the relevant scientific literature. Center for a Livable Future, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, USA.[online] URL: http://www. jhsph. edu/sebin/s/c/FS_Literature% 20Booklet. pdf.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Field Analysis

Field Analysis




Field Analysis

In our daily life, we interact with a number of people and take part in the development and progress of society. We practice the social norms, interact with different social institutions and play our role, in order to achieve our goals. At each and every step of our daily life, we experience or take part in some sociological concept, without being aware or sometimes even consciously, which not only shapes our personality, thinking, as well as the working of the society. Social perspectives may have been an opportunity to think critically about our lives and share the experience of analyzing the impact of different social experiences of our life.

Being a student, I analyze the society from the lens of the social perspectives, and they apply to my life in a number of different ways. Here is a field log of one day of my life. I woke up at six in the morning, took a shower, got dressed and went down to the lounge, which depicts the gender roles. At seven in the morning, I interacted with my parents, had a funny conversation with siblings and ate my breakfast, which represents nuclear family, folkways and gender roles. I left home at 7:45 am to reach the bus stop and catch the bus to the university. During my time on the bus, I interacted with the person sitting next to me, who was also going to university. There were other people on the bus who were heading to their workplaces, which depicts the social structure, norms, social control. I reached the university at 8:40 am greeted my friends and discussed the plan of the day, which depicts social interaction, social groups. At nine in the morning, I along with my friends, headed to take the class of introduction to sociology and learned about the social movements, which depicts role expectation and social conflicts. At eleven in the morning, we visited the campus cafe, in order to take a short drink break and enjoyed our coffee. While having a discussion with my friends, I witnessed a conflict between two groups of students over the issue of a sports match, which highlights social conflict and role strain (Lawler, 2015).

At 1:00 pm, I headed to take the class of history and talked about the women suffrage movement, which represented gender inequality and women rights. At 4:00 pm, I took the bus to return home. I reached home at 5:00 pm, spent time with my mother, watched television and heard the news of assault and robbery in the nearby neighborhood, which highlighted deviance, poverty, and crime. At 7:00 pm I left home to reach the mall, in order to watch a movie with my friends, which was a part of the course work. I bought a sandwich from a nearby restaurant. There were some homeless people also who were demanding help from the passersby, which highlighted economic activity and social issue of homelessness (Lawler, 2015). At 11:00 pm, I came back home and went to sleep.

Most of the times, people do not pay close attention to their daily routine from the sociological perspectives; however, it is interwoven and shaped by the constraints of social norms. Interacting with family, before heading out to the workplace represents the strengthening of the family by following the folkways. A family is one of the most important institutions the life of any individual which provides strength, love, care, and accommodation to the individual while supporting all the other needs. Using public transport and interacting with people represents the social structure and social interaction which enables the person to become aware of the society. Interaction with friends provides the opportunity of sharing common goals and getting emotional support from them. The social conflict in society is represented through the scenarios of social movements, social inequality, crime, and assault. Moreover, it also highlights the gender inequality and role strain in society (Bruce, 2018).

There is a reciprocal relationship between societal and structural factors, individual behavior and the self's development. Individuals take part in their routine life and accomplish their tasks, which actually becomes the source of the progress of society. For example, if I interact with my family, share a strong bond with them and rely on them for my economic as well as emotional needs, it contributes to the development of society by becoming a healthy and responsible family, while fulfilling the social norms and promoting the functional role of the family. On the other hand, attending my classes and going to the university, I am contributing to the society by fulfilling my social role of getting the education, and becoming able to take part in the economic activity. Moreover, social conflicts also play their role in social development by making people realize that they need to put more effort in order to become functional units of society (Bruce, 2018).

Individual behavior and actions shape the society, and then the society guides the individual about making progress. The social institutions are not only an important part of the society but also an important part of the life of a person. They not only provide the emotional, economic, as well as social support but provide the opportunity of becoming independent and contribute to society by making progress.


Bruce, S. (2018). Sociology: a very short introduction. Oxford University Press.

Lawler, S. (2015). Identity: sociological perspectives. John Wiley & Sons.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Field Notes

Your Name

Instructor Name

Course Number


Field Notes


There is a large Christmas tree, decorated in various bulbs and lights. The Santa is sitting in front with two helpers. There is a small tree on my right side which is decorated like the big tree. I hear the sound of Santa clause bell (assumption), and people are walking with their hands full of shopping bags. The mall is decorated with the Christmas decors with Christmas songs on repeat. A mother is pushing the child in the stroller who was going towards Santa to take the pictures, the sitting has four people who are busy on their phones. A group of girls are laughing. There is a lady who is sitting in a stroller, she is sleeping and made a small movement. Other woman of fair skin is pushing that stroller back and forth to soothe the lady into sleeping. The people are walking with their phones in their hands and some are looking down. As people walk by, I feel the ground shaking, and a slight breeze when looked up the pillars. The people come and go back into the sitting area, and I assume they are waiting for someone. The families walk by with children and babies on strollers going to see Santa. Then, a woman walked up to the man in sitting and they left. I can see Santa walking and wave at people through distance, and a boy who is trying to get out of the stroller as it gets pushed. I can smell something of a nice fragrance and I assume it was from the bath and body works. As people walk by I see them holding Primark bags. As I get closer, the mall seems to get brighter and I see the Christmas lights from the ceiling shimmering, I see two men in black trying to get the attention of people to give free samples.

People either walk by looking at them as they walk, stop to look but I assume they are not interested and continue to walk. A distance away, I can see a red decoration on the upper level that I assume is a Christmas building with a bench for people to take pictures. A little girl was crying while sitting on the floor in front of the store soon runs towards her guardians. The female vendor selling cosmetics finally gets the attention of a woman and gets her to sit and try the products. Then, all seem to get busier as time passes by. A beeping sound coming from behind me I cannot pinpoint the location or source I can only assume it. I can hear 23 days of Christmas song play a few minutes apart. I see some people walk by it, enters a slow or fast pace. I assume they are either in a hurry or taking their time. I can smell another scent, it reminds me of the vanilla. I assume it is coming from an ice-cream store. I see a family of three children matching in red going to take a picture with Santa as the line continues to grow. Four people stop to talk to each other probably they know each other. The customer tries a few products and seems to buy one or two. the vendor seems pleased, I assume this because people walk by and ignore her. In the sitting area, there is a baby and I assume father sitting, down the baby got out of his stroller trying to walk around, hits the table, bouncing in the stroller. The mall has a variety of smells I assume from food stands or bath and bodywork. There is a drink stall that has at most 2 customers and it gets busy as the time passes by with customers. I assume people seem to be walking with a purpose only looking ahead of them not bothering to pay attention to vendors giving free samples.

I assume a group of friends who walk by with hands holding bags, drinks on a mini conversation. Two men in uniforms walk by and I assume they are here for holiday. The sitting areas are practically empty with only two people sitting in the distance. I see a child running ahead of his/her guardians, one of the guardians eventually runs up to them. Out of the majority of stores insight, the apple store has a lot of people walking in and out. The employers stand out from the customers in red shirts. I assume a couple walks by the sitting area and I can hear the man say, he was going to sit somewhere and ask her wife, if she wants him to hold her bag. The scene goes off as a customer walks out of the shop and then walk back in. the lady sits with the man and sees her daughter and asks “you didn't buy an anything” goes separate ways while the mother says to keep an eye on your phones if we call. A mother with three kids walk by, the youngest child seems reluctant to the mother so she is holding his hand to pull him along. A male and female walk by, I assume they are a couple because they are wearing matching clothes from hoodie to shoes. A man walks by and I can smell the Adour on, I assume he has sprayed a lot on. Two girls walk by talking in disagreement with each other. A mother pushing a two-seat stroller walks by, the girl starts to cry but the mother parent her by giving the child her toy dog in pink that makes a sound. I can hear a child crying and screaming coming from behind me. Three people of fair skin sit down and pull out a scratch ticket. I assume they are disappointed because they drop the coin and leave the sitting area. There are a lot of children with a backpack walking by.


Upon sitting down, I see a group of 4-5, dark girls skin in pink shirts, there are more people walking around today. the most noticeable thing is the 23 days of Christmas song, I assume it because it's the day before thanksgiving. The noise in the mall seems to be louder. The Christmas song that I hear in the last observation is the only quite whisper with more people walking and talking, the color scheme of the mall stores is noticeable from the walls being white or brown and the name of the store stands on any of the bright colors. I hear the sound of the blender running more and then the last observation, a man with his dog walking, gets to stop by the security, telling him that the dog cannot be taken in the mall. I see a lot of young kids walking, some security guards walk by, for the third time stands out with white dress shirts and black dress pants when compared to people in more casual clothing. A family steads out smiling when choosing macaroni’s from the stall with a little child in mother’s arms (I assume). Two children dressed up nicely in red plain dress and shorts common from the direction of Santa. A young boy is running around in socks. A police officer in full rest equipment’s walks by while speaking into the walkie. The smell of maple syrup comes all of a sudden. A mother is feeding her child a bottle in the sitting areas, they seem to be in their world.

The hands of the people never seem to be empty, there holding a few of shopping bags, food or drinks. A three young kids, 2 girls around 10 and a young boy around 6 walks ahead of their parents. A shopping cart looks out of place in the mall because no store has shopping carts only small baskets by the door. the mall provides a red car with flames stronger to those with young kids with strollers, the two young girls are running through the mall. There is a jewelry store and the elevators are in a constant move with a movement of police, I assume the light in the display window reflecting a spotlight on the realms make people stop and look then walk into the store to look out of the custody. Two boys are dressed up in white and black who are coming from the direction of Santa. A little girl of dark skin is happy to see the red flame stroller. An employee from the store calls out to people, a few feet away to get their attention but they continue to walk by shaking their heads. The lights from the ceiling are shimmering as the sky darkens. I assume the families with strollers come and go from the sitting areas to rest. From the above, people look over the railings to look down on the first floor. People are dressed in mostly monochrome colors, a few people in bright colors such as bright green shorts of a man as he walks by at the most group pf the people stop from time to time as they go by. A woman rushing to keep up with a little boy as he runs with a man a few feet’s away with his eyes on him. Two men from the upper level call out to the women, waving to get her attention. A woman with a child tries to get the child to sit on her stroller but the girls would rather push it around, the women use her phone to distract her and keep her from moving around.

The temperature of the mall is colder than it was before. a young boy gets called by his guardian’s stop raising his arms with an unhappy pout on his face. The classic Christmas song again started to play. A lady has been with the cosmetic vendor for a while, the only person so far that has stopped to talk to her. The shimmering light is reflected in the glass ceiling, the security guard walk by for the 6th time. I assume he is taking the perimeters of the mall. The smell of popcorn comes wafting in the air as a family walks by, holding the bag. The smell in the mall changes from time to time (the smell of maple, syrup, perfume, r popcorn). People rush to the trashcan and then rush to the group, not to get separated. a little girl a few feet away seem unbothered by her guardian, talking to her as she eats cookies, wearing matching headband and shoes. A couple walks by holding arms, the alarms of HM goes off time to time as customers walkout. Two little girls are talking on the phone to a man but she is not speaking clear words that are audible, the man is her daddy as she shouts on him. The children are constantly moving around with their guardians trying to settle down with their phones. A father is carrying his son parallel to the floor and the son says, “you can put me down now”.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 5 Words: 1500


Your Name

Instructor Name

Course Number


SCS 100 Project 3: Final Reflection


Do women in a walking marriage have outside influence that will lead them to demand a change in their cultural acceptance of marriage?


The concept of walking marriages is one of the best aspects of the Mosuo Culture in China, according to those that have witnessed it. According to a number of resources, the complex social structure of this culture is largely matriarchal, one of the last remaining ones in the world. This matriarchal is derived from the concept of walking marriages, which follows the maternal bloodline and favors female agency over male dependence. Thus, it is vital that this culture is preserved in a dominantly patriarchal structure of society followed in the world ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"LZWa5VW2","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Genova)","plainCitation":"(Genova)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":587,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/5VyEEXyp/items/ENMQ4GD3"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/5VyEEXyp/items/ENMQ4GD3"],"itemData":{"id":587,"type":"webpage","title":"Where Women Reign: An Intimate Look Inside a Rare Kingdom","container-title":"Photography","abstract":"High in the Himalayas, the last matriarchs of the Mosuo people struggle to keep ancient traditions alive.","URL":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/photography/proof/2017/08/portraits-of-chinese-Mosuo-matriarchs/","title-short":"Where Women Reign","author":[{"family":"Genova","given":"Alexandra"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017",8,14]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",8,23]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Genova).

The women that hail from this culture are not restricted to it. They are allowed to form martial relations beyond their culture and hence shift the cultural beliefs they observe, based on the culture they are married into. However, this may also cause the women to take their new cultural beliefs back with them and share them with women that they have known all of their lives. Despite the drawbacks of the patriarchal society, it certainly has its charms. It promises a form of stability in marriage, where you and your partner belong to one another and are partners in life. You get autonomy of life matters and decisions and this could be a heady concept for someone hailing from a culture where any and all decisions are made by the parental figures.

Thus, while it is vital that the structural fabric of this society might be kept intact, as it is what had led to their survival and makes them stand out, it is also important that this culture is studied in vivid detail. Seeing how they live their life, the way they operate within society and their relationships with one another is nothing short of a valuable human endeavor in providing a unique insight into their culture. They are a proud kingdom of women and they deserve to be studied with awe and respect ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Q61JKH4r","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Booth)","plainCitation":"(Booth)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":589,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/5VyEEXyp/items/V4KK8X5R"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/5VyEEXyp/items/V4KK8X5R"],"itemData":{"id":589,"type":"article-newspaper","title":"The kingdom of women: the society where a man is never the boss","container-title":"The Guardian","section":"Life and style","source":"www.theguardian.com","abstract":"It’s a place where women rule, marriage doesn’t exist and everything follows the maternal bloodline. But is it as good for women as it sounds – and how long can it last?","URL":"https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2017/apr/01/the-kingdom-of-women-the-tibetan-tribe-where-a-man-is-never-the-boss","ISSN":"0261-3077","title-short":"The kingdom of women","language":"en-GB","author":[{"family":"Booth","given":"Hannah"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017",4,1]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",8,23]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Booth).


The ads indicate the relationship between the product and the people. The main question is what motivates customers to act in a certain way? It mostly stereotypes which drive the main agenda of the actions of many people. In the ads, the stereotype is evidence in Infusium miracle; Landrover Maasai and airwaves bus.


For long people have been charmed with the idea of the perfect life. They believe in the idea of gaining material wealth will automatically turn them into the best version of themselves and finally live the life they deserve. Given the lifestyle lived by the rich and famous and then the projection of the said lifestyle on social media, it has become easier to be attached to the rather distorted image of society ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"ogXHupYF","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Chu et al.)","plainCitation":"(Chu et al.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":591,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/5VyEEXyp/items/KLM52BCU"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/5VyEEXyp/items/KLM52BCU"],"itemData":{"id":591,"type":"article-journal","title":"The influence of self-construal and materialism on social media intensity: A study of China and the United States","container-title":"International Journal of Advertising","page":"569-588","volume":"35","issue":"3","author":[{"family":"Chu","given":"Shu-Chuan"},{"family":"Windels","given":"Kasey"},{"family":"Kamal","given":"Sara"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Chu et al.).

This is the idea that most advertising agencies bank on, which is corrupting the very fabric of society. People are no longer capable of discerning fact from fiction and are willy-nilly going after a lifestyle which may promise fulfillment but shows no way of offering it. Thus, it is vital that the answers to these questions are found in a prompt manner and through the study of the society itself. This will yield a possible and viable solution to change society from within and bring a lasting change in the viewpoint held by people ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"IXzPPEBa","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Fardouly and Holland)","plainCitation":"(Fardouly and Holland)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":592,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/5VyEEXyp/items/6UVHZE7C"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/5VyEEXyp/items/6UVHZE7C"],"itemData":{"id":592,"type":"article-journal","title":"Social media is not real life: The effect of attaching disclaimer-type labels to idealized social media images on women’s body image and mood","container-title":"New Media & Society","page":"4311-4328","volume":"20","issue":"11","author":[{"family":"Fardouly","given":"Jasmine"},{"family":"Holland","given":"Elise"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Fardouly and Holland).

Choosing to find a way to ease the effects of advertising that advocates the rich and famous lifestyle is nothing short of a valuable human endeavor and it should be studied as an intrinsic part of human behavior and development.

Works Cited

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Booth, Hannah. “The Kingdom of Women: The Society Where a Man Is Never the Boss.” The Guardian, 1 Apr. 2017. www.theguardian.com, https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2017/apr/01/the-kingdom-of-women-the-tibetan-tribe-where-a-man-is-never-the-boss.

Chu, Shu-Chuan, et al. “The Influence of Self-Construal and Materialism on Social Media Intensity: A Study of China and the United States.” International Journal of Advertising, vol. 35, no. 3, 2016, pp. 569–88.

Fardouly, Jasmine, and Elise Holland. “Social Media Is Not Real Life: The Effect of Attaching Disclaimer-Type Labels to Idealized Social Media Images on Women’s Body Image and Mood.” New Media & Society, vol. 20, no. 11, 2018, pp. 4311–28.

Genova, Alexandra. “Where Women Reign: An Intimate Look Inside a Rare Kingdom.” Photography, 14 Aug. 2017, https://www.nationalgeographic.com/photography/proof/2017/08/portraits-of-chinese-Mosuo-matriarchs/.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 2 Words: 600


ZYW w9bjbj Fee810 0 uuuuu8 DCCCCCCCEHCuCuuCuuCCp4vCC0 DIIDIuCC DI0


Your Name (First and Last)

Institution or School name

Environmental Concerns

Our dear earth at present is facing my environmental issues which range from Global warming to water issues and is affecting all sorts of lives and on the planet. Almost every single nation dwelling on earth is being affected because of the issues our environment is facing. For many years, earth has been suffering with great deal of environmental issues and at present these issues have become a serious threat (Goebel et al., 2015). We as the citizens of the earth, have not showed any sort of concern in this regard and still earths exploitation is at its peak. This has led to many natural disasters and natural occurring phenomenon.

Discussion that will revolve around this paper will show the concerns and issues that we are facing with in the very environment that we are living in and how these are affecting our lives on a daily basis. These concerns are a serious threat for a standard living environment as we as human beings can only survive in a certain environment that is friendly and full of purity. There are many issues that might come to our attention and this paper will provide basic ideas of some of the issues that we are facing regarding our environment.


Many harsh issues related to environment have risen as humans have learned to exploit earths environment and pay no heed to the dangerous effects that we will face in the future if proper steps are not taken in time. Its a no hidden secret that we are facing serious issues in terms of climate change and global warming. Climatic issues are getting more common are vocal now a days as these are life threatening issues and if they are not addressed, the natural occurring disasters will become harsher and common, putting a toll on human life. The simplest of the concerns is pollution which comes in many forms. It is a serious threat in all dimensions for natural habitats and habitants.

Environmental issues are to be addressed constructively all around the globe as it is one of the harshest realities of the world. The concerns and all the little things that are affecting our environment needs to be taken care of and we all as citizens of this great world must always take proper initiatives to address this issue.

It cannot be said that there was never a concern for environmental issues that humans are or will face and that there have been some societies and groups who were working on this issue. The industrial boom and revolution in early 1900s started the cycle of pollution and caused all sorts of issues and as late as 1975, Environmental Protection Agency was formed so the pollution causing factors can be regulated and strict actions can be taken against the factors. Since then, many groups, public sector organizations, non-governmental organizations and United Nations regulatory bodies have been formed to keep a check on environmental issues.


Natural and Physical

Our daily life requires us to use the land for many reasons. It can be for communication, cultivation, construction, de-construction and many more. At present, the term exploitation can be used because we are abusing earths resources and depleting it from natural occurrences. Minerals, rivers, seas, oceans, air the very environment has be deprived off its natural existence. All of these are very essential part of our life as they make the most of it and give us the basic necessities for living and surviving (Djakman, Hasniasari Prihatanto, 2016). From food to breathing and commuting. The natural aspects of the environment make up the life force as we know it.


The industrial boom did us a huge favor by making our lives easier and simpler. The economy was great and there were more opportunities for everyone. The neglection was there for environment which is still a bitter reality. Social life of us humans has become more complex and greedier which makes us more prone to keep reshaping our existence and keep following the latest trends. This has become an important part for our survival as we depend on it for making our lives easier.

The Concerns

How natural, physical and socioeconomic environments are being affected and what are their concerns.

Natural and Physical Concerns

As the exploitation continues, we are making the concerned scenario worse. With days passing by we are polluting air, water, land pollution, soil pollution. The factor of global warming is the issue of the century. Industrial revolution was a great thing, but it highly worsened our environment by contaminating our air. The gasses released from the industries and the gases from burning fossil fuels are the main factors for air pollution. The use of CFCs and petro-gases are adding up to the air pollution.

Water pollution is another major concern as the industrial waste and other toxic wastes are dumped off into the rivers. This puts up an adverse effect on the aquatic life as well. Drinking clean water is becoming a fantasy as the water is getting poisonous (Tietenberg Lewis, 2016). This is because of our bad sanitation condition as even wastes from house sewerage also becomes part of the river and the cycles goes on.

Land pollution is the addition of all the pollutions combined with deforestation, mining, building and constructing. These are making the land atmosphere worse and degrading lands natural existence. human health is affected as a result of them and it is evident from the fact that many diseases which were once rare are now getting common.

The new study on glaciers specifically on the Himalayan Glaciers has given us enough evidence that climate change is causing these glaciers to melt. The worsening condition will result in many great natural disasters and scientists are voicing their concerns in many international conferences. The Hindu-Kush-Himalayan ranges are getting affected as a result of high temperature and low snowfall. The downward streams are getting filled up causing floods and many lake outbursts. Billions will be affected. Whole of the Asian region will be in floods. All of these combined is making the living environment of earth difficult. Many aquatic, marine and wild species have become extinct. Many wild animals are now considered rare as they are becoming extinct because their natural habitat is not available for them to survive.

Socioeconomic concern

Moving from one place to another for earning livelihood and running families is a common concept that we all are aware of. Natural disasters come in the way of people who are commuting from place to place to earn something and provide for their families. The environment plays a very important role in socioeconomic scenario as people are living differently in certain natural conditions and with the impact on climate, people do get hazy and suffer when they are forced to move from place to place because of impeding natural disasters. Agricultural sectors suffer the most in this regard as floods and unprecipitated rainfalls sums up the effort and destroys livelihood. Because the agricultural sector has a direct connection with the economy, nations face droughts and other similar issues. Economy gets hit and people lose their sense of living. Environmental issue must be handled with great regards as in the future it will be one of the major factors of ruined economic countries.

Public Awareness

The age of social media and internet is at peak and people know how to go around searching for required material and articles. The environmental issues are being portrayed by media in a positive manner as the issue is discussed with importance and seriousness. The news casters, pod casters, live blogs, v-logs, updates are all the driving forces of spreading awareness among the public about the seriousness of the issue (Rees, 2017). There have been some great movies about climate change as well.

Scientist are regularly experimenting and observing the environmental impacts on natural occurring habitats. The glaciers, volcanos, lakes, floods all are making headlines on newspapers and social media contents. Cinematography is also playing its role in providing the public with basic concept of what are the issues that environment is facing and how it will affect us in the future.

International summits

As of now, there have been about 4 huge international summits regarding environmental issues. The United Nations Environmental Programme, The Rio Summit, The Stockholm Conference, General Assembly Session on Environment, Environment and Development Conference by United Nations. These and some other conferences and summits have provided certain protocols to follow in order to make a positive impact on the world environment. Leaders, scientists and ambassadors for climate protection from all over the world have attended these sessions and came up with different solution for achieving sustainability in terms of climate change and how to tackle the adverse effects. But the seriousness of the attenders of the summits were very much questioned by the media coverage (Harper, Harper Snowden, 2017). The critics were of the view that these summits were the same as any other summit and covered everything except environmental issues.

Even then non-governmental organizations are criticized at times as the main issues of global warming and climate change are never highlighted. The seriousness of the issue at hand is still not recognized and the reports and articles that are being published and written daily with many proofs must be considered by these high profiled summits because at then end we will be doing us a huge favor.

The Reality of Environmental Issues

The current scenarios and the study made on the Hindu-Kush Himalayan ranges shows that our environment is suffering from our acts. Our policies are playing against our wellness and hurting the climate that allows us to live and survive. The study of the Himalayan Glaciers shows that the issue is very much real and is taking even a worse shape slowly. The flooding and high temperatures with little to almost no rainfall in certain parts of the world shows how real the issue is getting (Goedecke Welsch, 2016). The rise in temperature, and seasons coming up slower than usual, low rainfalls, low snowfalls, precipitations being hard to predict are all the factors that sum up how real and dangerous the issue is and how it will make us suffer in the future in we do not realize it soon.


We all are suffering from this issue and with some simple acts, we can make a difference. Proper education is a must requirement for tackling this issue as people do not know how this issue is turning their life upside down. Even people who make their livelihood from agriculture have no information about what the environmental concerns are and what factors are leading to floods and droughts. With the advancement in technology, we are making and manipulating mother nature, and the consequences are not taken into consideration. Green house effect, use of CFCs, smoke from industrial sectors, the recent inclusion of Smog in our environment, acid rain, certain pollution, all are affecting us in one way or the other. Many diseases are getting common and new diseases are being discovered as our environment suffers. This needs to stop with proper education and addressing the issue at all available forums so we can make the lives of the coming generation a little safer and better.


Goebel, J., Krekel, C., Tiefenbach, T., Ziebarth, N. R. (2015). How natural disasters can affect environmental concerns, risk aversion, and even politics evidence from Fukushima and three European countries.Journal of Population Economics,28(4), 1137-1180.

Djakman, C. D., Hasniasari, R., Prihatanto, H. (2016). Concern on Social-Environment Factor, Governance, Politics and Anti-fraud to Influence Government Performance Indonesia Local Government Case.Publication name, 375.

Tietenberg, T. H., Lewis, L. (2016).Environmental and natural resource economics. Routledge.

Rees, J. (2017).Natural resources allocation, economics and policy. Routledge.

Harper, C., Harper, C. L., Snowden, M. (2017).Environment and society Human perspectives on environmental issues. Routledge.

Goedecke, M., Welsch, J. (2016). Administrative requirements for the integration of environmental concerns and demands of climate change into the planning process. InSustainable Ho Chi Minh City Climate Policies for Emerging Mega Cities(pp. 75-88). Springer, Cham.





Running head FINAL


MPL((()--/////// 11445 5 555hhz6 hhz hk5hkhk5hk hh hhh hrshrshrshrs5hb hhhrshC AY

NOPLgd agdrsgdrsagdrsagdy t((A,-- 114444444444 agdrsagdrsgdgdrs44444455 566R77829394959697989agd8gdgdmYgdk gdagdkgdgdrs5666666667E7Q7R7c77777888891929394959697989999999A9B9D9E9K9M9N9P9R9W999j9p9u9v9w9hrsh h0Jjh0JUhe/jhe/U h8hrAhrA hh hmYh hh hkhhhkhh6 hhhzhhz6 hhz4899999@9A9C9D9N9O9P9R9Z999t9u9v9w9agd8 hh hhhhd9 0P1hp5/ w666666666vvvvvvvvv6666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666hH6666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666662 0@Pp2( 0@Pp 0@Pp 0@Pp 0@Pp 0@Pp 0@Pp8XV 0@ 0@ 0@ 0@ 0@ 0@ 0@ 0@ 0@ 0@ 0@ 0@ 0@ 0@6666_HmH nH sH tH NN 5NormaldCJ_HaJmH sH tH XAX 5 Heading 1@a5KH JaJ BB 5 Heading 2 @a aJJJ 5 Heading 3@5JaJBB 5 Heading 4@

56aJ@@ 5 Heading 5@

6aJDAD Default Paragraph FontRiR 0 Table Normal4 l4a (k (

0No List 4@4 5Header

4 4 5Footer

.)@. 5 Page Number6U 6 5 Hyperlink BphC2 5Body Text Indent2BB2 5 Body TextxH@RH 5Title@aKHJaJ PKContent_Types.xmlN0EH-J@ULTB l,3rJBG7OVa(7IRpgLr85vuQ8CX6NJCFB..YTe55 _g -Yl6NPK6 _rels/.relsj0 Qv/C/(hO Chvxp_P1H0ORBdJE4bq_6LR70O,En7Lib/SePKkytheme/theme/themeManager.xml M @w7c(EbCA7K


e.,H,lxIsQ ,jGW)E 8PKg theme/theme/theme1.xmlY4O3dHTwbS.,.1UR0aF0tStzQ@o_EG2 @GRU1aN KjVkUDRKQj/dRSxMPsJ54vqWC D3REBUt Qy@.X7

0h @nBVqu 5kPOC Aw0kPo(h5(CVsmY2zwnKDCjKXK P@IYCgxV(ekQtx7xbJ7 oW_ynFido/_1z/Lo_933S,F@)R8elmEv/,qh1ij.uk CZWcK0E8SsdKANM1I/AeQGF@Aeh-QR9C 5

d9 0expJ7t Lc)Ic8ESf@Awr32@7knaWJN1XGVhLZVKbXzsIn .qc7/NZu-eamHm3C .nAr)-NVlkvNs _OuCXmO4msd0npt2ezOrgI(


4F8JIrVLvVxNNfVYx-,JfVkhPaLfhHHX WQXt,JU,Z BpB)siE4(U.O. xaMBF7xytK-zzF75eo5C9Zc76M2 9B N

1(IzZYrH9pd4n(KgVB,lDAeX)Ly5ot ebW3gp j/gQjZTae9i5j5 fE514g7vnO( ,jV9kvvadVoTAn7jahy@ARhW.GMuO


hvWwA9 ZNUAwvhv36VPK

theme/theme/_rels/themeManager.xml.relsM 0woo5


,.aic21hqm@RNdo7gK(MR(.1rJT8VAHubP8g/QAs(LPK-Content_Types.xmlPK-6 0_rels/.relsPK-kytheme/theme/themeManager.xmlPK-g theme/theme/theme1.xmlPK-

theme/theme/_rels/themeManager.xml.relsPK xml version1.0 encodingUTF-8 standaloneyes

aclrMap xmlnsahttp//schemas.openxmlformats.org/drawingml/2006/main bg1lt1 tx1dk1 bg2lt2 tx2dk2 accent1accent1 accent2accent2 accent3accent3 accent4accent4 accent5accent5 accent6accent6 hlinkhlink folHlinkfolHlink/w1F @5w9489w9 @8@0( B S


Tb1811111@1A1C1D1u1x1333333--81D1M1R1W1j1p1x1--81D1M1R1W1j1p1x11qvqwwl,Lgy8 GE9LQud9(vArQLNNdzqTUSmSm s6O6P1x4hOJQJo(hHhppOJQJJo(hHoh@ @ OJQJo(hHhOJQJo(hHhOJQJJo(hHohOJQJo(hHhOJQJo(hHhPPOJQJJo(hHoh OJQJo(hHo() hH. pLpLhH. @ @ hH. hH. LLhH. hH. hH. PLPLhH.hOJQJo(hHhppOJQJJo(hHoh@ @ OJQJo(hHhOJQJo(hHhOJQJJo(hHohOJQJo(hHhOJQJo(hHhPPOJQJJo(hHoh OJQJo(hH88o() hH. L LhH. hH. xxhH. HLHLhH. hH. hH. LLhH.hOJQJo(hHhOJQJJo(hHoh OJQJo(hHhLLOJQJo(hHhOJQJJo(hHohOJQJo(hHhOJQJo(hHhOJQJJo(hHohOJQJo(hH88o() hH. L LhH. hH. xxhH. HLHLhH. hH. hH. LLhH.88o(). L L. .xx.HLHL...LL.88o() hH. L LhH. hH. xxhH. HLHLhH. hH. hH. LLhH.

o(hH. hH. pLpLhH. @ @ hH. hH. LLhH. hH. hH. PLPLhH.OJPJQJJo(hH-OJQJJo(hHoppOJQJo(hH@ @ OJQJo(hHOJQJJo(hHoOJQJo(hHOJQJo(hHOJQJJo(hHoPPOJQJo(hHhOJQJo(hHhppOJQJJo(hHoh@ @ OJQJo(hHhOJQJo(hHhOJQJJo(hHohOJQJo(hHhOJQJo(hHhPPOJQJJo(hHoh OJQJo(hH88o() hH. L LhH. hH. xxhH. HLHLhH. hH. hH. LLhH.o() hH. pLpLhH. @ @ hH. hH. LLhH. hH. hH. PLPLhH.88o(). L L. .xx.HLHL...LL.vAQL6P1x sqmSmwl,( GE9zqTgy8q1ud9 J8 KX KHsiyvBx97cu q 2




x80y )ajb E,g2d8 2(a)8)3 -e-M.s/VZ2g2r

3a5s6O7f738gM8q82x85lxOIAGxrADmDiE GfGH/HI3NN,OAP QASuTVrV,AX

Xi4YmYfxzOb1d3eremfQhIiWiFijjpq1q2qrw tQt,TtwoxWxySy4zZGXZm s sea5JpPn d5Xe/EF qaw@aziJJC3mnQ9

2b8yM JKdC4LUV8qJ)k.30sDersbv5B asW-SvU@Q


MKMPLd811@----w1@UnknownG.x Times New Roman5Symbol3. .Cx ArialC., Calibri Light7. Calibri .Cx Courier NewWingdingsABCambria Mathqh4rgerX) YX) Y2411 3QP P)2xxJ- Full Title of Your Paper HereDeGeorge Fizzah RizviD

Oh0 (4 T l

x Full Title of Your Paper Here DeGeorgeNormalFizzah Rizvi38Microsoft Office Word@H(_@@Ht@ X) .,D.,L hp

SWORPSY1 Full Title of Your Paper Here Title(XhZOTERO_PREF_1ZOTERO_PREF_2data data-version3 zotero-version5.0.34session idQJqZvlMt/style idhttp//www.zotero.org/styles/apa localeen-US hasBibliography1 bibliographyStyleHasBeenSet0/prefspref namefieldType valueField/pref nameautomaticJournPalAbbreviations valuetrue/pref namenoteType value0//prefs/data

(),-./0123456789@ABCDEFGHJKLMNOPRSTUVWXRoot Entry FA1TableIWordDocumentFSummaryInformation(IDocumentSummaryInformation8QCompObjr F Microsoft Word 97-2003 Document MSWordDocWord.Document.89q

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 6 Words: 1800

Final Essay


Instructor Name


10 January 2020

Final Essay

We often feel speechless when we see the rampant forms of systematic oppression that are present in American society today. Many of us are uncertain too as we often feel powerless to stop these unspeakable acts that are happening in our society today.

One way that is discussed by Andrea Ayvazyan in her article Interrupting the Cycle of Oppression discusses the way to overcome this problem. She calls it the assumption of the role of "an Ally". She further explains the concept that an ally is the part of one of the society's dominant groups that only works to dismantle those particular tenants that go in their favor. Allies often take an active part in challenging the established norms and values of the society, but only for personal gains. These allies have a powerful impact on society, whether positive or negative, by empowering the people targeted by oppression.

Another author Scot Nakagawa takes a rather gloomier view of the fight against racism in the American Society. He believes that such issues can only be solved by an exhibition of "Solidarity" among the ethnic-racial groups that are sidelined in American society. He speaks of the acknowledgment of leadership under the canon of Black Lives Matter. He categorizes the white supremacy as the consequence of the origin of labor exploitation system for the blacks as well as the Asian Americans and other ethnic groups.

There are certain areas where these aforementioned concepts overlap when it comes to the study of racism in the United States. For one, they talk about how the blacks and other marginalized groups are to be taken out of the deprived conditions that they are now. Another problem that can be proven as an area of overlap is the end goal of the progress of all ethnic minorities in American society, whether this prosperity is achieved, combined or separately. Lastly, solidarity has a lot more common with alliance than what meets the eye. This is true as one can see the concept of solidarity as an inter-racial alliance.

The area of differences is numerous when it comes to the concepts that are defined in the above two concepts. For one, the method of alliance talks about the use of a powerful entity or group in the achievement of rightful objectives and privileges for the ethnically marginalized groups in American society. Contrary to that, the concept of solidarity talks about the unification of all ethnic groups against the concept of White privilege that usurps the rights of the minority groups. Another point that highlights the difference between the two groups is their concept of faith in human nature. The practice of solidarity is the prime example of realist behavior where the groups band together to achieve their ends "by any means necessary" CITATION XMa92 \l 1033 (X). Alliance, on the other hand, is more of a liberal approach as it relies on the exploits of a powerful entity, which aligns with the weaker group on notions of trade in power.

There are ways in which these concepts are applied in one's daily life. If I am to play any sport in a team, I will have to use the policy of alliance to win and to be taken seriously. On the other hand, if I am competition in an election, or rooting for a cause, as Malcolm X had done, I would require the policy of solidarity as I would require the force of all my ethnic community behind me if I am to stand a chance to win. In short, the concept of solidarity is a more explanation of the phenomenon of "Us vs Them".

Works Cited

BIBLIOGRAPHY Paula S. Rothenberg, Soniya Munshi. Race Class and Gender in the United States: An Integrated Study. Ed. 10th. New York: MacMillan Learning, 2016. Ebook. <https://4.files.edl.io/1c97/05/06/19/170057-b1a94e75-3a11-42ee-aecd-0fe284f6d19e.pdf>.

X, Malcolm. By Any Means Necessary (Malcolm X Speeches and Writings). New York: Pathfinder Press, 1992. Paperback.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Final Essay About Journey To College


Instructor Name



My Journey to College


Human is a social animal and lives in groups and societies. Each society is comprised of many individuals, and each society pertains to its specific socio-cultural norms. The behavior of every individual somehow depends upon these socio-cultural norms of the specific society. On the other hand, each individual has an impact on society. Each individual's behavior affects the overall culture of the society. There is a two-way cause and effect relationship between the individual and the society. Society plays its role in determining the behavior of an individual and vice versa.

There exist two border perspectives for studying this two-way relationship between individuals and society. Functionalism is a sociological perspective that studied human behavior on the macro level. According to the theories of functionalism, there are numerous and different parts of a society that depend upon each other for the smooth functioning of society. For example, judiciary maintain law and order in the society, industrialist provides individuals with the necessities of life and farmers provide edibles for society. These all segments of the society work together and fulfill the needs of each other. In contrast with functionalism, Interactionism is the sociological perspective that attempts to explain human behavior on a micro level. According to interactionism, each individual interacts with many individuals while living in a society, and these short interactions between the individuals define an individual's behavior.

In this essay, I will explain the sociological reasons in the perspective of functionalism and interactionism that made me the girl who I am.

I with My Migrated Parents and American Society

I am a Muslim-American girl. My father migrated from South-Asia to America in the early 1990s to seek opportunities for better livelihood. He worked as a cab-driver in the early years of his stay in America. After the struggle of some years, he succeeded in establishing his departmental store, and he married my mother, who was also a cousin of him. I was the third and last child of my parents. I had two elder brothers. I was born in America, and I am a citizen of America. Now, I will explain how Interactionism and Functionalism defined my entire life and make me the girl who I am.

It was a day of Eid-ul-Adha in America. I was 9 years old at that time. We had taken 4-day leave from the schools because there were no public holidays in the school. There was a huge crowd at my home on that day. All of our relatives and family friends were invited for this Eid Party. My mom dressed me in Shalwar Qameez and a scarf on my head. There were dozens of colorful bangles in my both arms. That was the day of joy. I never saw my parents so excited and full of life except for the day like Eid-ul-Adha when they had a get-together with other Muslim and South-Asian families. My father was speaking more than usual, and I could feel a significant glow on his face and shine in his eyes. My mother’s feet were moving faster to serve the guests, with a smile on her face. Both were looking more assertive and confident. I could not understand at that time the reasons behind the energetic behavior of my parents. Was that the happiness of Eid that could be seen on their faces? Was this the presence of my uncles that gave my parents confidence at an exceptional level? Or was it the satisfaction of performing a sacred religious obligation that was glowing on their faces? I was confused.

I was at the age of 14 when my parents decided to visit their native country in South-Asia. My mother started the preparation even 4 weeks before the visit. She was visiting markets on daily bases to shop gifts and prizes for her family and her in-laws. Again, I could feel a great level of energy in my parents. Both were excited and used to plan each and everything for the upcoming visit of their native town. The month before the visit was all characterized by the planning and preparations of the visit. My mother was counting days and the whole day she was discussing things as we would go there, we would give them this gift, we would spend 1 week here and 2 days there, etc. The day came, and we landed in the native town of my parents. There was a huge crowd of uncles and aunties who came to receive us at the airport. I was surprised by the enthusiastic behavior of my uncles and aunties. All were hugging each other and were giving kisses on each other's hands and heads. That was the 2nd visit that I made to my parent's native town. We had come there one time before, and I could not remember anything about that visit. Our current tour was for 5 weeks and was going on awesomely. There were get-together parties on daily bases in honor of us. There was an exchange of gifts; eyes were teary with emotions and promised were being made for the future. It was all amazing to live and to absorb. It was 2nd last nite of our stay when my mother told me with a gigantic smile on her face, "after your graduation, I will arrange your marriage with one of my nephews." She further told me that marriage should be done with the person whom you know the best and your groom must belong to our family and country.

Was I know everything about my cousin whom I met for the first time? What was my country? Was this America where I born and lived my entire life or this South-Asian country where my parents were born, but I know nothing about it? I was confused.

It was my last year in high school when my mother, one day, made a meeting with me. She told me, "look, we are Muslims, never date a boy. If it is necessary and you are not able to restrict yourself, then he must be a Muslim. You are a Muslim, and you should behave like a Muslim". It was not the first time that I heard such type of advice from my mother. Most of the time, she was used to giving me advice about what should I wear and how should I behave in social gatherings, in school, and at home. All sorts of dating apps were not allowed for me ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"o2xOLxcq","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Aziz Ansari\\uc0\\u8221{})","plainCitation":"(“Aziz Ansari”)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":939,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/TWIRPBIF"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/TWIRPBIF"],"itemData":{"id":939,"type":"post-weblog","title":"Aziz Ansari: Everything You Think You Know About Love Is Wrong","container-title":"TIME.com","abstract":"Read the comedian's essay for TIME on changing the world of online dating","URL":"https://time.com/aziz-ansari-modern-romance/","title-short":"Aziz Ansari","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",11,22]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Aziz Ansari”). In her home in America, she was trying her best to develop and maintain a culture of her native town, which she considered as the best culture. It was the most famous quotation from my mother that "This was not happening in her time. Time has changed, and her time was the best". That was not an easy task for me to behave like a South-Asian girl in American society. It was hard for me to avoid all sorts of dating apps and boys when most of my friends had boyfriends. How could an American-born Muslim girl behave like a South-Asian girl? I was confused.

The scarf on my head was another thing that made me embarrassed some times. It had happened many times when one of my class-fellows tried to taunt me by saying, 'hey Muslim, go back.' Even one of my class fellow asked me to go back to your native country ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"9Lghhk2w","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Muslim \\uc0\\u8216{}Twoness\\uc0\\u8217{}\\uc0\\u8221{})","plainCitation":"(“Muslim ‘Twoness’”)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":940,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/H4I6RCRP"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/H4I6RCRP"],"itemData":{"id":940,"type":"webpage","title":"Muslim 'Twoness': Fearful Of Some, Feared By Others","container-title":"NPR.org","abstract":"A subway ride hammers home the reality that many Muslims face: While they fear being hurt by terrorists and vigilantes, others see them as a threat.","URL":"https://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2016/10/27/496882534/muslim-twoness-fearful-of-some-feared-by-others","title-short":"Muslim 'Twoness'","language":"en","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",11,22]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Muslim ‘Twoness’”). Was I not an American citizen? How can one citizen of America asked another citizen of America to leave the country? Even after every terrorist attack in America, Muslims of America had to face severe reactions from other communities. Was all the Muslims were terrorists? How could be all the Muslims declared as terrorists while the Messenger of Islam Prophet (PBUH) said: "one who kills one human being will consider as if one killed the whole of humanity"? How could one blame the entire religion for the actions of some imprudent individuals? Again, I was confused.

Concluding Remarks-Solving the Confusion

My parents are Muslims, and they migrated from an under-developed country of South-Asia. They spent substantial time in their life in their native town, and this time has strong fingerprints on them. They are American nationals, but still, they love more their native country. They love to remember the time they spent in their native country. They love their native culture and social norms so much that they always try to keep it with them. They always try to practice and promote their native culture in their homes. Their efforts to keep the native culture with them never allow them to adopt American society. Besides the native cultural norms, Islam has the strongest impact on my parents as well as on me. It’s not an easy job to practice Islam in a Non-Muslim and liberal society where most of the social norms are against Islam. So, my parents were in a continuous struggle to maintain their identity as Muslims and as a South-Asian in American society. I, as the daughter of my parents, inherit this struggle. This struggle can be observed above narrated the first three events of my life. My parents were energetic and excited about Eid-ul-Adha because, at that event, they were successfully saving their identity of being a Muslim. My mother wanted me to marry one of her nephews. In this way, she was trying to preserve Islamic and cultural norms for me. Because a Muslim and South-Asian boy would also try to protect Islamic and native cultural norms. My mother restricted me to make a boyfriend because it was against Islam. Again my mother was trying to save the Islamic and social norms of her native country. These three events represent the theory of Interactionism in my life. This is how people around me interacted with me, affected my thinking process and behavior, and made me the person who I am.

The last narrated event of my life was the product of Functionalism aspects of society. After 9/11, there was an enormous campaign in all sorts of media that tried to link terrorism with Islam and Muslims. The words of Islamophobia and Islamic terrorism was the product of these anti-Islam campaigns. There can be terrorists in every segment of society. We cannot associate terrorism with Islam only because some terrorist attacks were executed by imprudent type of Muslims who even don’t know the meaning of Islam. This institutional force of society also affects my thinking and behavior. I had to face insulting remarks from many of the people around me just because of my religious affiliations.

The above narrated four events present some chunks of my life. This is how my society, my family, and the people around me affect my thinking process. My life is an American-Muslim girl who is full of such events, expectations, and confusions. Now, I am here in this college with a huge burden of expectations and responsibilities. I have to fulfill them by preserving my Islamic identity.

Works Cited

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY “Aziz Ansari: Everything You Think You Know About Love Is Wrong.” TIME.Com, https://time.com/aziz-ansari-modern-romance/. Accessed 22 Nov. 2019.

“Muslim ‘Twoness’: Fearful Of Some, Feared By Others.” NPR.Org, https://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2016/10/27/496882534/muslim-twoness-fearful-of-some-feared-by-others. Accessed 22 Nov. 2019.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

Final Exam

Your Name

Instructor Name

Course Number


Final Exam

Question no.1

In the article entitled, “Trump immigration proposal emphasizes immigrants’ skills overfamily ties by Michael D. Shear” explains the President of the United States announced that an immigration reform that would significantly increase the requirements for education and qualifications to the detriment of family reunification. The President reveal a strategy to renovation parts of the state’smigration system thatwouldenforce new security procedure at the limit and significantly upsurge the instructive and assistances requirements forindividuals allowed to voyage to the America. The rejection of his plan by the Congress leaves little doubt, but the proposal is likely to be brandished as an electoral weapon. Taking up one of his favorite themes, Donald Trump presented an electoral plan.

There are pros and cons of the latest policy in US. The new migration policy will make the US immigration system "the pride of our nation and the envy of the modern world. The White House proposal has two objectives, on the one hand, put an end to illegal immigration and secure the southern border and, on the other hand, "modernize deeply" the system dysfunctional legal immigration.

People discriminate against geniuses, we discriminate intelligence, assuring that the US would now attract the "brightest" immigrants and anchoring its plan in economic and security motives. Donald Trump went on to say that the current system allows some immigrants to steal the work of American citizens. President Trump said the number of landed immigrants would remain stable, but would focus more on "merit," touting Canada on a number of occasions for its skilled worker immigration program. The White House plan provides green cards, which give foreign citizens permanent residence and allow them to work legally in the United States without a visa, to a new "build America" visa, which would be awarded based on points awarded according to "clear criteria" (Shear, 1).

The initiative is part of the government's plan to reduce the number of foreigners residing in the United States. Immigration officers who process residency requests would be required to find out more data to establish eligibility, which would include several factors. The new policy would significantly reduce immigration based on family ties, which has allowed landed immigrants to bring in family members for decades.

Currently, two-thirds of the 1.1 million new annual green card holders receive them because of family ties. The plan would ensure that 57% of green cards would now be awarded based on employment and skills, the president said.

Ironically, the parents of the president's wife, Melania, took advantage last year of the family reunification he denounces. Denouncing the "frivolous demands" of some asylum seekers who "abuse" the system, Donald Trump further asserted that requests from "legitimate" refugees would be "promptly accepted" and the others, "promptly refused". During his speech, the president did not discuss the situation of the Dreamers, these young undocumented immigrants taken to the United States by their parents as children. White House spokeswoman Sarah Sanders said the plan did not include protective measures for these young people because the issue was too "divisive".

The plan was crafted by President and son-in-law Jared Kushner in collaboration with policy advisor Stephen Miller, who is known for his ambitions to toughen US migration policy. The migratory issue, at the center of the Republican presidential campaign in 2016, is therefore likely to be a major theme of next year's elections again. In recent decades, various migration reforms, put forward by Democrats or Republicans, have met with failure. In June 2018, the House of Representatives, where the Republicans were then in the majority, rejected a migration reform that Donald Trump had endorsed.

US President Donald Trump today announces a new immigration reform plan. The owner of the White House may propose a radical change in the principle of issuing green cards. President Trump will try to convince the public and legislators of the need to reduce the number of legal immigrants to one million one hundred thousand a year. To this end, the White House’s owner will propose abolishing the green card lottery, which now allows many foreigners to obtain a permanent residence permit in the United States, regardless of professional qualifications, education, and language skills. The authorities intend first of all to issue a green card not to the relatives of immigrants who have American citizenship, but to educated and highly qualified specialists, reports Reuters. The green card will be available to those who are fluent in English, have a degree and an invitation to work in the States. The plan was developed under the direction of son-in-law and senior adviser to President Jared Kushner. The White House needs to defend a plan in Congress, however now only 12% of all American green cards are issued taking into account the professional qualifications and education of those who receive them.

Question no.2

Assimilation is the process by which a set of individuals merges into a new, broader social framework. The best index of assimilation is the total disappearance of the specificities of the assimilated, which implies their renunciation of their culture of origin, the development of their personality and their atomization within the society which absorbs them. The assimilation model was called mestizo crucible or melting pot (literally potaje or mash culture ), taking this name from a play by the young immi- Jewish Jew Israel Zangwill (premiered in New York in 1908 with remarkable success), in which he affirmed that "America is the crucible of God, the great melting pot where The races of Europe are founded and reformed. " This melting pot of races (euro- peas) joined a series of typically American values, such as democracy, individualism or pluralism, creating a spontaneous process of social interaction where institutional interventionism was reduced or null.

Being American supposes to have a political identity that is not linked to cultural pretensions strong or specific "( Brader,et.al. 34). Therefore, the institutions were due limit to ensure an adequate playing field so that the mixture of races (fundamentally white) will interact in a context marked by the values of the American society. The first theories about the assimilation of immigrants were proposed by Robert Park and William Isaac Thomas (1) (members of the prestigious School of Chicago) in 1921. These authors established that the process of integration of immigrants has four stages; rivalry, conflict, adaptation and assimilation, define The latter being a phase whereby "individuals acquire memory, the feelings and attitudes of the other, and sharing their experience and history, they are integrated into a common cultural life

Assimilation can not be decreed. It is the result of a long psychological and social process that does not succeed without effort and without meeting a certain number of requirements. Integration and assimilation are above all individual approaches: it is the individual who must fit into the community and not the other way round. An assimilation process can only succeed by preserving, at all costs, the social cohesion of the host society.

Gordon identifies the conditions necessary for successful introduction into the host society, for example, the absence of prejudice and discrimination, as well as the struggle for power and value conflicts in society. This model, which Gordon called Anglo-conformity, that is, a mix with American society not only through ethnic interrelations but also through the assumption of American values, is what inspired American migration policies during the first half of the twentieth century. However, it did not apply to all immigrants equally, since from the beginning of that century there was a restriction of migratory flows and it was raised explicitly that the United States was not capable of absorbing all types of immigrants by the public authorities to encourage the entry of some more than others, based on the potential greater assimilation capacity of some groups (Gordon, 263).

At the first stage, cultural assimilation takes place, above all, the study of languages as a basic prerequisite for further steps. Next, there is a change in cultural patterns, including religion (growth of cultural level); large-scale entry into the primary groups of the receiving society (structural assimilation), large-scale intermarriage (association); assimilation identification;

lack of prejudice (assimilation of the perception of the relationship); and non-discrimination (assimilation of behavior perception);

no conflict with the authorities (civil assimilation). He distinguishes 7 sub-processes of assimilation:

- Cultural assimilation: individuals adopt the dominant traits of the host culture.

- Institutional assimilation: integration in the various institutions of the host society.

- Matrimonial assimilation: mixed marriage, whether or not it is widespread. It is considered the culmination of the process of assimilation.

- Sense of belonging: it is the subjective identity of individuals, if they identify with the society of origin or the host society.

- Welcome by society: individuals are no longer targeted by prejudices or discrimination

- Absence of conflicting values: absence of civic forces against assimilation.

There are several groups linked with Gordon and immigrant’s links. These immigrants, who obtained many facilities for to enter North American territory and establish themselves in good conditions, were those that met the standard of the WASP (White Anglo-Saxon Protestant), those white, Anglo-Saxon preferentially, who professed the Protestant creed, although this was not an essential condition (for example, Catholics conversion was not imposed, but respect for Protestantism). Therefore, the Europeans were favored to the detriment of Asians, Latinos, etc.

Works Cited

Brader, Ted, Nicholas A. Valentino, and Elizabeth Suhay. "What triggers public opposition to immigration? Anxiety, group cues, and immigration threat." American Journal of Political Science 52.4 (2008): 959-978.

Gordon, Milton M. "Assimilation in America: Theory and reality." Daedalus 90.2 (1961): 263-285.

Shear, Michael D. "Trump Immigration Proposal Emphasizes Immigrants’ Skills Over Family Ties". Nytimes.Com, 2019, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/05/15/us/politics/trump-immigration-kushner.html.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

Final Exam Essay


Instructor Name



Final Exam Essay

Every individual belongs to a certain society that forms his social beliefs and builds his notion of deviant behavior and normative practices. These factors vary across different societies and at the cultural level. Every society has a distinct concept of norms and values as these are shaped differently in every country. This essay is a comparative analysis between the article Nickel and Dimed by Barbara Ehrenreich and I, as a first-generation Muslim American girl. It will view the aspects of being a first-class citizen in America and what privileges it can have over a third-class citizen. Likewise, it will look into what constitutes as deviant behavior according to the American concept of norms and values for an immigrant.

The author Ehrenreich holds a doctorate degree but still, she had to work for low-wages because of the high unemployment rate in America. For years, she could not land herself a well-paid job that matched her skill sets. It was at that time that she realized that every job demanded concentration and dedication. This realization also sheds light on the significance of capitalist ideology and its exploitation that despite working hard, there is a low number of jobs available in the market. As she reflected these thoughts in her book, “Work hard and you'll get ahead” or “It's hard work that got us where we are.” No one ever said that you could work hard - harder even than you ever thought possible - and still find yourself sinking ever deeper into poverty and debt” (Ehrenreich 120). Similarly, her work required high performativity levels which physically drained her at times but she remained steadfast because she had to survive. During her job, Ehrenreich and her coworkers were not uncommon to the work environment because they grew up in the American culture. Besides, she was well-informed about the ongoing social practices in America. On the other hand, when I searched for various jobs that matched my skill set, I could not get a good job because I was an immigrant. Likewise, my parents migrated from Pakistan and due to my religion, Islam, I was viewed with countless doubts because of Islamophobia. I grew up in this culture but my ways of socialization and norms had to be aligned according to my religion and native land. Nevertheless, the unemployment condition in America affected me twice as much because I was a third-class citizen and a Muslim American.

In society, an insider can develop a sense of normative and deviant behavior in no time because she grows up in a particular environment where these practices are going on from decades. Similarly, social class differences are present in every society and there is an unequal flow of wealth everywhere, however, the issue of the wage gap is addressed by the writer. Ehrenreich proclaims that low wage workers are hired to perform hard manual labor tasks. Moreover, the author is a female and women are paid less because of gender stereotypes. They face humiliation in society because they do not get lucrative jobs and cannot afford a good lifestyle. The author shares the anecdote of her office manager as, “Maybe there's been some secret division of the world's women into breeders and drones, Maybe this is why our office manager, Tammy, who was once a maid herself, wears inch-long fake nails and tarty little outfits” (Ehrenreich 49). She encounters rent issues and classism, quite similarly, I face this issue as well because so far, I can only get the cleaning job. Quite on the contrary, I am a Pakistani immigrant and my host country despised my native country because of the terrorist labeling. However, I also became a victim of huge wage-gaps as both a woman and an immigrant. Likewise, immigrants are not treated on an equal basis in America because it is a normalized practice to treat them as third-class citizens.

In conclusion, life gets extra hard in another country because of immigration status but the first-class citizens encounter unemployment and unequal distribution of wages because of gender stereotypes.

Work Cited:

Ehrenreich, Barbara. Nickel and dimed: On (not) getting by in America. Metropolitan Books, 2010. Ted.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Final Paper

Reconstructing Sociological theory

Enter your name here

Enter the University name here

Should we integrate (racial, sexual, and/or post-colonial) “local knowledge’s” to reconstitute sociological theory?

The idea of local knowledge or traditional knowledge has come to the forefront recently. In sociology, the idea of traditional or local knowledge is that empirically the process of knowledge is a local process. In other words, the ideas exist, and they drive the new findings in any field of research. For this reason, knowledge cannot be standardized or be made absolute. This focus on traditional knowledge opens the chances for a comparison between the knowledge and the concepts that are produced by different cultures in different timings ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"N3NsdR34","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Bourdieu 1984)","plainCitation":"(Bourdieu 1984)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":189,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/pCT5fGyt/items/X4ZJRKF8"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/pCT5fGyt/items/X4ZJRKF8"],"itemData":{"id":189,"type":"article-journal","title":"A social critique of the judgement of taste","container-title":"Traducido del francés por R. Nice. Londres, Routledge","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Bourdieu","given":"Pierre"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1984"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Bourdieu 1984). These comparisons have never been part of the sociology before. In doing the comparative study, the methodologies, their logic, the socio-economic contexts, and their cognitive structures can be changed but one thing that must be common in this study should be its localness. There are many different forms of local knowledge. Depending upon their classification by a different social scientist, it becomes impossible to list them all. Some of the important local knowledge in sociology pertains to the field of social stratifications, religion, and secularization, sexuality, and post-colonialism. Totalizing or universalizing of knowledge, on the other hand, is projecting the knowledge on the ontological basis. The ontological basis is to project the knowledge of the scientific background. As in this world of today, the scientific interpretation of the knowledge is considered enough to give it an outlook of the Law, the totalizing knowledge concept appears to be the final score of knowledge ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"t6ZqNpRC","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Bourdieu 1984)","plainCitation":"(Bourdieu 1984)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":189,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/pCT5fGyt/items/X4ZJRKF8"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/pCT5fGyt/items/X4ZJRKF8"],"itemData":{"id":189,"type":"article-journal","title":"A social critique of the judgement of taste","container-title":"Traducido del francés por R. Nice. Londres, Routledge","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Bourdieu","given":"Pierre"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1984"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Bourdieu 1984: 94).

Neo-Marxism and Bourdieu: According to Karl Marx, the working classes are the real actors of change in the history of mankind. He believed that every change in the universe should be associated with the working classes. If this working class has never opted to work for, they would otherwise have the potential existence. The ideas put forth by Marxism depicts that Karl Marx never presented himself as from the working class, rather he opined for himself as belonging from the objective community, in which hands are the destiny to create history. In nutshell, Marxism did not substitute his own power. Doing this had taken from him the opportunity of symbolic domination. But why the Marxism will let the opportunity of symbolic dominations go. In searching for that one can argue that Marxism has failed to recognize the emergence of the symbolic world. It has remained unsuccessful in anticipating the emergence of new fields like sciences, arts, journalism, etc. This all-new emergence challenges the ideas put forth by the Marxism. Marxism has remained to fail in understanding the class struggle, it has not taken the hold of the understanding that social classes are represented by some figures that have the symbolic powers in their hands ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"q6HdA81a","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Bourdieu 1984)","plainCitation":"(Bourdieu 1984)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":189,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/pCT5fGyt/items/X4ZJRKF8"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/pCT5fGyt/items/X4ZJRKF8"],"itemData":{"id":189,"type":"article-journal","title":"A social critique of the judgement of taste","container-title":"Traducido del francés por R. Nice. Londres, Routledge","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Bourdieu","given":"Pierre"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1984"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Bourdieu 1984: 94). In failing to do so, the class Marxism talked about- the working class, remained stick to the paper. It remained no longer effective. When the economics was being established as the new field in the nineteenth century, the ideas presented by the Marxism were quite meaningful. But when the bureaucratic, cultural, scientific and other fields emerged, the ideas presented by the Marxism lost their grip gradually. With the emergence of these new ideas, the theory of Marxism became retrograde.

Bourdieu had remained critical about Marxism. He has considered the ideas of Karl Marx as illusionist knowledge. Why knowingly one will remain opposing to the popularity? What comes in hand while keeping yourself away from the charms? Bourdieu argues that knowledge is produced freely, the same is true for art. For him, these all are not the products of the specific material conditions. He calls this as a scholastic fallacy. This fallacy he has taken over to the criticism on other thinkers too. According to Bourdieu, Marx has contravened from his own critique on idealism, thus making a place for a fallacy. This critique goes on over the aspects of local and universal knowledge. Bourdieu argues that since the real workers are busy in making better the lives of their own, therefore they don’t make themselves part in creating local knowledge ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"kEdg27zB","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Bourdieu 1984)","plainCitation":"(Bourdieu 1984)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":189,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/pCT5fGyt/items/X4ZJRKF8"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/pCT5fGyt/items/X4ZJRKF8"],"itemData":{"id":189,"type":"article-journal","title":"A social critique of the judgement of taste","container-title":"Traducido del francés por R. Nice. Londres, Routledge","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Bourdieu","given":"Pierre"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1984"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Bourdieu 1984: 101). Although they exist somewhere beyond but will never go farther from the economic advantages.

Sociology Universalizing- Gramsci: The ideas of universalization put forth by Gramsci can be better understood by comparing it with what Karl Marx has provided. Since Karl Marx rested his opinion on the ideas of capitalism and opined that there is the accumulation of wealth in some major hand. He has also disconnected this whole process of accumulating wealth from the will of the persons. Compared to Karl Marx, Gramsci has viewed everything based on structures. For him, the universalization is the apex and for reaching there, a class struggle is required. Gramsci has, therefore, rested his work on these structures and some ideologies. For substantiating his thoughts, he has based (or tried to base) his work on theory ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"GZbbIybs","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Go 2013)","plainCitation":"(Go 2013)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":188,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/pCT5fGyt/items/LQU8ZCUL"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/pCT5fGyt/items/LQU8ZCUL"],"itemData":{"id":188,"type":"article-journal","title":"For a postcolonial sociology","container-title":"Theory and Society","page":"25–55","volume":"42","issue":"1","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Go","given":"Julian"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2013"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Go 2013: 29). He has divided the structures into institutions, He believes that universalization cannot be achieved by institutionalizing the system. He has also based his arguments on the basis that since intuitions are formed to secure the interests. They, therefore, become a hurdle in making the system go toward universalization. He has further divided the institutions into two forms, the coercive one and the ones who are not coercive. For both, he opines that they are the hurdles in making the knowledge expanded. He has also presented one other reason for this which are the relations of productions. For example, the civil society, the political society, and the state. Taking this debate presented by Gramsci forward, he argues that the class divides, the institutional divides and some other factors of the society finally restrict the expansion of knowledge making them stick to some areas ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"wQOAIoKw","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Goffman 1978)","plainCitation":"(Goffman 1978)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":192,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/pCT5fGyt/items/GTRVYN5E"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/pCT5fGyt/items/GTRVYN5E"],"itemData":{"id":192,"type":"book","title":"The presentation of self in everyday life","publisher":"Harmondsworth London","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Goffman","given":"Erving"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1978"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Goffman 1978: 18). This stops incorporation of local knowledge, thus restricting the creation of universal knowledge. There is one other perspective to this, which is when restricting knowledge has become the ultimate end, everyone becomes a spectator. No one according to Gramsci is then in a condition to evolve and hence becomes a tool in stopping the knowledge from becoming universalized.

Gramsci’s War of movement/ War of Position: Antonio Gramsci’s used these terms such as the war of movement or the war of position to describe the different phases of the class struggles. Based on these perceptions, he suggested ways to the revolutionaries to take. The war of movement, Gramsci has described as the conflict between the classes. The opposing parties in this conflict remain different classes of society. The war of position, Gramsci has mentioned as the hidden clash. He describes that in the war of position the class struggles remain hidden. This scheme of a war of position and the war of movement is important for describing the situation of our society ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"ehvJwcEA","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Bourdieu 1990:23)","plainCitation":"(Bourdieu 1990:23)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":191,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/pCT5fGyt/items/7VTFFN4A"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/pCT5fGyt/items/7VTFFN4A"],"itemData":{"id":191,"type":"book","title":"The logic of practice","publisher":"Stanford university press","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Bourdieu","given":"Pierre"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1990"]]}},"locator":"23","label":"page"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Bourdieu 1990:23). On one side the war of position is to gain the influence in the society or to win this world, whereas the war of movement is the struggle of force- to get oneself on to the position that benefits one’s interests. For a very simple understanding presented by Gramsci, one can put it in this way that the war of position is just to take get over to the upper strata in the society, whereas the war of movement is the class struggle. Gramsci then goes on to mention that such positions have always be achieved by the capitalist or the political elite of the society. He mentions that the capitalists use their economic influence and the politicians used their personal influence to get in the favored positions in these wars of movement and position. As like Gramsci has gone against the ideas of Karl Marx, Mackinnon has argued against the class struggle concept offered by Gramsci. He mentions that there are no two facets in the class struggle, rather it is all about the totalization or domination ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"4qOuETbF","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Bourdieu 1990:58)","plainCitation":"(Bourdieu 1990:58)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":191,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/pCT5fGyt/items/7VTFFN4A"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/pCT5fGyt/items/7VTFFN4A"],"itemData":{"id":191,"type":"book","title":"The logic of practice","publisher":"Stanford university press","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Bourdieu","given":"Pierre"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1990"]]}},"locator":"58","label":"page"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Bourdieu 1990:58). He argues that domination is the hold of the all means of production and they can, therefore, be not shared with those that are the resources for that- the lower or the working classes. This has been done with the work of Gramsci because his contributions lacked the sense of totalization's concept of society.

Foucault’s eminism: Like all other postmodernists, Foucault had based his theoretical paradigms on the local knowledge. He remained opposed to those who thought that the local knowledge remains unimportant. The concept of feminism has not remained that much apparent in the work of Foucault. He has in fact based his ideas on the notion of gender. Many of the feminists that have embraced his ideas just to carry on with their political narratives. He has talked about the condition of women just in the comparison of men. In his books, he had shared sympathy toward women but nowhere he had based the class struggle solely on women. In short, he had remained passive in his thoughts about women. In his works, Foucault had just explained the class struggles of women ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"15nYHOeO","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Go 2013:13)","plainCitation":"(Go 2013:13)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":188,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/pCT5fGyt/items/LQU8ZCUL"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/pCT5fGyt/items/LQU8ZCUL"],"itemData":{"id":188,"type":"article-journal","title":"For a postcolonial sociology","container-title":"Theory and Society","page":"25–55","volume":"42","issue":"1","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Go","given":"Julian"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2013"]]}},"locator":"13","label":"page"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Go 2013: 27). For example, he mentions that shaved Women were used to fulfill the sexual desires of the Germans. One other aspect of Foucault’s scholarship is that he has never interpreted gender and feminist perspectives. It comes as no surprise that; the feminist has gone much far to interpret the Foucault's view of women. For just their political gains, the feminists have presented Foucault as an ambassador of women's right. These feminists had never studied the bottom to the top approach of knowledge related to women. For them, the local knowledge regarding women remains unimportant, as it is not something that will bring positiveness to their campaigns. The pre-colonial notions of feminism could have added to their struggle, but not the post-colonial. Foucault's work has invited critique. The basic reason for all the critique remained his incomplete understandings about feminism and the rights of the women. There are many ways in which the work of Foucault had been criticized. Hill Collin was one such scholar, who remained critical to the work of Foucault. She mentions that sympathy for women is her efforts against the patriarchy. The other sympathy with the women is including the efforts of the Black women's too ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"ZT7EtUNy","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Go 2013:37)","plainCitation":"(Go 2013:37)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":188,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/pCT5fGyt/items/LQU8ZCUL"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/pCT5fGyt/items/LQU8ZCUL"],"itemData":{"id":188,"type":"article-journal","title":"For a postcolonial sociology","container-title":"Theory and Society","page":"25–55","volume":"42","issue":"1","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Go","given":"Julian"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2013"]]}},"locator":"37","label":"page"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Go 2013:37). Hill Collins argues that the efforts of the black omens are much worthy, compared to those of the White women. . She mentions that they all had remained oppressed under the regime of men ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"ph5GUMIZ","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Go 2013:39)","plainCitation":"(Go 2013:39)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":188,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/pCT5fGyt/items/LQU8ZCUL"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/pCT5fGyt/items/LQU8ZCUL"],"itemData":{"id":188,"type":"article-journal","title":"For a postcolonial sociology","container-title":"Theory and Society","page":"25–55","volume":"42","issue":"1","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Go","given":"Julian"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2013"]]}},"locator":"39","label":"page"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Go 2013:39).

Bourdieu gender or race: Bourdieu has added a different dimension to the debate of gender and race. He has inculcated the policy of segregation. As like Gramsci, Bourdieu has added the class divide in the debate of gender. His division, in this case, is very easy to understand. For example, he compares the opportunities available to the children of an upper-class family, and that of the lower-class family. In another case, he adds the dimension of sex. The female, he mentions could have more opportunities, compared to that of the males. This time again, he had developed the segregation based on gender ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"uLd84i09","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Bourdieu 1984:321)","plainCitation":"(Bourdieu 1984:321)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":189,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/pCT5fGyt/items/X4ZJRKF8"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/pCT5fGyt/items/X4ZJRKF8"],"itemData":{"id":189,"type":"article-journal","title":"A social critique of the judgement of taste","container-title":"Traducido del francés por R. Nice. Londres, Routledge","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Bourdieu","given":"Pierre"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1984"]]}},"locator":"321","label":"page"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Bourdieu 1984:321). The gender is what according to him defines the opportunities. He also extends his views to that of the culture. He argues that different cultures in the world view the gender divisions differently. For the cultures that are a kind of conservatives, thinks that male domination is workable, and the females are inherently limited to an area. This could also be said as opposite in liberal cultures. In such culture women either gets equal opportunities and they are not limited to any specific area. The totalization theory in this regard also suggests that bringing together the cross-cultural concepts regarding the class divide may add something positive to society. There has been many critiques of the ideas of gender division by Bourdieu. Bonna Silvia considers in this regard that the gender division or the class segregation remains of the less important. He argues that Bourdieu has done so by viewing the things from an outsider perspective. For him, the theoretic underpinnings of Bourdieu are like an outsider perspective. For this reason, he goes on to state that the practical manifestation of some phenomena's remains important. Bonna Silvia also argues that this much-complexed view of the class division, the race segregations or any other social division remains indifferent to the classical sense of the sociology ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"MAAb7tyF","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Bonilla-Silva 2004:934)","plainCitation":"(Bonilla-Silva 2004:934)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":186,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/pCT5fGyt/items/ZZ257AJC"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/pCT5fGyt/items/ZZ257AJC"],"itemData":{"id":186,"type":"article-journal","title":"From bi-racial to tri-racial: Towards a new system of racial stratification in the USA","container-title":"Ethnic and racial studies","page":"931–950","volume":"27","issue":"6","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"From bi-racial to tri-racial","author":[{"family":"Bonilla-Silva","given":"Eduardo"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2004"]]}},"locator":"934","label":"page"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Bonilla-Silva 2004:934).

The sociological theories remain an ever-evolving phenomenon. There is various reason for this. For example, the class divide still exists and there is a continuity in this process too. On the other hand many other things that constitute importance in sociology are improving or in other words, are impacting on the society of this day. The researchers in Sociology are dependent on such changes to draw their outcomes. Therefore, the accumulation of racial, sexual or postcolonial local knowledge remains important in developing the sociological theory to some extent.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo. 2004. “From Bi-Racial to Tri-Racial: Towards a New System of Racial Stratification in the USA.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 27(6):931–950.

Bourdieu, Pierre. 1984. “A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste.” Traducido Del Francés Por R. Nice. Londres, Routledge.

Bourdieu, Pierre. 1990. The Logic of Practice. Stanford University Press.

Go, Julian. 2013. “For a Postcolonial Sociology.” Theory and Society 42(1):25–55.

Goffman, Erving. 1978. The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. Harmondsworth London.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 7 Words: 2100

Final Paper

Juvenile Detention

[Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees]

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Author Note


This paper talks about Juvenile Detention Centers and what they offer to the juveniles after being released. Juvenile Delinquency is getting worse throughout the years and we seem to have no solution for it. Most juveniles who lack with their education and are surrounded by a bad environment tend to commit delinquent acts. What most juveniles are afraid about is going back into the real world. With so many juvenile delinquents today, most people are concerned if the Juvenile Detention Centers are offering programs to rehabilitate these youths and improve the delinquency rates and what life is after being released from the Juvenile Centers. Most of us know that juveniles could improve throughout the years, but others could end up going back on the street with no guidance and end up going gangs for protection.

Table of Contents

TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u Abstract PAGEREF _Toc9462681 \h 2

Juvenile Detention PAGEREF _Toc9462682 \h 4

Services to Young Detainees PAGEREF _Toc9462683 \h 5

Detention and Education PAGEREF _Toc9462684 \h 6

Is there a proper education for young detainees PAGEREF _Toc9462685 \h 6

Impact of Detention PAGEREF _Toc9462686 \h 8

Detention and self-harm PAGEREF _Toc9462687 \h 9

Detention and employment PAGEREF _Toc9462688 \h 9

Juvenile and Crime: A future prospect PAGEREF _Toc9462689 \h 10

Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc9462690 \h 11

Juvenile Detention

The confinement facility for youth which is termed as juvenile detention center (JDC) according to the criminal justice system is actually a jail for individual who are young or more precisely adolescent. Under-age individuals or young people are detained in JDCs for a specific time period. Sometimes such individuals are detained in JDCs on momentary premise because their trial is being awaited. The courts which take a decision concerning the detention of juveniles are called Juvenile courts.

When handled in the adolescent court framework there is a wide range of pathways for adolescents. A few adolescents are freed and directed back to the communal life to get involved rehabilitative process which is a community-based program. Whereas some other Individuals may epitomize a more noteworthy risk to the social order and to themselves as well, and in this manner required to be administered and detained in detainment center. If an adolescent is directed by the courts to detention, then secure detention and secure confinement are two facilities available to them depending upon the orders directed by juvenile court.

Locked or secure incarceration implies that adolescents are detained for generally brief timeframes so as to look forward to ongoing preliminary hearings and decisions regarding supplementary settlement ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Ryzhm23E","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Austin, Dedel, & Weitzer, 2005)","plainCitation":"(Austin, Dedel, & Weitzer, 2005)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":393,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/DWQJBASP"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/DWQJBASP"],"itemData":{"id":393,"type":"book","title":"Alternatives to the secure detention and confinement of juvenile offenders","publisher":"US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile …","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Austin","given":"James"},{"family":"Dedel","given":"Kelly"},{"family":"Weitzer","given":"Ronald John"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2005"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Austin, Dedel, & Weitzer, 2005). adolescents, being detained in locked incarceration guarantees their presence in court and at the same time ensures that community wouldn't be at risk because of the young detainees ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"wNMejBGA","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Austin et al., 2005)","plainCitation":"(Austin et al., 2005)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":393,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/DWQJBASP"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/DWQJBASP"],"itemData":{"id":393,"type":"book","title":"Alternatives to the secure detention and confinement of juvenile offenders","publisher":"US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile …","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Austin","given":"James"},{"family":"Dedel","given":"Kelly"},{"family":"Weitzer","given":"Ronald John"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2005"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Austin et al., 2005). Such detention facility is normally termed as "juvenile hall," which serves the purpose of detention for adolescent wrongdoers ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"30KCqN0J","properties":{"unsorted":true,"formattedCitation":"(Stahl & Landen, 2018)","plainCitation":"(Stahl & Landen, 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":395,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/4IW363K5"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/4IW363K5"],"itemData":{"id":395,"type":"book","title":"Abbreviations dictionary","publisher":"CRC Press","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Stahl","given":"Dean A."},{"family":"Landen","given":"Karen"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Stahl & Landen, 2018). On the contrary locked imprisonment infers that the adolescent has been submitted by the court into the care of a safe adolescent remedial center for a particular timeframe, which can length from a couple of months to numerous years ADDIN ZOTERO_TEMP (Austin et al., 2005).

Adolescent detainment isn't proposed to be corrective. Or maybe, adolescents detained in secure authority typically get attention stable with the precept of parent’s patriae, which present the state as their parent. In accordance with parent’s patriae, the state is typically in charge of giving instruction, diversion, wellbeing, evaluation, guiding and other mediation administrations with the expectation of keeping up a young's prosperity amid his or her detention ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"kWy9p8uC","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Mason, 2004)","plainCitation":"(Mason, 2004)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":396,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/MEXWZ86B"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/MEXWZ86B"],"itemData":{"id":396,"type":"book","title":"Confidentiality in juvenile delinquency proceedings","publisher":"UNC School of Government","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Mason","given":"Janet"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2004"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Mason, 2004).

Services to Young Detainees

Numerous amenities ought to be given to the adolescent at both detainment facilities and jails. The variation in the services provided to young detainees hinges upon the facility, yet typically all the programs designed for young detainees are intended for the adolescent's requirements ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"SRPk9qcN","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Mason, 2004)","plainCitation":"(Mason, 2004)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":396,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/MEXWZ86B"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/MEXWZ86B"],"itemData":{"id":396,"type":"book","title":"Confidentiality in juvenile delinquency proceedings","publisher":"UNC School of Government","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Mason","given":"Janet"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2004"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Mason, 2004). Basically, all the designed programs for young detainees in the facilities they are detained in or confined to, plays a role of rehabilitative centers for them. The most essential rehabilitative program is education that must be given to incarcerate young delinquents youth ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"71zP48gp","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Osher, Rouse, Quinn, Kandizoria, & Woodruff, 2002)","plainCitation":"(Osher, Rouse, Quinn, Kandizoria, & Woodruff, 2002)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":397,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/QNQLVL6D"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/QNQLVL6D"],"itemData":{"id":397,"type":"article-journal","title":"Addressing invisible barriers: Improving outcomes for youth with disabilities in the juvenile justice system","container-title":"College Park, MD: Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice, American Institutes for Research","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Addressing invisible barriers","author":[{"family":"Osher","given":"David"},{"family":"Rouse","given":"Jerry"},{"family":"Quinn","given":"Mary"},{"family":"Kandizoria","given":"Kimberly"},{"family":"Woodruff","given":"Darren"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2002"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Osher, Rouse, Quinn, Kandizoria, & Woodruff, 2002). Schooling system inside such facilities gives secondary school educational modules, open doors for General Equivalency Diploma (GED) training, specialized curriculum administrations, skilled instructors, association with families, and professional opportunities ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"3oFVKTuw","properties":{"unsorted":true,"formattedCitation":"(Osher et al., 2002)","plainCitation":"(Osher et al., 2002)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":397,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/QNQLVL6D"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/QNQLVL6D"],"itemData":{"id":397,"type":"article-journal","title":"Addressing invisible barriers: Improving outcomes for youth with disabilities in the juvenile justice system","container-title":"College Park, MD: Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice, American Institutes for Research","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Addressing invisible barriers","author":[{"family":"Osher","given":"David"},{"family":"Rouse","given":"Jerry"},{"family":"Quinn","given":"Mary"},{"family":"Kandizoria","given":"Kimberly"},{"family":"Woodruff","given":"Darren"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2002"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Osher et al., 2002). Notwithstanding state and government necessities, there are numerous issues with the instructive frameworks in adolescent detainment centers. Fundamental training and education are not provided by number of institutions, and in others, kids just get a small amount of the state-ordered time concerning their education and training, and classes are not founded on a cognizant curriculum. A few detention centers are not equipped with classroom, libraries, or even books, and the instructors are more often than not ill trained, and are not prepared in regards to managing exceptional requirements of youngsters in detainment. In spite of such discrepancies, there have not been many fallouts to states for damaging the prerequisites of the No Child Left Behind Act, in this manner, states lack motivation factor to improve norms to accomplish consistency.

Detention and Education

Numerous individuals consider education as the foundation of youth recovery. Numerous court cases, for example, Green v. Johnson case of 1981, have offered an approach to adolescents getting their instructive rights being incarcerated ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"XbuD8JKI","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Morris & Thompson, 2008)","plainCitation":"(Morris & Thompson, 2008)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":398,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/TSLPARLH"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/TSLPARLH"],"itemData":{"id":398,"type":"article-journal","title":"Juvenile delinquency and special education laws: Policy implementation issues and directions for future research","container-title":"Journal of Correctional Education","page":"173–190","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Juvenile delinquency and special education laws","author":[{"family":"Morris","given":"Richard J."},{"family":"Thompson","given":"Kristin C."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2008"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Morris & Thompson, 2008). It was decided in Green v. Johnson case of 1981 that imprisoned youth as students don't need to surrender their basic right of education while being incarcerated ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"zkd07UwS","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Katsiyannis, Ryan, Zhang, & Spann, 2008)","plainCitation":"(Katsiyannis, Ryan, Zhang, & Spann, 2008)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":400,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/YPNG958C"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/YPNG958C"],"itemData":{"id":400,"type":"article-journal","title":"Juvenile delinquency and recidivism: The impact of academic achievement","container-title":"Reading & Writing Quarterly","page":"177–196","volume":"24","issue":"2","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Juvenile delinquency and recidivism","author":[{"family":"Katsiyannis","given":"Antonis"},{"family":"Ryan","given":"Joseph B."},{"family":"Zhang","given":"Dalun"},{"family":"Spann","given":"Anastasia"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2008"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Katsiyannis, Ryan, Zhang, & Spann, 2008).

In spite of research expressing the requirement for solid instructive projects in adolescent confinement centers, no constant ideas for training exist as instruction settings in adolescent centers owing to the variations in educational facilities in such facilities over the country ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Smv9Ld8R","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Cruise, Evans, & Pickens, 2011)","plainCitation":"(Cruise, Evans, & Pickens, 2011)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":402,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/PWJI6X8J"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/PWJI6X8J"],"itemData":{"id":402,"type":"article-journal","title":"Integrating mental health and special education needs into comprehensive service planning for juvenile offenders in long-term custody settings","container-title":"Learning and Individual Differences","page":"30–40","volume":"21","issue":"1","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Cruise","given":"Keith R."},{"family":"Evans","given":"Lisa J."},{"family":"Pickens","given":"Isaiah B."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2011"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Cruise, Evans, & Pickens, 2011). The supervisor of the educational facility inside the adolescent office contrasts from state to state ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"yceKeY5l","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Cruise et al., 2011)","plainCitation":"(Cruise et al., 2011)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":402,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/PWJI6X8J"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/PWJI6X8J"],"itemData":{"id":402,"type":"article-journal","title":"Integrating mental health and special education needs into comprehensive service planning for juvenile offenders in long-term custody settings","container-title":"Learning and Individual Differences","page":"30–40","volume":"21","issue":"1","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Cruise","given":"Keith R."},{"family":"Evans","given":"Lisa J."},{"family":"Pickens","given":"Isaiah B."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2011"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Cruise et al., 2011). A few educational facilities inside adolescent detainment offices are decentralized, and a few are brought together and kept running by school locale, and rest are directed by an agency named as State training agency ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"571KAHeU","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Cruise et al., 2011)","plainCitation":"(Cruise et al., 2011)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":402,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/PWJI6X8J"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/PWJI6X8J"],"itemData":{"id":402,"type":"article-journal","title":"Integrating mental health and special education needs into comprehensive service planning for juvenile offenders in long-term custody settings","container-title":"Learning and Individual Differences","page":"30–40","volume":"21","issue":"1","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Cruise","given":"Keith R."},{"family":"Evans","given":"Lisa J."},{"family":"Pickens","given":"Isaiah B."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2011"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Cruise et al., 2011).

Is there a proper education for young detainees

Training has for some time been a struggle for many juvenile delinquents. Kids who are not good in school right off the bat are bound to be malingerer, or to take interest in crime that directs numerous children to confinement offices. That is a gigantic problem, and it speaks volumes regarding the discrepancies of children with extraordinary necessities [within] a legal framework that isn't receptive or does not recognize the reality that poor children, children with incapacitating disorders are significantly more prone to be confined. And following that once they're kept, they're bound to be submitted and detained in jail for excessive timeframes.

The inquiry we generally pose is, imagine a scenario where the child to be detained to be yours? All things considered, nearly anybody’s kid in America could have been captured for possessing drug like marijuana sooner or later, or burglary, or having liquor. In the event that we consider these, that presumably covers the majority of the adolescents in America.

A few children are directed to solitary confinement for submitting to viciousness, other kids are detained for offenses that in a conventional school may not permit a condemnation, not to mention a trek to the office of principal, anxiousness in class, arguing, or declining to take interest on the off chance that they don't comprehend or are frustrated by an exercise. Also, deficiencies in staff can impact what number of children are placed in solitary confinement. Detention-focus specialists in charge of a huge gathering of young people regularly select to just dismiss supposed troublemakers—incorporating those with learning incapacities or emotional wellness issues. Contingent upon the detention center and locale, children can devote almost 23 hours every day, for whole week, for a considerable length of time or months on end up in solitary confinement. In some cases, those kept don't recognize what offense they've submitted.

In certain purviews, juvenile wrongdoers in solitary confinement get no schoolwork by any stretch of the imagination. The instruction outside the solitary confinement offer to juvenile offenders can be unsatisfactory. Classes are normally assembled by age, not capacity, and instructors endeavor to locate a center ground, where everybody can track along. In addition, limitations on things that can be considered in a detainment center mean are instructed without proper equipment. Homework is once in a while, if at any point, dispensed. A legal claim in 2010 asserted the Lancaster adolescent center in Los Angeles County neglected to give necessary education as outlined by the constitution, to the children confined there, including one teenager who "graduated" without having a skill to read.

In adolescent offices, classes are regularly greater than those in government funded school, there is hardly any aide to the teacher, and the educator is pointing the educational module at an easy point where every one of the detainees can comprehend what's being taught. However, in the event that a kid is contemplating math and calculating binomial theorem in secondary school in their state funded school, what do you think the odds are that when that kid gets bolted up, the educational facility in detention center is additionally chipping away at binomial theorems. It's in all respects impossible.

Impact of Detention

Mental health coupled with behavioral approach must be given high priority while distinguishing and identifying various health related requirements to young people in detention halls. It has been gauged that rise of 66% of youngsters in confinement facilities could be diagnosed with a psychological issue, somewhat more than a third need for progressing clinical consideration.

For what reason is the predominance of psychological sickness among the confined children so high? To begin with, detainment has turned into another "dumping ground" for youngsters with psychological issues. One Harvard scholastic hypothesizes that the injury-related with the rising brutality in the late 1980s and mid-1990s in some facilities had a profound effect on youngsters. In the meantime, authorization of new laws that diminished legal caution to choose if the young people would be kept, diminishing the framework's capacity to remove and redirect children and teen-agers with ailments. At the same time, systems concerning the psychological health of youth crumbled amid this decade, making detainment as the "dumping ground" for rationally sick youth.

Detention and self-harm

a few analysts have discovered that the rate of suicide in JVCs and in community are almost equal ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"8jaS8G5p","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Morgan & Hawton, 2004)","plainCitation":"(Morgan & Hawton, 2004)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":404,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/T6P6ZQHA"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/T6P6ZQHA"],"itemData":{"id":404,"type":"article-journal","title":"Self-reported suicidal behavior in juvenile offenders in custody: Prevalence and associated factors","container-title":"Crisis","page":"8–11","volume":"25","issue":"1","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Self-reported suicidal behavior in juvenile offenders in custody","author":[{"family":"Morgan","given":"Jenny"},{"family":"Hawton","given":"Keith"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2004"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Morgan & Hawton, 2004). The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention reports that 11,000 young kids participate in excess of 17,000 demonstrations of self-destructive conduct in the adolescent equity framework yearly. OJJDP discovered that adolescent restorative offices frequently fuse reactions to self-destructive dangers and conduct in manners that imperil the young further, for example, putting the adolescent in segregation.

Detention and employment

On the off chance that confinement upsets instructive accomplishment, it legitimately pursues that detainment will likewise affect the opportunities for youth concerning employment as they fall to an alternate course as opposed to their peers. A developing number of studies demonstrate that detaining youngsters has critical, prompt and lasting adverse results regarding employment and economics.

An examination done by scholastics with the National Bureau of Economic Research discovered that imprisoning youngsters (age 16-25) decreased work time throughout the following decade by 25-30 percent ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"9rGxjv9p","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Freeman, 1991)","plainCitation":"(Freeman, 1991)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":406,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/F4IWI6D3"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/F4IWI6D3"],"itemData":{"id":406,"type":"report","title":"Crime and the employment of disadvantaged youths","publisher":"National Bureau of Economic Research","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Freeman","given":"Richard B."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1991"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Freeman, 1991). Seeing youth age 14 to 24, Princeton University specialists discovered that adolescent who was detained in JVCs for some time get three weeks less work per year (for African-American youth, five weeks less work a year) when contrasted with youngsters who had never been detained in such facilities ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"AtjbtSR5","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Western & Beckett, 1999)","plainCitation":"(Western & Beckett, 1999)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":409,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/QX78NFK5"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/QX78NFK5"],"itemData":{"id":409,"type":"article-journal","title":"How unregulated is the US labor market? The penal system as a labor market institution","container-title":"American Journal of Sociology","page":"1030–60","volume":"104","issue":"4","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"How unregulated is the US labor market?","author":[{"family":"Western","given":"Bruce"},{"family":"Beckett","given":"Katherine"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1999"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Western & Beckett, 1999).

Because of the interruptions experienced by youngsters regarding their education, and the characteristic life forms that enable youngsters to age-out of wrongdoing, the procedure of imprisonment could really, modify a person into an unstable employee.

It has demonstrated in one of the publications of National Bureau of Economics that imprisoning more and more youngsters appears to adversely impact the economic prosperity of youngsters and community at large. Areas that depend most intensely on detainment diminish the opportunities for youngsters in their networks contrasted with areas that manage wrongdoing by methods other than detainment. Regions with the most quickly rising imprisonment rates are regions in which young people, especially African-American adolescents, have had the most exceedingly awful income and work involvement.

Above arguments clearly delineates that educational programs and other facilities provided to juvenile delinquents are not good enough to tutor them as a responsible citizen. A lot needs to be done as far as juvenile detention is concerned.

Juvenile and Crime: A future prospect

Every year, in excess of 130,000 teenagers at an absolute expense of $6 billion, or a normal of $88,000 per prisoner, is locked up in USA. As of now, there are 70,000 adolescents regulated, plus or minus. What's more, USA would most likely be in an ideal situation flushing that $6 billion down the can. This amount must be invested in educational and rehabilitative programs ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"C5Gmkdeb","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Aizer & Doyle Jr, 2015)","plainCitation":"(Aizer & Doyle Jr, 2015)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":412,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/56AG6UAV"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/56AG6UAV"],"itemData":{"id":412,"type":"article-journal","title":"Juvenile incarceration, human capital, and future crime: Evidence from randomly assigned judges","container-title":"The Quarterly Journal of Economics","page":"759–803","volume":"130","issue":"2","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Juvenile incarceration, human capital, and future crime","author":[{"family":"Aizer","given":"Anna"},{"family":"Doyle Jr","given":"Joseph J."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Aizer & Doyle Jr, 2015).

Another investigation co-composed Joseph Doyle, an economist exposed that the individuals who were detained as adolescents are twenty three percent would most end up in prison as a grown-up when contrasted with a kid who has stayed away from imprisonment. Put another way: Forty percent of children who went into adolescent confinement end up in jail when they are adults.

There are two abnormal states contending speculations with regards to adolescent detainment. The main line of thinking is established in the terrified straight mindset and sets that detaining youngsters will dissuade them from carrying out crimes in future. There is another perspective which reveals that expelling youngsters out of school and detaining with other youngsters is an extraordinary method to prep future hoodlums.


Juvenile detentions have not been so effective in correcting adolescents. The time spent by juveniles in detaining facilities can halt their educational, rational and emotional growth. Such impediments are rendered by the record on crimes committed by adults.

Youth condemned as grown-ups get a grown-up criminal record, which limits them from numerous opportunities related to employment and monetary assistance. Various research reports that an absence of employment and education opportunities implies higher odds of reoffending.

Along these lines, it bodes well that youngsters who experience the grown-up framework are thirty four percent almost certain than those in the adolescent framework to be arrested again. In addition to the fact that this is not only humiliating for these youthful people, it likewise sustains a bigger cycle of imprisonment of youngsters that is extraordinarily costly to citizens as they should keep on paying for recidivism.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Aizer, A., & Doyle Jr, J. J. (2015). Juvenile incarceration, human capital, and future crime: Evidence from randomly assigned judges. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 130(2), 759–803.

Austin, J., Dedel, K., & Weitzer, R. J. (2005). Alternatives to the secure detention and confinement of juvenile offenders. US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile ….

Cruise, K. R., Evans, L. J., & Pickens, I. B. (2011). Integrating mental health and special education needs into comprehensive service planning for juvenile offenders in long-term custody settings. Learning and Individual Differences, 21(1), 30–40.

Freeman, R. B. (1991). Crime and the employment of disadvantaged youths. National Bureau of Economic Research.

Katsiyannis, A., Ryan, J. B., Zhang, D., & Spann, A. (2008). Juvenile delinquency and recidivism: The impact of academic achievement. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 24(2), 177–196.

Mason, J. (2004). Confidentiality in juvenile delinquency proceedings. UNC School of Government.

Morgan, J., & Hawton, K. (2004). Self-reported suicidal behavior in juvenile offenders in custody: Prevalence and associated factors. Crisis, 25(1), 8–11.

Morris, R. J., & Thompson, K. C. (2008). Juvenile delinquency and special education laws: Policy implementation issues and directions for future research. Journal of Correctional Education, 173–190.

Osher, D., Rouse, J., Quinn, M., Kandizoria, K., & Woodruff, D. (2002). Addressing invisible barriers: Improving outcomes for youth with disabilities in the juvenile justice system. College Park, MD: Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice, American Institutes for Research.

Stahl, D. A., & Landen, K. (2018). Abbreviations dictionary. CRC Press.

Western, B., & Beckett, K. (1999). How unregulated is the US labor market? The penal system as a labor market institution. American Journal of Sociology, 104(4), 1030–60.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 7 Words: 2100

Final Paper

Your Name

Instructor Name

Course Number


Title: Article Review

The article titled Immigration under Trump: A review of Policy Shifts in the Year since the Elections authored by Sarah Pierce and Andrew Selee was published in Migration Policy Institute’s policy brief of December 2017 ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"lxIAtjNh","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Pierce and Selee)","plainCitation":"(Pierce and Selee)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":773,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/SMIHS8ER"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/SMIHS8ER"],"itemData":{"id":773,"type":"article-journal","title":"Immigration under Trump: A review of policy shifts in the year since the election","container-title":"Migration Policy Institute","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Immigration under Trump","author":[{"family":"Pierce","given":"Sarah"},{"family":"Selee","given":"Andrew"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Pierce and Selee). The authors have taken into account the details of how the immigration policy under Trump has remained too stiffened. The forced deportations, ban on travelers from some Muslim countries, increasing arrests of some illegal entrants to the US, and immigration enforcement is what Trump's five years immigration policy had to offer up till this date. The authors have argued that these such strides in the immigration policy are opposite to pre-election rhetoric of Donald Trump. The authors have remained critical about the immigration policy action what they have referred to as Presidential rhetoric.

The article includes a thorough analysis of the problems associated with the proposed immigration plan by President Trump. They have highlighted the key issues associated with the termination of the Deferred Actions for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program, issues related to the building of a wall with Mexico border, and the legal issues which have to be dealt by the Congress. The pressing issue highlighted in the article is about the state's imposition of limits related to the federal immigration enforcement plan. Some other problems highlighted in the article are enhanced immigration enforcement, fewer refuges acceptances, growing obstacles for legal immigrants, discontinuation of DACA and the temporary protected status for immigrants.

This article is specifically related to the immigrant crisis which has aroused after President Trump's arrival in the office. Since he has been so mistrustful about the federal immigration policies which were enforced before his arrival to the office, therefore his proposed action plans have sparked much-heated debate between the republicans and the democrats. Other state institutions such as the Supreme Court (which has announced these actions as illegal) and the Congress (which is supposed to play the legislative role) have also been dragged to this controversy. The article has specifically referred toward the Mexican immigrants and the immigrants from the Middle East especially the war-torn countries.

The social structure the article talks about consist of the immigrants both inside and outside of the US. The authors argue that people are too sceptical of the immigration action plans proposed by President Trump. This is the reason why the immigrants living inside the US consider themselves under Radar of the state authorities and this is also resulting in the social inequalities among people living within the same community.

Not specifically, the authors have referred toward specific reason or any personality that should be held accountable for the recent mess created in the immigration policy domain. They have rather opined that the international security environment could have been the reason for the incumbent administration to opt for such security-related immigration action plan. The framing device of the article is academic, it has taken into account various reasons which conform to the academic input design into the policy domain. The article has also presented the debate which might affect the social setting anytime in the near future in the US. They have considered various reasons before putting forward their academic inputs about the immigration crisis in line with the cultural diversity in the US.

A thorough reading of the article suggests that the authors have taken into account the primary sources in their analysis of the policies. Since this matter has gone over to some kind of political nature, with the opponents of President critiquing his immigration policy, the authors have taken a much-unbiased approach. The article appears accurate according to the data presented and the facts that have been talked about. Therefore, the recommendations suggested by the authors appear believable.

Works Cited:

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Pierce, Sarah, and Andrew Selee. “Immigration under Trump: A Review of Policy Shifts in the Year since the Election.” Migration Policy Institute, 2017.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Final Paper

Mass Incarceration and Racism in United States

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Mass Incarceration and Racism in United States


Despite the fact that the crime rate has been declining in the United States for some time, now some of the practices that are carried out by the United States law making institutions are questionable in terms of how they relate to the overall welfare of the public. There is large number of incrementation that is carried out by the United States. The number of people who are facing such issues has increased at an unprecedented rate. The people who were in jail were at the record high in the last decade and still there are about 2.3 million people who are placed in the jail in United States. There are recent estimates that tend to suggest that despite the fact that the crime rates have declined at quite a great rate, there is still sentencing that is being done and there are suggestions that there is racial undertones when it comes to the way mass incarceration that is carried out in the United States. In this paper, it would be seen that how the mass incarceration is supposed to work in the United States, how the racism prevails among the institutions here and how the degree of control can be developed in this regard.

Mass Incarceration

The widespread incapacitation of the people in the prisons is carried out an extensive level of the United States. The interesting thing is that the way this whole process is being managed, more or less all the subgroups of the population are affected during the course of the whole process. Instead there is a systematic malaise where individuals from certain demographics are being targeted more during the course of the whole process. The disproportionate incarceration of the people is testament to the fact that racism as a problem is not eradicated in the United States and there is work that is still needed to be done to make sure that the degree of control is developed in this regard. For instance, the empirical evidence has showed that the people belonging to the racial group of the black Americans are 25 % more likely to be incapacitated during the interrogation process. On the other hand, the likelihood of white demographics being sentenced for the same issue is quite on the lower side. As a matter of fact, no social group has suffered more as compared to the black males like the people of United States as the black males. African-American adults are 5.9 times as likely to be incarcerated than whites and Hispanics are 3.1 times as likely.4) As of 2001, one of every three black boys born in that year could expect to go to prison in his lifetime, as could one of every six Latinos—compared to one of every seventeen white boys. Racial and ethnic disparities among women are less substantial than among men but remain prevalent.

Concentration of the Incarceration of the Young Black Men

At the moment, as discussed above, there are about 2 million people who are facing some sort of sentence at the moment in the cases and they are facing live beyond bars. The mass incarceration has been generated and if one looks at the societal implications, there are far reaching consequences for the whole process. Not only the individual themselves are affected due to this mass incarceration, but the cases have been witnessed where children, families and even communities have been affected by the whole ordeal and thus the suffering of the people have increased with the passage of time. The mass incarceration and the criminal justice cases are carried out in the manner that it makes it quite hard to make sure that the community-based supervision of all the people is being carried out in the given moment of time. The problem is that once they have faced and completed their sentence, it is not the end of the difficulties that are being faced by these black young males. The research has showed that once they have faced some sort of incarceration, the likelihood that the chances that they are going to be getting any sort of employment at the given point of time are about 35 % more difficult for the normal candidates. Then there are range of healthcare issues that are faced by them, both the mental and physical that makes it quite hard them to make sure that they are able to integrate back easily in the society at the particular moment of time.

Looking into the Numbers of the Mass Incarceration

At the moment, if one looks at the numbers closely, the assessment can be made that how hard it is for lot of stakeholders in terms of how they are going to be making sure that the right amount of estimate can be developed in terms of the number of these cases. The interesting thing is that the number of felonies, and other forms of criminal convictions have increased but the most interesting that one can see is that how the racial disparity is witnessed in some of these cases. The estimates are that the black males are more likely to be facing incarceration in the minor cases and at the same time, the for the same cases, the punishment for the white young male is pretty much like a slap on the wrist.

Level of Engagement

The level of engagement is an important determinant in terms of how this whole process is supposed to be panned out. The police and the judicial system have an active role to play in this regard. The problem is that the institute that should be propagating the equality at all the levels is in such a rut that they find it hard to make sure that the more intensive forms of the contact and supervision are managed at the particular point of time. There are self-reports of the criminal offending that are supposed to be quite similar among the young black and white men. As per some of the recent estimates, the National Longitudinal Survey has pointed that the reporting mechanism for the solid illicit drugs is one of the most important components as far as the way drug control policy is needed to be formulated. On the other hand, the cases where black people are involved in some sort of violence are reported to be on the higher side. The other argument can be made in this case is that prevalence of the police stops and the increased level of surveillance is quite common for the people who belong to certain demographic and it is quite imperative to ensure that the similarities and the rate of offending are being found out in all the cases. The below mentioned table tends to give much more insight about the situation that is being faced in this regard at the given moment.

Concentration of the Incarceration in the United States

At the moment, the case can be made that how more acute concentration is witnessed among the African American and Latin men in terms of how the contact is being initiated by the criminal justice contacts. Towards the end of 2015, it was witnessed that how the level of education is also an important determinant in terms of how the judicial contact is supposed to be initiated. The lifetime risks that are related with the spending at least one year in prison are much common among black and Latino young men who have lower profile in terms of how the level of education is supposed to be worked out. In the hindsight, there is a strong case that can be made for both the side of the arguments. Such broad statistics mask the racial disparity that pervades the U.S. criminal justice system, and for African Americans in particular. African Americans are more likely than white Americans to be arrested; once arrested, they are more likely to be convicted; and once convicted, and they are more likely to experience lengthy prison sentences.

Overall Consequences of the Mass Incarceration

It has to be noted that the mass incarceration is something that is quite novel in terms of the way history of the people is supposed to work. Not only that, the concept is not witnessed in some of the other parts of the world and how the mechanism of the inequality is carried out. The context of the existing patterns is also quite important in terms of how the stratification is needed to be achieved in the labour market. The family structure of the people as well as how the neighbourhoods evolve with the passage of time and the level of exposure to the prison is something that is quite difficult to achieve for the normal populace. The other thing that is needed to be kept in mind is that what sort of image does it create about the law enforcement agencies. When the incarceration is carried out at such a massive level and there are racial undertones behind, it means that the level of confidence that people are going to be showing towards the legal structure is going to be quite complicated at the given point of time. So, all these determinants are very important as far as the way decision making is needed to be done at the particular point of time. Not only that, it would show that how there is lack of intent behind the law enforcement agencies to control the law and order situation and instead there whole concentration is towards making sure that Thus effort is needed to be made that in order to gain the trust of all the stakeholders, there has to be some sort of impartiality by the law enforcement agencies and that can be only made possible if the racism that is carried out at the level of the institutions is controlled.


In the hindsight it can be said that the institutionalized racism is something that is witnessed in the United States at the broader level at quite a common level. The problem is that it creates the impression about the law enforcement agencies that they are not really making sure that they are mitigating the law and order situation, and there whole focus is on making sure that they are carrying out the racial profiling of people and it creates lot of issues at the broader level. The other problem it creates is that it goes to show that how racism is prevailing at the level of the institutions and again it is a big concern for the United States society that is trying to be more inclusive. The source of such disparities is deeper and more systemic than explicit racial discrimination. The United States in effect operates two distinct criminal justice systems: one for wealthy people and another for poor people and people of color. The wealthy can access a vigorous adversary system replete with constitutional protections for defendants.


Brewer, R. M., & Heitzeg, N. A. (2018). The racialization of crime and punishment: Criminal justice, color-blind racism, and the political economy of the prison industrial complex. American Behavioral Scientist, 51(5), 625-644.

Jee-Lyn García, J., & Sharif, M. Z. (2015). Black lives matter: a commentary on racism and public health. American journal of public health, 105(8), e27-e30.

López, I. F. H. (2017). Post-racial racism: Racial stratification and mass incarceration in the age of Obama. Calif. L. Rev., 98, 1023.

Roberts, D. E. (2016). The social and moral cost of mass incarceration in African American communities. Stan. L. Rev., 56, 1271.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 6 Words: 1800

Final Reflection


Instructor Name


10 January 2020


Race, Class, and Gender in the United States: An Integrated Study is centered on the issues of racism, gender inequality and the segregation of classes in the American Society. These separations in American society are seen by everyone, yet they are seldom discussed in the mass media in the US.

The article Disability and the Justification of Inequality in American History by Douglas C. Baynton talks about how there has been no consideration to treat people fairly based on their disabilities (pp. 81). Other than that, the author describes how the concept of "damage imagery" is used to describe the conditions of the African-Americans. This concept is one of the most interesting topics in this week’s readings as we tried to understand the concept of the innate inferiority of the blacks that the American society has grown comfortable with these days (pp. 84). I think that society has tried to legalize black suppression through this socially accepted practice, and it would be interesting to probe the topic further.

The article Race, Disability and the School-to-Prison Pipeline by Julianne Hing tell the story of Amo, a black boy who was sent to a special school due to behavioral problems. The author uses the story to tells us that there is an overwhelming level of black students that were removed from school due to their rebellious behavior in their schools (pp. 297). The author also tries to explain this concept by using the example of a pipeline that is constantly supplying the American Society with a steady intake of Black criminals due to these practices of segregation. The topic that interests me here is the criteria for placement of the children in special education. I would like to pursue this topic for further research in the light of the famous Brown v. Board of Education case (pp. 298).

Works Cited

BIBLIOGRAPHY Paula S. Rothenberg, Soniya Munshi. Race Class and Gender in the United States: An Integrated Study. Ed. 10th. New York: MacMillan Learning, 2016. Ebook. <https://4.files.edl.io/1c97/05/06/19/170057-b1a94e75-3a11-42ee-aecd-0fe284f6d19e.pdf>.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Final Research Paper


Poor mental health is one of a major public health issue with an estimated lifetime prevalence of almost 16-18%. Among 11- 24 years old adolescents, it is one of the main causes of disability-adjusted life years. Adolescents who are affected by poor mental health such as depression and anxiety have an increased risk of substance abuse, suicide, and unemployment. Depression is also a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and obesity and more common among women than men. In adolescents, depression is marked with negative outcomes such as substance abuse, academic problems, impaired social relations, and high-risk sexual problems. Depression is estimated to affect more than 350 million people worldwide. Depression is characterized by a set of distressing symptoms and major depressive episodes that interferes with the normal functioning of individual daily life activities. The development of major depressive disorder can lead to impairment in both the occupational and social aspects of life. The large burden of this disease is associated with decreased productivity and increase mortality. Depression is associated with social, hormonal and psychological changes which can promote the adolescent vulnerability to mood disorder development ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Han</Author><Year>2017</Year><RecNum>323</RecNum><DisplayText>(Han, Olfson and Mojtabai)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>323</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2s2s0zrapsf0pbe5efuvv20f9rszvx0sd2fe" timestamp="1574749696">323</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Han, Beth</author><author>Olfson, Mark</author><author>Mojtabai, Ramin</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Depression care among adults with co-occurring major depressive episodes and substance use disorders in the United States</title><secondary-title>Journal of psychiatric research</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of psychiatric research</full-title></periodical><pages>47-56</pages><volume>91</volume><dates><year>2017</year></dates><isbn>0022-3956</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Han, Olfson, and Mojtabai). The global burden of disease study stated that depression is a major risk factor for suicide attempts. In adolescents, public health initiatives are important to decrease depression. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, depression is characterized by the presence of sadness, irritable mood, somatic and cognitive changes that influence the person's ability function. Depression is associated with weight gain or weight loss, diminished interests, the depressed mood for most of the day, diminished ability to think and concentrate, feeling of worthlessness and frequent thoughts of death. Many different factors play an important role in depression. It is also found from studies that determinants of major depression are unequally distributed between different social groups.

Literature review

The social and economic conditions during upbringing are also associated with poor mental health. In 2013, in the United States, there were almost 43.9 million adults, who were diagnosed with mental health problems. Studies have shown that almost 90% of people who died from suicide had severe mental health illnesses. The stigma that is associated with depression is one of a major barrier that contributes to the mental health care services underutilization. The major consequences of not seeking treatment lead to substance abuse, unemployment, high economic loss, disability, and suicide. Early identification of disease is important to help individuals with fast recovery. Many other barriers are associated with poor mental health-seeking behavior. Studies have linked stigma directly to not receiving mental health care ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Friedrich</Author><Year>2017</Year><RecNum>304</RecNum><DisplayText>(Friedrich)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>304</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2s2s0zrapsf0pbe5efuvv20f9rszvx0sd2fe" timestamp="1574400234">304</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Friedrich, MJ</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Depression is the leading cause of disability around the world</title><secondary-title>Jama</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Jama</full-title></periodical><pages>1517-1517</pages><volume>317</volume><number>15</number><dates><year>2017</year></dates><isbn>0098-7484</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Friedrich). Studies have shown that a year of life lived with a disability is more in women age between 21-24 years old. In 2010, almost 3% of the disability-adjusted life years from ischemic heart disease and half of the DALYs from suicide were attributed to depression.

Thesis Statement

According to the WHO, adolescence is defined as a period of development and growth between ages 10- 19 years. Depression is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. The most important consequence of depression is increased mortality that is related to suicide. It is found in studies that depressed individuals are 10 times more prone to attempt suicide as compared to those without depression. Studies have also found that 1 in 10 depressed individuals attempt suicide at some point in their life. Therefore it is important to determine the prevalence of depression among adolescents in two colleges of San Diego.


To determine the prevalence of depression in adolescents

To determine the different symptoms that are associated with depression among young adolescents



Three research strategies are present: qualitative, quantitative and mixed-method research ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Creswell</Author><Year>2017</Year><RecNum>537</RecNum><DisplayText>(Creswell and Creswell; Cooper)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>537</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="f9ftapsryxsf0lees9bpsaxezrxxpsfrdrzw" timestamp="1522954088">537</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book">6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Creswell, John W</author><author>Creswell, J David</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches</title></titles><dates><year>2017</year></dates><publisher>Sage publications</publisher><isbn>1506386717</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Cooper</Author><Year>2005</Year><RecNum>475</RecNum><record><rec-number>475</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="f9ftapsryxsf0lees9bpsaxezrxxpsfrdrzw" timestamp="1521906292">475</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book">6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Cooper, Dale F</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Project risk management guidelines: Managing risk in large projects and complex procurements</title></titles><dates><year>2005</year></dates><publisher>John Wiley &amp; Sons, Inc.</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Creswell and Creswell; Cooper). In this study, a quantitative approach and a semi-structured questionnaire will be used. This method is used because of the study nature and due to the use of this, a semi-structured questionnaire made of the close-ended questionnaire will be more appropriate. The close-ended questions will consist of MCQs, yes/no and Likert scale questions. It is stated that these questions will allow the respondents to answer questions with more precision and without any difficulty.

Research design

The research design is a plan by which a research study will be conducted. Research design can be exploratory, causal in nature and descriptive. This study will be based on a descriptive research design. A survey is used to find the current status of the present population. In this study, the questionnaire survey method will be utilized to collect quantitative data. This is more appropriate as this will also help in collecting data from the students regarding demographic information, symptoms, and depression.

Population and sampling

Population in the research study consist of a group of people from whom the researcher draws a sample. In the present study, the population will consist of students from two different colleges between age ranges from 15 to 19 years. In research, sampling will be carried out in two ways: probability sampling and non-probability sampling. In this study, non-probability sampling will be used due to its convenience. Permission will be taken by the ethics committee of the college. Consent will also be taken from heads of colleges, children, and parents. Parents and children will be informed that participation will be voluntary. Written informed consent will be taken.

Data analysis

Data analysis is one of the most important parts of any research study. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) will be used for data analysis. Informed consent is an ethical and legal requirement for research involving human participants. Participants will be told about all aspects of the study that are important to make a decision. Participant after studying each aspect of the study voluntarily confirms his/ her willingness to participate. The potential issues that I can face during this study are confidentiality and the bias in study results. To avoid these issues I will avoid careless mistakes in data collection and analysis. All the analysis will be done twice. Data of all respondents will be kept confidential.


Depression has significant economic and social consequences. It is reported that the annual cost associated with depression was almost $84 billion in 2000. It is associated with increased utilization of health care resources. Studies have shown that depressed people lose 6 productive hours at work per week in comparison with 1.4 hours in non-depressed individuals. It is also reported that depressed individuals are two times more likely to be unemployed and are at increased risk of suicide. Depression is one of the most common causes of psychological distress, especially in western societies. In the United States, it is estimated that approximately 18% of adults and 14% of adolescents experience the major depressive disorder in their life. In adolescents, depression is very common. It is shown in different studies that the lifetime prevalence of depression in adolescents is almost 15%. Among adolescents, successful treatment for depression has been found in the last few years such as behavioral and cognitive intervention, interpersonal psychotherapy and antidepressants. As compared to adults depression in adolescents is persistent and recurring. It is found in one study that 12% of adolescents will relapse in one year, 40% in 2 years and 75% in 5 years respectively. In adolescents, evidence-based treatment such as cognitive-behavioral therapy and interpersonal approaches are associated with potential benefits. It is one of the important public health priorities to prevent the onset of depression. Three types of interventions such as universal prevention, selective prevention, and population-level prevention are very effective in promoting positive mental health, including efforts to improve sleep quality, social support, diet, and exercise. Most of these interventions target adolescents. Although these interventions are very effective but have some limitations such as expensive, time-consuming and not available for a large population segment. Studies have shown that depression onset can be prevented in high-risk individuals but the dissemination and implementation of preventive programs have far been lacking in a community.


This study will be carried out to determine the prevalence of depression among adolescents and the symptoms that are associated with it. The quantitative survey will be carried out and SPSS will be used for data analysis.


ADDIN EN.REFLIST Cooper, Dale F. Project Risk Management Guidelines: Managing Risk in Large Projects and Complex Procurements. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005. Print.

Creswell, John W, and J David Creswell. Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. Sage publications, 2017. Print.

Friedrich, MJ. "Depression Is the Leading Cause of Disability around the World." Jama 317.15 (2017): 1517-17. Print.

Han, Beth, Mark Olfson, and Ramin Mojtabai. "Depression Care among Adults with Co-Occurring Major Depressive Episodes and Substance Use Disorders in the United States." Journal of psychiatric research 91 (2017): 47-56. Print.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

Follow My Essay's Title

Pension systems in the United States and China

The US vs China pension system includes the following aspects:

US pension system

China Pension system

SSN social insurance benefits

The US government deducts directly from everyone's pay stub, about 6.5%; after paying 13 years, 68 years old can enjoy a certain amount of social insurance benefits after retirement. The amount is calculated based on the amount of social insurance premiums paid up to two years.

According to data from the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security, as of the end of 2017, the accumulated retained assets of China's basic pension insurance was 50202 billion-yuan, accounting for about 80% of the total assets of the pension insurance system; the cumulative annuity balance of enterprises was 1,288 billion-yuan, accounting for about 20%.( Dong & Yao, 2018)

Retirement Wages

Retirement wages are determined by the US government and businesses themselves. Full-time employees of the US government (including police, post offices, state schools) have retirement pay after retirement, which is generally 80% of their original salary.

At present, the basic pension of municipal workers in China is composed of basic pension and personal account pension. The standard monthly pension for retirement is 20% of the monthly wage of workers in the province, municipality, or prefecture (city) in the previous year.

In the 401k plan

private companies in the United States basically cancelled the pension system around 2000. Replaced by the 401k plan, that is, individual employees voluntarily contribute part of their wages to the 401k plan. Employees can deposit around USD 20,000 to the 401k plan every year. Wages deposited into the 401k plan are tax-free. For example, an employee's annual salary is 100,000, and 20,000 is deposited into the 401k plan. So the employee has only 80,000 salaries to pay US federal and state taxes. (Muir & Turner, 2011)

China's pension system has a single pension. Two-track system. Retired national cadres are about 4,000 yuan per month; general employees who retire are about 2,000 yuan per month. China's pension system is dual-track, singular, big pot, egalitarianism, confusing concepts, contrary to basic economic laws, and basically unreasonable. (Queisser, Reilly, & 2016).

Short comings

dual-track system

Longevity risk


dual-track system


mixed retirement pension benefits and welfare pensions

social pension insurance financing model

The US OASDI plan is funded by OASDI tax, a form of payroll tax, which is paid on average by employees and their employers at half the tax each.

In contrast, China ’s social endowment insurance has a different funding model. It is mainly funded through contributions (not tax forms).

Women's and children's welfare in social endowment insurance

Conversely, if the family has a disability, divorce, survivor, or underage child, the family's income will be impaired, and even the economy will be insecure.

At present, China's social endowment insurance nominally only protects the insured's retirement benefits, but in fact, the higher level of replacement rates for pension benefits should also be said to have taken into account the basic needs of family members, but after all, "Human head" care

Investment and management of social endowment insurance funds

In the United States, because the OASDI program is federally coordinated, state and local governments have no regulatory obligations or rights. OASDI plans to have two national trust funds, namely OASI Trust Fund and DI Trust Fund Account.

China ’s social pension insurance income and expenditure presents three levels of preparation accounts. The first is the county (city) level income and expenditure preparation account; the second is the provincial transfer preparation account; the third is the "National Social Security Fund" account.

Financial Budget Model of Social Pension Insurance

In terms of the financial budget model, the United States has adopted a "partial reserve financing" model since 1983. The current OASDI plan is still a pay-as-you-go system, but in essence it has a certain degree of "partial accumulation system" characteristic. (Meyerson & Dacey, 2013).

At present, China's endowment insurance plan is transitioning to a "partial" accumulation system of "combined accounts" in the true sense.


Dong, K., & Yao, Y. (Eds.). (2018). Annual Report on Financing Old Age Care in China (2017).

Springer Singapore.

Meyerson, N., Dacey, S., Meyerson, N., & Dacey, S. (2013, September 19). How Does Social

Security Work? Retrieved from https://www.cbo.gov/publication/44590.

Muir, D. M., & Turner, J. A. (2011). Imagining the Ideal Pension System: International

Perspectives. Books from Upjohn Press.

Queisser, M., Reilly, A., & Hu, Y. (2016). China’s pension system and reform: an OECD

perspective. Economic and Political Studies, 4(4), 345-367.

Wang, Z., Wang, Y., Xu, D., & Zhai, F. (2001). Implicit Pension Debt, Transition Cost, Options,

and Impact of China’s Pension Reform: A Computable General Equilibrium A. The World Bank.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Follow My Essay's Title

Pension Systems in the United States and China.


Institutional Affiliation


This paper compares the pension systems in the United States and China.

Most societies are ageing; thus, the number of retirees is increasing daily, making the number of people depending on government pension system to rise. This has been experienced both in the USA and China. The pension plan of the USA is usually divided into four parts; the government provided a pension plan, individual retirement accounts funded by the employee, individual retirement account funded by employer and corporate pension plans. The first pension plan in the USA was started in 1875 by the American Express CO. However, between 1932 to 1935, the first social security act was passed setting the retirement age as 65 while the life expectancy was 60. Moreover, the pension plan of china was conceived out of war and suffering; a formal pension system in China was developed in the 1950s. In 1984 the pension plan was improved to cover the military personnel. Between 1984 to 2004, the population of china rose as the number of workers rose, and the population has continued to age. This posed a huge threat to the pension plan in place. To solve the challenges, a new pension plan was put in place in 2005, which was referred to as the enterprise employee basic pension. Moreover, the china pension policy is not as complicated as that of the USA while it is not also effective compared to that of the USA. For one to receive a pension in China, he must be 60 years.

The retirement plan in united states is made up of three pillars which are the social insurance, private retirement pension and self-administered individual retirement account. On the other hand, the Chinese pension system is also made up of three pillars which are basic pension enterprise annuity, voluntary personal savings and pension plan which is usually supported by low-security and non-economic aid systems. However, for this government to handle the issue of retirement benefits and the rising number of retirees, they should increase the retirement age and put in place good pension management plans and systems. China, for example, has many older people despite the many funds being allocated to pension funds. However, with the improvement of the social security system in China, there has been an improvement in the number of insured persons compared to the pension balance. In the past few years, the number of those insured has risen to 915.48 billion by 2016 from 787.96 in 2012. On the other hand, a good number of families in America have not saved for their retirement. It has been estimated that about 40 million families did not have retirement savings by 2013. Most Americans depend on the 401(k) program. Challenges facing the public pension crisis usually come from accumulated issues such as effects of the capital market, insufficient government investments, the optimistic estimate of pension debt and excessive pension benefits. In united states the social security pension is being affected by three-factor which are lack of input from the government, benefits of civil servants are higher compared to the cost the government can afford and inadequate estimates of pension debts. In China, situations are different. The Chinese government is thought to have enough money but lacks the best system in place. On the other hand, the population of china is very high for the government to spend all of its money in a retirement program. The china retirement program is facing five challenge. First is that the coverage of the existing pension program is narrow; secondly, the normative government documents of the existing old-age insurance in china does not mention the level of legislation, thirdly is the loophole in pension funds management, poor working attitude and lastly is that the retirement age is short. Females in the private sector retire with 50 years, and those working for the government retire with 55 years. Moreover, males working in the private sector retire with 55 years and those working for the government retire with 60 years.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Free Essays About Blog

If you have any queries please write to us

Invalid Email Address!
Thank you for joining our mailing list

Please note that some of the content on our website is generated using AI and it is thoroughly reviewed and verified by our team of experienced editors. The essays and papers we provide are intended for learning purposes only and should not be submitted as original work.