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Your Name

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Author Note


Environment plays a major role in the development of individuals as it shapes their personalities. The day to day experiences of an individual, his habitat, and the people around him are the basic factors that affect his way of living. Another important factor among these is the education and beliefs of the individual as they shape and mould his personality, opinions, and ideas. The individuals share a complex relationship with their environment. The environment affects their social practices in their surroundings and their relationships with other individuals. They often face social problems within the society that weaken the stability of the society and have many negative effects on society. Many of these problems arise from a cultural gap and discrimination in race, gender, class, and other dimensions. These problems can be easily resolved by approaching to change in society, educating the people, and creating awareness among them. The problems in education are segregation and violence in schools.

The world literacy and education began to increase during the 18th century and now has expanded to basic education, becoming a global priority. During these years, the primary education enrollment rate all over the globe has increased drastically in the industrialized countries. These industrialized countries are focusing on establishing an improved education system by enabling the children to get the full basic education. The governments of these countries are also supporting them to meet the educational needs and end the school-related social issues. The industrialized countries have proposed several reforms for the problems in schools related to education such as school integration, early childhood interventions, and better communities and families. Our country can improve the educational system by enabling the students to social reproduction and providing opportunities to them. Investment in the interventions can be made to produce high scores, and with the passing time, new interventions should be found out for a huge social, economic, and educational impact on the country.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Chapter 11: Schools and Education | Social Problems. (n.d.). Retrieved November 11, 2019, from https://courses.lumenlearning.com/atd-herkimer-socialproblems/part/chapter-11-schools-and-education/

Di Carlo, L. (2012). Redefining Education in the Developing World (SSIR). Retrieved November 11, 2019, from https://ssir.org/articles/entry/redefining_education_in_the_developing_world

Roser, M., & Ortiz-Ospina, E. (2016). Global Rise of Education. Our World in Data. Retrieved from https://ourworldindata.org/global-rise-of-education

Rushe, D. (2018, September 7). The US spends more on education than other countries. Why is it falling behind? The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2018/sep/07/us-education-spending-finland-south-korea

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Education In America

Education in America




Education in America

College education was one of the most important guarantees of getting the good, as well as field related jobs in the past. However, over the course of the past two decades, the situation has changed greatly as most of the students do not get the jobs of their specific field after graduating. This practice is more specifically applicable to the students of B.A. who do not get the job related to their major and end up establishing a career in a different field. The recent recession, as well as demand of the technical skills, instead of the liberal arts, may have been among the most important reasons of students not getting jobs related to their majors.

The history of the issue is that there was a time when getting into the college was considered a great achievement, so the students used to pick the simplest subjects and earn the degree of B.A. so they can get good marks and graduate, instead of dropping out of college. There were few students who pursued the career in the science subjects and students belonging to the arts major as well as science majors used to get the jobs related to their major, because, there were more jobs and less graduate students. The job market has expanded over the course of years, however, the jobs related to the art majors have almost vanished as science fields have become much more important and prevalent in modern society. Scientific advancement was also not quite fast paced at that time, so the students used to get the jobs related to their majors, however, the conditions have changed now (Robst, 2007).

The trends have changed in recent time due to the technological shift of society. The society has become modernized and scientific advancement has encompassed each and every aspect of the jobs market, so there are less simplified jobs in the market at the moment. The students who graduated the college with the majors in B.A. are not able to establish a career in their respective majors because of the fact that simpler jobs have been replaced with computer technology. On the other hand, those jobs which required the skills of the human being have become more advanced and now require the scientific application. Another important thing to consider in this regard is that the recent recession in the jobs market has decreased the number of jobs. So the simplest, as well as the arts-related jobs, were the first to get eliminate and when the job market expanded, there was more and more demand of the graduates of the scientific studies, which could contribute to the technological advancement of the society (NewsHour, 2011).

The social implication of the topic is that a gap would be created in society, creating two sections the one with science education and arts education. Those being the graduates of science subjects would get the jobs and those graduates of arts subjects would not get the jobs. The society needs to create a balance in the science related and arts-related jobs, in order to provide the opportunities of progress to all the graduates (O’Shaughnessy, 2013).

College educated students who graduated their B.A. end up working in a career not related to their major. The main reason behind this is the technological shift, the scientific advancement in the society and the recent recession in the job market. The society needs to work on this difference as the jobs related to the arts majors are equally important for the progress of the society as the jobs and advancement of the scientific field.


NewsHour, PBS. (2011). So You Have a Liberal Arts Degree and Expect a Job? Youtube.com. Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=obpWwFa742Q

O’Shaughnessy, L. (2013). New study shows careers and college majors often don't match. CBS Money Watch.

Robst, J. (2007). Education and job match: The relatedness of college major and work. Economics of Education Review, 26(4), 397-407.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Edwin H. Sutherland: Differential Association Theory

Edwin H. Sutherland: Differential Association Theory

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Edwin H. Sutherland: Differential Association Theory


The Differential Association theory was established by Edwin H. Sutherland in the 20th century. The theory is focused on how people learn from the interaction that they have with other people. Sutherland proposed that this is how most people learn the techniques, morals, motive and attitude that are behind criminal behavior. Out of all the deviance theories, the differentiation theory is one that is talked about the most. Nonconformity is a state or fact in which a person departs from the usual or set standards. This is especially when the case is related to sexual or social behavior that a person might showcase. This theory helps in explaining 51% of the modification pertained in criminal behavior. It should be kept under consideration that the criminal population is not used for testing, only the minute offenses are evaluated. This paper will look at and discuss Edwin Sutherland’s Differential theory in-depth.


The involvement of the differential theory can be seen in the interaction and intensity of things as well. The theory says that the longer an individual is part of criminal activity, the more they get devoted and involved in it. There is no doubt in the fact that trying to learn about criminal behavior from a young group consisting of teenagers is not different from learning any kind of conduct from other age sets. Sutherland has made the claim that there is no specific novel learning process that is affiliated with obtaining non-normative ways of behaving (Sutherland, Williams & McShane, 2015). One of the best things about this theory is that it is not restricted to juvenile law-breaking or crime committed by the lower class alone. It expands to other fields of criminal activities as well that are inclusive of organized, corporate or white-collar felonies. So, every class and age group is covered in the theory. This theory is focused more on how people learn to become criminals. There is no focus on why a person decides to become a criminal or what led them to such actions. The differential association theory given by Sutherland has around nine points that focuses on how criminal behavior can be learned.

Sutherland has a clear point that people learn to fight from other people’s actions and how they behave. However, whether a person chooses to fight or not entirely depends on how they perceive things (Sutherland, Williams & McShane, 2015). The consciousness of a person perceives things in various manners that further generates the result. The results can be either a crime or a criminal behavior. As mentioned above the differential association theory mainly consists of nine various principles which are as follows:

An individual usually learns criminal behavior from others.

Criminal behavior is mainly learned via face-to-face encounter or communication with other people.

The learning process usually occurs when a person goes to intimate group gatherings where there is face-to-face interaction.

In these particular gatherings, individuals learn various techniques on how to commit a crime. These groups also teach suitable rationalizations and attitude that is required when committing a crime.

People learn to steer their purpose based on whether they think the legal code will be favorable to the crime or not.

Individuals mainly learn deviant crimes and behavior when the definitions that are favorable to the delinquency overshadows the definitions that are suitable to the violation of the law.

Particular tendencies in the direction of crimes will be based on the duration and frequency of the learning experience.

Learning crime is identical to other forms of learning.

Non-deviant and deviant behaviors both mostly call for similar needs. The only difference that arises is in the resources that the individuals use to chase their objectives.

Having said everything, there are still certain strengths and weaknesses to the differential association theory. One of the major strengths of the theory is its contribution to changing the way people look at criminal behavior forever. The theory made great contributions in switching the criteria of holding individual factors responsible from biology to focus on the experiences and social factors. Due to this fact, the real-world implications can be represented because the learning environment can be changed and manipulated (Sutherland, Williams & McShane, 2015). Whereas in the past, accepting that genetics is the main influence in offending, left behind next to no alternatives as there is no way that genes can be manipulated. The best thing about Sutherland's work is that he not only highlights the lower class but also the middle class, proving that crime can be committed by people of all backgrounds.

The factor of genetics is also the weakness of the theory. There are many cases in which the streak of crime runs in the family. So, a lot of researchers believe that if a father is a criminal there is up to 40% chance that the son has committed a felony at one point of life. This is where the differential association theory lacks to give a satisfactory solution. Also, the differential theory ignores the biological factors completely, this factor is also a significant issue of the theory (Eassey & Krohn, 2018). Some researchers believe that the diathesis-stress model can provide a more holistic explanation over the differential theory. Lastly, this theory also ignores the factor of free will when addressing criminal behavior, which serves as another weakness of the theory.

Throughout Sutherland’s career, he made many attempts to give clarification of his ideas so he can hypothesize a brief general theory that explains felonies and criminal behavior. However, he was not able to achieve that, but that does not take away the fact that Sutherland was and still is a true innovator when it comes to the field of criminology. This can be said not in contradiction of his differential theory, but because of it (Eassey & Krohn, 2018). Sutherland’s theory still gets universal acceptance because it is not complex and it helps explain things with simplicity. Regardless of the criticism that his theory got, Sutherland was able to get significant achievement out of his theory. One of the main reason behind this factor is that to this day the theory is well-known.


As a whole, the Differential Association theory does not give the most adequate explanation of any single criminal behavior or felony. However, the theory still holds a certain ground in the field of criminology even today. One of the main reasons that Sutherland’s theory has sustained its importance so far is because it has a basic and general formula and fundamental ideas that are used to examine criminal behavior and felonies. The better question is that what type of crime or criminal behavior Sutherland’s theory cannot be applied on as opposed to what types of crimes the theory explains best. Hence, there are not many theories that can prove the fact that Sutherland’s differential association theory is not effective. The main thing is that Sutherland’s theory should be applied in accordance with how he proposed it so one can get optimum results.


Sutherland, E. H., Williams, F. P., & McShane, M. D. (2015). Differential association. Edwin Sutherland: On Analyzing Crime.

Eassey, J. M., & Krohn, M. D. (2018). Differential Association, Differential Social Organization, and White‐Collar Crime: Sutherland Defines the Field. The Handbook of the History and Philosophy of Criminology, 156.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

EEOC Paper And Presentation

EEOC Paper and Presentation

Your Name (First M. Last)

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)

EEOC Paper and Presentation.

Compliance Issue:

In the article issue of racism has been raised. In a famous and well-known entertainment club, an African-American lady bartender is the focus and the reason behind this was her race. Besides firing the female bartender, the owner also fired his one of the managers just because he rejected to be involved in this discriminated decision. The owner of the entertainment club was sued for three lacs and sixty-five thousand dollars because of his discriminatory act. He is also sentenced to pay all the damages that two employees faced including penalties, back pay, interest, compensatory and punitive costs. Moreover, all entertainment clubs had to end any kind of discriminatory practice and have to adopt non-discrimination policies along with non-retaliation attitude. Code of ethics highlighted to make it mandatory for all clubs to share data of their applications for the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) to maintain their compliance.

Functions of EEOC:

EEOC implements federal laws according to which it is illegal to discriminate against employees or job applicants on the basis of their color, race, religion, sex, age, or any disability. It is also illegal to fire or mentally torture someone who is not willing to be involved in any discriminatory act or lawsuit, filed discrimination compliance and filled a charge regarding discrimination (“EEOC Home Page,” n.d.). The employers who have more than fifteen employees under him have to be monitored by the EEOC. All the laws including appointment, termination, harassment, salaries, and bonuses have been provided by the EEOC. The EEOC can investigate and charge against discrimination; also to prevent discriminatory acts EEOC can arrange educational and technical consulting programs.

EEOC's Role:

The central role of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission is to investigate and charge discrimination acts in the organization. The role of the EEOC in this discrimination incident is charging entertainment club and sentencing the owner of the club for firing the African-American lady and one of his managers(“Hospman Settles EEOC Race Discrimination Lawsuit,” n.d.). The EEOC can apply any charge according to the law on the employers as well as employees who failed to follow the laws, and their acts result in any violation of human rights. It is the responsibility of EECO to assess the lawsuit in an efficient and accurate method.

Social Change:

The lawsuit may change the environment of the company, but one case cannot change the whole society. Social behavior is the main cause of discrimination, and it is happening for decades. There are many cases where employers are sued by the employees. Still, discrimination on the basis of race, religion, culture is going on. Every business and people who are on higher post know the sensitiveness of discrimination and the possible outcome still they do it and ignore all codes of ethics. A country like America is the golden opportunity for a businessman, but it is also a diverse society where people from different religion, race, cast, and culture live together. Therefore lawsuit like this one can be the eye opener for not only the employers but also for the employees of different companies. Awareness about their rights can bring a big change, but it takes time. This lawsuit can change some employers but whenever people in power get chance they do discriminatory acts like this one because with the passage of time everyone forgets the incidents which result in minor changes.


If we compare the press release by EECO and a news report from the internet, we find no such differences between the two. The press release by EECO covered all the crucial elements of the incidence including discrimination on the basis of race and misuse of power(“EEOC: Fort Myers hotel wrongfully fired black employees,” n.d.). The nature of the issue in the news report on the internet is also focused on racism, biasness, and power misuse. They both reported the same information about the incidence. The data was also accurate, i.e. dates when two incidences happened when the case against owner was filed, and the amount he charged and all other detail of charges against owner were matched.


If I am a senior manager of this entertainment club, I will reinforce the laws and regulation and will ensure future compliance by strict implementation of the rules. I prefer a better business environment over my racism and my anger. I would ensure proper check and balance over new hiring and behavior of employees with each other. All codes of ethics would be my priority. To enhance inclusion, I would make sure that while hiring there should not be any discrimination on the basis of gender, color, religion, sex, age, or any other personal information. All employees should know the policy of the company and have to follow each and every regulation, who fails to follow; he/she would be terminated or should face legal investigation. Not only this, I would also make my position as an example for the other that people from diverse society can works together without any bias and discrimination. It is not the duty of only one person, and it is the moral duty of everyone that they get together and work wisely to eliminate racial discrimination in the workplace. If everyone understands this ethics phenomenon, there would be less disagreement.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY EEOC: Fort Myers hotel wrongfully fired black employees. (n.d.). Retrieved February 9, 2019, from https://www.news-press.com/story/news/local/fort-myers/2015/07/13/eeoc-sues-fort-myers-hotel-group-hospman-wrongfully-fired-black-workers/30114397/

EEOC Home Page.(n.d.). Retrieved February 9, 2019, from https://www.eeoc.gov/

Hospman Settles EEOC Race Discrimination Lawsuit.(n.d.). Retrieved February 9, 2019, from https://www.eeoc.gov/eeoc/newsroom/release/1-27-17.cfm

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 3 Words: 900


Population Growth and Urbanization

Submitted by



The population explosion is still a global problem, and its catastrophic consequences will one day be a real problem unless a change of direction is made. The abundance of human life is diminishing, and even food production will not be able to feed billions of people in the future. Besides, boasting Western living standards are putting pressure on natural resources at an accelerating pace. Here are just a couple of examples of the consequences, but with many other side effects, the problems would be devastating.

Demographic issues also rose prominently in Finland in July as a result of recent surveys. Indeed, an article in Environmental Research Letters stated that an individual could contribute most effectively to mitigating climate change by making one childless (Hans, 2010).). Appeared around the same time another research article warned the world population the accelerating disappearance of calling it the communities of mass (Hans, 2014). According to the Megacities Reflect Growing Urbanization Trend, Dhaka, has a prosperous population. Nevertheless, it stands as one of the world's poorest megacities.

Population growth has traditionally been a problematic issue in the environmental debate, and it tends to get stuck in either or position again and again. Either population growth is the most critical problem in the world and the root cause of all others, or it is not a real problem. (ppt ) Even in the recent debate, familiar contradictions are repeated. On the one hand, the population is not a problem in one country. Still, the community is growing somewhere else - instead, there should be more children here to secure a custody relationship. On the other hand, population growth in poorer countries is not a problem, because here in wealthy countries the consumption of individuals is higher, and the consequences of lifestyle are much more severe.


Hans Rosling (2010). Global population growth, box by box. Retrieved from


Hans Rosling.(2014). showing the facts about population. Retrieve from:


Megacities Reflect Growing Urbanization Trend. (2010). Retrieve from:


Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300



Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees


Drugs have always been one of the most debated topics worldwide. This is because every drug has a great impact on the health of human beings due to which it is necessary to examine the drugs before using them. Specifically, discussing marijuana which is also a recreational drug, Australians are divided on whether the drug should be legalized or not.

According to Australian law, possession of marijuana is considered illegal and the federal penalty applies if an individual is caught having marijuana. On the other hand, in South Australia, the possession of a small amount of marijuana is permitted. However, in Western Australia, the possession of even a small amount of marijuana is prohibited and an individual caught with less than 10g of marijuana will have to receive a cannabis intervention requirement notice to join the face to face counselling session. Recently, in Sydney, a bill has passed according to which residents are allowed to possess 50 grams of marijuana and can even grow two plants per person. The legalization of marijuana is specifically for medical purposes (Reuter, 2010).

The main reason why many people are not supporting the legalization of marijuana is because it is a drug of abuse. Conversely, if marijuana is addictive so is the alcohol. So, if the government is not banning alcohol consumption, then they should also not ban the use of marijuana as despite being a drug of abuse, it can be used for treating several diseases. Also, lifting a ban on marijuana will also help people that are incarcerated for the possession of very small quantity of marijuana (Herbie & Stern, 2015). However, lifting the ban would also have a disadvantage as people who were incarcerated for few amounts of marijuana possession can involve in possessing a large quantity as well that can result in severe consequences (Neill & Martin, 2015).

According to the functional theory, social problems do not reflect faults in the structure of society and therefore social problems can be solved by gradual social reforms (Barkan, 2013). Thus, the government must make policies where marijuana can only be legalized for medical purposes and can be given to the patients that have a physician’s prescription rather than allowing every citizen to possess a few amounts of marijuana.


Barkan, S. E. (2013). Social problems: Continuity and change. Flat World Knowledge, Incorporated.

Herbie, J., Hempstead, N. Y., & Stern, R. C. (2015). DIVIDED WE STAND: MEDICAL MARIJUANA AND FEDERALISM. Health Lawyer.

Neill, K. A., & Martin, W. (2015). Marijuana Reform: Fears and Facts. Issue Brief, (02.04. 15).

Reuter, P. (2010). Marijuana legalization: what can be learned from other countries. Baltimore, MD: RAND Drug Policy Research Center, University of Maryland.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300


Environmental Racism

Tanya Ayer

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Author Note

Environmental Racism in Detroit

Environmental Racism

Environmental racism is a notion developed in the environmental justice movement that was developed in the 1970s and 1980s in the US. This concept describes the environmental injustice that is practised against certain ethnic minorities in an environmental manner CITATION Bul01 \l 1033 (Bullard, 2001). This concept occurs due to unsafe and unhealthy work conditions where no regulations are defined for poor workers, or in the localities are too close to manufacturing plants that release toxic materials nearby CITATION Lau16 \l 1033 (Laura Pulido, 2016). The federal economy benefits from this concept as the company cut-down their production costs that may be comparatively greater in case of green economy jobs. The affected parties are the minority groups that suffer from a decrease in the availability of clean drinking water and pollution-free air. Also, these factors have deadly affects the nearby environment, making it difficult for the nearby communities to live sue to a variety of diseases like renal failure, asthma and even cancer CITATION Dav181 \l 1033 (David H.Chae, 2018). This can also be seen in the city of Detroit in the state of Michigan, as the air itself has turned into a "heavy yellowish-green" colour which puts the close-by residents in a constant state of nausea, constantly burning their eyes as well as go about their daily business in the neighbourhood. Children in the region do not venture outdoors due to the stale and toxic air while kids as young as ten years old are affected by the condition of asthma CITATION Ber18 \l 1033 (Berglund, 2018). As for who should we pay to clean up this mess, it’s the Environmental Protection Agency, or the EPA. True, they cannot do it solely by themselves, but they can at least force the industrial plants nearby to withdraw their narrative of “all is well” and help the community at large by funding cleanup operations for the good of their workers and their communities CITATION Dav182 \l 1033 (Davies, 2018).


BIBLIOGRAPHY Berglund, L. (2018, April 25). "We're forgotten": The shaping of place attachment and collective action in Detroit's 48217 neighbourhood. Journal of Urban Affairs, 36(2). DOI:10.1080/07352166.2018.1454819

Bullard, R. D. (2001). Environmental Justice in the 21st Century: Race Still Matters. Phylon, 49(3-4), pp. 151-171. DOI:10.2307/3132626

David H.Chae, S. C.-D. (2018, February 1). Area racism and birth outcomes among Blacks in the United States. Social Science and Medicine, 199(1), pp. 49-55. DOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.04.019

Davies, G. (2018, February 5). Big business, not taxpayers, should pay to clean up plastic waste. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/feb/05/big-business-not-taxpayers-should-pay-to-clean-up-plastic-waste

Laura Pulido, E. K.-M. (2016, March 05). State Regulation and Environmental Justice: The. Capitalism Nature Socialism, pp. 12-31. DOI:10.1080/10455752.2016.1146782

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Equal Pay Movement

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of Instructor]



Equal Pay Movement

In the Era of 1800s and before, women's role was entirely different than the role they are playing in contemporary time. Women were living with no rights and handed fewer opportunities. Roles were developed based on stereotypes that developed difficulty for women to survive. Women were serving as a mother, sister, daughter, and a sexual object for men. Besides, there were restrictions for higher education and joining the labor force. In the 1870s, the first bill was presented to highlight the issue of gender pay discrimination in federal jobs in the United States. Grady bill was passed in 1981 that was presented to ensure equal pay for New York City teachers. Industrialization was one of the major elements that enable women to understand their role and to join the labor force. Besides, World War 2 increased the proportion of women in the workforce extensively as men were involved in the war, and the labor force required more labor. History indicates that in each Era, women had suffered from pay discrimination when, in fact, they were obtaining the same job titles as well as the same workload, but being paid less than men. The main purpose of the paper is to understand the consequences leading to the equal pay movement. It is crucial to learn because it tells the pattern of society that had been changed then the Era when women were not even allowed to leave home for work.

The industrial revolution was one of the crucial factors that brought changes in society. It forced men to allow women to join the workforce as demand for labor had increased that cannot be controlled by men labor only (Verick). The study included the history, efforts, problems, and struggle of the women to get their rights for work and then for equal pay. It is crucial to understand the level where women got the chance to acquire equal wages as men as gender discrimination as well as unequal distribution of pay, remain an issue of society.

Mobilizing Grievances

In the 1800s, society was controlled by men, while women were their just to fulfill men's demands. Men were dominant in the workforce and holding the financial issues of their families. Men had better jobs while women were not allowed even to get a basic education. Women were forced to stay at home and look after men’s children and parents. In addition, in various communities, women were considered as the pride of the family. They had to hide their wishes and desires for the sake of their families. Education and jobs were prohibited for them. Stereotypes, men dominance, and unlimited restrictions on women resulted in various psychological disorders among them (N.W. et al.).

As a major position at each work, organizations were under men so that women had limited salaries according to their designation, age, and gender. Gender inequality leads to a large income gap between men and women. Besides gender discrimination, there were some major reasons due to which women were unable to acquire higher wages. First was the limited education (Frye). Men were able to get higher education from early times while women were not even allowed to get an early education. Time changed and women get the opportunity to get an education, but their level was less than the men, which affected their wages. Men were more qualified, so they acquired higher wages while women pay was much lesser than men. The second reason for the pay difference was the amount of investment. Shareholders preferred to invest in training programs for men, while women got fewer investments which restricted their skills. This difference in training and skills leads to a pay gap between the genders.

After industrialization as well as World War II, the high proportion of women was involved in the labor force. However, there was an economic reason for low payment. Women had few professional to choose which increased the supply of female labor in specific fields. High supply leads to the low demand by the producers lead to low wage rate for the women. Women had had to accept low pay for the work as there was no other choice for them (Verick). Besides, discrimination based on gender remained the major factor for the pay gap between men and women. It means women had the same job, designation, and title as men but they were getting less pay compared to the men. Men reserved a higher position in the market so they had control over the women and on their salary distribution.

Contextual conditions

During the late 1800s role of women began to change with different movements. Women raise their voices to get the right to vote. They made various organizations that not only started the movement for voting rights but also spread awareness in women to get an education and other rights. Women's workforce was only 2.9 million prior to the 1880s which steadily increased from 1880 to 1910 and achieved 7.8 million. Women started to work in the industry as well as business (Stevenson). Churches also supported women and they fought for religious activism. During all their societal changes, Gender discrimination, unequal pay, harassment, and family restrictions remained some of the leading problems for women.

At the end of the 1800s role of women began to change due to various movements. Movement for equal pay linked to other movements that were developed to raise awareness for women’s rights. Women came forward to get the right to vote. They developed many organizations that worked for getting voting rights. These organizations, along with various activists, spread awareness in women to get higher education and basic rights. Afterward, a group of women changed the pattern of society. These women were educated and knew the importance of women in society. These women emerged after society showed lenient thinking for the women and allowed them to get higher education (Stevenson). However, restrictions were still there for choosing the profession. For example, various professions were considered as men's professionals like night jobs, engineers, scientists, and physicians. On the other hand, women had few options, and they were able to choose professions like arts, writing, and teachings. It highlights the dominance of men prior to the feminism movement.

These women came forward to fight for vote right and also for political and economic equality along with social reforms. However, feminists and various other activists achieved success in acquiring the acceptance of many women who join the movement. Later on, people faced the strange face of feminism. Clubs, jazz concerts were introduced where women used men like appearance to go outing with a male friend and enjoy concerts, dancing, and drinking. Women started traveling alone to different places for enjoyment at clubs where dancing and drinking were common. The time and mindset of women started to change when they started to understand their importance in society. Women began to think out of traditional mindset and stereotypes and argue for their basic rights like better education, clothing, healthcare, and freedom for work with equal pay (“Working Women”).


Researches argued that men enjoyed twenty percent of benefits in salary from 1973 to 1995. Women at that time were having the issue of limited skills and knowledge that increased their struggling to join the workforce; therefore, it was difficult for them to fight for equal pay. However, with time, women started to raise their voices for equal rights but also for equal pay. The equal pay act of 1963 was passed after a constant rise in the pay gap between men and women. The law was signed on the 10th of July 1963. H.R. 5056. It was presented by Republican congresswoman to empower women by highlighting the issue of gender discrimination in pay based on sexes (Explaining the Gender Wage Gap - Center for American Progress). After the bill was passed, the first adjustment was to regulate the pay for women. Pay distribution introduced based on gender was considered as discrimination and violation of the law. The next step taken was the coverage to professionals and various white-collar employees. The act not only ensured equal pay distribution but also worked on the cost of equal distribution of job opportunities. Before the act was passed, women had fewer opportunities and men were holding the major position which considered discrimination after the act was implemented (Miller and Vagins).


Many women made efforts to provide equal rights to the women of the United States. Among these women, Congresswoman Winifred C. Stanley had a special place. She started many activists’ moments to pave the road to equal rights for women (Frye). She was an activist for both women and civil rights. Being the head of the Women's Bureau, Esther Peterson, she worked with various determined women to provide equal rights to women. In the 20th century, discussions regarding women’s rights and equality were prominent among celebrities, activists, and lawmakers. At that time, women were suffering from employment discrimination. For that particular purpose, several equal pay laws were enacted in the U.S. The basic purpose of these laws was to reduce employment discrimination. Employers were strictly prohibited from discriminating against women and other people based on race, sex, and religion by the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Explaining the Gender Wage Gap - Center for American Progress).

People showed a mixed reaction to the changes and various movements. Men were conscious after a rapid increase in women in the workforce which became the factor of the pay gap as men wanted to be dominant. In addition, the fear of men resulted in making the limitations for the women at the workplace (Stevenson). The Industrial Revolution was affected by the monetary need of women labor to some extent; therefore not only single but married women got the opportunity to determine their value and join the labor force. For the first time, women were seen outside the typical frame where they were treated as the guardian of household and sexual objects. A large proportion of the women were hired in the coal mineshafts. Besides, the Industrial Revolution produced autonomous wages, portability and a superior way of life. Manufacturing labor at the site in the early phase of the industrial revolution was long and difficult resulted in the existence of hardship (Verick). In addition, society did not easily accept this self-determination of women, including a particular group of women. Especially older women measured this change as an act of vulgarity and appropriate for the formation of society. This was a difficult time because not all women were agreed to the equality of sexes. The large population of women believed that it is against the traditional gender role and the political interference of women is improper. Therefore, these movements and struggles for equal rights were not only threatening for men but also for women. The thinking of such women was influenced by the traditional stereotypes by which they believe that economic and political activities are meant for men only (“Working Women”).

Various celebrities and athletes participated in the movement through the organizations and foundations they are associated with. Since 1948, the United States has utilized an approach of joint tax assessment, which charges a wedded couple as a unit based on the consolidated pay of husband and spouse. By making a spouse's expense rate reliant on her significant other's income, joint tax collection raises wives' assessment rates, by and large, and diminishes their work supply (“Working Women”).


Esther Peterson, the head of the Women's Bureau, alongside Winifred C. Stanley, a congresswoman, and Rev. Addie Wyatt, who is a women's rights activist, together struggled to pave the road for equal pay and lead several determined women in the path. As the movement for equal pay gained ground, it obtained support from several quarters, including celebrities, activists, and lawmakers in just a few decades. Consequently, several forms of legislation were passed, aiming at reducing discrimination at work. The 1964 Civil Rights Act prohibited companies from discriminating against employees on the basis of religion, race, national origin, and sex. The 1972 Educational Amendment act further extended the scope of the Equal Pay Act (EPA) to now contain various administrative, and white-collar executive positions that were previously exempt from the original rules. The primary focus of the movement is to acquire equal pay for equal work.

Congress generally supported the EPA and facilitated legislation to enhance employment opportunities for both women and men and worked to reduce any potential impact on the salaries of all employees. Since the EPA was legislated as an amendment to the FLSA, it carries the same legislative position as do minimum wage laws. The EPA helped equalize pay between women and men for jobs of equal nature. However, it also created a price floor on the overall pays people to get for specific jobs. Thus, some critics such as Economist Thomas Sowell believe that the EPA created further unemployment by creating conditions that led to further discrimination against women in the labor market. Moreover, the EPA set price floors on wages for different jobs which raised concerns that it would lead to a further reduction in the overall number of jobs available for women. Even though these issues were noted in Congressional records, the EPA faced little opposition in getting approved. Furthermore, there was little indication that any of the affirmative defenses raised against the act helped limit or remedy the EPA's side effects. It ia therefore critical to note EPA, in its statutory language, does not require any intent requirements as per law. The EPA only established liability under its three main elements, regardless of what the employer intends. Nonetheless, Employers who engage in the act of wage discrimination on grounds of gender face strict liability under the EPA.


On the floor of the House of Representatives, various Representatives presented their concerns regarding EPA. They believed that EPA should be implemented from the pay equality for women and it should be treated as the priority of the congress. Following the policies, strategies, and implementation of the EPA, Congress commenced two steps which broadened the scope of federal protection against wage discrimination on the basis of sex (N.W. et al.). Therefore, there was no such counter-movement against the equal pay movement. There was a social reaction from the men and a few women of the society. On the political platform, various politicians used the movement as a power card but the opposition did not try to come forward against it. The reason for positive responses by the social and political bodies was rapid economic growth which increased the labor force. As men were not enough to complete the demand for workforce; therefore, it became important to provide equal pay and reduce the issues of women at the workplace (Frye).

Consequences or outcomes

The influence of equal pay movement and struggle of women for equal rights was positive for the society as well as the economic growth of the nation. A vast proportion of the women's labor force got more favorable chances and became able to obtain better jobs and equal pay as men. In addition, gender discrimination and bias based on age, sex, and color became unlawful. With the implementation of EPA, women were allowed to case files against the employers, managers, or colleagues of the association if they experience any discrimination. After the implementation of the 1963 equal pay act, the major difference was observed in the division of designation and salary. The pay gap decreases, but it did not end (Miller and Vagins).

With equal pay movement, we can learn the outcome through the theories discussed throughout the semester along with the concept linked to the history of equal pay movement. Harper's text explains about the Changes in Populations, Families, and work. For instance, the equal pay movement changes the pattern of society and thinking of the people. The role of women also changed. Specifically, under the Baby Boomers, there is the knowledge about period effects that can be explained as sharing a common history, social trends, opportunities, and limitations. The effect of change in women's role and the emergence of the need for equal pay movement explain what women collectively went through during periods such as World War I, World War II, and during the industrial revolution.

Relative Deprivation Theory can be used to explain the action taken by women for social change. Opportunities, position, and prosperity were the element that was belonged to men, and throughout equal pay, movement women struggle to prove the society that they also have rights to enjoy all these opportunities and status in the society. In addition, conflict theory can be used as a framework of the movement due to rich employers were paying women less to increase their profit. After the Equal Pay Act of 1963 employers were restricted to pay women a fair salary equal to the men and according to the job type. When it came to having the same job title, but various created new job titles to show the acceptance of EPA but they offered less pay to the women on new titles as well. Resource Mobilization theory can also be used to understand the history of equal pay movement because of the other organizations recognizing and supporting the promotion for equal pay.

Furthermore, the equal pay movement enables economists and politicians to understand the various reasons for an unequal distribution. For instance, the reasons for the pay gap were also due to various social and some unknown economic factors. One of the significant financial advancements of the twentieth century was improvement in instructive and worked for women. Because of this advancement, countless American ladies achieved postsecondary degrees, entered the work power, and earned wages that have become over time (Explaining the Gender Wage Gap - Center for American Progress). According to one ongoing investigation, subsequent to modifying for elements like work power understanding, association status, race and ethnicity, and occupation, a great part of the sexual orientation compensation hole stays unexplained, proposing that work showcase separation assumes a significant job. Furthermore, right around 60 percent of women would get more or fewer chances that they were able to get pay equivalent to men with equal degrees of instruction and work hours (Miller and Vagins).


Women in America had to do so many struggles to reach the stage where they are today. They fought for their rights, freedom of choice, and opportunities for a better life. Society acquires various norms, rituals, and stereotypes that decide the roles of gender. Women were restricted to specific fields like teaching, nursing, and writing, while major fields like doctors and engineers were made for men. Harassment was the major issue as men were using women as sexual objects, so it a too long time for men to accept the presence of women as colleagues or partners at the workplace. The equal pay act of 1963 was passed after a constant increase in pay difference between men and women. The law was signed on the 10th of July 1963. H.R. 5056 was introduced by Republican congresswoman against discrimination and inequality in pay based on sex. The large women workforce got more favorable opportunities, and they became able to acquire equal jobs as well as salary.

Work Cited

Explaining the Gender Wage Gap - Center for American Progress. https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/economy/reports/2014/05/19/90039/explaining-the-gender-wage-gap/. Accessed 6 Nov. 2019.

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Frye, Jocelyn. “Next Steps for Progress on Equal Pay.” Center for American Progress, https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/women/reports/2016/04/12/135267/next-steps-for-progress-on-equal-pay/. Accessed 30 Nov. 2019.

Miller, Kevin, and Deborah J. Vagins. The Simple Truth about the Gender Pay Gap. Fall 2018 Edition. American Association of University Women, 2018. ERIC, https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED596219.

N.W., 1615 L. St, et al. "The Narrowing, but Persistent, Gender Gap in Pay." Pew Research Center, https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2019/03/22/gender-pay-gap-facts/. Accessed 6 Nov. 2019.

Stevenson, George. “The Forgotten Strike: Equality, Gender, and Class in the Trico Equal Pay Strike.” Labour History Review, vol. 81, no. 2, July 2016, pp. 141–68. online.liverpooluniversitypress.co.uk (Atypon), doi:10.3828/lhr.2016.8.

Verick, Sher. “Female Labor Force Participation and Development.” IZA World of Labor, Dec. 2018. wol.iza.org, doi:10.15185/izawol.87.

“Working Women: Key Facts and Trends in Female Labor Force Participation.” Our World in Data, https://ourworldindata.org/female-labor-force-participation-key-facts. Accessed 6 Nov. 2019.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 10 Words: 3000

Equal Rights Proposition Presentation Outline

Equal Rights Proposition Presentation Outline

Your Name (First M. Last)

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)

Equal Rights Proposition Presentation Outline


Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders are growing as a racial group in America.

Asian American is the people who live in America, but originally most of them are from India, Pakistan, Japan, China, Vietnam and more.

The population of Asian American is expected to increase in coming years.

Some critical issues are increasing for Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, these are:





Labor and employment

Immigration housing

Thesis Statement: In this proposal, two issues will be discussed, i.e. Health and poverty in certain regions of America, especially where Asian American and Pacific Islanders are in the majority.

Data Analysis:

Health issues:

People are unable to interconnect with healthcare providers due to linguistic diversity.

The cancer rate is higher in this group.

Diabetes rate is higher in this group.

Lack of access to healthcare due to the low employment rate.

Low wages limited access to healthcare.


Asian Americans often excluded from issues like poverty due to the wrong sampling of the population.

12.6% of Asian Americans are below the poverty line.

Among Pacific Islander, Laotian, Hmong, Vietnamese, and Cambodian has 18.5, 37.8, 16.6, and 29.3% poverty rate.

Political incompetence:

Poverty is due to employment discrimination.

Leaders play racial card for popularity and power. This political behavior creates hurdles for the racial groups.

The government doesn't take the racial group in problems solving policies due to the minority. Racial groups are 9.7% of the total population.


Asian American and Pacific Islanders are growing in America.

Racial groups are facing health and poverty issues.

Cultural and linguistic diversity is the main cause of the issues.

Government is not playing its role to solve the problem.


ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a1qa9k3cqak","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Tran, 2018)","plainCitation":"(Tran, 2018)"},"citationItems":[{"id":1269,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ccgWoSRn/items/CAZYXPMT"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ccgWoSRn/items/CAZYXPMT"],"itemData":{"id":1269,"type":"webpage","title":"Asian Americans are falling through the cracks in data representation and social services","container-title":"Urban Institute","abstract":"Representation in data is important for improving equity in access to social services for Asian Americans.","URL":"https://www.urban.org/urban-wire/asian-americans-are-falling-through-cracks-data-representation-and-social-services","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Tran","given":"Victoria"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018",6,19]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Tran, 2018)

ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"avj5cieb2e","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf (\\uc0\\u8220{}Asian American Federation,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)}","plainCitation":"(“Asian American Federation,” n.d.)"},"citationItems":[{"id":1266,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ccgWoSRn/items/ABQUF4RZ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ccgWoSRn/items/ABQUF4RZ"],"itemData":{"id":1266,"type":"webpage","title":"Asian American Federation","URL":"http://aafederation.org/press/pressrelease.asp?prid=370&y=2018","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",2,2]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Asian American Federation,” n.d.)

ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"rtsCTy7B","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf (\\uc0\\u8220{}Critical Issues Facing Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)}","plainCitation":"(“Critical Issues Facing Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders,” n.d.)"},"citationItems":[{"id":1270,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ccgWoSRn/items/KID5GQ9Q"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ccgWoSRn/items/KID5GQ9Q"],"itemData":{"id":1270,"type":"webpage","title":"Critical Issues Facing Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders","container-title":"The White House","abstract":"Demographics Click image to view larger. Approximately 16.6 million AAPIs reside in the U.S. (Approximately 5.4% of U.S. population).","URL":"https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/node/18476","language":"en"}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Critical Issues Facing Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders,” n.d.)

ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a1l7hofdu6j","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf (\\uc0\\u8220{}Racial Wealth Snapshot: Asian Americans | Prosperity Now,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)}","plainCitation":"(“Racial Wealth Snapshot: Asian Americans | Prosperity Now,” n.d.)"},"citationItems":[{"id":1268,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ccgWoSRn/items/6WHPCHYU"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ccgWoSRn/items/6WHPCHYU"],"itemData":{"id":1268,"type":"webpage","title":"Racial Wealth Snapshot: Asian Americans | Prosperity Now","URL":"https://prosperitynow.org/blog/racial-wealth-snapshot-asian-americans","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",2,2]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Racial Wealth Snapshot: Asian Americans | Prosperity Now,” n.d.)

ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a26avgh434v","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf (\\uc0\\u8220{}Asian American - The Office of Minority Health,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)}","plainCitation":"(“Asian American - The Office of Minority Health,” n.d.)"},"citationItems":[{"id":1272,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ccgWoSRn/items/YH55RCYB"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ccgWoSRn/items/YH55RCYB"],"itemData":{"id":1272,"type":"webpage","title":"Asian American - The Office of Minority Health","URL":"https://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/omh/browse.aspx?lvl=3&lvlid=63","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",2,2]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Asian American - The Office of Minority Health,” n.d.)

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Asian American - The Office of Minority Health. (n.d.). Retrieved February 2, 2019, from https://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/omh/browse.aspx?lvl=3&lvlid=63

Asian American Federation. (n.d.). Retrieved February 2, 2019, from http://aafederation.org/press/pressrelease.asp?prid=370&y=2018

Critical Issues Facing Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/node/18476

Racial Wealth Snapshot: Asian Americans | Prosperity Now. (n.d.). Retrieved February 2, 2019, from https://prosperitynow.org/blog/racial-wealth-snapshot-asian-americans

Tran, V. (2018, June 19). Asian Americans are falling through the cracks in data representation and social services. Retrieved from https://www.urban.org/urban-wire/asian-americans-are-falling-through-cracks-data-representation-and-social-services

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300


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Paul Rose

Southern Illinois University Edwardsville

Author Note


When Home Wont Let You Stay is an exhibition in which a number of contemporary artists participate to reflect their thoughts and artifacts related to the migration, immigrants and their problems. The title is taken from a poem of Warsan who is a Somali-British poet. The exhibition was planned by ICA that commenced from Oct 23 up to Jan 26 including artists from different regions of the world including Africa, Americas, Asia and Europe (Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, 2019). The artists explored the themes of the exhibition in a quite different and unexpected way. Some of the messages from 20 artists are discussed below. A British Palestinian, Mona Hatoum depicted the sense of dislocation with a unique theme by two simple suitcases of leather tied up with human hairs. The luggage suggests travel and movement and the hairs depict the remnants of life encapsulated within these suitcases. Another artist from a Mexican background, Camilo Ontiveros who lives in Los Angeles now expressed his idea of freedom and depicted the struggles of immigrants by making a sculpture out of domestically used materials. He managed to bundle together a bed, a desk chair, A TV, some books, clothing and a tennis racket to show the conditions of immigrants and said that he sees a reflection of himself in this theme.

Another artist from a Korean background, Do Hu Suh expressed his theme regarding immigrants and the challenging aspects of migration by considering memory and physical space (Reynolds, 2019). He presented his work in the form of fabric sculptures that are similar to replicas of room in a one-to-one fashion. He called that sculpture or piece of the art home and used pale, transparent fabric in green, yellow and pink which were beautiful, ephemeral and ghostly.

Many artists expressed their skills and artifacts to show and highlight the problems and issues that immigrants are facing throughout the world. Out of all these, I consider the idea of Do Hu Suh very moving and appealing where he made a house using specific materials as a theme. Because a house or a place to live is one of the fundamental requirements of human beings especially for immigrants, who are exiled from their houses for different reasons.


Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston. (2019, 1 26). When Home Wont Let you Stay Migration through Contemporary Art. Retrieved from AramcoWorld https//www.aramcoworld.com/Resources/Events-Exhibitions/When-Home-Won-t-Let-you-Stay-Migration-through-Con

Reynolds, P. (2019, 10 17). At The ICA, When Home Wont Let You Stay Explores The Migration Experience. Retrieved from wbur https//www.wbur.org/artery/2019/10/17/ica-when-home-wont-let-you-stay-migration-experience



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Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300



[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]


This essay is concerned with the examining and introducing concepts that we observe as the building up of ethical foundations of social work. They originate from social theory and moral philosophy. It can be clearly seen that blend of these two is treasured in exploring the types of ethical issues that are applied on the practice of social work., I will critically reflect on my current belief systems and the ethical perspectives that I will bring to social work. I will provide my thoughts and ideas about my future professional development as a social worker. I will focus on why ethical codes are of utmost necessary in society, and why it is so important to abide by the social work code of ethics (Wotruba, 2001).

To fight back different issues in the society like racism, bullying, nepotism, gender discrimination and sexism it is of utmost importance for all the workers to solemnly vow that they will abide by social work code of ethics. On the current basis, it is indeed thrown up at workplaces but still not all the organisations successfully embrace this. Not even bigger organisations are saved from this misconduct. I believe that the implementations of these codes are weak and they lack from different perspectives in the current system of several organisations. While laying the foundation of an organisation or running one, it should be made sure that there is no way left for the employees against the social work code of ethics. In my opinion, the management of any corporations plays a vital role in doing that. Management should be under a strict rule that no worker should escape such codes (National Association of Social Workers, 1994).

I believe the change can start from even a single person. If the entire organisation is not getting how to hold on to ethical codes, only a single person has the power to change all that is going wrong. If that person is me and as a social worker if I am working in an organisation, I will make sure that I follow the rules and codes that are included in my contract. There come times when there is a clear chance that one can cheat, pull the leg of others, and garb success by harming something or someone of the company, I will make sure that I do not take advantage from that and stay loyal and ethical instead. There are chances that I will be offered something wrong but advantageous by my colleagues, managers or even CEO; I vow to refuse it. I believe my courage and my faith in what I believe is wrong can inspire such people and they will get a loud and clear message and a lesson about the significance of morality.

This concept gets significant strength in today’s organization that if there is something wrong continuously happening, and the majority is okay with it, no one will even bother to change it or stand for it, and later horrible consequences will start circling with mouth wide open, and it will be too late to control unethical behaviours and misconducts of workers (Schwartz, 2002). If any problem and unethical misconduct is resolved and swiped off in early stages, it gets much helpful. For instance, if I am a worker and my staff is bullying someone weak, instead of staying silent or enjoying it with them, I will prefer to make a complaint against all the bullies to Human Resource Management. Similarly, it should be the core duty of every employee to hold on to the ethical codes firmly, and if they see any troubles like racism, sexism, or gender discrimination, they need to raise their voice against it. It is because sooner or later, these things deepen their roots and grow strong enough to ruin the comfortable and peaceful environment of the workplace.

There comes a time when the organisation start leading the wrong cause and enforce their employees to deal with and work according to the given instructions and tasks. As a social worker who vows to obey the social work code of ethics, I will never support this cause and do whatever it is in my rights, decisions, and power to go against it and stop it from happening.

It is impossible for an organisation to run any longer if its employees do not practice the code of ethics and morality. The consiquences get horrible if less attention is payed in this matter. Significance of social code of work ethics cannot be denied. Even if the majority and authority go against it, it starts from an individual to change that. As it creates the best, peaceful, equal and fair environment of the workplace.


National Association of Social Workers, Washington, Dc. (1994). Code of ethics of the National Association of Social Workers. NASW Distribution Center.

Schwartz, M. S. (2002). A code of ethics for corporatecode of ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 41(1-2), 27-43.

Wotruba, T. R., Chonko, L. B., & Loe, T. W. (2001). The impact of ethics code familiarity on manager behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 33(1), 59-69.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 3 Words: 900



Name of Student

[Name of the Institution]

Multiculturalism vs. Interculturalism

A society is said to be multicultural when it contains people who belong from various ethnicities and cultures but share the same space. However, these diverse communities do not engage or interact with people outside their community. They follow their rituals and customs accordingly and no sharing of cultural knowledge can be seen. On the other hand, in an intercultural society, various ethnic and cultural groups exchange their cultural knowledge among them in a shared community. This practice creates mutual respect and understanding of different cultures and ethnicities in a society, and provides ample opportunities for these groups to grow together as a community (Katz, 2019).

In a multicultural society, the cultural rights and ethnic identities of a minority group are considered by respecting their diverse practices, however, in this kind of society, the dominant culture is positioned as a central culture. Through recognizing the rights of the other cultural group, the dominant group compensates for any loss or attack directed at the minority group by the dominant group. However, the cultural practices and ethnicity of this group are considered normative and the minority group is often forced to assimilate in the majority group (Joppke, 2018).

Moreover, multiculturalism faces the opposition of liberal democracy because, from a liberal democratic perspective, all groups within a collective society should be treated equally regardless of their population numbers, ethnicities and cultural differences. In strictly multicultural societies, the authorities believe in equality but practically they do not cater to the needs of the minority groups. The multicultural theorists have distinguished this approach “from above” and “from below”, making it a minority-driven movement. According to Murphy (2012), there are seven types of multicultural policies and they include policies:

That allow the inclusion of minority groups in the decision-making process.

That issue a formal apology about the past injustices done to the minority groups based on their cultural differences.

That solve the land disputes and redistribute them.

Take measures to preserve the diverse culture and languages.

That give the minorities relief from some legislation process.

That assist the minorities in making separate schools for their community members.

Freedom from any autonomous activity.

These principles vary from country to country but generally are the most debated ones. Moreover, multiculturalism transforms into critical multiculturalism when the minority group celebrates those differences that are negatively portrayed by the host majority. For instance, African Americans take pride in their Black cultural values despite facing racial prejudices in a liberal American state.

Multiculturalism impacts the education standards for the minorities as well, for instance, the twisting of historical facts and the Eurocentric approach of reaching the academia results in their cultural erosion. However, minority groups work exclusively to protect their history and narrate their shared cultural experiences in the literary or philosophical canons. They still view themselves as a part of shared cultural experience and through their contributions, they show a desire to live alongside the majority cultural group.

Multicultural approach faces multiple criticisms from the theorists and liberals across the globe due to two main reasons. The primary reason for this criticism is the central positioning of one dominant culture over the other and the secondary reason states that this approach weakens the ideology of equality for all. It also leads to unhealthy competition between two groups where the dominant group forces the other group to assimilate. On the other hand, the other group is denied the right to preserve and practice their cultural values (Stokke, 2016). Multiculturalism is also linked with “identity politics” because of unequal cultural distributions and normative behaviours set by the majority cultural group. It also results in their cultural oppression and collective community experience is next to impossible in a multicultural society. Moreover, the concept of nationhood cannot be formed in its literal meaning in such a society (Wieviorka, 2016).

In contrast to this approach, the Intercultural approach offers an experience of a shared community to every minority or majority group equally. This approach also creates equal opportunities and recognition for everyone in society. In the contemporary era of transnational politics, this approach has gained much popularity as compared to the multicultural approach. In this approach, diversity and equality go side by side and by recognizing other cultures on equal terms, the assimilation cannot be done forcefully. Interculturalists discourage the idea of "parallel" living as it maintains the barriers of race and ethnicity (Antonsich, 2015). This approach supports the idea of breaking the barriers and removing prejudices for the collective good of the community. This idea serves as a motivation for transnational migrations in the contemporary era, for instance, Canadian society is highly adaptable from an immigrant's point of view, and earlier this state was based on a multicultural model too. When it had to adopt the Anglophonic and Francophone cultures, these cultures faced a lot of differences and cultural clashes until it led to the implementation of an Interculturalist model, in Canada and its federation. The Quebec intercultural model in Canada was formed to overcome the cultural conflict and preserve the linguistic and cultural rights of the French-speaking majority. As a result, the majority was then asked to avoid the "moral-conflict" and welcome the newcomers or migrants from other parts of the world (Meer and Modod, 2012). Through these models, Canada overcame its internal multicultural fiasco and is now a welcoming land for diverse cultures and experiences.

Communication and freedom of expression is another distinctive feature of this approach as it provides avenues for open communication to happen naturally. It also derives a sense of community and belongingness within the community. Taylor (1989), views this phenomenon based on inherent identity formation in a society instead of labelling people with an identity of an outsider. Identity is either formed by recognition or misrecognition, where recognition develops a positive sense of identity and misrecognition implicates negative experiences such as oppression. Thus the socio-cultural sense of self-esteem rises not only from the sense of personal identity but from identity formation in a group.

Interculturalism also promotes a sense of nationhood, social unity and national identity whereas multiculturalism only promotes the idea of keeping diverse cultures in a setting where they do not actively participate. On the other hand, interculturalism serves as motivation to promote mutual cohesion and integration. It also focuses on the idea of unity and avoids the asymmetrical definition of a society which creates cultural differences (Levey, 2012).

In an intercultural society, minority rights are equally treated as those of a majority group and it believes more on censorship to protect the rights of minority groups. Whereas, multiculturalism advocates liberal practices where only the majority group can have freedom of expression and only they can set the normative behaviour in society. Through intercultural policy narrative, the state can maintain a positive narrative through its leadership and mass media. For instance, in France, the anti-Islamic sentiments are showcasing the state as a multicultural country where only majority rights are preserved and the concept of the veil is taken as deviant behaviour.

Multiculturalism is an approach which can no longer be validated in the contemporary age because of transnationalism and cultural exchange practices. Its concept of isolating different cultures and the stress for assimilation creates a unicentral and unequivocal point of view regarding the minority culture. The multicultural approach can create a sense of nationalism but only for the dominant culture, it can by no means develop a sense of nationhood. If viewed from the economic perspective, this approach brings recession because the common goal of various cultural groups is not alike. Moreover, the element of diversity is not appreciated in a multicultural environment because of strict cultural codes and normative practices (Taylor, 2012). Furthermore, it does not welcome immigrants and keep them separate from the dominant cultural group thus resulting in a non-inclusive society. Whereas, on the other hand, Interculturalism is a contemporary modal for building effective communities that share and grow together with the help of cultural diversity. Diversity and equality are not interchangeable terms, they have to be applied at the same time, and an intercultural society is both diverse and equal.

Culture plays a defining role in both the approaches, it can be defined as a fluid concept and not a solid set of rules to follow. It contains over changing lifestyle, thoughts and social perception of a society in which a person lives. Moreover, it also forms a person's perception of his identity, behaviour, language and cognition. Cultural identity is then formed based on a person's race, ethnicity and cultural believes, co-culture defines outsiders who do not belong to a person's culture and ethnicity. This, for instance, includes non-white people or homosexuals. However, the dominance of cultural identity depends on the majority of people belonging to a sudden culture and the kind of conversations they hold regarding their culture.

Similarly, in an intercultural society, minority culture is not denied its right to recognition, identity and culture. People belonging from different ethnicities, live together in a society and are inclusive of each other. This society breaks cultural prejudices and promotes freedom of expression for every member of society equally. It provides communities with an inherent sense of identity and belongingness. It also provides better prospects for the immigrants to come and settle in such communities. These communities flourish both economically and politically as their goal is directed towards the sense of nationhood and social cohesion (Taylor, 2013).

In the context of all the above discussion and viewing the differences between both the approaches, the best-suited approach for an Australian society is interculturalism. Australia is a diverse country and it can flourish even better by implementing the intercultural models because earlier the stereotype of “white Australians” was prevalent in the society. This approach can make diverse cultural experiences even more beneficial and goal-oriented. The inclusion of immigrants and ending white supremacy are still some of the debatable issues in Australia that end without any agreement or disagreement. The practice of passively tolerating the Other and creating the Us and Them boundaries is not a solution (Barret, 2013).

Interculturalism is inclusive of all cultures and promotes freedom of expression and freedom of want, it also discourages the old practices of anti-migration, anti-cultural and racial supremacy. Moreover, multiculturalism does not account for the rights of second-generation migrants and their rights are not advocated.

An intercultural society removes the supremacy and restructures the social hierarchy for its better development. However, in a few decades, in some parts of the country, the practice of listening and appreciating the other culture is developing slowly and gradually. In Australia, minorities are also given opportunities and are equally invited to integrate with the majority culture, however, it also asks the majority cultural groups to start open communication with the other group (James, 2009).

Australian curriculum already has a space in academia for diverse cultural discussions and students can study in various community-based schools to study their culture and heritage. The example of Ballarat city also shows that intercultural model can also be integrated successfully in the whole country. This country adopted a multicultural approach earlier as compared to the other countries, however, interculturalism should be adopted and implanted in its truest sense.


Yaish, M. and Katz-Gerro, T., 2010. Disentangling ‘cultural capital’: The consequences of cultural and economic resources for taste and participation. European Sociological Review, 28(2), pp.169-185.

Stokke, C. and Lybæk, L., (2018) . Combining intercultural dialogue and critical multiculturalism. Ethnicities, 18(1), pp.70-85.

Wieviorka, M., (2012). Multiculturalism. Journal of Intercultural Studies, 33(2), pp.225-231.

Antonsich, M., Antonsich, M., Antonsich, M., Matejskova, T., Brown, W., Hage, G., Matejskova, T., Antonsich, M., Meer, N., Modood, T. and Zapata-Barrero, R., (2016). Interculturalism or multiculturalism?. Ethnicities, 16(3), pp.470-493.

Modood, T. and Meer, N., (2012). Interculturalism, multiculturalism or both?. Political Insight, 3(1), pp.30-33.

Meer, N. and Modood, T., (2012). How does interculturalism contrast with multiculturalism?. Journal of intercultural studies, 33(2), pp.175-196.

Brahm Levey, G., (2012). Interculturalism vs. multiculturalism: a distinction without a difference?. Journal of intercultural studies, 33(2), pp.217-224.

Taylor, C., (2012). Interculturalism or multiculturalism?. Philosophy & social criticism, 38(4-5), pp.413-423.

Barrett, M., (2013). Interculturalism and multiculturalism: similarities and differences. Council of Europe.

Joppke, C., (2018). War of words: interculturalism v. multiculturalism. Comparative migration studies, 6(1), p.11.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 7 Words: 2100


[ Kaelah]

[Name of Instructor]


[22 June 2019]


Society is the product of individuals. According to most sociologists, individuals make up the society, and they are the building blocks of the social system. Society is nothing but the product of social relationships and social groups. It is the dream of every society to maintain its social order and attain the social conformity of its members to have perpetual social harmony in the society. However, this dream often remains elusive. In every society, the process of social integration is an uphill task. So, to achieve and maintain the perfect harmonious social order in the society, some kind of control is exercised which is social control as we refer to it in sociology. The social regulation is done through several means and methods such as the role of different social institutions, the process of socialization and the ongoing cultural patterns. Nevertheless, change is the constant process as social thinker Hegel remarks it, and so is the case with the societies. Some form of deviance exists in every society and it is often observed that social deviance takes up several forms. Such individuals try to assert themselves and when they are not successful, they react in a different way. The act of suicide is one of such reactions. The sociologist and social thinker Emile Durkheim have given the theory of suicide to understand those dissenting mind in society. His theory of suicide includes various types: Egoistic, Fatalistic, Anomie and the Altruistic. Every kind has some of its own characteristics.

Here, the story of Tyler Clementi ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"KlwCp0ab","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Pilkington, 2010)","plainCitation":"(Pilkington, 2010)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":272,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ZD9MNZ2P/items/DMX7HTA6"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ZD9MNZ2P/items/DMX7HTA6"],"itemData":{"id":272,"type":"article-newspaper","title":"Tyler Clementi, student outed as gay on internet, jumps to his death","container-title":"The Guardian","section":"US news","source":"www.theguardian.com","abstract":"Gay student Tyler Clementi whose roommate allegedly streamed video of him having sex with a man killed himself the next day","URL":"https://www.theguardian.com/world/2010/sep/30/tyler-clementi-gay-student-suicide","ISSN":"0261-3077","language":"en-GB","author":[{"family":"Pilkington","given":"Ed"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2010",9,30]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",6,22]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Pilkington) reflects the brutal side of social order and social conformity. He was a shy student and had different sexual orientations as well. By every side, he was a misfit in his society. He faced enormous pressure from his fellows and this was peer pressure which took his life. The Theory of suicide is quite relevant here in the case of this socially introvert person Tyler who was forced to commit suicide due to set cultural patterns. His very personal video was shared with everyone and he could not face the pressure that was coming from everywhere. His suicide was Egotistic in nature. This is the kind of suicide when the individual had not fully integrated with society. He still feels like an outsider and has his own way of doing things. Tyler was even exploited by his roommate that was totally unethical in nature. This state of things is the custom of such societies where social bonds are weak among its members. The concept of weak social solidarity is also the feature of these societies. Emile Durkheim explains that egoistic suicide occurs mostly in such societies where the norms, mores, and beliefs are not fully internalized by the individual. Tyler was not heterosexual in the orientation and when this was publicly rumored, he could not tolerate the negative sanctions by society. Tyler had no choice but to end his own life as he was publicly ridiculed for his own way of thinking. Hence, he killed himself as an escape to avert this notoriety.

To summarize, it is concluded from the above discussion that the theory of suicide by Emile Durkheim is quite relevant even today in such societies where social bonds are weak and loose in nature. Such societies lack a healthy amount of social integration and the concept of social regulation is faulty as well. Social regulation and social order are beneficial for the societies as it maintains the healthy harmonious equilibrium. However, such social order must not be such coercive that some dissenting individuals are made to opt for egoistic suicide.

Works Cited

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Pilkington, E. (2010, September 30). Tyler Clementi, student outed as gay on the internet, jumps to his death. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2010/sep/30/tyler-clementi-gay-student-suicide

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 2 Words: 600


Sex and Gender



Sex and Gender

This world and its phenomena are all about how we understand and make sense of them. From the very beginning we develop cognitive frameworks to understand and memorize novel information within our hippocampus. These schemas are actually the thought patterns or certain behaviors that we acquire to organize the information into distinct categories and their mutual relationship. Hence, what we think is based on the schemata that organize the current knowledge and construct an appropriate framework for the understanding of future. Needless to say, gender is the best example of schemata that runs genetically within the cultures.

Human beings are primordially divided into two categories; male and female (Richard, 1994). Sex is what creates a fine distinction between males and females based on the nature of sex organs and certain physiological characteristics they possess. For example, males are thought to have a different sex organ, a wide and taller muscular body, beard and heavy voice whereas women possess fragile body, compromised muscular strength, clear skin and soft voice; this is what sex differentiation means. The sex differences are exclusively physiological and anatomical in nature; for example the nature of sex hormones is entirely different in males and females; women possess estrogen whereas testosterone is predominately present in males. Both these hormones are responsible for developing sex related differences in individuals (Richard, 1994). The genetic predisposition is what defines the term sex; women have a pair of two X chromosomes whereas males are having one X and one Y chromosome hence their genetic makeup indicates XX and XY pairing respectively. Y chromosome is responsible for the development of testes and other similar male attributes.

Gender, on the other hand, encapsulates the range of attributes differentiating between and pertaining to the masculinity and femininity. Depending of the context, gender can be used to define biological sex, gender identity and sex driven social characteristics. Gender intends at denoting the social and cultural roles, responsibilities and obligations associated with varying sexes within a given society (Richard, 1994). The source of gender roles is not purely genetic in nature rather social norms and environmental factors play irrefutably significant role in their determination; interaction with the family members, peer groups, education and media are some social factors influencing gender stereotyping (Richard, 1994). The World Health Organization (WHO) defines gender as the socially established characteristics of men and women such as roles, norms and relationship between men and women. It must be noted that gender beliefs are highly culture specific in nature and can be modified over time (WHO, 2016). Based on the culture specific nature of gender roles, it is worth noting that in some societies, gender beliefs are more rigid as compared to the other ones. For example, women are thought to be home-makers whereas men are considered as the bread winners of the family responsible for the full fledge fiscal remittance of their family members. Based on the dynamic nature of gender roles, it can be seen that in some societies, women are making an active share in the employment sector comparable to the men. Moreover, gender roles are highly fluid in nature and are shifted substantially overtime.

Based on the above mentioned description, it can be concluded that gender and sex are two different terms; we cannot use them interchangeably. Sex is rigid and is a genetic predisposition whereas gender is reinforced by social norms; their varying approach is what draws a fine line between them. Sex do not define that pink color is for girls and blue is for boys but gender does; sex does not prohibits the males to wear high heels but gender does; sex does not say that men can not pursue nursing and related jobs but gender does (Buiten, 2016). Hence, in my opinion, gender and sex are two different entities aimed at defining and making distinction between the similar attributes.

Various approaches are propounded by biologists, sociologists and psychologists for defining the theoretical grounds of gender. Sociological theories emphasize the significance of social factors in the determination of gender roles whereas biological determinism suggests that behavioral differences between men and women are holding evolutionary grounds (Buiten, 2016). Furthermore, biological theories also suggest that behavioral differences between males and females are the potential consequences of hormonal differences that they possess.

Patriarchy is the phenomenon referring to the biased expected gender roles encapsulating dominant and leading roles of males and the subordination of women. Patriarchy is strictly culture specific in nature; males are preferred in the employment sector and are paid more than the women; women on the other hand are discouraged to reach the employment sector and are paid less than men (Henslin, 2001). Another example of patriarchy is the poor emotional control of women as compared to men due to which women are thought to be highly impulsive and verbal rather than being a rational being. In the cultures where patriarchy is embraced, men act as dominating figures in family making that make significant decision whereas women are directed to abide by these at any cost.

Socialization is the process defined as the ways through which beliefs, customs, norms and behaviors from one generation are transmitted to the next generations (Baker et. al., 2007). Socialization is highly dynamic process, responsible for the liveliness of customs and cultural hallmarks that perpetuate aversively within the cultures. The Social Learning Theory (SLT) of Albert Bandura suggests that human being learns new behaviors from his fellow beings after contemplative action of attention, observation, memory, retention and retrieval coupled with the positive reinforcement (Baker et. al., 2007). For example, a child observes his mother staying at home, cooking food and performing household chores and stores this information in his memory and learns that women are the homemakers whereas while observing his father going work daily, making important decisions, providing money and fulfilling the economical needs of all the family members, he inoculates his personality with the similar beliefs. These transitions at micro level determine the belief systems and norms of society at macro level. Hence, based on the interaction with other members of the society, gender beliefs are run in the cultures in long term.

Feminism is referred to an advocacy of the rights of women on the grounds of sexual equality. This concept favors the social, economical, political and personal equality of all the sexes regardless of the cultural and societal norms and beliefs. The term feminism was first denoted in the eightieth century in response to the inequalities in terms of the wage distribution in the western society. In the later years, it focused more on the equal rights of marriage, abortion, parenting, contract and the property rights of the women. This movement led to the development of Custody of Infant Act 1893, Tender Years Doctrine and Married Women’s Property Act 1870 (Roberts, 2017). The instances of marital rape came into light after this movement and it enabled the relevant institutions to develop intervention strategies accordingly. The Stand Point theory (SPT) explains the rationale behind feminism stating that person’s knowledge is what influences his social position, not his gender. Hence, women, if more knowledgeable and able than men must be prioritized in the workplace setting (Beasley, 1999). This theory considers the traditional science about sexual views as unbiased hence suggests that gender roles must not be stereotypes.


Baker, J. H. Kendler, K. S. et. al. (2007). Genetic influences on measures of the environment: a systematic review. Psychological Medicine. 37 (5), 615–626. doi:10.1017/S0033291706009524.

Beasley, C. (1999). What is Feminism? New York: Sage. pp. 3–11.

Buiten, D. (2016). Sex and Gender. , Oxford University Press Australia and New Zealand. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/wsudt/detail.action?docID=4747936.

Gender (2016). World Health Organization (WHO). Retrieved from https://www.who.int/gender-equity-rights/understanding/gender-definition/en/

Henslin, J. M. (2001). Essentials of Sociology. Taylor & Francis. pp. 65–67, 240.

Richard, U. J. (1994). The Nature of Gender. Demography. 31 (4): 561–573. doi:10.2307/2061790

Roberts, J. (2017). Women's work. Distillations. 3(1). 6–11.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

Essay # 5

Gabriela Nieto


14th June, 2019

“The history of immigration to the United States is made of attempts to control legal and illegal immigration. At a time when Europeans are trying to agree on the establishment of laws concerning the control of legal immigration or the right of asylum, and the fight against illegal immigration, it is useful to look into the measures taken in this respect by the United States. Over the last decade, the United States has recorded the largest wave of immigration in American history: the latest figures from the 2000 census show that out of a total population of 281.4 million Americans, 31.1 million were born abroad or have foreign-born parents, up 11.3 million from 1990 - an increase of 57%”. So, the United States has often used immigration as a financial and societal tool to enhance output or support the national integration (Bra et al, 1999).

While racial and ethnic conflicts are continually dominating the news, the United States is enjoying the relative calm. Few people would have a bet, not long ago, on this relative tranquility. Indeed, barely a quarter of a century ago the United States was facing a wave of unprecedented urban riots and extremely determined civil rights movements. The report of the Kerner Commission, set up following these riots and charged with studying the causes, had predicted at the time the imminence of a generalized confrontation even more violent if significant efforts were not made. However, recent studies indicate that the relative calm that characterizes inter-racial relations in the United States is therefore not attributable to the degradation of the "living conditions" of black communities, but perhaps to the difficult construction of an identity of their own.

At the time, in its analysis of the causes of race riots, the Commission isolated two broad categories of factors. The first group links the causes of these riots to economic misery, while the other group links with the change in the attitude of the black community towards socio-economic injustice. In the first group, the Commission incorporates the following three conditions, the result of a long situation of white prejudice against blacks: Generalization of discrimination and segregation: in the field of employment, education, the housing, resulting from the continued exclusion of a large number of blacks from the benefits of economic progress (Hollifield et al., 2014).

The relative tranquility of inter-racial relations in the United States stands in stark contrast to many countries in the world. Even Canada, known for its peaceful social climate, faces the bleak prospect of an explosion. The former Soviet Union, despite its so-called 70-year equality policy, is realizing how difficult ethnic, cultural, and religious issues can be. Least developed countries, such as Sri Lanka, after decades of political tranquility and racial harmony, are in turn caught in the vicious circle of ethnic violence. Britain is not ready to solve the Irish problem (Foner and Alba, 2008).

If we look at the world today, examples of ethnic violence are still too common. Some of these conflicts are of relatively recent origin (Sikhs in India, Tibetans in China) but those who are part of a long and tormented history are even more numerous (the IRA in Northern Ireland, the Basques in France and Spain, Armenians in the former Soviet Union, Iran and Turkey, Arabs in Israel, Tamils and Sinhalese in Sri Lanka, etc.). Be that as it may, contrasting with the tumultuous days of the sixties, inter-racial relations in the United States appeared before the riots in Los Angeles to have reached a state of "equilibrium" control. This is certainly not the only example of success and appeasement in history.


“At the end of the twentieth century, America, taking the leading position throughout the world, became a symbol of freedom and democracy based on such basic principles of its constitution as justice, racial and ethnic tolerance, and equality of opportunity for each person.”


Brah, A., Hickman, M. J., & Mac an Ghaill, M. (1999). Thinking identities: ethnicity, racism and culture. In Thinking Identities(pp. 1-21). Palgrave Macmillan, London.

Hollifield, J., Martin, P. L., & Orrenius, P. (Eds.). (2014). Controlling immigration: A global perspective. Stanford University Press.

Foner, N., & Alba, R. (2008). Immigrant religion in the US and Western Europe: Bridge or barrier to inclusion?. International migration review, 42(2), 360-392.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Essay 2

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Intercultural Communication barrier

Barriers to communication between cultures that are the factors that shape a person's behavior or attitude; such obstacles are quite challenging to see. These types of barriers are perceptions, norms, stereotypes, business philosophy, rules, networks, values, and subcultures groups.

Ethnocentrism is a perception that is associated with the individual belongs to other cultures and traditions as inferior. This type of obstacle arises because everyone has different opinions about something. So to interpret something, every culture will have different thoughts. Ecocentrism is generally based on assumptions related to culture as much morally and logically possible. In other words, ecocentrism is racism, and it is a barrier to intercultural communication. When any person from some different culture tries to give his point of view or opinion, all the other people from the same culture ignores him and never acknowledge his point of view. One of the most rooted misconceptions is that people think that it is enough to express their thoughts so that others can apprehend them correctly. This misconception assumes that the transmitted message reaches its addressee without any changes. (Campbell1)

Another notable barrier of communication is known as cultural relativism. Relativism is divided into two subcategories, subjectivism, and cultural relativism (Novinger46).The extreme subjectivist sees himself as able to choose his moral values ​​as he wishes, or even if he so wants, to step completely beyond morality. Values ​​are only dependent on, created, and maintained by the subject. So the source of values ​​is very much an individual. The cultural relativism is not that radical, after all. Values ​​vary from one period to another and from one culture to another. Or in other words, values depends on era and culture. Another and from one culture to another. Or in other words, values depend on age and culture. But it is so strong that there can be no question of objective and universalizing moral values ​​that bind all people. However, moral relativism is not the whole truth about morality.

Work cited

Campbell, Nittaya. "Ethnocentrism and intercultural willingness to communicate." Journal of

Intercultural Communication 40.1 (2016): 1.

Novinger, Tracy. Intercultural communication: A practical guide. University of Texas Press,


Subject: Sociology

Pages: 1 Words: 300




1. The modern century-world is ruled by capitalist trends and practices. Every mega-firm gets involved in some mega -scams that become a source of a bad reputation for the people working in that environment ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"IKZnNMVs","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Knights 2019)","plainCitation":"(Knights 2019)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1969,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/V8A7ZWF9"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/V8A7ZWF9"],"itemData":{"id":1969,"type":"article-journal","title":"2 The history of corruption and the benefits of a historical approach","container-title":"Corruption, Social Sciences and the Law: Exploration across the disciplines","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Knights","given":"Mark"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Knights, 2019). Many ethical issues are involved in those mega- scams, and so is the case with the SNC Lavalin. This is the Canadian firm which is known for its remarkable engineering projects. However, this organization is also involved in ethical issues such as bribery and fraudulent means to get contracts. It is reported that people in the top echelons such as CEO, senior workers and the people from federal party were the real culprits in this misadventure ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"qpKwg5jU","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(A closer look at SNC-Lavalin\\uc0\\u8217{}s sometimes murky past | CBC News n.d.)","plainCitation":"(A closer look at SNC-Lavalin’s sometimes murky past | CBC News n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1953,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/AYR2K4QD"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/AYR2K4QD"],"itemData":{"id":1953,"type":"webpage","title":"A closer look at SNC-Lavalin's sometimes murky past | CBC News","URL":"https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/snc-lavalin-corruption-fraud-bribery-libya-muhc-1.5010865","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",8,7]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (A closer look at SNC-Lavalin’s sometimes murky past | CBC News, 2019). CEO Pierre Duhaime was accused of the “blindness” as one reports suggested it. All these frauds and bribery generated revenue for the organization but gave birth to ethical dilemmas. Such acts ran counter to several ethical and moral philosophies.

Consider the case of Utilitarianism where is focus on the concept of “greater good” ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"dGKbWb90","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Hollander 2019)","plainCitation":"(Hollander 2019)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1949,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/6WRGWQAP"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/6WRGWQAP"],"itemData":{"id":1949,"type":"article-journal","title":"John Stuart Mill and the Jewish Question: Broadening the Utilitarian Maximand","container-title":"Happiness and Utility: Essays Presented to Frederick Rosen","page":"246","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"John Stuart Mill and the Jewish Question","author":[{"family":"Hollander","given":"Samuel"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Hollander 2019). This mega scandal went against this collective good and focused more on individual benefits. The chief officer in this scandal was least concerned for the immoral ramifications of his actions. Besides, the CEO is also involved in abrogating the “Ethics of Duty “which establishes any act is right or wrong only under the series of considerations, not under the influence of consequences ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"9gNB631a","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Azadegan 2018)","plainCitation":"(Azadegan 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1955,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/T7LL3QJ2"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/T7LL3QJ2"],"itemData":{"id":1955,"type":"book","title":"Review of Business Ethics: A Kantian Perspective, by Norman E. Bowie","publisher":"Springer","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Review of Business Ethics","author":[{"family":"Azadegan","given":"Ebrahim"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Azadegan, 2018). If senior employees are taken into account, they reflected the philosophy of “Egoism” as they wanted to satisfy their ego by opting for corrupt means and methods. If politics is concerned, federal political parties benefited from donations and lobbying. This involvement of SNC Lavalin was also the negation of “Virtue Ethics” theory because the firm did not perform the correct actions which are a prerequisite in having the moral character for ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"lHgyMQuk","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Sison, Ferrero, and Guiti\\uc0\\u225{}n 2018)","plainCitation":"(Sison, Ferrero, and Guitián 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1957,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/JSRTFCTJ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/JSRTFCTJ"],"itemData":{"id":1957,"type":"book","title":"Business Ethics: A Virtue Ethics and Common Good Approach","publisher":"Routledge","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Business Ethics","author":[{"family":"Sison","given":"Alejo José G."},{"family":"Ferrero","given":"Ignacio"},{"family":"Guitián","given":"Gregorio"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Sison, Ferrero, and Guitián, 2018). As a big asset in society, it should have been more responsible and ethical in its performance, but it performed miserably in ethics and morality.

2. The stakeholders affected by this ethical issue of SNC Lavalin are diverse. The people in Canada came under its brunt, and so is the case with people in other countries. This unethical situation captured the attention of many people on a massive scale worldwide. Nevertheless, the people who were more affected by these ethical issues are those who were not involved a bit in this unethical situation. Even this is speculated that around nine thousand workers may lose their job if some conviction is pursued in the court against SNC Lavalin ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"ElBE9i17","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(An economic reality check on SNC-Lavalin: Are 9,000 jobs really at stake? | CBC News n.d.)","plainCitation":"(An economic reality check on SNC-Lavalin: Are 9,000 jobs really at stake? | CBC News n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1958,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/KGTK3AW3"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/KGTK3AW3"],"itemData":{"id":1958,"type":"webpage","title":"An economic reality check on SNC-Lavalin: Are 9,000 jobs really at stake? | CBC News","URL":"https://www.cbc.ca/news/business/snc-lavalin-scandal-economics-jobs-risk-1.5047248","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",8,7]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (An economic reality check on SNC-Lavalin: Are 9,000 jobs really at stake? | CBC News, 2019). Overall, some fifty-thousand employees are associated with the firm and this scandal has become a looming threat for all of them. This risk is severe for those who are from poorer nations or based in those nations ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"KUNYSLCu","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Canada\\uc0\\u8217{}s SNC-Lavalin Decisions Affect People in the World\\uc0\\u8217{}s Poorest Countries 2019)","plainCitation":"(Canada’s SNC-Lavalin Decisions Affect People in the World’s Poorest Countries 2019)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1962,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/2K4XLXWE"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/2K4XLXWE"],"itemData":{"id":1962,"type":"post-weblog","title":"Canada’s SNC-Lavalin Decisions Affect People in the World’s Poorest Countries","container-title":"U of G News","abstract":"By Craig Anthony Johnson, Professor of Political Science and Director of the Guelph Institute of Development Studies","URL":"https://news.uoguelph.ca/2019/03/canadas-snc-lavalin-decisions-affect-people-in-the-worlds-poorest-countries/","language":"en","issued":{"date-parts":[["2019",3,12]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",8,7]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Canada’s SNC-Lavalin Decisions Affect People in the World’s Poorest Countries, 2019). Such people are not much important for the Federal Government as they are not Canadian nationals having legitimate vote bank in society. Furthermore, this SNC Lavalin is a bad repute for all mega organizations as well. As a result, this ethical issue has many stakeholders from diverse backgrounds.

3. The issue of SNC Lavalin and some other ethical issues exist in this modern world. However, they are devoid of solutions. These ethical issues such as bribery and fraud can be handled with pragmatic anti-bribery laws and policies ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"IxJCkkhz","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Corporate Bribery: What to Watch Out For and How to Stop It | EVERFI n.d.)","plainCitation":"(Corporate Bribery: What to Watch Out For and How to Stop It | EVERFI n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1960,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/WKHA7QIJ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/WKHA7QIJ"],"itemData":{"id":1960,"type":"webpage","title":"Corporate Bribery: What to Watch Out For and How to Stop It | EVERFI","URL":"https://everfi.com/insights/blog/corporate-bribery-what-to-watch-out-for-and-how-to-stop-it/","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",8,7]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Corporate Bribery: What to Watch Out For and How to Stop It | EVERFI n.d.). These anti-bribery measures should be inculcated in the training and development process in organizations. One approach could be the strategy adopted by Pepsi which has implemented an ethical code for the elimination of bribery from the organization ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"N2NwKLkR","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Duh, Ye, and Yu 2018)","plainCitation":"(Duh, Ye, and Yu 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1964,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/8C9NIYZV"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/8C9NIYZV"],"itemData":{"id":1964,"type":"article-journal","title":"Corruption and audit market concentration: an international investigation","container-title":"Asia-Pacific Journal of Accounting & Economics","page":"1–19","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Corruption and audit market concentration","author":[{"family":"Duh","given":"Rong-Ruey"},{"family":"Ye","given":"Chunlai"},{"family":"Yu","given":"Lin-Hui"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Duh, Ye, and Yu 2018). This code of conduct is all-comprehensive in approach which trains and motivate workers to avoid fraudulent means with the help of inspection teams and ethics officers. Besides, the due focus is now given on promoting integrity and ethics in all leading organizations. Walmart is another story which is eliminating these frauds and bribery from its network by having serious checks on employee’s practices ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"y5oSTNxN","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Rarick et al. 2018)","plainCitation":"(Rarick et al. 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1966,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/HSECMCAY"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/HSECMCAY"],"itemData":{"id":1966,"type":"article-journal","title":"Walmart de Mexico and the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act: Stepping Over the Border and Stepping Over the Line","container-title":"Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics","volume":"15","issue":"1","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Walmart de Mexico and the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act","author":[{"family":"Rarick","given":"Charles A."},{"family":"Williams","given":"Henry"},{"family":"Barczyk","given":"Casimir"},{"family":"James","given":"Adrian"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Rarick et al. 2018). Moreover, the most effective step is to raise awareness among leaders and masses about the negative function of bribery so that they avoid it in letter and spirit.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY “A Closer Look at SNC-Lavalin’s Sometimes Murky Past | CBC News.” https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/snc-lavalin-corruption-fraud-bribery-libya-muhc-1.5010865 (August 7, 2019).

“An Economic Reality Check on SNC-Lavalin: Are 9,000 Jobs Really at Stake? | CBC News.” https://www.cbc.ca/news/business/snc-lavalin-scandal-economics-jobs-risk-1.5047248 (August 7, 2019).

Azadegan, Ebrahim. 2018. Review of Business Ethics: A Kantian Perspective, by Norman E. Bowie. Springer.

“Canada’s SNC-Lavalin Decisions Affect People in the World’s Poorest Countries.” 2019. U of G News. https://news.uoguelph.ca/2019/03/canadas-snc-lavalin-decisions-affect-people-in-the-worlds-poorest-countries/ (August 7, 2019).

“Corporate Bribery: What to Watch Out For and How to Stop It | EVERFI.” https://everfi.com/insights/blog/corporate-bribery-what-to-watch-out-for-and-how-to-stop-it/ (August 7, 2019).

Duh, Rong-Ruey, Chunlai Ye, and Lin-Hui Yu. 2018. “Corruption and Audit Market Concentration: An International Investigation.” Asia-Pacific Journal of Accounting & Economics: 1–19.

Hollander, Samuel. 2019. “John Stuart Mill and the Jewish Question: Broadening the Utilitarian Maxim and.” Happiness and Utility: Essays Presented to Frederick Rosen: 246.

Knights, Mark. 2019. “2 The History of Corruption and the Benefits of a Historical Approach.” Corruption, Social Sciences, and the Law: Exploration across the disciplines.

Rarick, Charles A., Henry Williams, Casimir Barczyk, and Adrian James. 2018. “Walmart de Mexico and the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act: Stepping Over the Border and Stepping Over the Line.” Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics 15(1).

Sison, Alejo José G., Ignacio Ferrero, and Gregorio Guitián. 2018. Business Ethics: A Virtue Ethics and Common Good Approach. Routledge.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 2 Words: 600


Subject: Sociology

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Exam 2 Paper


[Name of Instructor]


[April 1, 2019]

Exam 2 Paper


Women participation in sports has increased our time due to their nature of accepting challenges and fully involving in sports activities. However, the number of youth sport coaches are still limited in different games. Michael Messner (Sociologist) has discussed barriers to female coaches and the hierarchies and gender inequalities that are prevailing in our social institutions. He found that female coaches are less than 20% in different sports, despite having expertise and experience to offer the role but are still not appreciated to represent as coaches.


Due to the female active presentation and good performance, their involvement in various carrier path is appreciated. However, in sports, they are allocated for less prestigious teams, younger age groups and some recreational level authorities. Gender disparities in different carrier paths are decreasing, but it is still highly prevailing in sports, which restricts female in entering into sports coaches. Messner identified three levels of sports which represent the structural formation of sports i-e the day to day practices, the hierarchy, and rules of sports institutions and the leading believe system conveyed though sports media. He examined men's violence through sports and their financial interest and dominating nature which maintain the status quo. He further states that it is necessary to understand the nature of sports for women and to recognize their identities in male-dominated fields ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"YIcmY9KV","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(M. Messner)","plainCitation":"(M. Messner)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":138,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/DqTTedP9/items/RU65KA6S"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/DqTTedP9/items/RU65KA6S"],"itemData":{"id":138,"type":"article-journal","title":"Gender ideologies, youth sports, and the production of soft essentialism","container-title":"Sociology of Sport Journal","page":"151-170","volume":"28","issue":"2","author":[{"family":"Messner","given":"Michael"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2011"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (M. Messner). There is an opportunity for women to gain empowerment in sports and acquire legitimacy as athletes. Female coaches tend to influence social change, develops the mindset of girls to be more actively involve themselves in games, and challenge the stereotype beliefs about gender leadership roles in sports. They should prove themselves as a role model for many children especially girls and provide much better opportunities for girls to pursue careers in sports.

Cultural believes strongly influence the sports structure such as hegemonic masculinity is strongly connected with sports and is considered as bravery and strength in males. It also teaches boys to be careful about certain expressions especially avoiding expressing vulnerabilities. These structures provide men that they should suppress the feelings of pain and injuries, hence make sports a successful achievement for them. Females, on the other hand, are considered weak for youth sports and unable to motivate children. Also, it is believed that they can't play leadership roles in sports, and are nonathletic ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"KfvENW62","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Messner and Bozada-Deas)","plainCitation":"(Messner and Bozada-Deas)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":136,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/DqTTedP9/items/4LEPUT3R"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/DqTTedP9/items/4LEPUT3R"],"itemData":{"id":136,"type":"article-journal","title":"Separating the men from the moms: The making of adult gender segregation in youth sports","container-title":"Gender & Society","page":"49-71","volume":"23","issue":"1","author":[{"family":"Messner","given":"Michael A."},{"family":"Bozada-Deas","given":"Suzel"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2009"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Messner and Bozada-Deas). Thus, sports continues to be a male dominated and controlled institution.

Girls are likely to be more motivated by a matched gender and considering a female role model, they will be able to identify themselves. Female coaches have a positive motivation for girls and their self-perceptions rather than looking to male coaches where they cannot identify a role model and are more likely to accept the negative stereotypes of not becoming a good athlete. This results in failure of realization of their potential which limits their aspirations of sports career ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"2J7pLyn0","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(M. A. Messner)","plainCitation":"(M. A. Messner)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":133,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/DqTTedP9/items/HPJP43WM"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/DqTTedP9/items/HPJP43WM"],"itemData":{"id":133,"type":"book","title":"Taking the field: Women, men, and sports","publisher":"U of Minnesota Press","volume":"4","source":"Google Scholar","shortTitle":"Taking the field","author":[{"family":"Messner","given":"Michael A."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2002"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (M. A. Messner).


Social change is necessary for all such institutions to consider a female significant role in developing the mindset of children particularly girls. The society should focus on girls participation and make them better athletes which is possible through motivation by a female coach and an effective role model. Female must be part of all institutions in equal numbers and at significant leadership positions to influence the social structure. A female has challenged many institutions in the past with their brilliant performances in all the fields, they are serving in the air force and navy's, so sports is not a challenge for them anymore. The need to be able to fight for their rights and presented with equal opportunities in the sports.

Works Cited

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Messner, Michael. “Gender Ideologies, Youth Sports, and the Production of Soft Essentialism.” Sociology of Sport Journal, vol. 28, no. 2, 2011, pp. 151–70.

Messner, Michael A. Taking the Field: Women, Men, and Sports. Vol. 4, U of Minnesota Press, 2002.

Messner, Michael A., and Suzel Bozada-Deas. “Separating the Men from the Moms: The Making of Adult Gender Segregation in Youth Sports.” Gender & Society, vol. 23, no. 1, 2009, pp. 49–71.

Subject: Sociology

Pages: 2 Words: 600

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