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Inequality Soc U5a1





Social stratification is defined in which people are ranked and ordered in society. In western countries, social stratification is understood as a result of socio-economic status which then produces a social hierarchy in which access and possession of resources increase their ranks from lower to higher. The term social stratification is used by sociologists to describe the system of social standing. It is done by considering race, wealth, education and power. While social inequality is the existence of unequal social opportunities or rewards for different social positions or rewards within a group or society. Social inequality results from a society that is organized by race, class, ethnicity and also gender, all these factors play a major role in the unequal distribution of resources among the population. Both of these factors play a major role in an individual's life and society as a whole. When there is inequality in a society than the resources are unevenly distributed among the individuals which result in frustration and trust issues. When there is insecurity in among the individuals than that society cannot grow, and it will be easy for outer forces to destroy it. Such societies become insecure and weak. So both these factors play a major role in determining individuals and society's life as a whole ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"QBf0gPoo","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(McLeod & Nonnemaker, 1999)","plainCitation":"(McLeod & Nonnemaker, 1999)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":573,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/38EPRZKX"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/38EPRZKX"],"itemData":{"id":573,"type":"chapter","title":"Social Stratification and Inequality","container-title":"Handbook of the Sociology of Mental Health","collection-title":"Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research","publisher":"Springer US","publisher-place":"Boston, MA","page":"321-344","source":"Springer Link","event-place":"Boston, MA","abstract":"Social stratification refers to differential access to resources, power, autonomy, and status across social groups. Social stratification implies social inequality; if some groups have access to more resources than others, the distribution of those resources is inherently unequal. Societies can be stratified on any number of dimensions. In the United States, the most widely recognized stratification systems are based on race, social class, and gender.","URL":"https://doi.org/10.1007/0-387-36223-1_16","ISBN":"978-0-387-36223-6","note":"DOI: 10.1007/0-387-36223-1_16","language":"en","author":[{"family":"McLeod","given":"Jane D."},{"family":"Nonnemaker","given":"James M."}],"editor":[{"family":"Aneshensel","given":"Carol S."},{"family":"Phelan","given":"Jo C."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1999"]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",1,29]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (McLeod & Nonnemaker, 1999).

The main problem in every society is inequality, it is inequality that people feel insecure, and they are unable to trust their government. Although different countries are formulizing different strategies but still the roots of inequality are so strong in today's society that it is impossible to eradicate it. The rich people are getting richer, and the poor people are getting poorer. The reason for that is mostly rich inherit their wealth from their ancestors who left a large amount of money and different assets for their younger ones. Their kids have already ample resources to support their life, and even if they do not work they will have a luxurious life, but this is not the case for the poor people. Firstly, they do not possess any belongings and their entire life, they work hard to earn a one-time meal. When they have kids, then those kids have to work extra hard to earn money and other necessities. As the rich people do not invest their money on the poor ones and the wealth becomes concentrated in only one family. Therefore, it is safe to say that inequality is inevitable. No policies and no strategies can encourage wealthy people to invest their money or wealth on lower class. Although America is a very rich country regarding resources but at the same times, inequality is present in this country as well. Money and resources are unequally distributed among different races and class ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"TmogULRM","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Sinha & Srivastava, 2007)","plainCitation":"(Sinha & Srivastava, 2007)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":574,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/5IREAWQI"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/5IREAWQI"],"itemData":{"id":574,"type":"chapter","title":"Is Inequality Inevitable in Society? Income Distribution as a Consequence of Resource Flow in Hierarchical Organizations","container-title":"Econophysics of Markets and Business Networks: Proceedings of the Econophys-Kolkata III","collection-title":"New Economic Windows","publisher":"Springer Milan","publisher-place":"Milano","page":"216-226","source":"Springer Link","event-place":"Milano","abstract":"Almost all societies, once they attain a certain level of complexity, exhibit inequality in the income of its members. Hierarchical stratification of social classes may be a major contributor to such unequal distribution of income, with intra-class variation often being negligible compared to inter-class differences. In this paper, examples from different historical periods, such as 10th century Byzantium and the Mughal empire of India in the 15th century, and different kinds of organizations, such as a criminal gang in the USA and Manufacturing & IT Services companies in India, are shown to suggest a causal relation between the hierarchical structure of social organization and the observed income inequality in societies. Proceeding from the assumption that income inequality may be a consequence of resource flow in a hierarchically structured social network, we present a model to show that empirically observed long-tailed income distribution can be explained through a process of division of assets at various levels in a hierarchical organization.","URL":"https://doi.org/10.1007/978-88-470-0665-2_15","ISBN":"978-88-470-0665-2","note":"DOI: 10.1007/978-88-470-0665-2_15","shortTitle":"Is Inequality Inevitable in Society?","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Sinha","given":"Sitabhra"},{"family":"Srivastava","given":"Nisheeth"}],"editor":[{"family":"Chatterjee","given":"Arnab"},{"family":"Chakrabarti","given":"Bikas K."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2007"]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",1,29]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Sinha & Srivastava, 2007).

Nowadays, not only developing countries but also developed countries are facing inequalities in their societies and America is no exception. Although it is hard to believe but it is a harsh reality that inequality by race, color, and even gender exists in American society. The first thing that the American society and government can do to eradicate inequality from their society is to start practicing equality in their educational institutions. Also, the positions that possess superior advantages should be open for all applicants, be it a white or black. It should be open for all, and then all the applications must be evaluated by merit, and the application that meets the criteria should get the job opportunity. Alternatively, all the applicants must be inspected by fair competition and whoever competes successfully should be liable to that provided opportunity.

It is a known fact that societies must provide equal opportunities to its citizens to be successful but it is also true that it does not exist in every society; therefore, most of the citizens are distressed and depressed. In American society, due to the unequal distribution of resources and due to unequal job and education opportunities many problems have raised recently. And to remove all these problems, it is important for the policymakers to make this an integral point in their policies. Poverty is one of the most prominent results of inequality because the rich have all the resources and the poor have to work hard even for their necessities. To solve the problem of poverty, equal opportunities should be there for all, as America is a very diverse country where people of every age, sex and ethnicity are living ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"LG2uvdFu","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Hara, 2011)","plainCitation":"(Hara, 2011)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":575,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/2XNXK67I"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/2XNXK67I"],"itemData":{"id":575,"type":"article-journal","title":"An Overview of Social Stratification and Inequality Study in Japan: Towards a 'Mature' Society Perspective","container-title":"Asian Journal of Social Science","page":"9-29","volume":"39","issue":"1","source":"JSTOR","archive":"JSTOR","abstract":"[Sociologists in Japan began their own collection of social stratification data for the first time in 1955. This essay introduces the history of social stratification and inequality studies in Japan. With the initiative of the International Sociological Association (ISA), the Japan Sociological Society (JSS) took part in national data collection for cross-national studies in 1955. The continued project is today called the National Survey of Social Stratification and Social Mobility, or the SSM survey in Japan. How have the changing global and local economic conditions shaped the social stratification and inequality in Japan since the mid-1950s? As a result of the high economic growth in the 1960s and 1970s, Japan has achieved ' basic equality.' Despite its comparatively declined economic growth rate after that, Japans household income inequality, along with a large gender disparity in individual income, has remained relatively unchanged. With such stability, however, Japan today faces a number of social challenges. I propose to call this social stage and society itself, a maturing society. Japan today is struggling to design its new and suitable life style in the process of social maturation.]","ISSN":"1568-4849","shortTitle":"An Overview of Social Stratification and Inequality Study in Japan","author":[{"family":"Hara","given":"Junsuke"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2011"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Hara, 2011). If their religion or color will discriminate these people, then how will they play a positive role in the progress of the country. So for the development of the country, it is also very important to make equality possible.

In the past few decades, American society has seen an extraordinary rise in inequality due to racism. It was seen that no proper measures were taken by the government to erase racism. People were attacked and beaten based on their religious beliefs, language and skin tone. Even political parties were seen to win election campaign on the basis of racism. So this particular factor played a major role in the prevalence of inequality in American society ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"80NE5auN","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Aneshensel, 1992)","plainCitation":"(Aneshensel, 1992)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":576,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/SD7REYX4"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/SD7REYX4"],"itemData":{"id":576,"type":"article-journal","title":"Social Stress: Theory and Research","container-title":"Annual Review of Sociology","page":"15-38","volume":"18","issue":"1","source":"Annual Reviews","abstract":"This chapter differentiates the stressful consequences of social organization from the stressful antecedents of psychological disorder. The pivotal distinction concerns whether the occurrence of stressors is viewed as socially determined, or as independent of social placement. Recent research is evaluated concerning both the social distribution of stress and social variation in response to stress. Two particularly productive areas of inquiry are also reviewed: self-efficacy as a mediator between social position and stress; and the intersection of macro- and micro-stress processes in economic and occupational spheres, with emphasis upon gender stratification. This review concludes that the occurrence of systemic stressors is not necessarily an indication of a social system run amok but may reflect instead the system functioning precisely as it is supposed to function.","DOI":"10.1146/annurev.so.18.080192.000311","shortTitle":"Social Stress","author":[{"family":"Aneshensel","given":"Carol S."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1992"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Aneshensel, 1992). If proper measures were taken at the time when the problems were at the stage of its inception, then it would be reversed, and the situation would be much better. In order to eradicate the evil of inequality government should take strict notice. Taxes should be paid by rich people, and then it should be spent on the needy ones. Also, rich people should be encouraged to invest their money and provide job opportunities for poor people so that their living will also get better. Although these are a baby step, they can be very helpful to uproot inequality, but we have to be patient.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Aneshensel, C. S. (1992). Social Stress: Theory and Research. Annual Review of Sociology, 18(1), 15–38.

Hara, J. (2011). An Overview of Social Stratification and Inequality Study in Japan: Towards a “Mature” Society Perspective. Asian Journal of Social Science, 39(1), 9–29.

McLeod, J. D., & Nonnemaker, J. M. (1999). Social Stratification and Inequality. In C. S. Aneshensel & J. C. Phelan (Eds.), Handbook of the Sociology of Mental Health (pp. 321–344). Boston, MA: Springer US.

Sinha, S., & Srivastava, N. (2007). Is Inequality Inevitable in Society? Income Distribution as a Consequence of Resource Flow in Hierarchical Organizations. In A. Chatterjee & B. K. Chakrabarti (Eds.), Econophysics of Markets and Business Networks: Proceedings of the Econophys-Kolkata III (pp. 216–226). Milano: Springer Milan.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 3 Words: 900



Professor name




US prison system is based on the old rules of Jim Crow era in which black were segregated in every aspects of life. The history of Africans in America depicts that they lacked equal justice that was apparent in the creation of different codes for blacks. The assessment of the prison systems in United States still reflects the prevalence of race and discrimination. The common factors that promote differential treatments towards black and Latino inmates include racist attitudes of prosecutors, racial profiling and discriminatory treatment of officers.

Interview with a black prison inmate depicts that he has been locked up for non-violent crimes. Interviewee is imprisoned for financial fraud for the period of 5-20 years. He is 62 years old and holds a degree in Economics and Masters in Science. When he was locked up in jail he was 25 years old. The man explained that he has 3 kids and was a financial broker before imprisonment. The views of the man reveals that he thinks he could have given a chance for living a life of good citizen. The analysis of case confirms that black people are more likely to be discriminated in the prisons. I have selected the topic because racism is part of prison system that needs to be addressed.

Inmates are treated differently in prison according to race because people of color are kept in solitary confinement compared to whites. On the basis of data revealed from 2015’s survey is depicted that in 31 of 43 confinements blacks were overrepresented. Latinos were overrepresented in 21 out of 44 confinements in general (Lantigua-Williams). While in California 86 percent population in solitary confinement is of Latinos. This confirms that the criminal justice system is racist. This indicates adoption of different treatments for blacks that are more brutal. Keeping them in solitary confinement have negative impacts on the black and Latino inmates that often leads to mental stress and destruction.

There is imbalance in prison because white and black inmates experience different treatments. The prison system of United States is racist because there is significant evidence that exhibit blacks and Latinos as victims of brutal treatments. Blacks experience brutal treatments from police officers during investigations. Racial profiling is a common practice used by white officers during search operations. They are more convinced to doubt black or Latin citizens than whites. Such attitudes have promoted negative feelings among minority population and also created fear among innocent CITATION Joh183 \l 1033 (Gramlich).

The differences in the rate of incarnation between white and black inmates confirm prevalence of race in the prison system. Data of 2017 depicts that incarnation rate of blacks is more than whites because 475,900 blacks were incarnated compared to 436,500 whites CITATION Joh183 \l 1033 (Gramlich). Although whites represent a larger US population but still their percentage in prisons is low compared to blacks. Comparing the statistics depicts an increase of 20% black incarnation from 2007 to 2017. A 13% decline is observed for the white inmates between 2007 to 2017. Blacks represent 12% of adult population but 33% of the prison population CITATION Joh183 \l 1033 (Gramlich). High percentage of blacks in jails reflects the strong role of racism. High incarnation of blacks and Latinos is also the result of racial attitudes of the officers.

The analysis of the prison system of America depicts that it is based on the idea of racism. The prison system has failed to offer equal justice to the people of minority populations. Blacks and Latinos are more likely to receive brutal treatments compared to whites. This depicts that the officers have still not managed to overcome their racist ideology that was part of the Jim Crow era.

Work Cited

Balko, Radley. There’s overwhelming evidence that the criminal-justice system is racist. Here’s the proof. 2018. 06 12 2019 <https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/opinions/wp/2018/09/18/theres-overwhelming-evidence-that-the-criminal-justice-system-is-racist-heres-the-proof/>.

Lantigua-Williams, Juleyka. The Link Between Race and Solitary Confinement . 2016. 06 12 2019 <https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2016/12/race-solitary-confinement/509456/>.

BIBLIOGRAPHY Gramlich, John. The gap between the number of blacks and whites in prison is shrinking . 2018. 06 12 2019 <https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2019/04/30/shrinking-gap-between-number-of-blacks-and-whites-in-prison/>.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 2 Words: 600






J.S. Ott defines culture as “the way of life, especially the general customs and beliefs, of a particular group of people at a particular time ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"rzJL92go","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Ott 1989)","plainCitation":"(Ott 1989)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":58,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/8reWiRZH/items/6SZEPESY"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/8reWiRZH/items/6SZEPESY"],"itemData":{"id":58,"type":"book","publisher":"Dorsey Press Chicago","source":"Google Scholar","title":"The organizational culture perspective","author":[{"family":"Ott","given":"J. Steven"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1989"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Ott 1989). Intercultural conflict can be caused by the ethnocentric views which states that one person’s customs, foods, clothing, ways of living, etc, are superior to another’s. It takes the form of both local intercultural conflict and global- intercultural conflict. Some examples of local intercultural conflicts are intertribal conflicts in Africa, and the theories which create the base for racial and genetic superiority. So-called ‘Ethnic Cleansing’ has come about when one culture has theorized that another culture is inferior. Such as in the nineteenth century, when the French and British justified colonialism and slavery by a variety of theories revolving around ‘scientific racism’, and when the theory of evolution was used to categorize different cultures or races on the basis of their genetic characteristics, such as skin pigmentation ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"nNKFVG25","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Ott 1989)","plainCitation":"(Ott 1989)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":58,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/8reWiRZH/items/6SZEPESY"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/8reWiRZH/items/6SZEPESY"],"itemData":{"id":58,"type":"book","publisher":"Dorsey Press Chicago","source":"Google Scholar","title":"The organizational culture perspective","author":[{"family":"Ott","given":"J. Steven"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1989"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Ott 1989).

Intercultural conflict can also be on a micro-scale. For example, even a husband and wife can be from different cultures and their worldview and family traditions can cause disagreements, particularly when evaluating ways of raising children, gender expectations, and eating arrangements. Thus, long term relationship development between males and females must take into consideration these differences of views - developed as a result of living in a different culture. Subcultures within a culture can create potential conflicts as well. Those who prefer a different type of clothing, makeup, hairstyle, and music can cause an intolerant reaction with those of another subculture. This can be experienced in the so-called ‘generation gap’ when teenagers may prefer to adopt a more modern peer group and listen to metal songs; whereupon their father’s or mother’s dress is more bright and the mainstream music they prefer maybe pop. Another form of global intercultural conflict may originate for a common and simple reason. For example, as the majority of the populations of each country are living in the small groups of mono-culture, everybody can understand, predict, and even read from mimic and gesticulation of colleagues, neighbors and family members. People often do not know, that their behaviors could be understood in some other ways, which ultimately lead to global intercultural conflict.


Intercultural conflict develops because of the emphasis on the static attributes of a human being, which are often hard-earned and built. Many narratives exist, concerning the development of intercultural conflict both at a local and global level. One may need to go beyond the limited descriptive ability to understand what intercultural conflict actually is. For example, humans’ understanding of social behavior states that humans are not always reliable, they are not always rational and, no individual in a group can be guaranteed to behave as the group, as a whole, does. Some other causes of the development of intercultural conflict are as follows


One of the major causes of intercultural conflict is ethnocentrism. Keith believes that it is very natural, as most people evaluate the worldview they possess ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"EU6QVbzc","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Keith 2019)","plainCitation":"(Keith 2019)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":59,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/8reWiRZH/items/N5X99AQA"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/8reWiRZH/items/N5X99AQA"],"itemData":{"id":59,"type":"article-journal","container-title":"Cross-Cultural Psychology: Contemporary Themes and Perspectives","page":"23–38","source":"Google Scholar","title":"Ethnocentrism: Seeing the world from where we stand","title-short":"Ethnocentrism","author":[{"family":"Keith","given":"Kenneth D."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Keith 2019). If this is done in a positive and objective manner, then one’s own experiences may be enriched, and an assimilation of positive or more innovative traits garnered from the other culture’s perspective, may occur. If ethnocentrism occurs with a view to learning, it is a way to expand one’s experiences. However, there is another definition of ethnocentrism which can create a negative experience of one’s interaction with another culture. Keith defines such form of ethnocentrism as the belief in the inherent superiority of one's own ethnic group or culture ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"B7hSujbb","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Keith 2019)","plainCitation":"(Keith 2019)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":59,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/8reWiRZH/items/N5X99AQA"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/8reWiRZH/items/N5X99AQA"],"itemData":{"id":59,"type":"article-journal","container-title":"Cross-Cultural Psychology: Contemporary Themes and Perspectives","page":"23–38","source":"Google Scholar","title":"Ethnocentrism: Seeing the world from where we stand","title-short":"Ethnocentrism","author":[{"family":"Keith","given":"Kenneth D."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Keith 2019). In such situations, a person’s whole body language, attitude towards the target culture, and perceptions of the people constituting the culture, are negative. Hence, the person showing negative ethnocentrism will tend to be overly critical, to be less listening, and to stay within their own comfort zone and retreat from the culture. Hence, the guest culture will treat this negative ethnocentrism and will expand over creating intercultural differences.

According to Bell, intercultural racism is a concept used to describe a new type of racism, where the target is a cultural trait rather than racial traits ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"sYCYUBdN","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Bell 2017)","plainCitation":"(Bell 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":61,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/8reWiRZH/items/W47QH7YM"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/8reWiRZH/items/W47QH7YM"],"itemData":{"id":61,"type":"book","publisher":"Rowman & Littlefield","source":"Google Scholar","title":"Talking Black and White: An Intercultural Exploration of Twenty-First-Century Racism, Prejudice, and Perception","title-short":"Talking Black and White","author":[{"family":"Bell","given":"Gina Castle"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Bell 2017). The reason this turn was seen, was that studies came around to show that race isn’t a significant factor in differences between humans, so scientists turned to cultural differences to explain inequality ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"WAfuTB0L","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Bell 2017)","plainCitation":"(Bell 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":61,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/8reWiRZH/items/W47QH7YM"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/8reWiRZH/items/W47QH7YM"],"itemData":{"id":61,"type":"book","publisher":"Rowman & Littlefield","source":"Google Scholar","title":"Talking Black and White: An Intercultural Exploration of Twenty-First-Century Racism, Prejudice, and Perception","title-short":"Talking Black and White","author":[{"family":"Bell","given":"Gina Castle"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Bell 2017). This shift, however, caused some scholars to then take the stance that this was another form of discrimination, now dubbed cultural racism. Cultural racism in the present times is severe enough that they can cause real problems. For example, the immigration crisis in Germany and Sweden are an example of racism paving way for intercultural conflict. Lastly, prejudice against persons on the basis of genetic, ethnic, religious, sexual, or any other reason creates the basis for cultural prejudice. Intercultural conflict on the basis of prejudice takes form when it is weaved into the socioeconomic, judicial and cultural institutions and matrices of a society.


The solution to intercultural conflict is intercultural communication which permeates human conduct. Intercultural communication is influenced by human conduct, from the moment they are born. Culture is a general phenomenon, which include things like literature, art, philosophies, social values and norms, therefore, there are many reasons to believe that culture remains prone to conflict. In view of the general nature of culture, intercultural communication originates. Ott believes that intercultural communication is actually understanding differences and managing the conflicts between different cultures ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"XPQxAjyZ","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Ott 1989)","plainCitation":"(Ott 1989)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":58,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/8reWiRZH/items/6SZEPESY"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/8reWiRZH/items/6SZEPESY"],"itemData":{"id":58,"type":"book","publisher":"Dorsey Press Chicago","source":"Google Scholar","title":"The organizational culture perspective","author":[{"family":"Ott","given":"J. Steven"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1989"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Ott 1989). Intercultural communication is the best solution for intercultural conflicts since it develops empathy, which is the ability to put yourself in someone else’s shoes. Empathy, allows one to understand those who are different. Another benefit of intercultural communication is that it develops open-mindedness ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"eh6TlaGQ","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Ott 1989)","plainCitation":"(Ott 1989)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":58,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/8reWiRZH/items/6SZEPESY"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/8reWiRZH/items/6SZEPESY"],"itemData":{"id":58,"type":"book","publisher":"Dorsey Press Chicago","source":"Google Scholar","title":"The organizational culture perspective","author":[{"family":"Ott","given":"J. Steven"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1989"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Ott 1989). Being open-minded means being curious about other people and about their world. It also means understanding “different” and being humble enough to accept any other culture. Intercultural conflicts are also accomplished by conflict management. Conflict management refers to a constellation of methods for responding to conflict, including negotiation, mediation, arbitration, family group conferencing, trust-building, and facilitation. At a large level, conflict management takes different approaches, like assembling intercultural talks and social events. Approaches to conflict management include power-based, right-based, transformative, and therapeutic techniques. Some conflict management processes focus on helping people reach a mutually agreeable solution. Other approaches focus more on emotions, relationships, and developing insight among people of different cultures. Conflict resolution may be based on a range of biological, psychological, social, and spiritual theories.


At present times, the world is witnessing rapid changes. With each passing day, someone at a distant corner of the world, raises to fame and, at times, he/she is known by the whole world. It shows how globalized, the world has become. This globalization then paves the way for conflicts and communication barriers, which gradually transforms into local intercultural conflicts and international intercultural conflicts. With the rise in intercultural conflicts, the scholars and academicians have put forward various theories, which can conform to such problems, some of which are referred above. In short, it is therefore right to argue that conflict being an inherent part of human societies have just taken another less coercive course, which we recognize as intercultural conflict.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Bell, Gina Castle. 2017. Talking Black and White: An Intercultural Exploration of Twenty-First-Century Racism, Prejudice, and Perception. Rowman & Littlefield.

Keith, Kenneth D. 2019. “Ethnocentrism: Seeing the World from Where We Stand.” Cross-Cultural Psychology: Contemporary Themes and Perspectives: 23–38.

Ott, J. Steven. 1989. The Organizational Culture Perspective. Dorsey Press Chicago.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

Intergretional Sociological Analysis




Intergenerational analysis

This assignment is concerned with the exploration and description of the intergenerational sociological analysis of my educational experience. This type of analysis allows the individuals to contemplate their experiences based on the lives of their ancestors (parents or grandparents). This analysis enables us to analyze that where we stand? Do we live better lives than our previous generations? Did they spend comparatively more prosperous lives with respect to multifaceted aspects to experiences? If so, what are the areas where our lives require improvements? These questions are answered only when multidimensional experiences of individuals are contrasted and compared to their ancestors (Mannheim, 1992). In this assignment, I would analyze my father’s experiences in order to compare them with my own.

The first section will provide me with the opportunity to describe my brief family history. The next section will present in-depth family interview and troubles from the above section. Detailed educational experience of mine will be undertaken thorough contemplation in the next section followed by the profound discussion about above documented textual activity. In the end, conclusion section will act as an extractor; deducing meaningful inferences from the whole textual activity and wrapping it into single paragraph. In a nutshell, this paper will provide the reader with the opportunity to comprehend the meaning and significance of intergenerational analysis.

Eugene and Lorretta Pantaleon are my grandparents from my father side of the family. Their history is unknown. My father’s name is Schiller Pantaleonhe and he is 50 years old and is a culinary chief and my mother Cathy Pantaleon age 48; is a nurse. Both my parents and grandparents were born and raised in Haiti. I have four siblings Rustler 28 years of age; me aged 21; my younger brother age 20 and lastly my little brother who is 12 years old.

My family arrived in the U.S twenty years ago like every other immigrant we were just looking for a better life that provide us with more fiscal opportunity than our country. I kept working hard and continued to excel in my classes just to gain my father’s approval and acknowledgement but it never happened. Around the age of fourteen, I took an interest in sports mainly football; tried out for my high school team and easily made for it.

I started drinking and smoking and a few minor unlawful things under peer pressure. It was not until I got locked up for possession of narcotics, as I was sitting in that jail cell that is when I had an epiphany. Since I had a clean record and did not give the officers a hard time and cooperated with them, one of the officers noticed that I was different from the rest of the kids he had dealt with in the past. He told me something that stuck with me to this day “you are who you say you are” then followed it by asking me “who are you?” I was stump I did not know.

So I slowly started separating myself from those types of people because “that was not me” also I did not like the way my life was heading. I did not come to this country to be a menace to the society and embarrass my family. My family valued education, hard work, and having a very strong faith in god and the path I was heading negated all of that. So, I changed the type of people around and right now I am headed in a good path.

I conducted a detailed interview from Schiller Pantaleon at my home and he responded as follows: “My name is Schiller Pantaleon and I’m 50 years old. The earliest memories I had were when we first came to America and you were about 3 years old. You cried through the whole plane ride screaming that you want your mother, and I quote “I do not want to go to this stupid country I want my mommy”. I was born and raised in Puerto Principe Haiti; there were not too many decent jobs around at the time so my father Eugene worked in the United States as a real estate agent. My family and I were comfortable and we did not feel the need to move around looking for jobs.”

“The house that my family and I grew up in was pretty big and we had a pretty big family. It was a 2 storey building and each of my brothers and sisters had their own rooms. It was surrounded by three super- colossal coconut trees two in the front of the house and one in the backyard. The tree in the back was my favorite one because it provided us with the cool and soothing shade in the burning summer and it was close enough to the houses to the point, we could pluck out a coconut whenever we wanted to and just sit on the roof, used to listen to music and watch the sunset with my siblings.”

“My childhood was pretty decent my parents were hard on me and my siblings when it came to our education. My mother made sure we went to the best school which was pretty far from house. Sometimes I had to walk a mile because my mother would not give me cab money if I failed a test. Even though my family and I were more fortunate than the most but my mother made sure that we know the struggles other people go through and it always made me humble.”

“My first memory in middle school was when I failed my first test and the professor called my mom to inform her. When I got to home my mom beat me hard and did not give me money to take a cab to school and back. I had to wake up earlier than everyone just to reach school on time if I did not; that was another beating day. That day I made it on time for class and had an argument with my professor. Unlike in America in Haiti if you get into an argument with a professor, they are allowed to beat you. So yeah that was the most beating I had in a day.”

“As you already now college was never an option so I had to go. Mathematics was my major; I ended up graduating and became a math professor for a while. When I came to the United States, I wanted to try something new and ended up taking a culinary school. My first job was a math tutor when I was about 21; I wanted my own income because I felt I was too old to rely on my father to send me money.”

“I’m a culinary chef, I always loved to cook because it was probably the only thing my mom and I had in common and in a way, it helped us get closer and form a stronger bond because I used to help her out in the kitchen. Being a culinary chef, I supervised other workers and make sure the kitchen is running as smooth as possible.”

“My favorite job was being a math tutor because that was how I meet your mother. When I found out your mother was pregnant with your older brother, I did not have a choice but to grow up and become an adult and take care of my responsibilities.”

“My biggest concern right now is making sure that you and your brother finish college and get a degree that actually matters when you graduate. I identify myself as a god fearing, Haitian of African descent, father of four young men and a husband.”

My past education experience had its ups and downs. But it helped shape the type of student I am today. I attended a small elementary school so everybody knew each other. At a young age my elementary school used to test our reading level and I was a higher-level reader then most of my peers.

Every Friday we were assigned a book for reading and writing short summary. I usually would lose because I was a weaker writer than my peers. But it only motivated me to try even harder. At elementary school, Mrs. Sanon improved my reading and writing skills and made me passionate about it. Reading held a lot of value for me because it helped me improve my vocabulary.

At high school, it was the first big school I went to. My attitude towards reading and writing changed drastically; I was going through puberty and started noticing girls. After that, my focus was shifted to football which kept me on track; out of trouble and helped me graduate on time because in order to play I needed to pass all my classes.

High school taught me a lot especially on racism. One day coach kept us a little longer than usual in order to watch film for our first playoff game we had few minutes before our student metro cards stop working. As we were running up the stairs; some white police officers started chasing us and tackled us to the floor. We were black and terrified; we did not know what was going on. They started saying racist slurs and continued to beating us; they were just Halloween police officers. I end up with a fractured shin a busted lip my friend had a broken eye socket.

I was originally accepted to Delaware State University; and aimed for furthering my football career and eventually getting a free college education; but my parents do not agree as it is very far. I plan on getting my two-year degree and eventually getting my bachelor in criminal justice from BMCC.

I somewhere heard; life is not the name of monotony but of diversity; enriched with ebbs and flows and irresistible tumultuous times that improvise our learning about the realities of life and direct future orientations (Erickson et. al., 2002). The teleological principle of philosophy states that human being is the product of his past experiences; both of personal and others’. This principle strikingly illuminated my mind because my past experiences had a substantial impact on my personality. Along with my own experiences, my teachers’ and parents’ teachings, preferences, orientations, attitudes, moral codes and expectations directed my life in the most unimaginable way.

This life offered me to be an excellent reader, a brilliant football player, a miniature gambler, an innocent prisoner, a harmless racist, a competitive student and an insightful human eventually. Each and every memory had a substantial impact on me and I was becoming a more refined product of my experiences and societal expectations. Comparing my life to my father’s, he was having a hard time from his mother with reference to his studies but I had no. He started working and felt reluctant to ask his parents for money at the age of 21 but I had not. This is the point where I feel myself failing; deteriorated self esteem and procrastination are the two exclusive reasons behind my perceived failure as a student. Racism is what haunts me and develops a sense of losing control over situations because of unpredictability of hard times that I might encounter because of color. This is my trouble and an issue for the society. Intergenerational analysis, in a nutshell, can be reported as “my father lived a better life than me.” Because he had less troubles and more issues but I am having a constant battle against my state of mind with more troubles.


Erikson, R., John H. G. et. al. (2002). Intergenerational Inequality: A Sociological Perspective. The Journal of Economic Perspectives

16(3), 31-44.

Mannheim, K. (1952). The Problem of Generations. In Kecskemeti, Paul (ed.). Essays on the Sociology of Knowledge: Collected Works, 5. New York: Routledge. 276–322.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 6 Words: 1800



Name (First M_Last)

Institution Name


Mr. James Crawford is 37 years old athletic director of Skyline Sports Complex.


Q1: You know that participation in athletics always positively influences the development of the learners, what are your thoughts about it?

Answer: I have a strong belief that taking part in athletics is good for the health of students, it tells them about how to cooperate and how to work together in a team.

Q2: Being an athletic director demands a very flexible schedule. Is it easy for you to meet these requirements?

Answer: Honestly, yes. But whatever it takes to be prosperous in this role, I am happy to do it willingly. It’s even okay for me if it demands to work overtime.

Q3: What is a good coach in your definition?

Answer: The one who is master himself or herself but make others master too.

Q4: What would you do to improve fan attendance?

Answer: It’s all about what the fans experience. We ran many contests over social media and rewarded super fans with prizes last year. This tactic was so helpful; it increased the fan attendance to 35%.

Q5: What would you like to say about gender discrimination in sports?

Answer: The world is liberating and it is good to see that the curse of sexism is vanishing. Nowadays women and transgender are accepted and welcomed in teams more than they ever were.

Q6: Does belonging to a specific religion or culture matters in sports?

Answer: Let’s make it clear, being an athlete means how good you are as an athlete, it does not matter from which culture or religion you belong. Not at all. ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a2glj3mvnc5","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Lopiano & Zotos, 2018)","plainCitation":"(Lopiano & Zotos, 2018)"},"citationItems":[{"id":531,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/2RJg7y7G/items/LGRRCHYY"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/2RJg7y7G/items/LGRRCHYY"],"itemData":{"id":531,"type":"book","title":"Athletic Director's Desk Reference","publisher":"Human Kinetics","number-of-pages":"474","source":"Google Books","abstract":"Athletic Director’s Desk Reference With Web Resource is the most authoritative and comprehensive resource available for collegiate athletic administrators. Loaded with practical tools, this resource guides program administrators in navigating their increasingly complex roles in athletic programs of any size. With this reference, administrators will confidently handle typical and unexpected situations and address the various policy and system needs required for running a successful athletic program. Authors Lopiano and Zotos, well known and respected for their contributions to collegiate and scholastic athletics, guide readers with more than 75 combined years of experience as athletic program administrators, coaches, and consultants. Complete with a practical web resource, Athletic Director’s Desk Reference offers extensive advice and tools for today’s athletic director, covering leadership and organizational planning, office and facilities operations, staff management, student–athlete relations, team administration, event management, fundraising, media relations, and more. Both the print and e-book versions of Athletic Director’s Desk Reference help readers quickly find the materials and information required for performing specific tasks or functions. They include numbered contents and cross-references to the web resource, allowing readers to move seamlessly between the two. This comprehensive resource includes more than 120 management tips and planning tools in the book that provide expert insights and strategic advice, and more than 340 documents in the web resource that can be downloaded and customized to meet the needs of each athletic program: • Management tips in the book present foundational information, problem-solving strategies, and suggestions for management of employees, programs, events, and facilities. • Planning tools in the book provide specific steps or considerations to take in the development of strategic plans, action plans, professional development plans, and governance systems. • Educational resources in the web resource can be used for teaching and motivating staff members, campus constituents, volunteers, and student-athletes. • Evaluation instruments and risk assessments in the web resource help directors, supervisors, and employees assess job performance, evaluate program contents, identify risks, and prevent litigation. • Policies and forms in the web resource allow athletic directors to produce effective policies and procedures with only simple modifications and customizations. The engaging narrative, philosophies, and advice from seasoned professionals combined with customizable and practical materials make this a unique and essential reference for athletic directors of all levels and abilities. Athletic Director’s Desk Reference empowers administrators to confront issues and lead with confidence while saving time and research. As a result, athletic directors will become more efficient, more effective, more mission driven, and more successful in virtually any task, decision, or strategy.","ISBN":"978-1-4925-8181-9","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Lopiano","given":"Donna A."},{"family":"Zotos","given":"Connee"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018",11,15]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Lopiano & Zotos, 2018)

Q7: Do you think athletes are still judged by their skin color?

Answer: Racism still exists in our society. There are chances that players face racist comments. But, as I told you before if the athlete is good no one will dare to judge him like that. Besides, the world is liberating, and racism is constantly eradicating. Let’s hope we don’t even hear about this term anymore.

Q8: Is media playing a significant role in raising awareness about the advantages of being an athlete.

Answer: I’ll say yes. Does all of the public come to support athletes, games, and matches? No, right? Many of the fans get inspiration from their favorite athletes on TV and now on the internet too.

Q9: What’s the best age for one to make sports part of one’s life?

Answer: You can start participating at any age, it’ll give you numerous benefits. But, in my opinion, childhood is the best start for anyone because in that age body of a person is in growing stages, it grows well this way.

Q10: What will you like to say about nepotism in sports?

Answer: No one can last long in sports because of nepotism. If you’re not good, you’re instantly out.

Q11: Is government supportive and interested enough in this field?

Answer: Yes, the government has been showing a lot of interest, but I think government and media both need to cooperate and put more efforts for raising awareness about the fruits of participating in sports.

Q12: Nowadays students love online and virtual games more, what would you say about that?

Answer: Playing too much virtual and online games cost you to miss a lot that is happening in life. Their excessive playing is harmful to health too. So, I strongly believe that playing outside games will help them improve their mental and physical health more.


It was nice meeting Mr. James Crawford. Interviewing him helped a lot in understanding how seriously our society is taking sports as their part of life and how the factors of society are influencing this field.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Lopiano, D. A., & Zotos, C. (2018). Athletic Director’s Desk Reference. Human Kinetics.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Involuntary Mental Health Treatment

Involuntary Mental Health Treatment




Involuntary Mental Health Treatment


Community Treatment order (CTO) let clinics to provide unconsented treatment to people with acute mental illness (Light, Kerridge, Ryan, & Robertson, 2012). It is a Mental Health Act’s legal order act and it was introduced to provide legal treatment to a mentally sick patient without their consent. It makes the physician fully responsible for whatever treatment they are going to give the mentally ill person and it gives full responsibilities to them. But its introduction as a legal order has been controversial as the steps are done without the consent of the patient (Fennell, 2011).

It has been used internationally since the 1980s and introduced to England in 2007 as a result of an amendment of the Mental Health Act of 1983.CTOs are known to provide good care to patients but the pattern of treatment has proved to be very strict. But it has remained questionable that physics and psychiatrist can use such methods in this age of evidence-based medications (Woolley, 2010).

The purpose of this essay is to describe and generate factual arguments on the debate that on what bases a patient with mental illness is legally deprived of his freedom of having consent before treatment? The essay will discuss a case study of a mentally retarded person in respective of ethical, legal, policy and theoretical framework and some of the questions regarding this order will be answered based on that case study. The essay will also demonstrate the types of skills and knowledge for mental health assessment. A collaborative mental health plan will also be discussed later in the essay and such plan will assess the treatment and recovery of the patient on the community level.

The essay is going to highlight the social, as well as the psychological impact of mental illness and those, will be discussed on evidenced-based practices and theoretical grounds. A conclusion will be drawn based on the discussion about the unnatural nature of this order and the critical evaluation of the case study of Josh.

The part of the Mental Health Act that allows for the coercive treatment of mentally ill persons has been criticized. It is the duty of the state to provide them effective and humane treatment. The patient should have the strong right to know what treatment he/she is going to get and the health institute shall deliver services with risk management programs (Chapin, 2014).

State uses its power to interfere in the matters of the patients and those powers are given by the law. One is Parens patriae and the other is the Policy power of the government. Parens patriae is a Latin word which means “father of the country”. It means that’s state will act for those who are unable to take the decision due to their illness. Policy power refers to government interests in taking care of their citizens. If some citizen is acting in a way that threatens the whole community then the physician and psychiatrist have given the full responsibility to control the person without his/her consent. These two powers have been used for the treatment of mentally ill persons from decades (Feuerstein et al., 2005).

In the given case study the mother of Josh says that Josh is recently involved in the distractions of neighbor’s property, screaming and yelling at them (Carhart-Harris et al., 2018). Josh should be controlled under the power of Parens patriae and policy power to control his behaviors before he harms someone. Even his own mother is afraid of living with him and it shows that he is uncontrollable.

Ethical and Policy Framework for Patients with Mental Illness

The burden of mental health disorders have increased enormously and the phenomenon is globally discussed. The problem of mental health can be seen more in underdeveloped and developing countries. Because of the fact that quality health facilities ar3e not present everywhere and the ethical implications show the inequalities in mental health treatments. The possible acts that have been passed for the treatment of mental health are also causing serious human right and ethical issues. CTO is being criticized for violating the human right and ethical norms. The conflict emerges due to the fact that the law has given full authority to doctors that they can treat the patient in whatever ways they want and even if they are violating the liberty of the patient (DeRidder, Molodynski, Manning, McCusker, & Rugkåsa, 2016).

Some people like Josh experience mental health treatment without being notified and this can create ethical and human right violations. When this is the case then the policy measures for this could be that, the family of the patient should visit the mental health legislature of the state or the institutes. But if the state is given the authority to do so then practitioners must adopt minimum restrictive care and should also minimize the use of involuntary treatments. The institute must design a draft about the principles, values, and attitude of humans right and the punishment for that as well be highlighted if in case those rights were not fulfilled (Committee, 2013).

Theoretical Framework for the Practices of Metal Health

Josh is reportedly hearing unusual voices in his head and his mother thinks that he has got schizophrenia. He also screams and yells at people who pass nearby him and he also tries to harm his neighbors’ property. In such a case a Community treatment order is very much essential to control him as his mother reveals that she is afraid of his presence. CTO is effective for him firstly because he has lost his ability to make rational decisions due to mental illness that might be a schizophrenia. He also lacks some important insight about his health and CTO is best for patient who has lost the feeling that they even have any mental health issue (E. M. Light, Kerridge, Ryan, & Robertson, 2012).

Mentally ill patients fail to identify that they need any sort of treatment for their condition so community treatment orders are the only solution to restrict their movement and to do treatment without their consent. They will be needing emotional help as well to fight with their illness and CTO unlike other hospital treatments, allows the patients to enjoy the company of their family and loved ones (DeRidder et al., 2016).

Legal Frameworks for the Practices of Mental Health

As described by the physician of Josh that he was non-compliant to medication. Individuals who have committed some very dangerous crime or hurt due to their abnormal behavior will be captured for treatment without their consent but CTO helps the community to prevent such big lose and take the patient in their custody for treatment before any major issue happens. Orders like CTO will help to control Josh like an individual who have no control over their actions. Such legal orders are very much patient-centric and the take care of the community as well (Carhart-Harris et al., 2018).

CTO laws need to be coercive so that patient like Josh would not be taking benefits from their mental condition and from the environment they are being given treatments. Such laws keep the community out of danger. Legal actions are very much necessary to prevent harms and should be implemented on the patient without their consent. Usually, patients are not willing to take treatment so the law gives full authority to the doctors to start the treatment without the patient’s consent. There could be other external factors that will lead to treatment without the consent of the patient like the patient might not have funds or other sources to pay for the treatment so the patient is not willing for the treatment.

Besides making such rules the government should also help the patient to generate funds for his/her treatment (DeRidder et al., 2016).

Mental health Assessment through the Application of Knowledge, Skills and Common Mental Health Assessment Tools.

Mental health services are trying to apply the new approach of, well being” in order to induce a positive mindset in the patient. The psychiatrists are using knowledge, skills and health assessment tools to develop an evidence-based intervention in patients apart from treatments. Doctors are promoting wellbeing by focusing on the goals of the patient apart from focusing on clinical treatment (Slade, 2010). Mental health assessment tools like the screening tests are done to understand the patient psych and to treat the patient accordingly. Patient like Josh needs to be understood fully and then he will be drawn into clinical treatments.

Collaborative Mental Health Care Plan

Collaborative care model follows great plans for medical care for a patient with mental illness. The Care plan includes care deliveries through a group of people. The team improves the coordination of the patient through the support of leadership, decision makings provide by evidence-based approaches and engaging patients in tasks that involve self-management. The patient is also linked with community resources to boost up his mental health (Goodrich, Kilbourne, Nord, & Bauer, 2013). Mentally ill patients like Josh need to be cured on the bases on collaborative care model.

The Impact of Mental Health Illness

The negative impact of mental illness is seen to be very crucial because the patient is not in his/ her senses while committing the act. In the case study, Josh is threatening his neighbors as well as his mother who is afraid of his actions. The patient lost the ability to make rational decisions and compulsory treatments are needed for the safety of the patient and the ones attached to him or her. The use of law will make it possible to handle this situation and to control the patient. CTO is taking the patient in its control and reducing the number of hospitalization (DeRidder et al., 2016).

The Psycho-social Dimensions of Mental Illness

CTO does the treatment of the patient without isolating him or her from society. In the case of mental illness, the patient is understood as a burden on the society and is generally separated from the society which increases the illness. The problem with CTO laws is that in spite of building a relation of confidence and trust among the patient and the physician the CTO is giving the physician a controlling and monitoring position that makes the law a kinof brutal and psycho-social dimensions are not full filled.

Although Josh is not aware of his mental health, he is willing to do the treatment. In such a case, the physician should not be authoritative but should build a relation of care and trust so that the patient will get some support to fight the illness.

The effects of the Condition of a Mentally Ill Person on the Family and Significant others

There could be a tremendous impact on the mentally ill person on his or her family and surroundings but CTO gives the option to the family to leave with the patient during the treatment. Josh mother was afraid of his actions and she was glad that the CTO is going to take care of Josh. She will be supporting him in the recovery phase. Mental health of patient will improve by letting them spend more times with their families.


It is the responsibility of the government to provide community service but in case of mental health patients, it is not possible so CTO is the one that is providing all the support. Mentally ill persons usually do not prefer to do treatments because they do not want themselves to be involved in mental health support groups. Because the think people will threat them differently after knowing that they have mental issues. So CTO puts the doctor in controlling position. But certain critics say that the doctor and patient do not build therapeutic position due to the procedures of CTO. The changes need to be done in this law are not the treatment should be patient-centric and the patient-physician relation is friendly and builds on trust.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Carhart-Harris, R. L., Roseman, L., Haijen, E., Erritzoe, D., Watts, R., Branchi, I., & Kaelen, M. (2018). Psychedelics and the essential importance of context. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 32(7), 725–731.

Chapin, R. (2014). Social policy for effective practice: A strengths approach. Routledge.

Committee, S. and Q. P. S. (2013). National practice standards for the mental health workforce 2013. Melbourne: Victorian Government Department of Health.

DeRidder, R., Molodynski, A., Manning, C., McCusker, P., & Rugkåsa, J. (2016). Community treatment orders in the UK 5 years on: a repeat national survey of psychiatrists. BJPsych Bulletin, 40(3), 119–123.

Fennell, P. (2011). Mental health: law and practice. Jordans Bristol.

Feuerstein, S., Fortunati, F., Morgan, C. A., Coric, V., Temporini, H., & Southwick, S. (2005). Civil commitment: a power granted to physicians by society. Psychiatry (Edgmont (Pa.: Township)), 2(8), 53–54.

Goodrich, D. E., Kilbourne, A. M., Nord, K. M., & Bauer, M. S. (2013). Mental health collaborative care and its role in primary care settings. Current Psychiatry Reports, 15(8), 383.

Light, E., Kerridge, I., Ryan, C., & Robertson, M. (2012). Community treatment orders in Australia: rates and patterns of use. Australasian Psychiatry, 20(6), 478–482.

Slade, M. (2010). Mental illness and well-being: the central importance of positive psychology and recovery approaches. BMC Health Services Research, 10(1), 26.

Woolley, S. (2010). Involuntary treatment in the community: role of community treatment orders. The Psychiatrist, 34(10), 441–446.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 6 Words: 1800

Is Social Media Helping Us Or Harming Us?

Is Social Media Helping or Harming Us?

Your Name (First M. Last)

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)

Is Social Media Helping or Harming Us?


Human beings have witnessed tremendous evolutions with the passage of time. Primarily, technology defined and shaped the nature of innovation and progress. One of the prominent manifestations of technological advancement is the advent of social media. When it first became popular, its essential concept was a paradigm between technology and people. At the very heart of the success of social media, like the relationships and interactions of communities. However, it is a contentious debate to determine whether social media has contributed toward society or desecrated it. A critical appraisal of the matter reflects social media has manifested adverse comparisons. It never implies it has failed to cast positive impacts as it has revolutionized the mode of interaction between societies. Cyberbullying, alienation from potential social interaction, depression and the threat of suicide are the potential adversities caused by social media.


Social media possess a dichotomous power to enable connectivity while simultaneously dividing and distancing communities. The primary aspect is the revolution and transformation in the contemporary generation and creation of a new form that prefers not to engage in potential eye contact or conversations. The element of depersonalization essentially fuels the adverse implications vested in text messages, Email, Snapchat and similar applications ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"yGpWaYSm","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Institute, n.d.)","plainCitation":"(Institute, n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2341,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/H8YOvGFC/items/LXN7K2KW"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/H8YOvGFC/items/LXN7K2KW"],"itemData":{"id":2341,"type":"webpage","title":"How Using Social Media Affects Teenagers","container-title":"Child Mind Institute","abstract":"Adolescence is an important period of social and intellectual development, and too few of us are paying attention to how our teenagers’ use of technology is affecting them.","URL":"https://childmind.org/article/how-using-social-media-affects-teenagers/","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Institute","given":"Rachel Ehmke is managing editor at the Child Mind"}],"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",4,11]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Institute, n.d.). Several social media platforms have become a tool for exploiting the bots, propaganda and trolls to exhibit cultural discord, create tumult and influence political state of affairs. In addition, the elements of social life have accelerated to such a significant extent that it appears challenging to keep up with the pace. The critical fears of being uninformed or letting the profound opportunity go have reflected detrimental consequences where depression is the prominent aspect.

The research question can be answered by assessing the social patterns, norms and cultural variations observed in societies ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a29HqRVJ","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}1. Teens and their experiences on social media | Pew Research Center,\\uc0\\u8221{} 2018)","plainCitation":"(“1. Teens and their experiences on social media | Pew Research Center,” 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2353,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/H8YOvGFC/items/YGAS3RS5"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/H8YOvGFC/items/YGAS3RS5"],"itemData":{"id":2353,"type":"post-weblog","title":"1. Teens and their experiences on social media | Pew Research Center","abstract":"Social media has given teens the ability to instantly connect with others and share their lives through photos, videos and status updates. Teens","URL":"https://www.pewinternet.org/2018/11/28/teens-and-their-experiences-on-social-media/","language":"en-US","issued":{"date-parts":[["2018",11,28]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",4,11]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“1. Teens and their experiences on social media | Pew Research Center,” 2018). In the past decades, humans utilized the direct means of communication to meet, engage or resolve an affair in true letter and spirits. The paradigm of social media has abrogated the need for potential communication and deluded societies toward fabricated modes of interaction. Cyberbullying is one of the critical harmful impacts of social networking platforms as Facebook, Instagram and Twitter. Prior to these social networking platforms, people were bullied but the flexibility and anonymity while bullying others have aggravated the scenario ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"wS2K5pfv","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(N, 2015)","plainCitation":"(N, 2015)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2345,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/H8YOvGFC/items/GWDPAV88"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/H8YOvGFC/items/GWDPAV88"],"itemData":{"id":2345,"type":"article-journal","title":"The Impact of Social Networking Sites on the Youth","container-title":"Journal of Mass Communication & Journalism","volume":"05","issue":"12","source":"DOI.org (Crossref)","URL":"http://www.omicsgroup.org/journals/the-impact-of-social-networking-sites-on-the-youth-2165-7912-1000285.php?aid=65365","DOI":"10.4172/2165-7912.1000285","ISSN":"21657912","author":[{"family":"N","given":"Khurana"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015"]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",4,11]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (N, 2015). If a person desires to hurt others without uttering radical remarks, the person can react on a picture or post to hurt the sentiments of others in front of others. The exposure of personal and secret information is the biggest mistake made by people on social networking platforms. Once the confidential data, pictures or information is exploited by the blackmailers, they leave no stone unturned to exploit the person and hurt potentially for materialistic gains. Derogatory, unwanted, threatening and embarrassing messages or comments are the common forms of cyberbullying on these platforms. The implications of cyberbullying are similar or even more perilous than traditional bullying. It is essential to highlight cyberbullying manifests in persistent and long term mental complications in comparison to other kinds of bullying. The advent and innovation of contemporary smartphone technologies have aggravated vulnerability by offering the element of anonymity to the perpetrator. Thus, it is an explicit illustration that social media has harmful impacts on society.

Moreover, a wide range of researchers has concluded through empirical studies those social networking applications as Facebook is likely to cause depression. Facebook Depression is a prominent term associated with such depressive symptoms. The trends on these platforms assert significance on a complicated state of mind of youth and adolescents. For instance, they are largely inclined toward seeking appreciation or commendation from others rather than pursuing the inherent or desired path. Recent research concluded Facebook users will be immensely prone to depression in circumstances where they are habitual of spending leisure time on Facebook, have a significant number of online friends and prefer to brag about their belongings or lifestyle. There exist a population of 7 billion on the earth and if not all, a massive spectrum of the population is indulged toward these patterns and receiving radical impacts ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"aOzROJvw","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Kamal, Tariq, Ishtiaq, Nawab, & Idrees, 2015)","plainCitation":"(Kamal, Tariq, Ishtiaq, Nawab, & Idrees, 2015)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2346,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/H8YOvGFC/items/PRCJL2XV"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/H8YOvGFC/items/PRCJL2XV"],"itemData":{"id":2346,"type":"paper-conference","title":"An Investigation into the Negative Impacts of Social Media on Academic Performance of Youth","source":"Semantic Scholar","abstract":"This study is an attempt to know about the negative impacts of social media on the students of swat university district swat. It is quite explicit that use of social media is a burning and blistering issue of the day as well as the major concern of the day. In this regard this attempt was undertaken to highlight the issue and bring intimation regard the burning phenomenon among the masses as well as concerned people. The data is thoroughly analyzed in the result highlighting that there are negative impacts of social media on academic performance youth. Most of the data has been collected from literate and educated person who admitted that due to social media students’ academic performance affected. This research activity highlights that use of social media is misery of the day which needs immediate solution and measures to prevent the students. The research also includes the forms of social media which are affecting the student academic performance negatively. This research is a combination of authentic literature which has been selected from accurate sources. Such literature indicates the condition of social media in different regions of the world where it has been on peak and affecting the lives of students adversely. The collected data was then analyzed in shape of tabulation which was then explained.","author":[{"family":"Kamal","given":"Tariq"},{"family":"Tariq","given":"Muhammad"},{"family":"Ishtiaq","given":"Muhammad"},{"family":"Nawab","given":"Khalid"},{"family":"Idrees","given":"Muhammad"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Kamal, Tariq, Ishtiaq, Nawab, & Idrees, 2015).

One of the most harmful impacts of social media is the accelerated rate of suicide caused by it. As per the reports of Center for Disease Control (CDC) and World Health Organization (WHO), approximately 30,000 suicide cases are noted each year in America ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"kkzQBeGO","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Social Media and Adolescents\\uc0\\u8217{} and Young Adults\\uc0\\u8217{} Mental Health,\\uc0\\u8221{} 2018)","plainCitation":"(“Social Media and Adolescents’ and Young Adults’ Mental Health,” 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2349,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/H8YOvGFC/items/RRU4TLPZ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/H8YOvGFC/items/RRU4TLPZ"],"itemData":{"id":2349,"type":"post-weblog","title":"Social Media and Adolescents’ and Young Adults’ Mental Health","container-title":"National Center for Health Research","abstract":"Most young adults use social media, and experts are asking if this use can harm mental health. Here’s what you need to know.","URL":"http://www.center4research.org/social-media-affects-mental-health/","language":"en-US","issued":{"date-parts":[["2018",8,10]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",4,11]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Social Media and Adolescents’ and Young Adults’ Mental Health,” 2018). However, blaming the internet and social media for increasing the rate is a contentious debate and studies are aimed at exploring it thoroughly. As per a recent survey, the victims of cyberbullying are critically exposed to nourishing the intentions of committing suicide. There exist certain variables responsible for the increased rate of cyberbullying. Loneliness, embarrassment, mental complications and desecrated self-esteem urge the person to commit suicide. Irrefutably, it is the most adverse impact of social networking sites. However, these instances cannot shun the argument that social media has also offered tremendous incentives to society. A comparison between the advantages and disadvantages of social media underpin the greater number of adverse impacts and thus social media is harmful to society.

The sociological perspective nourishes the principles of social interaction in this context. Sociologists utilize the terminology of cultural diversity which is present in the people who share virtual or physical space ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"TKSXlAvd","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Murthy, 2012)","plainCitation":"(Murthy, 2012)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2340,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/H8YOvGFC/items/9UDCXBER"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/H8YOvGFC/items/9UDCXBER"],"itemData":{"id":2340,"type":"article-journal","title":"Towards a Sociological Understanding of Social Media: Theorizing Twitter","container-title":"Sociology","page":"1059-1073","volume":"46","issue":"6","source":"DOI.org (Crossref)","abstract":"This article presents the first steps towards a sociological understanding of emergent social media. This article uses Twitter, the most popular social media website, as its focus. Recently, the social media site has been prominently associated with social movements in Libya, Egypt, Tunisia, and Algeria. Rather than rush to breathlessly describe its novel role in shaping contemporary social movements, this article takes a step back and considers Twitter in historical and broad sociological terms. This article is not intended to provide empirical evidence or a fully formed theoretical understanding of Twitter, but rather to provide a selected literature review and a set of directions for sociologists. The article makes connections specifically to Erving Goffman’s interactionist work, not only to make the claim that some existing sociological theory can be used to think critically about Twitter, but also to provide some initial thoughts on how such theoretical innovations can be developed.","DOI":"10.1177/0038038511422553","ISSN":"0038-0385, 1469-8684","shortTitle":"Towards a Sociological Understanding of Social Media","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Murthy","given":"Dhiraj"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2012",12]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Murthy, 2012). The advocates of functional theory contemplate the unexpected and expected route adopted by society to sustain the contemporary social order. It postulates that social networking sites are meant to expand communication and interaction. However, it also delineates the adverse repercussions which are significant. None can credibly claim to be using a real profile as the perception of these users is influenced by the common patterns of fabricates profiles. These perceptions contribute to the establishment of disbelief and regret in society. Moreover, the flow of information can be rarely moderated or supervised once unregulated on social networking platforms. All of these instances are an explicit illustration of the harmful impacts of social media on society. The theoretical paradigm of sociological perspective strengthens the need of communicating face to face and without the influence of disruptions or threats of fabrication ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"9Jxbu24T","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}The Effects of Social Media on Children,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“The Effects of Social Media on Children,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2351,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/H8YOvGFC/items/KM3G7L9W"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/H8YOvGFC/items/KM3G7L9W"],"itemData":{"id":2351,"type":"webpage","title":"The Effects of Social Media on Children","URL":"https://sites.ewu.edu/cmst496-stafford/2012/06/06/the-effects-of-social-media-on-children/","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",4,11]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“The Effects of Social Media on Children,” n.d.). The old school modes of interaction best served the spirits of social communication and rejuvenated the elements of social interaction. However, the advent of social media has revolutionized and radicalized the interactions, relations and communications in true letter and spirits.


Each invention of a human being has contributed toward the welfare of society. There exist, however, certain advancements that have adversely impacted society. Social media is explicit evidence of such advancement which has defined and desecrated the social interaction and communication in communities. The prominent adversities are mental complications, the risk of suicide, alienation from society and victimization in the form of cyberbullying. The instances deliberated above offer empirical evidence and rationale to supplement the fact that social media casts negative impacts on society. The youth and adolescents are the most vulnerable categories being victimized by social networking platforms like Facebook, Instagram and Twitter.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Teens and their experiences on social media | Pew Research Center. (2018, November 28). Retrieved April 11, 2019, from https://www.pewinternet.org/2018/11/28/teens-and-their-experiences-on-social-media/

Institute, R. E. is managing editor at the C. M. (n.d.). How Using Social Media Affects Teenagers. Retrieved April 11, 2019, from Child Mind Institute website: https://childmind.org/article/how-using-social-media-affects-teenagers/

Kamal, T., Tariq, M., Ishtiaq, M., Nawab, K., & Idrees, M. (2015). An Investigation into the Negative Impacts of Social Media on Academic Performance of Youth.

Murthy, D. (2012). Towards a Sociological Understanding of Social Media: Theorizing Twitter. Sociology, 46(6), 1059–1073. https://doi.org/10.1177/0038038511422553

N, K. (2015). The Impact of Social Networking Sites on the Youth. Journal of Mass Communication & Journalism, 05(12). https://doi.org/10.4172/2165-7912.1000285

Social Media and Adolescents’ and Young Adults’ Mental Health. (2018, August 10). Retrieved April 11, 2019, from National Center for Health Research website: http://www.center4research.org/social-media-affects-mental-health/

The Effects of Social Media on Children. (n.d.). Retrieved April 11, 2019, from https://sites.ewu.edu/cmst496-stafford/2012/06/06/the-effects-of-social-media-on-children/

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

James Jordon Jones

When I googled my name, I hardly found relevant information about it. Few of the links popped up showing a footballer, "Jordan Jones," an English ballroom dancer. But I believe after having read Goffman, any information we put online with our name matters both in professional and personal life. For example, take Instagram or Facebook. Every picture or activity posted on it tells something about you. An opinion about any ongoing issue discussed on a blog can tell a lot about your mood, your personality, your abilities and your day to day active status. Anything that we put on social media leaves a trial about us forever. Thorough both active and passive data on the internet, information about our work can be traced. It could be that I am not so much active on internet my name could not find enough data about the thing I do and share when I googled my name.

In friends gathering you always want the best of you to go for others to view and hold the best opinion about you. If for instance, if you are the person always complaining and sharing boring content on facebook your social life regarding friends won't be active. People won't take an interest in your profile and whatever you post matter least to them. In contrast, let’s take professional life. I was surprised by the fact that employers check the online presence of people before recruiting them for their companies. They do it by monitoring social media accounts and by simply googling their names and monitoring their LinkedIn profile. All the information that is provided through social media connection you and your employer. Therefore, if you are to qualify for any desired position with companies make sure to update your LinkedIn profile. Keep updating it with the number of work experience you get.

I do not have active access to social media, but my sister friend who is a social media activist shared her experience with social media with me. She is a blogger and keeps writing about social issues and sometimes does poetry as well. A few months ago before she graduated from her undergraduate, she was contacted by a company as a content writer. In the interview, she was told that the CEO of the company was impressed by her blog articles and creative writing. To my question on how this blog writing has influenced your personal life, she showed me here followers list and some of the comments of her blogs. She seemed to be a positive influencer, and her talks provide an online platform to debate. I was very much astonished by her personality and became one of her fans, too.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Japan's Dating And Marriage Practice

Japan's Dating and Marriage Practice

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Japan's Dating and Marriage Practice


In every society around the world, ‘Love’ is prevalent. People falling in love may have the same feelings; however, their approach towards love varies. Every country has its customs and rituals regarding dating and marriage. Among these countries, Japan possesses some unique and valuable procedures regarding dating and marriage. It is noteworthy to mention that Asian and Western countries have different dating and marriage procedures than each other. Therefore, Japanese perceive their relationship differently than western nations as Japan is a located in Southeastern Asia. Their ideas concerning dating and marriage share some uniqueness. Japan holds strong to their unique culture. Japanese have their unique ideas that how love is constructed and held together. In Japanese culture, people should act in a specific way. They must not break any rules of society otherwise people will think of that person in an erroneous way. The purpose of the paper is to highlight the supremacy of women in Japanese dating practices.


Japan is well known for fun and cultural things. Therefore, the dating culture in Japan is also kind of fun. Like other countries, dating is casual and easy in Japan, but there are few tricks and trips that will tell couples on what to do and what not to do.

Confess your love if you want a date

The first step in Japan's dating practice is a confession about love. In many cultures, when people go to a date, they have no idea about the feeling of other people for them. Many people go home with a dizzy head as they don't about the feelings of other people. They don't know whether that person likes them or not. But that is not a problem in Japanese culture. In Japan, if two people went out for dating, then it means that they like each other. There should be a kokuhaku before going on a date. It is all about confessing your love to another person. It is notable to mention that Kokuhaku is usually done by a woman (Kaori, 2017). When a person is confessing, it means that he/she is asking someone out on a date. Confessing is all about to date exclusively. Most Japanese are very frank regarding this matter as their view of marriage in kokuhaku is different.

Gender roles are different

It is well-known all over the world that women are shy, so men are supposed to ask or confess any woman. Men are more vocal and active to show their interest in a woman. However, that is totally in Japan, where women get the upper hand in dating's confession. Men are supposed to wait for a woman to confess her love or her desire to date. Men are considered to be poised and calm while women are expected to be active and open about their internal feelings. In Japanese culture, it is not suitable for men to express their feeling much. Women have supremacy in dating and marriage; therefore men need to wait for the confession from a woman (Kaori, 2017). Due to such reasons, women are the one to confess their love. It is interesting to know that woman tend to pay for dates instead of a man. Women have supremacy in dating practices, whereas men have their pride in professional life. In Japan, women are motherly kind and tolerant while men have their pride in the business.

Friend’s approval

Friends are an essential part of our life as they stand by us in every situation. They have a major role in shaping our lives and approving different things such as dating. Japan has a unique dating culture in which friends play a vital role. In Japan, partners mingle together with their friends before any actual date. The main purpose behind that mingling is to understand more about a partner. Japanese partners usually mingle with each other’s friends for five to six times. After that, friends give permission whether to continue that relation or not. After confirmation, these two can go on to a more private date. Hence, it is safe to say that Japan has a unique dating culture in Japan.

Physical intimacy

In many cultures, physical intimacy is common among couples, and it is not really serious, especially in western cultures. Physical intimacy is considered a way to show one's affection to his/her partner. However, Japanese have different views regarding physical intimacy. Japanese couples wait for a longer period before starting any physical touch. If the Japanese achieve boyfriend and girlfriend status, then it is possible for them to start having physical relation with each other. The physical intimacy in Japan includes touching, hugging, and kissing.

Judgmental in choosing dates

Depression is a factor that forces someone to date, anyone, regardless of any connection. Therefore, people tend to give their date another opportunity in order to understand their dates more. While in Japan, many people are kind of judgmental when it comes to dating practices. Many Japanese want their partner to be close to perfect. They evaluate every matter of their partner, their personality, their intellectual level, their beauty, and their financial stability. If they find any defect in their partner, then they are not willing to continue their relationship with that guy or girl. That's the reason behind low marriage rate among Japanese. However, Japanese women are willing to marry western guys due to their supremacy and high living standards.

Gender role (Girls supremacy)

Gender roles are reversed in Japan. As discussed earlier that women have the upper hand in date and relationship, so men are supposed to wait for any woman to confess her love. Men don't bother to chase after a girl as it's the responsibility of women to do all the chasing and confessing part (Kaori, 2017). When a woman wants to be close to a guy, she usually goes hard and persistent. However, it is notable to mention that women are more sensitive and emotional than a man. If a guy rejects their proposal, women usually get hurt. For women, a small rejection is not a big deal. In Japan, a woman gives a present that reminds a person about her. A woman tends to be kind to him and is willing to do anything for him.

Japanese Marriage Practices

Marriage practice in Japan is different than any other country. There is a great Japanese ritual regarding marriage which is known as "san-san-kudo." That tradition is rich with meaning and is being practiced for over a long time. "san-san-kudo" is performed by both groom and bride along with their parents. Each person takes three sips of sake from each of 3 cups. It is noteworthy to mention that the first 3 represents three couples; the groom, the bride, and their parents whereas other three refers to three human flaws, ignorance, passion, and hatred (Hendry, 2010). In the Japanese culture, number ‘9' is considered to be lucky; therefore the name of that tradition contains "Ku" which means number ‘9’. The word ‘do’ in “san-san-kudo” means the freedom from the three defects. In Japan, the wedding ceremony also contains a rosary with twenty one beads. Twenty one beads symbolize the union of the families as it represents the couple, their families and the Buddha. In many cultures, ‘Bridesmaids' or ‘best man' present a toast for the bride and groom. In Japan, parents are honored with a toast, flowers or a letter which express their gratitude and love.

In Japanese culture, crane represents longevity and prosperity of a relation. Therefore, Japanese fold 1,001 ‘gold origami’ in order to bring peace, longevity, good fortune, luck, and peace to the marriage. There are traditionally two outfits for a bride to wear; one for the marriage ceremony and other for reception. The Shiro is for the marriage ceremony which is a white kimono, while the uchikake kimono is for reception and it is patterned brocade (Monger, 2004). Colorful kanzashi accessories are used to worn hair in a bun. The tsuno kakushi is a white wedding hook which is used to hide the two front golden tsuno horns in order to represent respect. Kaiken (a small encased sword), hakoseko (a tiny purse), and a fan are carried by a bride which represents happiness and a happy future.


Every culture has its traditional roles for men and women. However, in Japan, there are many ways in which people are still socialized towards particular actions. In Japanese culture, Women are active and superior in dating as their confession decide whether a certain relation runs any further or not. Men are supposed to wait for the confession of women. Japanese have certain expectations of the roles in the relationship. Japanese partners usually mingle with each other’s friends for five to six times to understand more about their partner. If the Japanese achieve boyfriend and girlfriend status, then it is possible for them to start having physical relation with each other. "San-san-kudo" is a great Japanese marriage ritual. Parents are honored with a toast, flowers or a letter in Japan which express their gratitude and love.


Dating and Marriage in Japan. (2014). Japan Powered. Retrieved 9 January 2019, from https://www.japanpowered.com/japan-culture/dating-marriage-japan

Hendry, J. (2010). Marriage in changing Japan: Community & society. Routledge.

Monger, G. (2004). Marriage customs of the world: From henna to honeymoons. Abc-clio.

Kaori, S. (2017). The Japanese and love — more complicated than you think | The Japan Times. (2017). The Japan Times. Retrieved 9 January 2019, from https://www.japantimes.co.jp/life/2017/02/13/language/japanese-love-complicated-think/#.XDXFflUzYdU

The Secret to Understanding Dating in Japan and How to Keep your Relationship Steady! | Guidable. (2018). Guidable. Retrieved 9 January 2019, from https://guidable.co/culture/the-secret-to-understanding-dating-in-japan-and-how-to-keep-your-relationship-steady/

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

Japanese Pop Culture

Name of Student

Title of Professor

Name of Class

Day Month Year

Japanese Pop Culture

The discussion of "Cool Japan' is a quite complicated one, and it can be understood only post World War II context. When in 1945 United States dropped the bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, then Japan decided to unconditional surrender. After that in 1947, Japan added another clause in its constitution to renounce war as its sovereign right. Once the bomb was dropped on Japan, then not only millions of lives were lost, but also the survivors of the war suffered both physical and mental trauma. So the national trauma caused by the destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, losing world war II and also political and economic instability along with rebuilding the Japanese society is reflected in the storylines of many post-war Japanese films including movies like manga and anime. These movies reflected the social and political climate in Japan. For examples in movies like Godzilla, the aftermath of the attack was shown that how the environment was contaminated. In these two movies, it was shown by the artist Osama Tezuka's Astroy's boy that how Japan was anxious to achieve its technological and aeronautical aspirations in the 1960s. As Japan tried to rebuild its industries and tried to hold its position again in the region. The same things were depicted quite realistically in the movies, so it is safe to say that by making such movies, a window was also provided to look into Japanese culture post-war

Another reason that these movies were a reflection of Japanese society after the war is, the movies depicted the disillusionment among the Japanese youth caused by the 1980s economic recession and also rapidly modernizing society. The post-war situation in Japan among the youth specifically was worse. When these movies released than during this period two culturally, politically and economically transformative concepts first emerged like Cool Japan and Gross national cool. The movies helped the Japanese to represent their rich culture in front of the world. Anime and manga provided an insight into Japan rich culture like food culture, Japanese style inn and other traditional arts and crafts. The Cool Japan culture reflects the aspiration of Japanese in a productive way. After the war the Japanese focused on increasing the employment opportunities for their youth by promoting overseas development by small and medium businesses and also young designers, attracting tourists to Japan and also by revitalizing local communities. The Japanese government used cool Japan as part of their soft power in pop-culture disciplinary. Cool Japan increased the international demands for culture products like anime and manga.

Apart from giving an insight into Japanese culture these characters also provide insight into the gender relations that exist in that culture. The big eyes associated with the main character of the movie is a symbol of innocence. In Japanese culture, girls having big eyes are considered as innocent and beautiful. Normally girls who don’t have big eyes wear contact lenses to make their eyes big enough. Which is an indication of beauty in Japanese culture. Another reason for depicting the characters with big eyes is to show that Japanese girls are usually more like babies due to their innocence and they are less likely to be guilty of crimes. So all of these characters differentiate manga from other western characters. The use of traditional symbolism or other ghosts in manga reflects cultural elements of Japanese society. Although it is difficult to use any of the elements as sociological windows into Japanese society because of the commercial nature of most of the manga distributed to non-Japanese consumers to some extent, it is safe to say that they somehow provide an insight into the society overall.

But there are some limitations of using these characters as sociological texts because of the commercial nature of most of the manga distributed to non-Japanese consumers. For example, in 2018, 25% of all the locally produced manga was distributed to the world, and the other 75% was targeted to the Japanese customers. International manga is different from the domestic one because it is specifically created to promote Cool Japan and to attract other people from the world to visit Japan and its rich culture.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 2 Words: 600



Demetrius Moore

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Author Note

Decline of Upward Mobility with Globalization

Decline of Upward Mobility with Globalization

Globalization has indeed shrunk the world into a Global Village. However, it has also caused quite a lot of harm. In the "Land of Opportunity", upward mobilization is becoming difficult day-by-day. According to the General Social Survey, the possibility of upward mobility is becoming thinner as more people are suffering monetarily. Almost forty-two percent of the people born in poor families continue to be poor. Also, the rich have experienced a bearish trend regarding their mobility factors. According to Christopher Doob, it is due to several reasons which he links to the concept of economic globalization. He believes that outsourcing, immigration and establishing manufacturing plants in the third world decrease earning opportunities for the local US citizen to find a decent paying job. In addition to that, he believes that a sudden boom in international trade has lowered the basic wage among the workers, which makes upward mobility almost an impossibility. Also, due to the less cost of doing business, most US giant continues to participate in Foreign Direct Investment aboard. Investments in foreign companies result in the withdrawal of capital from the US, resulting in a significant increase in unemployment, making upward mobility a near-impossibility. Furthermore, dropping in the minimum wage in the US market due to excessive labor has further shown the negative effects of Globalization on the people belonging to the Land of Opportunity.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Journal Entry

Journal Entry

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Journal Entry


Karl Marx brought forward the Conflict Theory. Conflict theory describes that a society will always have limited resources. While the residents of that society will always remain in a struggle to achieve those resources giving rise to perpetual conflict. Emile Durkheim wrote Social Solidarity Theory. In this theory, Durkheim explains the reason behind what holds a society and its people together. Durkheim said that rural societies are knitted together with shared values and beliefs. While in the urban societies residents are brought together due to interdependence. Max Weber gave the theory of Social Action. In this theory, Weber argues that any action that an individual might conduct will be influenced by the actions of those around them. Georg Simmel brought forward the theory of culture. According to Simmel, individuals in modern societies are mired in social functions chasing material good which results in damaging the human soul. W.E.B Du Bois wrote the theory of double consciousness. This theory explains the internal conflict that any subordinate group might experience within an oppressive society. Double consciousness theory suggests that social divisions exist in American culture.


Sociologists research a wide variety of topics of human behavior. The rationale behind in deciding what to research by the sociologists is following. Sociologists observe what is going in and around in society. What beliefs do the individuals of the society share? What behaviors are exhibited by society? To verify the truthfulness of the belief and behavior, sociologists choose a certain aspect of the behavior and conduct research on it.


The research questions selected by the sociologists need to be answered logically and comprehensively. Therefore, to prove and verify their research through measured and recorded data regarding the research question, sociologists operationalize their research. The difference between independent and dependent variable is that the independent variable is thought to be the cause of any problem and the dependent variable is the effect of the independent variable (Liska, 1990).


A research that is merely exploratory is called qualitative research (Atieno, 2009). It helps grasp any underlying reason and motivations of the research question. On the other hand, quantitative research is used to gather and record numerical data on a certain problem. Later, this data is transformed into useful statistics helping to understand the problem or the research question. Quantitative research is more structured in comparison to qualitative research (Atieno, 2009).


Researchers in sociology use several methods to record and analyze data that relates to their research question. Strengths of survey research are cost-effective, reliable, and diverse. On the other hand, interview research has depth and flexibility as its strengths. The strength of ethnography research method is that it increases cultural understanding of the researchers. The biggest strength of historical-comparative research method is that it enables researchers to create a solid understanding with the history and culture.


For any research to be termed useful by other researchers, it must possess the two characteristics of validity and reliability. Reliability describes that the data and results incorporated in the research are consistent and accurate. On the other hand, validity is important because it tells about the truthfulness of the research.


Atieno, O. P. (2009). An analysis of the strengths and limitation of qualitative and quantitative research paradigms. Problems of Education in the 21st Century, 13(1), 13-38.

Liska, A. E. (1990). The significance of aggregate dependent variables and contextual independent variables for linking macro and micro theories. Social Psychology Quarterly, 292-301.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Karl Marx

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of Instructor]



Karl Marx


Religion is the element of every society which indicates the norms, rituals, tradition, and the way of living in a society. Religion gives people a way of life. People follow religion to get the mercy and blessings of God. However, there are millions of people who do not believe in God. They think earth and all living things came into being through a systematic process and that there is no such power or body like God. These people are known as atheists. Karl Marx was the philosopher from Germany who claims different flaws and negative aspect of religion throughout the 18th and 19th century. He tried to tell people that society faces problems due to imaginary statements of religion and no religion makes society perfect or free of pain and issues.


Karl Marx was a philosopher who born in Trier, Germany, on May 5, 1818. He belonged to a Jewish family. However, he converted his religion and became a Protestant. The reason for the conversion was to avoid persecution and anti-Semitic laws. He examined religion from a scientific perspective. He discussed a different aspect of the religion and their flaws which according to him make religion reflex of the actual world.

Marx an atheist or agnostic:

There are a number of people who believe that Marx was agnostic as he claimed that religion has no independent past. He was born into one religion and then converted to another which make people think that he could be anti-religion but not atheist. However, his claims and statements indicate that Marx was an atheist. In his book, he claimed that there is no independent history of religion "Die Religion ist das Opium des Volkesis" ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"czKEfduK","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}Karl Marx and Religion by Cyril Smith})","plainCitation":"(Karl Marx and Religion by Cyril Smith)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1160,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/EMJG9UJK"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/EMJG9UJK"],"itemData":{"id":1160,"type":"webpage","title":"Karl Marx and Religion by Cyril Smith","URL":"https://www.marxists.org/subject/marxmyths/cyril-smith/article2.htm","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",9,13]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Karl Marx and Religion by Cyril Smith). This statement is famous for atheism and they use it to explain to other religious people that religion is made up by humans and there is no reality of it.

At another point, Marx wrote that “The religious world is but the reflex of the real world.” This statement shows that he raised the issue on the nature of the religion ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"hEFXoGQP","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Joshi)","plainCitation":"(Joshi)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1164,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/7Y3K4MHK"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/7Y3K4MHK"],"itemData":{"id":1164,"type":"article-journal","title":"Religion and Marxism: Some Theoretical Problems","container-title":"Economic and Political Weekly","page":"2563-2568","volume":"26","issue":"45","source":"JSTOR","archive":"JSTOR","abstract":"We can locate a powerful spiritual source for Marxism which produced as much fervour to 'save' humanity as any other religion. It also produced the orthodoxy and the will to power, the claims to omnipotence and the intolerance of historically degenerated and ossified religious orders.","ISSN":"0012-9976","title-short":"Religion and Marxism","author":[{"family":"Joshi","given":"Shashi"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1991"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Joshi). He believes that there is no religion based on reality and every religion has hypocrisy in it. He didn’t just state these claims for Christianity but also for Protestantism to which he converted. In addition, his theories and beliefs can be applied to any religion which shows that Marx did not believe in any religion and therefore was an atheist.


The main reason to study religion was the scientific purpose as he wanted to understand the economic and historical realities related to society. Every society consists of people in which the majority of people believe in the same religion and that religion influence the behaviour and lifestyle of the people. For instance, In Europe, there are more Christians so people live and follow rituals presented through the Bible. Whereas in the Middle East or Arab, Islam is the main religion where people believe in Allah and follow the teachings of Prophet Muhammad and the Holy Quran. Therefore, the main objective of Marx was to indicate the socialist transformation of society. Marx was anti-religion and explained that there is no need for an explanation of the supernatural power of God. The principles are more important to make the society while history and information of "above nature" have no influence or impact on society. In addition, he believed that man is not a unique creature or born for a special reason; they are alike all other living things on earth. Therefore, there is no need to highlight anything for mankind ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"E0UQJrkp","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}Marx and Engels On Religion})","plainCitation":"(Marx and Engels On Religion)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1158,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/MVV9SQVE"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/MVV9SQVE"],"itemData":{"id":1158,"type":"webpage","title":"Marx and Engels On Religion","URL":"https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/subject/religion/index.htm","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",9,13]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Marx and Engels On Religion).

He also opposed the religion for sacrificing their wishes for the sake of God or afterlife. He believes that if someone is in hurdle, he cannot leave things on God or ask for help. He should achieve his desires and get material stuff which can provide him satisfaction. Marx disagreed to the concept of sacrifice and afterlife of religions like Christianity and Islam. He claims that everyone should make a decision rather than leaving something for others.

Reason for Marx views on religion:

The basic determinant of human history according to Karl Marx was economics. He believed in equality that means society can work when they exchange things in good values and live together in unity. This concept was disrupted by capitalism where people started working for-profit motive. Therefore Marx wrote that “The philosophers have only interpreted the world, in various ways; the point, however, is to change it” ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"HotDztnh","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Gasper)","plainCitation":"(Gasper)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1162,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/KU5KLA98"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/KU5KLA98"],"itemData":{"id":1162,"type":"webpage","title":"Marxism and religion | International Socialist Review","abstract":"Marx called religion the opium of the people, but that is only part of what he said","URL":"/issue/63/marxism-and-religion","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Gasper","given":"Phil"}],"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",9,13]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Gasper) Capitalism brought inequality based on status and wealth. Marx explained that religion does not teach people how to get free from suffering and pain. Instead, religion teaches them not to worry about pain and they should forget suffering by entering into the imaginary world of religion. He believed that people do not seek for the solution instead, they try to heal themselves based on religious information. Hence, this was the main reason he presented that anti-religious view to the people to tell them that no religion can help them. Religion is the reflex of the real world and people have to do something for healing their pain and suffering.


It can be concluded that Karl Marx, who was a Jew and later converted to Protestantism, was born in Germany. He was a philosopher who examined religion for economic issues of the people. Marx was an atheist who believed that there is no supernatural power of God and no religion has an independent history or teaching to develop a society. Marx became an anti-religion and wrote to the people that they should not believe in imaginary beliefs of religion.

Work Cited

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Gasper, Phil. Marxism and Religion | International Socialist Review. /issue/63/marxism-and-religion. Accessed 13 Sept. 2019.

Joshi, Shashi. “Religion and Marxism: Some Theoretical Problems.” Economic and Political Weekly, vol. 26, no. 45, 1991, pp. 2563–68. JSTOR.

Karl Marx and Religion by Cyril Smith. https://www.marxists.org/subject/marxmyths/cyril-smith/article2.htm. Accessed 13 Sept. 2019.

Marx and Engels On Religion. https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/subject/religion/index.htm. Accessed 13 Sept. 2019.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Korean Wave

Your Name

Name of Professor


Day Month Year “Hallyu” is the term in Chinese, when it is translated, it exactly means “Korean Wave”. This term is collectively used to refer to the outstanding growth of the culture of Korea. Popular culture that is surrounding everything, from movies, dramas, music to Korean cuisine, online games and the list goes on.

Hallyu first started spreading in Japan and China, then it found its way to several countries globally, specifically including Southeast Asia, it still continues to have a powerful influence there. In the year of 2000, a ban of 50 years was lifted on the interchange of popular culture between Japan and Korea. This showed a lot of improvements in the growth of Korean popular culture amongst the Japanese. Broadcast authorities of South Korea have been sending their ambassadors to promote and sponsor their cultural content and TV programs in various countries.

Korean Wave has been an ultimate blessing for Korea, its culture, its business and country image. Since the beginning of 1999, Korean Wave has become one of the greatest phenomenon of culture across entire Asia. The effect of Hallyu has been marvelous, capitalizing Korea’s GDP to 0.2% in 2004, which is the amount in the neighborhood of 1.87 billion USD. In 2014, Korean Wave had made 11.6 billion USD estimated boost on the economy of Korea. South Korea has become futuristic, and record-rich with a fast growth rate in the last two decades. South Korea is the 12th largest economy of the world whereas, in 1965, GDP per capita of Korea was less than Ghana.

The first Korean Wave is different from second Korean Wave according to different scholars because the primary genres of both were different that helped in the popularity of Korean culture. In the first Korean Wave, film and dramas embarked solid imprints across East Asia, whereas in second Korean Wave, video games, animations, and K-pop spellbound the people worldwide, especially in Asia, Europe, and North America.

Moreover, primary consumers in both waves were different. In First Korean Wave, they were in the age of 30s and 40s, and they loved romantic and classy dramas, films and online games, the popularity of Winter Sonata is the best witness of it. Whereas in the Second Korean wave, primary consumers were/are youngsters in teen or 20s who are/were fond of K-pop (popularity of Gangnam style and BTS band), social media (Smartphones, SNS), animations and digital games.

The government of Korea has been promoting its culture industry and soft power very seriously. When the Korean government saw that in the neighboring market there is some promising potential for Korean Wave, it began to financially encourage the industry, such as on tax breaks and in short in everything. The government of South Korea considers K-pop music, designer goods, and high-tech devices as the boosters of the economy of South Korea. It has been devoting a good amount of money to encourage the academic interests in popular culture of South Korea. Moreover, since South Korea is short on natural resources, it can generate a significant profit by cultivating human-capital-based organizations.

When BoA and Psy made it enter into Billboard top charts, it was a huge success, and it changed things significantly for the South Korean government. They portrayed the culture of South Korea in the most visually appealing way by showing the strength, advancement, and positivity of their culture. It helped in the promotion of Korean culture worldwide, and it undoubtedly provided social and economic support to the government. But on the other hand, there are also certain things shown in their dramas, like sexual harassments and sexual discrimination which imprint a negative impact of their culture.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

KPFK Project

Title page

KPFK project

Beneath the Surface talked about socialist politics by stressing on the issues of race and minorities. It highlights the goals of social movement DSA and its impacts on society. Bernie Sanders explains the political ideology of democratic socialist. Bernie claims that the term socialism emerged in the nineteenth century with the aim of promoting philosophies of humanitarian, societal and political-economic changes. America is still lacking socialism that was focused on controlling the means for production and addressing the needs of masses, not the few. The debate on KPFP claims that the minority groups are still facing the consequences of unequal opportunities because the state is acting in favor of a few powerful.

Bernie has supported the discussion in the prevalence of race and discrimination. The central philosophy states, “democratic socialists believe that both the economy and society should be run democratically to meet public needs, not to make profits for a few” CITATION Mad19 \l 1033 (Farber, 2019). Although democratic socialism identified the aspects that demanded change the state and the politicians have failed to provide the realistic model of socialism. The minority populations are still facing racism in socio-economic aspects. The Bernie has also supported the ideas shared by the guest speakers on the platform of KPFP. He mentions that socialism refers to the creation of a civilized society where all people have access to security and healthcare. All people are treated with dignity and have acquired a decent education.

The debate at KPFP platform reveals that race is still prevalent in American society. This is apparent in the statuses of the blacks who lack access to quality education and many are victims of the drug war. They are lacking dignity, healthcare and security that were the prominent aspects of socialism CITATION KPF19 \l 1033 (KPFK, 2019). Bernie states, “we have got to, as a right, end the kinds of discrimination the racism, the sexism, and the homophobia” CITATION Mad19 \l 1033 (Farber, 2019). The discussions at the two platforms indicate that the conditions of the minority populations still demands improvement. This refers to the provision of equal human rights and economic rights to the blacks and Latinos. Equal economic rights indicate the provision of equal employment opportunities and chances of progress. This idea is also linked to the level of education. Because blacks fail to acquire good education they are more likely to face difficulties in their future careers. This is also apparent in the wage gap and the nature of Jobs.

The KPFK speakers highlight many issues that represent the shortcomings of the democratic socialist movement. Irrespective of the history of this movement the majority of the black population and Latinos still bear the burden of racism and discrimination. The failure of the socialist movement depicts that there is still a need for addressing the issues of the minority populations. Bernie claims that even the millennial are following the same old patterns because blacks and minority populations are struggling to find appropriate jobs and fit in the white dominant society. There is thus need for implementing socialism and removing race and discrimination from the American society.

The analysis of the debate on Beneath the Surface and Sander Bernie’s views on Fox News portrays the social issue of race. The speakers on both platforms criticize the role of state and failure of the socialist movement. The real idea of democratic socialism suggests the provision of equally human and economic rights to the American citizens irrespective of their race, gender and ethnicities. Equal economic rights means offering equal employment opportunities and chances of progress.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Farber, M. (2019). What is ‘Democratic socialism’? Bernie Sanders' political ideology explained. Retrieved 05 09, 2019, from https://www.foxnews.com/politics/what-is-democratic-socialism-bernie-sanders-political-ideology

KPFK. (2019). Beneath The Surface. Retrieved 05 09, 2019, from https://archive.kpfk.org/index_one.php?shokey=bts_friday

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

La Honda: The Story Of Jill And Jack

Your Name

Instructor Name

Course Code


Symbolic interaction

Symbolic interactionism explains the individuals in a society and with others. The meanings individuals assign to things and their development is a social process. People change based on their interactions with objects, events, ideas and other things. We act according to the meaning we have given to something and that meaning is given by us to something based on our previous social interactions A similar case happened in the story La Honda the story of Jill and Jack. The main characters Jill and Jack first interact with each other through their dreams by just looking at each other once in a bus. The connection of emotions felt so strongly that they wanted to see each other and spend time again and again. They both try to remember each other through their mutual reoccurring nightly dreams. The first time they interact with each other in a rape tube they felt one another through their smells that they have assigned to each other through their subconsciousness. This might not have meant anything to other people but for them, this was everything that they developed through their interaction.


Values are explained as Principles of behaviors that define what is held respected and important in life. It can also be defined in terms of usefulness, worth and ethical significance of something. Many people use these values as directions. Goals and plans of an individual usually give importance to the outcomes, values on the other hand focus on the way we do things. These values gives higher regard to the moral implications of a process rather than the goal of the process itself. In the story, all of the death and destruction of human life have resulted in positive and negative energies in terms of values. The positive energy is driven by the emotions of love, kind-heartedness, empathies, hope, and optimism. While negative energy results in gluttony, hatred, and fanatism. The values in the story differ in two clear paths of the island of La Honda and the compounds where Jill and Jack lived.


The theory of Anomie means that there is no presence of any normal ethical and social standards. It is a state of social interactions where there are no predefined set of rules and values. It is unclear how will anyone react to a specific behavioral act. The other word which can be given to Anomie is normlessness. This often happens in periods of dramatic social and environmental changes and as a result, the rewards for specific acts may be uncertain as well. The behaviors and environment in the story very precisely represent the theory of Anomie. In this story, no one is allowed to speak about past norms such as honesty, kindness, dignity, and tolerance are forbidden. No one is expected to grow the values and emotions of love and gratitude. Even the formal interactions that usually occur between the main characters Jill and Jack are through their mutual interacted dreams. There are separate compounds for rapes, that is an unlawful and disgraceful social act in our world. However, in Jack and Jill's world, it is completely usual and lawful, which certainly falls in the category of normlessness and Anomie.


Dehumanization is a process when some people view or recognize other people as fewer humans. This allows them to be treated like animals this can also be a group approach to a certain set of people. Rather than allowing a person to be seen as an individual, he might be seen in terms of his group membership. It can be categorized under the structure of social identity theory. The treatment of that group can be inhuman because they are seen as less of humans. It is used to disapprove and degrade the social norms of a society. In the story of La Honda; The story of Jill and Jack, human beings are objectified and classified in specific levels and classes. They are not allowed to evolve on the basis of their talents and basic rights. The presence of rape compounds and reusing dead bodies in food compounds are taking away the human right of self-determination. Communication with people can cause you punishment in orientation centers. They are not allowed to do what they want to do and act how they want to act. They are pushed in the darkness of inhuman acts that are unthinkable in our real world.

Rational Choice Theory:

The rational choice theory states that individuals always make sensible and logical decisions and these decisions are the source of satisfaction for human beings. Human beings direct their behaviors on practical scenarios and direct their decisions making abilities on the basis of these behaviors. People made these choices on the basis of rational to optimize their wishes. One's evaluation of a certain situation through social interaction determines his rational decisions. In the story, the rational choice for both Jack and Jill are to move away from the hell of specific compounds and move into the world of La Honda. The decision to move from an unethical, unloving and violent environment to a supportive, loving, and caring place is a perfect example of rational choice theory. Both Jack and Jill have made a choice with the target of a peaceful and loving future in their minds. Their rationality have consciously or subconsciously forced them to act on the rational choice theory with the outcome of better situation and freedom in their mind. Both of them were forced to make a sensible choice for the betterment of their future.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Labeling Theory

Sonassa Daniel

Instructor Name

Course Number


Labeling Theory

Introduction to Labeling Theory

In 1963, American sociologist Howard S. Becker developed and presented "Labelling theory" in his book, 'Outsiders.' The theory is based on idea that an act is not categorized by deviance, instead by a label placed on it. According to Howard Becker, deviance is created by society. It originates when social communities set rules, whose violation establishes deviance. Those rules are applied to specific people who are labeled as outsiders. He categorized the behavior into four groups, which include wrongly accused, conforming, completely deviant, and confidential deviant. The theory is concerned with other consequences, like behavior of people who are labeled and reaction of society to those. Labeling theory is important to the interactionist criminal theories. According to the Interactionists, the social standing of people does not contribute to crime, instead of the crime rate increases because of authorities and ruling class label certain people. Interactionists consider crimes as an outcome of small dealings between the police department and some specific individuals of the society. They believe that socialization and reduced opportunities do not contribute to an increase in the crime rate or deviant behavior.

           According to the Labelling theorists, the felonious and deviant actions are consequences of labeling by those who have power and authority. It is more probable that the powerless and weak are negatively labeled. The criminological theory of Labelling is related to Interactionism. The principle concept of the theory is that crime and criminal behaviors are built by society and those who have social control, label the weak as criminal and deviant merely based on conventional beliefs ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"uIZAllm4","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Brownfield and Thompson)","plainCitation":"(Brownfield and Thompson)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":443,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/YgsdZK9k/items/59GR5WYQ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/YgsdZK9k/items/59GR5WYQ"],"itemData":{"id":443,"type":"book","title":"Correlates of Delinquent Identity: Testing Interactionist, Labeling, and Control Theory","source":"CiteSeer","abstract":"This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-Share Alike License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This license does not permit commercial exploitation or the creation of derivative works without specific permission.","title-short":"Correlates of Delinquent Identity","author":[{"family":"Brownfield","given":"David"},{"family":"Thompson","given":"Kevin"}]}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Brownfield and Thompson). This leads to a self-fulfilling prophecy, which is a socio-psychological phenomenon where people expect something will become true merely because they believe it will, due to which the conducts are aligned to achieve those beliefs. Moreover, it also increases criminal behavior and the intensity of deviance in society. 

Often, the theories of labeling are related to social reaction theories which emphasize on outcomes of reactions or responses to crime. The people who show reactions or responses are categorized in three ways. Firstly, people who are informally connected to the deviant like family, friends, and other people who condemn the behavior of deviant. Secondly, the structures and organizations that are responsible for reducing the crime rate and providing justice in society. Lastly, those who feel threatened by the deviant behavior and are anxious to pass related legislation. The labeling theory revolves around two hypotheses. One of them is status characteristics hypothesis and according to it, labels are executed in part due to status of those labeling and those who are labeled. The other hypothesis, secondary deviance hypothesis, suggests that deviant labels generate difficulties for one who is labeled and he or she has to face. It also states that sometimes some conditions may accelerate the involvement in deviance and crime (Labeling Theory - Criminology - Oxford Bibliographies - Obo).

Criminal Behavior

According to the Labelling theory, there is no concept of deviance and in fact, it is merely conducted which is condemned by others and labeled as abhorrent, criminal and anti-social (Slattery). Labels are often placed upon people, whether guilty or not. The examples of labels include 'addict', 'murderer', 'psycho', and 'criminal'. If the crime is severe, the labeled individual faces extreme reactions from society, to the extent that it is difficult to survive.

Central Park Five

The Central Park Five is a story of five black and Latino teenagers from Harlem, Kevin Richardson, Antron McCray, Raymond Santana Yusef Salaam, and Korey Wise, who suffered from the miscarriage of justice. They were falsely convicted for the ruthless beating and rape of a 28-year-old white woman, Trisha Meili, in New York City's Central Park. This news triggered community outrage and shocking headlines throughout the trial and conviction of the five young boys. The accused served the complete prison sentences. The story of the conviction is popular among many communities; however, the part where the real criminal was caught is less known (“About the Case | Ken Burns”).

In 1989, on one evening, about thirty youngsters were hanging out while a few of them were hurting others and assaulting the homeless. On the same night, Trisha Meili was jogging in the park. She got beaten and raped. She was in a coma for twelve days, which was enough for the news to cause outrage in the city.

           Five young black and Hispanic men who were of ages between 14 and 16, were accused of the crime. It is important to note that there was no physical evidence that these five boys are related to the case. The DNA found at the scene was no match for any of the accused, and thus the prosecutors trusted the initial interrogations only. According to documentaries, it was revealed that Linda Fairstein, the prosecutor, adopted an overzealous approach in the prosecution of the accused. The prosecutor did not herself take part but supervised the violent interrogation. The interrogation continued for two days, without the defense lawyers. This led to coerced confessions of the crime. She tried to cover the lack of evidence, which could have proved the innocence of five boys.

They were sentenced to spend the jailed for the crime they did not commit. They were known as Central Park five. Richardson and Santana were aged 14, while Salaam and McCray were 15 years old. These five boys were tried as juveniles. Then they about six to seven years. Wise, who was 16 years old at the time of the attack, was tried as an adult, and he served 12 years in prison.

The five initially confessed to the crime, but later they took those statements back, stating that they were pressured to confess. Salaam stated in an interview with Guardian in 2016 that he could hear Korey beaten up, and he was threatened that if he did not confess, he be beaten too.

Their innocence was finally proven when the real criminal Matias Reyes confessed. Shortly after the confession, police connected him to multiple other crimes. During interrogation, he confessed to several crimes, including murder, five rapes, and two attempted rapes. He was sentenced for 33 years of imprisonment after he pleaded guilty.

Central Park Five Case and Labelling theory

The labeling theory is based on how label of a crime is placed upon people on a particular race, ethnicity, and color. The case of Central Park Five is a perfect demonstration of this theory. The five suspects were accused of a crime and without proper investigation, they were labeled as rapists. The society did not even try to understand their side of the story and believed what the government stated. Race and color were proven enough to indict and punish the accused. People believed in the story more readily, as they all belonged to the minority community. He mother of Salaam was a professor, but this fact could not prove that he could have been innocent. They were labeled as 'Central Park Five,' and to date, even after their innocence is proven, they are referred to as 'Central Park Five.' Even though they were never guilty. It is observed that the criminal cases are not dealt with regarding an individual; instead, it becomes an illustration of a specific race, ethnicity, occupation, social class, and gender. In this particular case, the accused served as a symbolic representation of everyone in the lower-class black people in society. The brutal conduct of the police was an example of how black people are treated after being labeled. The high rate of victimization is observed in the black community, especially young men, who are targeted.

         When Reyes confessed about the crime, the inefficient and flawed interrogation system was exposed. According to the labeling theory, labeling results in a self-fulfilling prophecy. Similar were the results after the five young boys were indicted. The prosecution did not reflect upon their judgment and continue to punish the innocents. Even though the DNA evidence was sufficient enough to let them off the hook, but prosecution believed the young black boys were the real culprit. The ignorance of clear evidence and lack of zeal to learn about truth is the phenomenon of self-fulfilling prophecy which was the predicted outcome of labeling theory.

According to labeling theory, the powerful tend to label weak and helpless people as criminals and deviants. The same happened in this case when Donald Trump, who was a property City tycoon, appeared to be certain that young boys were rapists. He showed the power of money by spending $85,000 on 4 whole page Newspaper advertisements, labeling these boys as criminals. He even demanded to execute them. This display of hatred fueled the atmosphere of a higher crime rate in the city.


The example of Central Park Five is a true example of the labeling theory and how the people of a specific race or ethnic group are accused of a crime and labeled for life. 

The general limitations of the theory include that this theory does not justify the sources and reason for deviance, and only explained deviant behavior. Another possible limitation of the theory is that it is based on how society perceives. If the theory is applied immense, probably soon deviancy is not be considered as a criminal or harmful act. This may lead to chaos in society.

Concerning the case, the limitation is that the theory is deterministic and implies that if someone is labeled as criminal or deviant, he or she will choose even a deviant path. However, in the case of these boys, none of them choose a criminal career. Richardson, Salaam, and Wise are advocates and in strong support of criminal justice reform. Raymond is in the clothing business, and it was his tweet that inspired a director, Ava Duvernay, to direct a Netflix show When They See Us.

           The labeling theory has evident and obvious value and it should be utilized to endorse the policies which will help avoid labeling negligible actions as deviant.

Works Cited

“About the Case | Ken Burns.” The Central Park Five, https://www.pbs.org/kenburns/the-central-park-five/about-the-case. Accessed 1 Dec. 2019.

Labeling Theory - Criminology - Oxford Bibliographies - Obo. https://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780195396607/obo-9780195396607-0078.xml. Accessed 1 Dec. 2019.

Marshall, Harvey, and Ross Purdy. “Hidden Deviance and the Labelling Approach: The Case for Drinking and Driving.” Social Problems, vol. 19, no. 4, Apr. 1972, pp. 541–53. academic.oup.com, doi:10.2307/799930.

Slattery, Martin. Key Ideas in Sociology. Nelson Thornes, 2003.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 8 Words: 2400

Learning Journal - Four Reflections On Concepts

Learning journal

Your Name (First M. Last)

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)



A couple of years back, I have been to a party where I was invited by one of the university fellow. Though he was not a close friend but still few of the mutual friends insisted me to come to his party. I used to have a busy schedule so mostly I used to have no time for parties. I found this invitation, a good way to get myself refresh by changing the daily routine so I went to the party along with my friends. I was assuming this to be a normal party like the ones I have been before. As soon as I get into the party place, I was shocked to see such a lavishing and mesmerizing atmosphere. I was astonished to see along queue of branded cars there in the parking section.

Both men and women were wearing expensive brands even their shoes were more expensive than my pocket money (Manstead,et,al,2018). Not only they were apparently different than me but also they were having a different ideology as well. In the beginning, I tried to settle myself among such people who were not looking like me at all. With the advancement of time, class difference becoming visible between other guests and me. Appearance was speaking aloud about our social status. That was the point where I became aware of social diversity and realized that how different I was from those who belonged to the high born status and families. It was the moment when realized that I was quite different from others in regards to the social class we belonged to.


The above-mentioned experience has been a guiding light for me. It taught me how to behave in society. This experienced shaped up my perspective that I belong to a different class that is known as middle class where people struggle to level them up in society (Bolin,et,al2018). This experience has shaped my social practices as I became more aware of the social diversity. There exist three classes, one class is of high born people who are the heads of society and are known as bourgeoisie (higher class). On the other hand, there comes a class that is at another extreme. This class hardly meets its basic needs and is known as the proletariats.

I belonged to the middle class family that is far less than the elite or high born people but is a little better than the hands of the society (lower class). I think it has been the best lesson I have learnt from any gathering. It is the thing that I could not learn from any text. Personal experience was necessary for learning this lesson. I cannot even deny this thing that I felt very bad in that party, where I was degraded because of my social class though most the people were very nice and did not make me feel that I was odd one among them. At the same time, gazed of few people was just asking me why I was there among such high-class people. That experience made me realized that there exists a great diversity in this world where one feels comfortable only in the company of one who is equal to his own class.

This thing cannot be denied that the difference that I became aware of in that party made me realized, people feel degrade when they have to meet with people who are of much higher standard than them (Petras,et,al,2018). I experienced same thing at that party and now I have learnt, what sort of people I have to meet and how I have to meet with people who are of higher status than me. From that incident, I learned many things but one of the most important things that shaped up perception about categorization for meeting people is that along with social difference, there exists a cultural difference as well. From this incident, I personally experienced that people who belong to some other class, used to have a cultural difference as well. The difference does not remain confine to their appearance but also difference could be seen in their ways of living (Neumark,et,al,2018). Mentality of people is also shaped up by their economic status. Another major thing that I learned from this experience is that I became aware of the fact that there exists no equality among people. It is hard to witness equality among members who belonged to two different social classes.

So as a whole, it could be concluded that life is all about learning through experiences whether they are pleasant or unpleasant. Experiences make us aware of where we belong to and how we have to limit our behaviour. It is the experience that makes us realize that how we differ from others. It has been seen that there are many things that promote diversity such as religion, social class, ethnicity, culture, gender and disability. All these thing separates one individual from the other (Fotovatian,et,al,2018). I have also categorized people and mostly I used to maintain a difference with people who are of higher class but I never stop learning from them if I notice any good thing in them. Diversity that exists in the world is also a cause of discrimination that is getting increase with the ever increasing gap of class, people belong to. It depends on people; they could take diversity in positive as well as negative sense.


Bolin, B., & Kurtz, L. C. (2018). Race, class, ethnicity, and disaster vulnerability. In Handbook of disaster research (pp. 181-203). Springer, Cham.

Fotovatian, S. (2018). Language, institutional identity and integration: Lived experiences of ESL teachers in Australia. In Work, Learning and Transnational Migration (pp. 97-112). Routledge.

Manstead, A. S. (2018). The psychology of social class: How socioeconomic status impacts thought, feelings, and behaviour. British Journal of Social Psychology, 57(2), 267-291.

Neumark, D. (2018). Experimental research on labor market discrimination. Journal of Economic Literature, 56(3), 799-866.

Petras, J. (2018). The Left Strikes Back: Class Conflict in Latin America in the Age of Neoliberalism. Routledge.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 3 Words: 900

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