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Why Study Public Administration?

Why Study Public Administration?

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Why Study Public Administration?

Q-1: Citing the text, discuss the rationale behind creating new, separate disciplines of public administration and public policy.

The logic behind making novel and isolated syllabus of public policy and public administration is to segregate the study of administrative and managerial facets of the government, from the study of the firml strategy making and legal features of government. These new changes will aid students in deciding what characteristic of government they would like to concentrate upon, and will also make them competent to involve in paths of education that are dedicated to distinct features of government that need to be mastered individually.

New Public Administration is anti-technical and anti-positivist and anti-hierarchical response contrary to customary public administration. The focus is on the character of government and how services are to be provided to the residents which are a part of the shared concern, by means, but not restricted to public policy (Denhardt et al., 2015).

New Public Administration theory believes in forming a government where the common resident has a say in politics by being more aware, active and knowledgeable. It also works towards involving citizens and motivating them to take part in the public policy making and its implementation (Henry, 2017). New public administration goal is to provide and endorse the ethical and moral standard in regards to meeting the requirements of people through institutes and establishments.

Q-2: Assess the differences between public administration, business administration, and political science.

P.A is the study of political institutions, organizations, and governments. P.A deals with the management, actions, and conduct of governmental organizations and bureaucrats in the demeanor of government. It comprises the study of how establishments network with other political bodies.

Political science is a discipline whereas public administration is a subfield amid several other within the area of political science. Political science is associated with overall politics, and the study of public administration is concerned with administration. Political science and public administration both are directed towards public service, and so share the similar critical goal. Both disciplines are dependent on learning the political, communal and monetary dynamics of a given community (Waldo, 2017). The significant dissimilarity between the two is of methodology; political science encompasses the designing of plan and strategy while public administration includes the application of that strategy in an effective manner.

Public Administrators purpose is to progress the well-being of the public through the implementation of several strategies; however, business administration is typically related to the management of businesses. The purpose of the business administrator’s job is to implement strategies to grow a company’s value while complying with the laws about their companies that are usually less stringent than the standards that public administrators must adhere.

Q-3: Explain the advantages and disadvantages of pursuing a Masters in Public Administration (MPA) for those interested in entering the field of public administration. Is it necessary for all public administrators to pursue an MPA?

Almost all public administrators ought to enroll in a Public Administration program as it will result in more competency, educated strategies, and efficient implementation as well as more knowledge of procedures and planning.

Every professional path has its advantages and disadvantages, and public administration is no exemption. Businesses and governments frequently depend upon the public administrator to make sure all agendas and procedures are being executed and accomplished. A public administrator also should understand if the plans are operational and make endorsements on how things can be changed. All of these responsibilities lead to a lot of pressure and burden in the place of work.

However, the benefits of pursuing an MPA degree outweigh the disadvantages. The public administration degree program offers the syllabus that will help you advance your leadership potentials. The curriculum also comprises multiple subjects such as, finance, communications, economics, legal, healthcare, and management that gives you a chance to hold important government posts in various administrative areas. The salaries of public administrators are quite rewarding and whether one works at the local level or the federal level job in public administration grants access to great health welfares (Cropf, 2015). Lastly and more importantly, holding power to endorse changes in the public management turf one can make a direct influence on the local and federal regimes.


Cropf, R. A. (2015). American Public Administration: Public Service for the 21st Century (2-downloads). Routledge.

Waldo, D. (2017). The administrative state: A study of the political theory of American public administration. Routledge.

Henry, N. (2017). Public administration and public affairs. Routledge.

Denhardt, J. V., & Denhardt, R. B. (2015). The new public service revisited. Public Administration Review, 75(5), 664-672.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Wild Dog Cafe

Demand Analysis

[Enter name of student here]

[Enter name of institution here]

Forecasting Techniques

There are four major forecasting techniques used in any business namely straight line, moving averages, simple regression and multiple linear regression. In a straight line method, annual percentage change in any variable is assumed to be the same. The forecasting is done by multiplying the percentage change with the value of last year. In the current scenario, we cannot use this technique because it is clearly mentioned in the case that daily and monthly sales are not consistent so we cannot predict a uniform percentage change.

Moving averages is a method of smoothing the data and analyzing the pattern within these figures. Forecasts are calculated with the help of least squares keeping time as the independent variable. The major concern of this method is that moving averages do not account for very large or very small values in the data. This makes the forecasts weaker and less reliable CITATION CFI19 \l 1033 (CFI, 2019).

Simple linear regression is another method to forecast future trends or values based on past or historic figures. This method has certain underlying assumptions which will be discussed in the coming lines. Linear regression assumes that there is a linear relationship between dependent and independent variables. This means that the values for both variables form a straight line. The linear relationship is also vulnerable to the presence of outliers in the data so one has to check for outliers. In order to check for the presence of linearity, scatter plots are used. Simple linear regression assumes that all variables are multivariate normal. A histogram can be used to detect whether there is normality in all the variables tested. Another way to check normality is to apply the goodness of fit test, e.g. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. If the variables are not normal in nature, a log-linear model can be used CITATION Sta19 \l 1033 (Statistics solutions, 2019). A very important assumption in the regression analysis is that there is no multicollinearity in data. In other words, the independent variables are not related to each other. If the independent variables are related to each other, this will affect the relationship between the independent and dependent variables. In order to remove multicollinearity, some variables have to be deleted from the analysis or some new variables have to be added to the analysis. In order to test for multicollinearity, correlation matrix, tolerance and variance inflation factor are used. Presence of autocorrelation in the data will also affect the model which means that residuals are not independent of each other.

Regression analysis has been used to analyze relationship between advertising and espresso beans use. Advertising dollars have been used as the independent variable while use of espresso beans has been used as the dependent variable. The following table shows basic regression statistics for 6 months:

Regression Statistics

Multiple R


R Square


Adjusted R Square


Standard Error




The above table show that regression model is strong and advertising accounts for 95% variation in use of espresso beans.





X Variable 1


The above table shows intercept and coefficient for regression analysis. Intercept is the value of dependent variable that is obtained by putting the value of independent variable as zero. The other coefficient in the above table shows the change in the dependent variable as a result of one unit change in independent variable. Following equation will depict the relationship between dependent and independent variables.


For forecasting the amount of espresso beans used in the 7th month, we will put a value of $ 1350 in place of X in the above equation. The value of dependent variable will be 1252 pounds.

Based on the above calculation, we can say that the company will need to prepare approximately 28 espresso beverages per day. This is calculated by dividing 1252 by 1.5 because one cup of espresso needs 1.5 ounces of beans. The resulting figure is then divided by 30 days to get daily requirement of espresso beverages.

Company will need 42 pounds of beans on average every day which is calculated by dividing 1252 by 30 days.

As discussed earlier, the power of regression model shows the extent to which the independent variable predicts the dependent variable. A r-squared of 0.95 or 95% shows that advertising dollars predict 95% variation in the need for espresso beans.

Inventory management

There are two basic techniques to manage inventory in any business, namely FIFO and LIFO. These terms refer to first in first out and last in first out systems. The first in first out method is used to analyze the materials costing. This method assumes that materials are issued from the oldest supply first. Advantages of this method include the withdrawal of materials in a logical and systematic manner. It is easy to control the materials efficiently especially when materials can be subject to depreciation or the materials are perishable. It is recommended to use FIFO method when size and cost of units are large, it is easy to identify the materials used in particular product and there is not a very high activity in the company regarding inventory.

The Last In first Out method is used when company wants to issue materials on the purchase price of the most recent purchase materials. There is a realistic price applied to every unit of inventory issued. Current costs of materials are used to account for the current production costs. The operating profits reported using this method are realistic and stabilized. This is particularly beneficial in industries where prices fluctuate very sharply over a short period of time. However, this method is not considered as an acceptable method according to the international accounting standards. There are much more record keeping requirements in this method than some of the other methods.

In the light of above discussion, this company will use the First In First Out method of inventory management. Following table will show the calculations for inventory by applying the FIFO inventory management method





Total cost















































































































The above table shows the calculation of economic order quantity for the inventory. In the first column, we have taken various quantities that can be ordered in a single lot. Second column shows the number of orders that have to be placed in a month given the monthly demand of 14000 units. There is some cost that is fixed with every order and that is shown as S in the above table. In the scenario $9 per pound is the fixed cost associated with every order. Thus, in the third column every value of the second column has been multiplied by 9. The letter H represents the holding cost which is 10% of the minimum order lot of 25. In the fourth column, half of the quantity is multiplied by holding cost. In the last column, total cost is found by adding annual order cost and annual holding costs. The economic order quantity is chosen to be 1700 units because total cost is the minimum at this point and any point above this quantity gives a higher total cost CITATION CFI191 \l 1033 (CFI, 2019).

There are two scenarios for the company to consider, one is to keep both full time employees and the other where both part time employees are hired. In the lines below, we will discuss the pros and cons of both these options.

Pros of Hiring Temporary Employees

Acquisition of Highly Skilled Workers

Previously, only the low-level workers were available for hiring on a temporary basis. With the advent of modern industrialization, it has become possible for the organizations to find people with high-profile skills to work on contracts for a certain period.

Reduction of Hiring Costs

When recruited on contract, the company does not have to pay for any expensive benefits. Therefore, recruiting for short-term is cost effective. There is no need to bear costs of recruiting, training, etc. for the new hires if an organization is using services of an agency.

Objective Assessment of Performance

The performance of temporarily employed workers will be assessed without having to make commitment for long term. The potential of the worker can be evaluated more precisely because the performance will be based on professional attitude and behavior at work.

Cons of Hiring Temporary Employees

Overlooking the Permanent Employees

Temporary employees should be hired only if there are specific areas of work which need specialized skills. Otherwise, this practice will discourage the permanent employees to acquire new skills for career growth. Another situation for hiring people temporarily may be the frequency of arising demands for that particular type of expertise. If there are recurring demands every now and then, the company should appoint a permanent employee to provide continuous support to that function.

Other Operational Costs

The recruitment agencies that provide manpower on demand charge fees varying as per the job descriptions. Sometimes, it may become expensive to hire temporary employees. Mostly, the agencies keep a portion of the employee’s salary as their monthly commission. Therefore, the salaries of such professionals are usually higher than the average market offers made for the same positions.

Interrupted Progress

Every time a new hire is appointed by a company temporarily, there arises a need for orientation to get adjusted to the work environment and understand the job requirements. This is time consuming and hinders the progress of that specific department.

Benefits of Staffing Permanent Workers


Permanent employees can reach the highest level of devotion towards their organization, as the company cares for their long-term interests and betterment. They can undertake multiple tasks to complete as required sometimes to meet deadlines. They have a kind of emotional attachment towards the company, which is the greatest motivation for productivity.

Uninterrupted Progress

The permanent employees are well-acquainted with the processes and procedures of their organization. Mostly, they do not need to spend extra time for understanding the background of projects. This ensures an uninterrupted progress of company’s operations.

Certainty in Decision-Making

The company has enough information about the permanent staff, their capabilities, and commitments. Hence, the management can make strategic decisions with certainty.

Disadvantages of Staffing Permanent Workers

Hiring Costs

Hiring employees to work permanently is a time-taking and expensive way of filling the job positions in a company. It requires expenditure on different phases of hiring. Advertising, testing, interviewing, training – all these stages of recruitment demand for time and cost, which are higher than those of hiring temporary employees.

Higher Packages

For the permanent employees, the companies have to offer remuneration packages that normally comprise incentives, allowances, health insurance, and so on. These compensations are considerably higher than those liable to pay for the temporary workers.

Increased Overhead Costs

With permanent employees, the company will have to arrange for spatial work environments that need continuous care and maintenance, There may arise need for arranging residences for the staff. Moreover, in many cases, the company has to fulfil regulatory requirements as well.

2 Full time employees





Total Cost NB

Total Cost B











































2 Part time employees





Total Cost NB

Total Cost B











































The above tables show two different scenarios where company is using two full time employees and two part time employees respectively. In both the scenarios, both baristas will be utilized because the maximum working limit for one barista is 50 hours in a week. So in the first scenario, one barista will work 50 hours for the week and other will work 48 hours in a week. As for the non-barista employees, the full time employee will work 50 hours for the week and 1 part time employee will work 26 hours and another part time employee will work 8 hrs for the week. Thus the full time barista employee will get a max of $ 742 for the week. He will then be replaced by the second barista employee who is full time and he will earn $ 714 for the week. Thus, the total cost for the company will be $ 1456 for the barista workers whereas for the non-barista workers, cost will be $ 960 for the week

The scenario with all part time employees Is much more complex in nature because they have only 26 hours to work at max for the week so there will be much more calculations done. Each day, there are two over time hours, one at start and one at the end. One employee will have to be kept as full time so we keep the baristas in their place to make coffee drinks. Similarly, we will use a mixture of part time and full time non-barista employees. The difference will be that part time employees will work at the start of week and the left over time will be used by the full time employees. The two part time employees from the non-barista group will use 52 hours in total, the remaining 46 hours will be used by the full time employee. For the part time employees, the payment will total $ 486 while the full time employee will get $ 588 for the week.


BIBLIOGRAPHY CFI. (2019). https://corporatefinanceinstitute.com/resources/knowledge/finance/what-is-eoq-formula/. Retrieved from https://corporatefinanceinstitute.com: https://corporatefinanceinstitute.com/resources/knowledge/finance/what-is-eoq-formula/

CFI. (2019). https://corporatefinanceinstitute.com/resources/knowledge/modeling/forecasting-methods/. Retrieved from https://corporatefinanceinstitute.com: https://corporatefinanceinstitute.com/resources/knowledge/modeling/forecasting-methods/

Statistics solutions. (2019). https://www.statisticssolutions.com/assumptions-of-linear-regression/. Retrieved from https://www.statisticssolutions.com: https://www.statisticssolutions.com/assumptions-of-linear-regression/

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 7 Words: 2100

Wireless Communications Paper


Professor name


June 30, 2019

Notes for Wireless Communications Paper


The common wireless communications technologies used for accessing internet include Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and NFC. Many users opt for wireless communications because it is more convenient compared to installation of wires and cables. Wireless connections uses electromagnetic signals and communications occur when the device capture signals.

Bluetooth devices must be placed within the range of about 33 feet for transmitting information. It can also be extended to about 325 feet with additional equipment. Bluetooth devices are paired for sharing information. When connecting two devices using Bluetooth, the originating device sends a code to the connecting device. The codes must match to establish the connection.

An NFC tag is a chip that can store small amounts of data. NFC tags are in a variety of objects, such as posters, ski lift tickets, business cards, stickers, and wristbands CITATION Nic11 \l 1033 (Nitz). For successful communications, the NFC devices or objects are placed closer to each other. For example, two NFC-enabled phones placed together can transfer contacts, or an NFC-enabled phone can bee used with parking meter to pay for parking. Examples of NFC-enabled devices include smartphones, digital cameras, television, and terminals. Credit cards, tickets, and NFC tags are examples of objects that also use this technology.

One popular feature of Wi-Fi is in hot spots that offer mobile users the ability to connect to the Internet with their Wi-Fi-enabled wireless computers and devices. Wi-Fi, which stands for wireless fidelity, uses radio signals to provide high-speed Internet and network connections to computers and devices capable of communicating via Wi-Fi. In open or outdoor areas free from interference, the computers or devices should remain within 300 feet of a wireless device. In closed areas, the wireless network range is about 100 feet. Many homes and small businesses also use Wi-Fi to access internet. To obtain communications at maximum distances, users may need to install extra hardware to extend or strengthen a wireless signal.


Three popular wireless communications technologies are Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and NFC. Wireless communications use air or space to send communications signals. The society is using Wi-Fi due to the increased convenience, easy access and portability.

Work Cited

BIBLIOGRAPHY Nitz, Nicholas Michael. Near Field Communications. Pacific Press, 2011.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Wk 5

Organization Leadership Annotated Bibliography

[Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees]

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Organization Leadership Annotated Bibliography

Organizational leadership is a methodology that is focused on what is good for everyone in the organization simultaneously. It can also be considered as an attitude that empowers people in an organization from the top to bottom. It combines management and leadership and capitalizes on organizational strengths alongside consideration of ethics in an organization. It is based on the idea that organizations are in the need of leaders to perform efficiently and effectively. It inspires the individual from the top to bottom to contribute towards organizational goals and objectives.

Annotated Bibliography

García-Morales, V. J., Jiménez-Barrionuevo, M. M., & Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, L. (2012). Transformational leadership influence on organizational performance through organizational learning and innovation. Journal of business research, 65(7), 1040-1050.

As the title suggests, this study is focused on the impact of transformational leadership on organizational performance through the vigorous competences of innovation and organizational learning. The article is based on the idea that the previous studies have not explored these indirect interrelations of transformational leadership and organizational performance and these are highly significant in order to enhance the organizational performance. Hence, this article aims to explore these interrelations through the hypothesis it has developed. The study used the sample of 168 Spanish firms from the chemical and automotive sector and the findings confirm the hypothesis. Results reveal that transformational leadership has can have a positive influence on organizational performance by means of organizational innovation and learning. The second finding confirms the positive influence of organizational learning on organizational performance through innovation because organizational innovation positively influences organizational performance as well.

This study used pre-trusted constructs from the previous empirical studies in designing the survey questionnaire that was sent to the CEO's of the companies to assure validity and reliability. In addition, this article takes the data from the previous studies which make this study more reliable. This article is directed at the managers and organizational leaders and serves the purpose of directing the managers to use the transformational leadership style in order to enhance the performance of their organization. The authors belong to the faculty of Economics and Business, University of Granada. This study has several limitations such as it relies on CEO's perceptions, a measure of transformational leadership it uses, biases in the study, cross-sectional data, and the use of innovation and learning to confirm the relationship between transformational leadership and organizational performance.

Shanafelt, T. D., Gorringe, G., Menaker, R., Storz, K. A., Reeves, D., Buskirk, S. J., ... & Swensen, S. J. (2015, April). Impact of organizational leadership on physician burnout and satisfaction. In Mayo Clinic Proceedings (Vol. 90, No. 4, pp. 432-440). Elsevier.

The study aims at assessing the influence of organizational leadership on physician satisfaction and burnout in a healthcare organization. This study was conducted on different physicians and scientists in the healthcare organizations in October 2013. 3896 physicians were surveyed as part of this study out of which 2813 responded. The research reveals that the leadership traits of physicians and scientists highly affect their satisfaction level and well-being. This study is based on the fact that a large number of US physicians are hired by the healthcare organizations that have created new challenges for the practitioners. There was not a lot of research on the effect of organizational leadership on burnout and professional satisfaction of physicians. This research is based on studying this relationship with the work unit of doctors. The study uses 2 single-item measures modified from the full Maslach Burnout Inventory to enhance viability. This research has high significance for the healthcare organizations to select and train physician leaders to enhance individual well-being and satisfaction.

These findings have important implications for the selection and training of physician leaders and provide new insights into organizational factors that affect physician well-being. Authors are associated with the Department of Internal Medicine and have conducted many studies in their fields. However, the study represented the experience of one health care institute and dissatisfied employees could have rated their leaders poorly.

Joseph, E. E., & Winston, B. E. (2005). A correlation of servant leadership, leader trust, and organizational trust. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 26(1), 6-22.

This paper aims to study the association between employee perceptions of servant leadership and leader and organizational trust. Servant leadership is aimed at keeping the interests and needs of others over the interests of leaders. The study used Laub's Organizational Leadership Assessment alongside Nyhan and Marlowe's Organizational Trust Inventory. The study exposed the correlation of perception of servant leadership with both leaders and organizational trust. In addition, the study exposed that organizations considered as servant-led exhibit a relatively higher level of organizational and leader confidence. The study used a cross-sectional survey and Organizational Trust Inventory was employed to examine the level of trust and the Laub's Organizational Leadership Assessment was used that holds high credibility and reliability. The OTI is also a reliable measure that increases the reliability of the study. Authors belong to Regent University, School of Leadership Studies and the reliability can be assessed by the fact that a huge number of researchers have cited their study. Though the research is old it holds high significance for the managers and organizations to use servant leadership as a potential way to enhance organizational performance and the article was written for them. It clearly conveys the meaning to the intended audience. However, some limitations also exist such as narrowness of the sample, and the authors recommended that it should be re-conducted with a diverse sample.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 3 Words: 900

WK2 Impact Of Strategy On Successful Innovation

WK2 Impact of Strategy on Successful Innovation

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

WK2 Impact of Strategy on Successful Innovation

Johnson & Johnson

Johnson & Johnson is a US-Based multinational organization which develops medical devices, consumer packaged goods, and pharmaceuticals. The company has been founded by R W Johnson, J W Johnson, and E M Johnson in 1886. The common stock of Johnson & Johnson is constituent of Dow Jones Industrial Average where the company has been ranked on 37 of the Fortune list of 2018. While the company has been listed as the largest corporation in the United States in the particular industry and market due to its total revenue. In terms of value, Johnson & Johnson is considered one of the world’s most valuable corporations.

The corporation (Johnson & Johnson) is headquartered in New Brunswick, New Jersey while the consumer division of Johnson & Johnson is located in Skillman of the region. The corporation operates in 60 different countries around the world and includes 250 subsidiary companies while products of Johnson & Johnson are sold out in more than 175 countries in the world. The recent counted worldwide sales amounted for 70.1 billion dollars (during the calendar year 2015). The large brand range of the corporation includes several household medications names and other first id supplies (Johnson & Johnson, 2019). The most well-known and major products of the company are, Band-Aid, Beauty and Skin Products (Neutrogena), Clean and Clear face wash, and Acuvue Contact Lenses.

J&J is a holding corporation that is engaged in the R&D, production, manufacturing, and sale of products in the field of health care. The company operates in major three segments which are, Pharmaceutical, Consumer Products, and Medical Devices.

Mission/Vision of Johnson & Johnson

The mission and vision statement of Johnson & Johnson corporations states that;

“The fundamental and core objective of Johnson & Johnson is to provide scientifically sound and high-quality products and services to help heal and cure disease and improve the overall quality of life. ”

Additionally, the Credo of Johnson & Johnson states that “We believe our first responsibility is to the patients, doctors, and nurses, to mother and fathers and everyone who uses our products and services. In meeting their needs and expectations, everything we do, us be of high quality.”

Capitalizing on the Value of Business Strategy Process

Johnson & Johnson is the organization that has managed to achieve/accomplish success through capitalizing on the value of the business strategy process in several ways. When it is about strategy formulation, the company has ensured that is performing a detailed and in-depth analysis of the overall business environment. This makes the company able to its major strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. This entire process add value to the activities regarding strategy formulation like it makes sure that the strategy is formulated/designed are those which assist the company to take advantage of the possible and potential opportunities exist in the environment around the company or corporation. It also helps Johnson & Johnson to minimize the crucial weaknesses and reduce & eliminate all of the possible threats, so that the company would have a competitive advantage in the market and industry for the long run. Hence, it makes the utilization of process of strategy formulation as an initial thing for understanding the business environment and assists the formulators of strategies for the company to develop strategies and tactics which makes the organization able to respond to potential opportunities, weaknesses, and threat in a competitive way (Dyer, et.al, 2017).

Second, when it comes to the process of strategy implementation it utilizes this process to add values to all activities for gaining a competitive advantage over the rival for the long run it ensures that enough resources should provide do the implementation process to make sure that every requirement has been provided and availed. This also helps Johnson & Johnson to have a competitive advantage over the competitors because it helps in enough implementation of business strategies. For instance, the corporation provides each an every resource required for improvement and innovation for the target segments and customers enables the company to continuously expand the market and target segments for the long run (Amit, & Zott, 2012). Beyond that, Johnson & Johnson takes potential advantage of the process by making sure that particular tasks have been assigned to a particular person for a particular purpose of performance enhancement as well as for accountability.

Third, Johnson & Johnson makes use of strategy evaluation process for the purpose to make sure that the company has effective strategies in the place. The company does it through the evaluation that whether several strategies are appropriate to enable in terms of making sure that the corporation gets its mission and core objectives. For example, analyzing the innovative business idea to gain more customers in the market place through the determination that whether the company achieves this particular objective through the utilization of this strategy or it needs to amend the business approach accordingly (Dyer, et.al, 2017).

On the other side, the process of strategy evaluation is used by the company as the fundamental for acceptability through finding out that whether the organization works towards the competitive advantage or changes are needed to be brought. Beyond this, the company uses this method for determination of its strategies by figuring out that whether the company works that enables them to accomplish its mission and vision statement.

Approaches Recommendations

There are several approaches and methods or tactics that Johnson & Johnson can use for the purpose to enhance strategic innovation. First, it has been recommended to Johnson & Johnson to invest as much as possible in the research and development to support the process of idea generation and to try several ideas to determine what would these be used to move the organization forward. Investing funds in R&D ensures that several ideas and concepts about probable business or organizational strategies could be used by the company to know and find that are they appropriate and perfect for the company (Amit, & Zott, 2012).

The second recommendation is the company should provide an environment that is highly enabling so that the people would be motivated to give ideas regarding enabling strategic innovation. This can be done through developing a leadership which allows the involvement of employees in the process of decision making (Teece, 2015). Developing such an environment makes employees able to contribute via their creativity and innovative ideas which could be used by the organization to establish strategies that provide competitive advantages in the long run.

Further, it is recommended to Johnson & Johnson to have highly flexible financial arrangements that allow financial managers to implement risky strategies if necessary. Most of the time, highly innovative strategies are mush risky than the less innovative and can be implemented in the case when an organization provides the required financial resources for testing them. Like, developing an application (mobile app) to bring customers close in not a less risky venture. Hence this strategy can be implemented if the Johnson & Johnson wants to provide the required and adequate financing and funding to make sure that it and its feasibility have been tested methodically (Dyer, et.al, 2017).

Data to be leveraged

There are many types of data which can be leveraged by someone in the business strategy. One of the data is the problems or issues to do with the organization’s competitive environment. This data is aimed to provide a competitive edge to Johnson & Johnson in many ways over the rivals in the industry. At the time of strategy development, it will be crucial to leverage associated information with the feasibility of the strategy.

Every company needs to ensure that it develops and designs a strategy that is feasible in terms of enabling the organization to accomplish long term goals and objectives. When considering this information during strategy development, it ensures that only those stra5tegies are developed and implemented which are fully workable. It is also crucial to leverage information about strategy’s suitability in terms of goals that it is planned to accomplish (Dyer, et.al, 2017). This adds in the procedure of developing only those strategies that fit the needs and expectations of the company/organization.

Lastly, this can leverage information on the strategy’s acceptability by the envisioned stakeholders. It includes information regarding whether the tactics and strategy would be opposed by the staff or employees or not, the staff which will be involved in its implementation. As it may have a direct effect on how efficiently the strategy has implemented (Teece, 2015).

Business Strategy and Innovation

Johnson & Johnson can use its business strategy for further innovation in numerous ways. The very first is the implementation of a strategy that supports innovation like staff/employees engagement and encouraging innovation. Second, the management of Johnson & Johnson can utilize the business strategy to do financial analyses and measures which facilitate innovation. Like, providing the funding it employees to try innovative and risky ideas as well as encourage innovation at the workplace (Teece, 2015). As well as they can use the business strategy to enhance innovation among staff members.

Also, the business strategy can be used by Johnson & Johnson to implement technological measures that facilitate innovation. Like, facilitating the concerned employees which could be source for the organization to gain and sustain competitive advantage and/o edge over the competitors in the market industry of operations.


Amit, R., & Zott, C. (2012). Creating value through business model innovation. 2012.

Dyer, J. H., Godfrey, P., Jensen, R., & Bryce, D. (2017). Strategic management: Concepts and cases. Wiley Global Education.

Johnson & Johnson. (2019). Homepage - Content Lab - the U.S. Retrieved 11 September 2019, from https://www.jnj.com/

Teece, D. J. (2015). Business models, business strategy and innovation. Long-range planning, 43(2-3), 172-194.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 5 Words: 1500


Wk4 Assignment: Change Management Strategy



Author Note

Wk4 Assignment: Change Management Strategy - Kotter's Eight Steps


Given how in the modern age, companies are continuously compelled to keep up with the changing times. This requires them to bring about both internal as well as external change in the system from time to time. This change can range from improving the company culture to providing new training opportunities to the members of the staff. However, organizations need to take complete responsibility with regard to what works and what does not work for their organization. It also needs to address issues and keep improving and innovating to better itself with time. This paper will seek to address the change management strategy for an organization and how the use of Kotter’s eight steps can transform an organization.

Background and Rationale

According to ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"ny71FFpF","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Kotter, 2007)","plainCitation":"(Kotter, 2007)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1089,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/0omESN17/items/G6P62GVQ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/0omESN17/items/G6P62GVQ"],"itemData":{"id":1089,"type":"article-journal","title":"Leading change: Why transformations fail","container-title":"Harvard Business Review","volume":"85","author":[{"family":"Kotter","given":"John P."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2007"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} Kotter, (2007)," the most general lesson to be learned from the more successful cases is that the change process goes through a series of phases, that in total, usually require a considerable length of time. Skipping steps creates only the illusion of speed and never produces a satisfying result" (p. 97).

The Kotter eight-step method can be held responsible for transforming an entire system and making it possible for the organization to improve itself in an effective manner. This change management strategy not only motivates positive change but also aligns the required change in a manner that works well with the goals of the business and the associated risks with regard to the change. Thus, it is often used by businesses to bring about a positive change in their system, which aligns with the business philosophy and makes it easy for them to rationalize change in a good and positive manner.

Assessment of Strategic Influences

As the name states, the process involves eight steps in order to achieve the desired results. The first step of the process is called “Establishing a Sense of Urgency”. In Kotter’s point of view, successful change can only be brought about when individuals or group at individuals working together carry out a detailed assessment of their competition. This assessment includes a look at the position, financial performance, and technological performance of the competition. This step decides on what sort of change is needed and then gives ways to implement the required change in a self-sufficient manner, paving the way towards transformation ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"B48vXAmj","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Kotter, 2007)","plainCitation":"(Kotter, 2007)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1089,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/0omESN17/items/G6P62GVQ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/0omESN17/items/G6P62GVQ"],"itemData":{"id":1089,"type":"article-journal","title":"Leading change: Why transformations fail","container-title":"Harvard Business Review","volume":"85","author":[{"family":"Kotter","given":"John P."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2007"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Kotter, 2007). The second step of the process is called “Forming a Guiding Coalition”. This step is carried out by assembling a group of individuals that have the strength and the ability to lead change and the effort required to encourage the team to work together as a group. Here, a key role is played by team leaders to bring about effective change.

“Creating a Vision” is the third step of the process. It clarifies the direction that the organization needs to take in order to bring about an effective change. This step is immediately followed by the fourth step, called “Communicating the Vision”. In order to make the transformation successful, the executives and the team leaders involved need to broadcast the required change to the masses in an effort to show everyone what is it that needs to be done and bring about an effective change within the system ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"4FqDpPii","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Kotter, 2007)","plainCitation":"(Kotter, 2007)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1089,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/0omESN17/items/G6P62GVQ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/0omESN17/items/G6P62GVQ"],"itemData":{"id":1089,"type":"article-journal","title":"Leading change: Why transformations fail","container-title":"Harvard Business Review","volume":"85","author":[{"family":"Kotter","given":"John P."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2007"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Kotter, 2007). Here, the concept of communication is seen as key and stressed in an effort to ensure that the system of change flows in a smooth manner.

The fifth step of the process is called “Empowering Others to Act on the Vision”. Kotter (2007) speaks about “getting rid of obstacles to change and changing systems or structures that seriously undermine the vision” (p. 99). Of all the steps, this step is one that takes time to get employees on board, as all change does. If the process is started with management and integrated into everyday business, then employees will be more willing to make the change. The sixth step is called “Planning for and Creating Short Term Wins”. Kotter (2007) states that “real transformations take time and a renewal effort risks losing momentum if there are no short-term goals to meet and celebrate” (p. 102). It is important to create those check-in moments of every few weeks or months, depending on the proposed change. Making sure that if there are issues with it being rolled out, the organization can address and correct those.

The seventh step is called “Consolidating Improvements and Producing Still More Change”. Kotter (2007) states that this can be completed by “hiring, promoting, and developing employees who can implement the vision” (p. 99). I believe that once a vision is established, that the SOESC would succeed in this step by completing all of the above. The eighth and final step is called “Institutionalizing New Approaches”. According to Kotter (2007) states that this step is done by “developing the means to ensure leadership development and succession” (p. 99). In this step, the process should be finalized, and change should be taking place.

Practical Application

The steps listed in the process are extremely beneficial to the entire system, especially considering that change is something that is not always considered positive. However, the way these steps operate makes the implementation of change successful. It gives the organization the right climate of change and even organizes the change in a manner that makes it possible to link the change to the organization in the right manner ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"76vCjVoF","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Stragalas, 2010)","plainCitation":"(Stragalas, 2010)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1090,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/0omESN17/items/54WZDDKF"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/0omESN17/items/54WZDDKF"],"itemData":{"id":1090,"type":"article-journal","title":"Improving change implementation","container-title":"OD practitioner","page":"31-38","volume":"42","issue":"1","author":[{"family":"Stragalas","given":"Nicole"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2010"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Stragalas, 2010).

Benefits to Strategic Business Leadership

Strategic leaders are often responsible for encouraging employees and fostering a sense of encouragement among them to follow their own ideas. Often, such employees make use of the reward and incentive system to ensure the productivity of the organization as well as the employees, which allows and even encourage employees to do better ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"S67lhKiC","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(MICEKA, 2014)","plainCitation":"(MICEKA, 2014)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1091,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/0omESN17/items/NWHAF6YF"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/0omESN17/items/NWHAF6YF"],"itemData":{"id":1091,"type":"thesis","title":"STRATEGIC CHANGE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND SUSTAINABILITY MODELS ADOPTED BY INTERNATIONAL LIVESTOCK RESEARCH INSTITUTE (ILRI) IN KENYA","publisher":"SCHOOL OF BUSINESS, UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI","author":[{"family":"MICEKA","given":"GRACE KAWIRA"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2014"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Miceka, 2014).

Thus, given the practical application of these four steps and how easy they are to implement makes it easier to carry out strategic leadership by organizational leaders. For instance, given the conscious-raising among people with regard to the existing workplace biasedness and lack of diversity in workplace, the managerial employees can task the Human Resource Department to ensure that the people being recruited to the company are the best candidate for the job despite belonging to a different social class, ethnic group, and even age. This would keep applicants from feeling like the company is operating on its own employment bias as if they are being passed over just so that the organization can create a diverse population.

Furthermore, the Kotter’s Eight Step Method is also helpful in giving an organization a well throughout plan about taking their company public through an online platform. Given the prevalence of eCommerce and online marketing, more and more organizations are making an effort to move online nowadays. Thus, in this regard, the step can even out the process for them, making the system a whole lot smoother.


With every change, comes benefits and risks. The organization needs to weigh the pros versus cons to see what would be most beneficial at the time. By using Kotter’s eight-step method, any business can successfully create, hire, promote, and train employees to prepare for more diversity within the organization. Change is inevitable, it is how companies prepare their staff for that change that can make a world of difference.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Kotter, J. P. (2007). Leading change: Why transformations fail. Harvard Business Review, 85.

Miceka, G. K. (2014). Strategic Change Management Practices and Sustainability Models Adopted By International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) In Kenya. School of Business, University Of Nairobi.

Stragalas, N. (2010). Improving change implementation. OD Practitioner, 42(1), 31–38.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

Women Are Better Managers Than Men.”

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of Instructor]



Women are better managers than men


The enactment of gender equality laws in the United States has contributed attention towards the position of women in management. Women are termed as “the weaker sex” and “fair sex”. It is important to note that both the terms are connotation of physical strength and attire that has no relationship with management capabilities and knowledge. Women have played a major role in economic growth in the last few years. There has been a long debate regarding the role of women in management. It is assertive that personality plays a major role in determining the relationships and working styles. (Rawat, et, al. 2019, pp. 458). Taking into account the equality in ability and aptitude it is globally acknowledged that there are certain personality differences between men and women. However, another aspect of personality traits asserts that women have a higher level of authority and empathy, one of the basic attribute in management. It is inferred that women scored low in terms of assertiveness and social confidence. It is assumed that the authority of females would be different from the traditional approach of “being authoritative”. (Appelbaum, et, al. 2013, pp. 110-118). Research has highlighted that female managers are more likely to employ leadership by example as compared to their male counterparts. Research on the management styles highlight that women have found a way that can strike the balance between the aspects of management and personality traits. An overall analysis reveals that women are better managers than man.


There are several stereotypes that are associated with female managers such as less self-confidence, less analytical approach, poor leadership skills and less consistency in work as compared to men. It is significant to note that time has played a major role to disregard these stereotypes. In order to infer the stance that women are better managers than men, it is necessary to incorporate research data. According to Gallup report that was based on four decades of research, an analysis was made of 27 million employees and their responses were collected. Evaluation stressed that females outperformed their male counterparts in terms of employee engagement, 41% of female managers are engaged at work as compared to the calculated ratio of 35% in men. (Larrieta‐Rubín de Celis, et, al. 2015, pp. 91-110). It is important to note that employment engagement refers to “working attributes” such as commitment and enthusiasm. There are certain aspects that assert that women are more towards positive reaction and positive feedback. Women pay keen attention to the encouragement of employees in terms of evaluation, development, and recognition of efforts.

Better communication skills

Listening is one of the crucial skills of mangemning employees. It is inferred that women are better listeners than men. Women are more towards elaborated discussion as compared to men, taking into account that most of men believe in actions only. Men fail in hearing diverse suggestions and empathizing a problem from different perspectives. In contrast, women believe in planned actions, they prefer detailed discussions that are crucial to establishing loyalty and accountability. According to Gallup report, it is recorded that female managers are 1.29 times more likely to have interactive and active communication with positive feedback in the last six months as compared to men who don't care about feedback and communication. (Larrieta‐Rubín de Celis, et, al. 2015, pp. 91-110). Better communication is not only confirmed to the realms of hearing what others are saying, in fact, it refers to the active involvement in tracking strengths and weaknesses. One of the cultural stereotypes that, “women are emotional" is more prevalent taking into account that as soon as a female manager will observe something she won't stay back without addressing it. Where people think it is a negative connotation, researchers have proved that it is one of the major reasons that companies with females managers achieve their goals at greater speed as compared to men. (Adhikari, et, al. 2019).

High ratio of engagement

Employee recognition and retention are one of the major attributes of management. In accordance with the Gallup report, it has been highlighted that women have better potential to build strong and working teams. Women are more passionate in terms of building long term loyalty and boosting productivity within organizations. Report highlights that females are 1.17 times more likely to appreciate the work and efforts of employees as compared to male managers who have less approach towards employee appraisal. (Larrieta‐Rubín de Celis, et, al. 2015, pp. 91-110).

Personal Growth and development

It is significant to note that women managers hold better competency to appreciate good work and encourage employees as compared to their male counterparts. According to a research that was published in Harward Business Review, it his asserted that women outperform men in hiring, taking into account the score, i.e. 12 out 16 of management competencies. 1.26% of the employees working with female managers believe that they are more encouraged regarding development as compared to those who worked for male managers. (Larrieta‐Rubín de Celis, et, al. 2015, pp. 91-110). Other parameters of personal growth and development highlight that women are excellent at career counseling, on-the-job-training and giving quick feedback to employees. Women try to make employees feel valued and a major asset.

Regenerating self-improvement

Women are more hardworking, resilient and tenacious to setbacks. They aim at putting extra efforts in regenerating self-improvement in employees, women are eager to improve the efficiency of employees by enhancing their existing skills. In accordance with a survey report published in the 2018, women earned a score of 85 in terms of encouraging self-improvement as compared to men with a score of 63.7. (Simpson, et, al. 2015). It is affirmative that men are anxious and quick deciders, they can cope up with employees’ flaws and outspoken habits discourage employees, leading to a greater ratio of resignation in employees working with male managers.

Technological adaptation

Research has highlighted that women have better analytical abilities along with an enhanced capacity to coordinate processes. In a simplified form, women have a greater potential to comply with the strategies of company. Although women are associated with “traditions”, still it is important to note that women give more chances. (Chamorro-Premuzic & Tomas. 2019). In terms of management, women can rely on every instinct that can help company to achieve its long term goals. They are more welcoming to changes and adaptation to technologies. In contrast, men are lethargic in trusting the adaptation of technologies.

Subtle Determination

According to an example incorporated by Wentling in his research on "women and management", it is quoted that a women denied promotion despite extraordinary skills because his manager thought she will leave the job because of her marriages, however this assumption was disregarded when she continued job after her marriage for a time span of fifteen years. (Tabassum, et al. 2019). In accordance with the Wall Street Journal, it is asserted that women are gaining a foothold in business executive and business owners. (Tabassum, et al. 2019). Although gender difference is playing its role, still about 11 million private companies are managed by women. It is a suitable example of women determination, taking into account that the data has been verified by the Center for Women Business Research. This stake refers to 47.7% of the figure. These firms are generating revenue of $2.5 trillion in terms of annual sales and they have employed about 19 million people. (Appelbaum, et, al. 2013, pp. 110-118).

Leadership skills

Management is all about adequate leadership skills. It is significant to note that women have better leadership skills as compared to men. However, it is an undeniable fact that men and women adopt different leadership skills. Women leadership is all about negotiation and coordination but, male leadership is all about authoritative and enforced conduct. Usually, men use threats and aggressive commands to achieve their desired goals. According to the research from Grant Thorton International, it is asserted that the stance of goal achievement and implication of long terms goals has been increased from the year 2002 to 2019. (Adhikari, et, al. 2019).

More Inclination

Business shifts play a major role in management. An exegetical analysis highlights that women are more towards inclination. Being managers, women are more towards accepting any change or adjusting with change. Inclination refers to the frequency with which certain professional attributes are enforced. In the case of men, aggression and disappointment are one of the leading stances that usually incorporate flaws in business management by men. It is important to note that inclination is one of the personality traits that are highly associated with females because men lack emotional and temperamental inclination. (Rawat, et, al. 2019, pp. 458).


According to research by Harvard University, it has been brought into insight that women are more like “head of game” in management. In accordance with the Gallup report, it would not be wrong to say that women try to cultivate an open office environment as compared to male managers. (Tabassum, et al. 2019). Employees especially, millennial are more curious towards changes and innovation to the open environment, considering that it is a great tool for them to incorporate their abilities with a positive attitude. Millennials are interested in their tasks such as product modification, addressing client concerns, why a new deck has been placed and why there is an increased load as compared to previous schedules. An analysis of open office environment allow employees specially Millennials to secure a multi-million dollar asset and work hard to save the future market. (Chamorro-Premuzic & Tomas, 2019).

Strong Business Ethics

Code of conduct plays a major role in determining the stance of management. It is significant to note that “women consider and acknowledge the rights of others in terms of fairness pursuit”. Researchers have associated “non-arbitrary fashion" in women managers. It is asserted that females are mindful of ethical choices and decisions, taking into account that there is greater stress on the abiding of rules in companies that are managed by women as compared to those which are managed by men. The reason that researchers have given for strong business ethics in women managers is that women are highly flexible in terms of business environment; they quickly adjust with the limits that are pushed to them. In the case of male managers, they do a number of wrong things when pushed to limits and try to act askew of the ethical standards. (Adhikari, et, al. 2019).

More patience

A study conducted by My Hermes infers that women have more patience as compared to men and it is one of the factors that make women better managers. Women don’t reach an immediate conclusion, and then don’t take action too soon. In accordance with business ethics, it is highlighted that success is not achieved overnight, it takes time. Men try to achieve results at a greater acceleration; they are quicker in making decisions and assume results that usually result in loss and mishaps. Although patience is used interchangeably with “lethargic attitude” and “lack of critical thinking”, still it is important to note that none of the entity in this world is a code of perfection. Side by side, women's patience can save a company from major devastations in the same way as men's ability to quick decision making can gain long term loss. (Appelbaum, et, al. 2013, pp. 110-118).

Passion Activators

It is a common assumption that women have better command on language skills and they can “play with words”. According to Jay Fote, the author of “Fire Up! Your Employees and Smoke Your Competition”, it is quoted that women are “more astute about knowing how to activate passion”. (Rawat, et, al. 2019, pp. 458). It is also a common observation that women have the linguistic skills to molds active and passive moods. The author inferred that women can watch 43 muscles in your face and observe the change in your emotions. (Tabassum, et al. 2019). In accordance with managerial roles, it is significant to note that passion is one of the keys to loyalty, it not only motivates the employees, but it will also make employees more concerned about their tasks and services.


In accordance with the theoretical framework and research, it can be asserted that “women are better managers than men”. Although several stereotypes are associated with females and their approach towards business, still women have all the characteristics that can make them better managers as compared to their male counterparts. It is evident that there are certain personality flaws that are innate but research has proven that those social flaws have also contributed to making women successful managers. There is no evidence that can assert the inferiority of women in terms of roles as compared to men.

Work Cited

Adhikari, Binay, Anup Agrawal, and James Malm. "Do Women Managers Keep Firms out of Trouble? Evidence from Corporate Litigation and Policies." Journal of Accounting & Economics (JAE), Forthcoming (2019).

Appelbaum, Steven H., et al. "Upward mobility for women managers: Styles and perceptions: Part Two." Industrial and Commercial Training 45.2 (2013): 110-118.

Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas. Why Do So Many Incompetent Men Become Leaders?:(And How to Fix It). Harvard Business Press, 2019.

Larrieta‐Rubín de Celis, Izaskun, et al. "Does having women managers lead to increased gender equality practices in corporate social responsibility?." Business Ethics: A European Review 24.1 (2015): 91-110.

Rawat, Preeti S., et al. "Women Organization Commitment: Role of the Second Career & Their Leadership Styles." A Review of Economic & Social Development 54.3 (2019): 458.

Simpson, W. Gary, David Carter, and Frank P. D'Souza. "What do we know about women on boards?." (2015).

Tabassum, Naznin, et al. "Antecedents of women managers’ resilience: conceptual discussion and implications for HRM." International Journal of Organizational Analysis (2019).

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 7 Words: 2100

Women Leadership

[Name of Student]

[Name of Professor]

[Name of Class]

[Day Month Year]

Women Leadership

Women leadership play a significant role by favoring equitable redistribution of resources and influence policy design at local, central and international levels. As women have been increasingly entering into the leadership roles that previously were occupied mainly by men ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"S8Pbavw8","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Eagly and Johannesen\\uc0\\u8208{}Schmidt)","plainCitation":"(Eagly and Johannesen‐Schmidt)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":65,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/PlleVRGT/items/TD5IMMJ3"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/PlleVRGT/items/TD5IMMJ3"],"itemData":{"id":65,"type":"article-journal","title":"The Leadership Styles of Women and Men","container-title":"Journal of Social Issues","page":"781-797","volume":"57","issue":"4","source":"spssi.onlinelibrary.wiley.com","DOI":"10.1111/0022-4537.00241","ISSN":"1540-4560","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Eagly","given":"Alice H."},{"family":"Johannesen‐Schmidt","given":"Mary C."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2001",1,1]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Eagly and Johannesen‐Schmidt). With the contemporary attention employers, the media and the legal community have been paying the notion of gender fairness and equality for positive promotion of women in leadership roles ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"rPWVWeNh","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Heathfield)","plainCitation":"(Heathfield)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":67,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/PlleVRGT/items/ZVWTYNMF"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/PlleVRGT/items/ZVWTYNMF"],"itemData":{"id":67,"type":"webpage","title":"What Organizations Can Do to Promote Women in Leadership Roles","container-title":"The Balance Careers","abstract":"Women experience challenges at work to utilize their strengths and obtain promotions to leadership roles. Here's what organizations can do to improve.","URL":"https://www.thebalancecareers.com/how-to-promote-women-in-leadership-roles-1918609","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Heathfield","given":"Susan M."}],"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",4,18]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Heathfield). The opportunity has immeasurable possibilities for a more equitable and fair workplace that both the genders bring to leadership and management.

Leadership is not confined to men only, people become leaders when they develop a sense of purpose and internalize a leadership identity. Therefore, both the genders negate the cycle that heart of becoming a leader such as subtle gender bias that persists in various societies and organizations. When women are assigned higher positions, their confidence and reputation grow. In this regard, for the integration of leadership into core identity, they need to develop credibility in culture. Moreover, both the genders have to recognize that potential that the women themselves have for centuries. The gender bias that obstructs their role in leadership needs to be ignored. Therefore, it needed to educate people about women’s access to leadership roles, establish a safe ‘identity workspaces’, and women grow efforts in a sense of leadership role. The society will have to deconstruct the view of women in leadership roles.

Works Cited

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Eagly, Alice H., and Mary C. Johannesen‐Schmidt. “The Leadership Styles of Women and Men.” Journal of Social Issues, vol. 57, no. 4, Jan. 2001, pp. 781–97. spssi.onlinelibrary.wiley.com, doi:10.1111/0022-4537.00241.

Heathfield, Susan M. “What Organizations Can Do to Promote Women in Leadership Roles.” The Balance Careers, https://www.thebalancecareers.com/how-to-promote-women-in-leadership-roles-1918609. Accessed 18 Apr. 2019.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Work Breakdown Structure

Work Breakdown Structure

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the institution]


Project Scope Statement

Project Name

Building Renovation Project

Project Timeline

The project is starting from 03/1/2019 and will finish on 6/30/2019 if no delay comes.

Budget for Project

List of Expected Project Cost

Main Constituents of Renovation

Expected Budget

Hiring of Project team


Assurance of structural stability




Major work of building




Plumbing and Electric Services


Passage for Elevators


External Work


Interior Finish




Project Objective

The purpose of this renovation project is to remodel and reshape the 2nd and 3rd floors of the existing building so that the capacity for the company’s newly established departments can be increased. The idea is to bring more efficiency in the workplace by modifying the physical space available to the company.

General Objective

The aim is to enhance the productivity of all the employees and build a comfortable and peaceful environment for the company’s staff to work.

Specific Objective

Reorganize and repair the two floors of the building according to the potential capacity.

To design the two departments in such a way that it facilitates the newly hired human resource.

Project Deliverables

The deliverables that will be received during every phase and at the end of the project. They are as follows:

Renovated 2nd floor with 40 new cabins

Renovated 3rd floor with partition of 5 rooms

2 additional restrooms

2 elevators

Extra space for new employees

Waiting area

Separate meeting room

I.T room

Redesigned windows on each floor

Doors for the floors

Small room for utility services control

Kitchen for each floor

Project Milestones

Approval of Government Authority for renovation

Acceptance of Planning Commission

Framing in given time


First Fix

Interior Finish

External work

Technical Requirements

Experience of Project Manager

Earth Work in both the floors

Fire Protection

Weather tight structure

Plumbing Specialties

Insulation expertise

Windows suitable location

Spacing of Cabins with electronic equipment

Proper allocation of wiring

Limits and Exclusions

Project scope document must keep in consideration which aspects are included in the project scope and which are out of project scope. Below are the functions mentioned which limits the project scope. They are:

In Scope Inclusions of Project

Renovation of 2nd floor and the walls

Renovation of 3rd floor and the walls

Rebuild the roof

Redesign the structure


More space for cabins

Project Exclusions

Not more than 40 cabins which makes other cabins congested

Heating and ventilating

Air conditioning system

No material will be used which has a validity of only 5 years

Electronic setup

Use of Glass in windows

-36195042862500Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)


Lock, D. (2017). The essentials of project management. Routledge.

Lock, D. (2016). Project management in construction. Routledge.

Siami-Irdemoosa, E., Dindarloo, S. R., & Sharifzadeh, M. (2015). Work breakdown structure (WBS) development for underground construction. Automation in Construction, 58, 85-94.

Burtonshaw-Gunn, S. A. (2017). Risk and financial management in construction. Routledge.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Work System Design

Work System Design

Your Name


Work System Design

A local restaurant is select for this assignment. The first step in work system design is to identify the objective of the business CITATION AMG09 \l 1033 (AM Grant, 2009). The objective of the selected local restaurant is to deliver quality food at reasonable prices to its customers. To achieve its objective, the restaurant needs to design an evaluation method for its employees. The evaluation will record the employee's performance, and how it is contributing to the restaurant revenue. Evaluation method should reward employee on the basis of his performance CITATION HGH72 \l 1033 (HG Heneman, 1972). Penalties should also be given on poor performance. Introducing penalty and reward will motivate the employee to do more and better. In addition, the performance of the restaurant will increase by introducing the proposed evaluation system. The performance will directly affect customer satisfaction by giving them quality food on time. Eventually, it will increase the revenue of the restaurant.

To achieve the goals, the restaurant needs to define a set of jobs. Workers needed for the business include bartender, professional wait staff, trained kitchen staff, and a chef. Each individual has its own responsibilities which will help the restaurant in achieving its objectives. Chef’s job is to make food and maintain the menu. The chef plays a backbone of any restaurant, he should be experienced. His responsibility is not only to make good food. He should have the ability to manage time. On weekends or on holiday chefs skill are tested, he should be able to perform well under the pressure. At last, the trained kitchen staff is a must for kitchen performance. Chef should also have leadership with a complete command over the kitchen. Waiters should be hired on the basis of experience. They should be well trained to cooperate with the kitchen staff and to satisfy the customer. The bartender has to communicate with the waiter, or sometimes directly with the customer. They should also be well aware of their responsibilities. In the end, the manager of the restaurant has greater responsibilities the same as of the restaurant's chef. As the chef has command over the kitchen, similarly manager has the command over the restaurant. He/ she has to create and maintain a good link between each department and its employees within the restaurant. One of his major responsibility is customer satisfaction. Evaluation system suggested in the above paragraph can enhance the performance of workers, resulting in benefiting the restaurant.


BIBLIOGRAPHY AM Grant, S. P. (2009). 7 redesigning work design theories: the rise of relational and proactive perspectives. The Academy of Management Annals. Retrieved from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/19416520903047327

HG Heneman, D. S. (1972). Evaluation of research on expectancy theory predictions of employee performance. Psychological Bulletin. Retrieved from https://psycnet.apa.org/record/1973-01420-001

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Working In Organisations

RUNNING HEAD: Working in Organisations

Working in Organisations


[Name of the Institution]

Working in Organisations

Specifications of the Job as Defined in the Advertisement

Booth Dispensers Ltd is a UK based company that specializes in developing appliances, electronics, etc. The company has been providing products along with the services needed by businesses or households in this regard. The job advertisement that has been displayed is for the position of Customer Support Administrator. This job has interested me because it aligns with my career goals. My development plan includes working on a challenging job that gives me opportunities to have exposure to different situations. The position of Customer Support Administrator will help me in this regard.

There are different skills that are required as a Customer Support Administrator as the job requires employees to be in contact with the customers directly. The top three competencies that are required for the job as advertised are:

Exceptional Service for the Customers: The candidate is required to demonstrate people skills which means that he or she has to be courteous, polite and patient when dealing with the customers.

Able to Handle Calls: As a customer support administrator, the job would be to interact with customers mostly through phone calls directly. Sometimes there is immense pressure when it comes to calls; therefore, the candidate must be able to handle all kinds of calls.

Managing Effective Relationships: Company needs a team player as well as a person who can work alone. For this purpose, a candidate must be capable of developing and maintaining healthy relationships in the work environment.

Selection Methods available for the Job Advert

As a HR manager, there are different selection methods available to select the best candidate for the position of Customer Support Administrator. These methods are:


References are used as a selection tool in organisations. Candidates provide particular references either on the application or CVs. These references can be previous employers of the candidate. A strength of this method is that the former employer of the candidate can describe the performance. Similarly, credibility of the candidate can be assessed. However, a weakness of this method is that candidates mention references of their own choice which results in biased and sometimes incorrect information.


It is the most common method that is used in the selection process. This is conducted by the organisation in different ways. There are telephonic interviews or face-to-face interviews. Normally a panel of employees conducts interviews. A panel means a group of 2 or more employees conduct the interview. A HR representative and manager of the concerned department are usually part of the panel. CITATION Ted05 \l 1033 (Johns & Leatherbarrow, 2005 ) It is most common method because there are various strengths of this method. Organisation and candidate can have a better understanding of each other. Meeting someone physically helps employers to assess whether the candidate is capable of the job or not. Similarly, a candidate can see if the organisation is suitable for them or not. However, weakness of this method is that selection is made just on the basis of interview. A candidate who gives a good interview will be selected even if he or she is not capable of performing well on the job. CITATION Fre10 \l 1033 (Lunenburg, 2010) This method is suitable for selecting the candidate for Customer Support Administrator because, in interviews, interpersonal skills of candidates can be easily assessed.

Psychometric Tests

There are some tests that are designed to assess the personality of candidates. These tests are also said to be used for determining the skills of the candidates. The strength of this method is that it can be found whether a candidate is suitable for a certain job or not. A weakness of this method is that these tests can be manipulated, yielding incorrect results.

Assessment Centers

Using this method, organisation uses different methods to assess capabilities and skills of candidates. These methods can include role-plays, presentations, etc. Strength of this method is that a candidate can be tested in different situations. However, a weakness is that it is expensive to conduct. This method is also suitable for selection of Customer Support Administrator because candidates can be tested by playing out different scenarios that they might face on the job.

Job Design and Job Satisfaction

Job Characteristics model states that characteristics or design of a job has a positive impact on motivation of employees. When employees are motivated, there is an increase in their productivity ultimately resulting in job satisfaction. According to the model, job design should be as such that employees feel content to be doing the job. There are many aspects that form the characteristics of a job. Employees are motivated and satisfied when they are given opportunity to use their expertise and skills. The concept of Job design is derived from these characteristics. Other aspects of job design are the authority of employees over their jobs, the feedback that is provided to them, skill variety required by the employee, and significance and identity of the task. All these aspects contribute to the increase in satisfaction of the employees. CITATION Syu14 \l 1033 (Ali, et al., 2014)

As a successful candidate, it will result in increased satisfaction if the job design will be as such that gives me a chance to be able to use skills in different situations through which I can challenge myself. Job autonomy is very important for a job such as Customer Support Administrator. Although there are policies that are defined for behaviour and interaction with the customers, satisfaction can be increased once I will have autonomy to adapt to different situations.

Similarly, feedback is very important because if performance has not been good, improvements can be brought. On the other hand, recognition is very encouraging if the performance has been well. Either way, knowledge regarding the results is important.

Skill Variety will help in motivation because there will be different tasks to perform instead of a monotonous job. When new tasks are being assigned, interest level in the job increases. When different tasks are assigned, responsibility will increase. Task significance and identity is also important. It will result in more satisfaction and motivation if I feel that my job is not only important to myself but to other people as well. It means that it will be more motivating for me if I realize that I can make an impact in other people’s lives.

Keeping in view these aspects, job should be designed in a way that I get the independence to mould the script according to the situation. Similarly, regular feedbacks are important for the job and myself because it will help in improvements.

Job Advertisement

Customer Support Administrator

Due to a growth in business, Booth Dispensers Limited, a leading UK manufacturer of refrigeration units, equipment for the drinks industry, require an addition to their administration department.

The successful candidate will have both excellent computer skills and be comfortable speaking with a wide range of customers and be able to multi task effectively to cope with both a high volume of orders and the varied demands placed on position. A confident communicator who is customer focused with previous experience within the brewery or soft drinks sectors would be beneficial but not essential as training will be given, an interest in the technical side of the equipment would be helpful.

Core responsibilities include –

Act on customers’ orders,

Answering customer queries via phone and email,

Keeping customers informed about the status of their orders, including orders from Europe & America

Liaising with Export carriers to ensure collections & deliveries are to schedule,

Liaising with various departments to micromanage an order/enquiry to achieve required delivery dates,

Updating customer information,

Calling existing customers to service their ongoing requirements,

Key Skills

Confident user of IT including EXCEL and Word (previous use of SAGE would be an advantage).

Excellent telephone manner

Well organised and able to work independently or part of a team as required.

Commitment to providing exceptional Customer Service.

There is an excellent remuneration package which includes life assurance, personal pension plan and medical benefits. Holiday entitlement is 5 weeks per year plus statutory bank holidays. Core hours for the position would be 8am – 4.30pm; however, we would require flexibility around these hours to help cover within the department.

Please send a CV and cover letter via Indeed.

Job Types: Full-time, Permanent

Please send a current CV and covering letter detailing suitability for the role to:hr@booth-dispensers.co.uk

Figure 1: Job Advertisement CITATION Bra19 \l 1033 (Brandels, 2019)


BIBLIOGRAPHY Ali, S. A. M. et al., 2014. Hackman and Oldham’s Job Characteristics Model to Job Satisfaction. The Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 129, pp. 46-52.

Brandels, 2019. Customer Support Administrator. [Online] Available at: https://brandels.co.uk/customer-support-administrator/[Accessed 2019].

Johns, T. & Leatherbarrow, C., 2005 . People Resourcing. illustrated ed. UK: CIPD Publishing.

Lunenburg, F. C., 2010. The Interview as a Selection Device: Problems and Possibilities. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCHOLARLY ACADEMIC INTELLECTUAL DIVERSITY, 12(1), pp. 1-7.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

Workplace Policies And Regulatory Issues

Workplace Policies and Regulatory Issues

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Workplace Policies and Regulatory Issues


Workplace policies are the regulatory measures that are in implemented in order to maintain a balanced and healthy environment at the workplace. These policies are devised so that every worker feels comfortable and gives out his or her best with respect to his job (Gobind et al., 2014). These policies may be job-related, that may concern a specific job, or maybe general, concerning the overall organization.

One of the major issues that is a widespread evil in our society nowadays is harassment. This issue has affected the gatherings everywhere, whether it is an educational institute, an office or even a social gathering. Employers work regularly on developing and updating the policies regarding harassment from time to time, considering the nature of the issues and the changing environment of the workplace. Our organization, JS Technologies, also needs to develop and maintain some policies regarding the harassment issues at workplace and how to prevent them.


Harassment is a common issue in the society nowadays, and sadly, our industrial and professional organizations are also not safe from it. It is a shocking truth that a large number of working people claim that they have faced workplace harassment one or more than once in their career (Anagha, 2016). There are specific other terms used for the workplace harassment like "workplace bullying," "workplace abuse" "workplace mistreatment," "workplace aggression" and “mobbing” but all point towards the same behavior and attitude. Workplace harassment may be of two types:



Being a growing and developing organization, JS Technologies heavily needs to devise policies regarding both the types of harassment so that its employees can feel safe and concentrate on their work. These policies are also very much needed as JS Technologies as we are an equal opportunity employer. JS Technologies welcomes people from all the nationalities, religions, cultures, races, castes, creeds, age and genders to come and work with us and we do not want that our employees feel uncomfortable regarding any hurting comment or action and work comfortably focusing on the job.

Organizations are practicing multiple types of practices in their respective areas to curb and control harassment issues. Every organization has developed certain policies or set of policies in order to handle the cases of harassment (Fusilier, & Penrod, 2015). JS Technologies can also develop certain rules and regulations to tackle the issues regarding harassment issues whether they are related to physical harassment or emotional harassment. These policies can be as follows:

There should be a proper inquiry by a committee if any case of harassment is reported

The committee should thoroughly go through all the evidence and the related material which can support the claim.

The person convicted of conducting physical or sexual harassment should be immediately suspended from their job, no matter how important the position he or she is holding.

If the convicted person is found guilty of conducting the harassment, he or she should be immediately terminated from the company.

In addition to termination, the defendant is entirely autonomous to take legal action, if they want to.

In case of an incident of emotional harassment, the offender should be given a strict warning and if they repeat the same behavior, should be suspended for some days.

These policies should be explicitly mentioned in the employee manual in details and every new employee, at the time of induction, should be made to read it carefully and sign. The frequent changes and updates should be displayed on the notice board as well so that the employees can remain updated about them. It would help significantly in the implementation of the new policies and help them HR to easily convey them to the employees (Raju, & Ravi, 2015).

The US constitution also takes the harassment at the workplace as a serious offense, and Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits the citizens from indulging in any such activity.


Hence, It can be concluded that laws and regulations regarding workplace harassments so that JS Technologies can maintain and healthy and peaceful working environment.


Anagha, S. (2016). Sexual Harassment Of Women At Workplace.

Fusilier, M., & Penrod, C. (2015). University employee sexual harassment policies. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 27(1), 47-60.

Gobind, J., Geldenhuys, M., Leo, L., & Reid, R. (2014). The inferences of gender in workplace bullying: A conceptual analysis. Gender and Behaviour, 12(1), 6059-6069.

Raju, k. H. H., & Ravi, J. (2015). Human resource role in handling workplace bullying issues.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 2 Words: 600

World Trade Organization

World Trade Organization

Student’s Name


Brief History of World Trade Organization

World Trade Organization is an organization whose main function was to improve trade relations between nations (Matsushita, Schoenbaum, Mavroidis, & Hahn, 2015). In addition are trade rules that ensure smooth flow of trade, and predictable business environment. The organization became operational on 1 January 1995 based on the Marrakesh agreement signed by 123 nations in April 1994. Formation of the organization replaced the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade that existed from 1948 (Matsushita et al., 2015).


World trade organizations help in promoting peace among nations. As trade expands and business shift into the global markets disputes arise, therefore, WTO helps to settle disputes constructively. The WTO provides rules that benefit all the members rather than considering power. The organization lowers trade barriers hence ensuring free trade, which cuts the cost of living. in addition, there are a variety of products and services available for trade. Moreover, the free trade increase income and stimulates economic growth (Matsushita et al., 2015).


The organization does not support democracy hence no transparency. Involving the organization, the richer countries take advantage of the poor nations posing a risk on development. The organization considers corporations rights rather than labour and human rights. It privatizes essential services and destroys the environment hence encouraging killing people (Matsushita et al., 2015).

Settling disputes

The organization has a mandate of establishing a panel comprising a group of experts to handle the case.at the first stage there is room for consultation of up to 60 days. In the second stage, the organization forms a panel, an exercise that takes up to 45 days (Matsushita et al., 2015). Hence, the panel is responsible to give a report on the findings and advice accordingly.


Canada and USA have entered into a dispute regarding the USA dumping duties. The WTO that was to help in settling the dispute between the two countries formed a panel. A report was provided and Canada had to appeal. This shows the role played by the WTO. The appellate body has up to 3 months to conclude on the case.


Matsushita, M., Schoenbaum, T. J., Mavroidis, P. C., & Hahn, M. (2015). The World Trade Organization: law, practice, and policy. Oxford University Press.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Writer Can Decide


-19050025209500INTERNAL MEMO




This is to inform you that you will be moving to a new office location. You are hereby expected to choose a date between 9th and 16th November. Once you have settled on a date, you are expected to do the following:

Cover fragile items such as glass, plaques and glass sculptures with foam pads. Handle the glass with caution and avoid having the movers do the movement as it will force the cost center to do the replacement.

Pack up the filing cabinets and you will move them yourself.

Indicate the delivery locations for cork boards, white boards and cabinets on the movement map.

Include label for your name on your office items such as docking stations, monitors, desk phones, monitors, tables, ergonomic chairs and desks

Remove old labels on the recycled boxes or cross out to avoid confusion

For ease of movement, we will send tape, boxes move map and labels 4 or 5 days prior to your movement date. Please inform me if the timeframe is favorable to have enough to have all your belongings packed and inform me if you have and ergonomic or desk or chair you want moved. In addition, if you are moving an equipment from the current to the new team, kindly inform me. Remember the company policy gives you the liberty to move your workstation or laptop to your new workstation. However, your new workstation will have monitors and peripherals. Please check with the administration and let me know the office equipment you will be carrying along.

The movers are likely to arrive between 4pm and midnight of the date you choose. It is thus paramount everything should be ready by that time.

Thank You.

Robert Shaw

Administration Manager

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 1 Words: 300


Title Page

Louis Vuitton benchmarking

Part A

Louis Vuitton encountered manufacturing issues after adoption of efficient methods. The company relied on automatic manufacturing while the customers were expecting high quality and unique products crafted by artisans. In 2010 the advertisement of LV was banned the company was selling manufactured not handcrafted products. The focus on improving efficiency affected the company's reputation and brand loyalty of customers CITATION IVE16 \l 1033 (IVEY, 2016). The company misleads the customers that caused dissatisfaction and loss of reputation. The customers claimed that the bags were not handmade that reflects low quality. The purpose of adopting the machine method was to manufacture bags more efficiently. This had a direct relationship with the revenues and profitability (Thompson, 2011). Machines allowed the company to create more bags in the limited time that means lowering labor costs.

Company’s strategy of maximizing its productivity influenced its quality. The claims also stated that the company used fake advertisement showing crafts skills. LV had misguided customers and provided a product that was different from their expectations. Bad retail experience of the company was associated with unique brand values for targeting customers across different regions CITATION IVE16 \l 1033 (IVEY, 2016). LV lost its brand loyalty that was important for creating positive emotions and demand for its products. Losing prospective market shares could have negative long-term impacts on business sustainability and growth. Before the event, it was apparent that LV captures its customers due to its positive reputation and brand loyalty.

Part B

Tesla, the automotive company, faced crisis similarly by adopting a model of ‘manufacturing hell.' The customers claimed that electrical cars have serious quality problems. The product was not according to the expectations of the customers. This reveals the defects in the assembly model. Due to serious quality claims the company failed to attain its target of manufacturing 20,000 battery cares. It has adverse impacts on the process of manufacturing because the company lowered its target to 2,500 cars by the end of the month and 5,000 by the end of June. The defects in manufacturing were the result of a lack of talent and quality experts. The company failed to resolve the quality issues even after launching its third battery car model. The defective lithium-ion packs influenced the performance and operations of the car. This confirms that the company failed to provide the model according to the client's expectations. It was also revealed that "one current Tesla engineer estimated that 40 percent of the parts made or received at its Fremont factory require rework” CITATION Pau182 \l 1033 (Eisenstein, 2018). The company faced huge losses and shipped the parts back for rework. Low quality also threatened the reliability of the product. A similar situation faced by LV when the customers doubted the quality due to reliance on mechanical work. LV ignored the facts that are relying on machines is against the company's vision of craftsmanship and reliability.

The analysis of the issues faced by Tesla reveals that it can leave negative impacts on a company's financial stability. The company needed to respond to the concerns immediately for saving its reputation. Tesla future performance is also dependent on its ability to resolving a quality problem. The issues faced by Tesla have close relevance with that of Louis Vuitton. Both companies faced quality concerns and negative response from the customers. Customer dissatisfaction risked the company’s reputation and brand loyalty. It was thus critical for both to adopt adequate strategies for addressing the issue of quality. LV also lost many of its customers due to negative media advertising and customer complaints. To handle the situation LV apologized from its customers and closed advertisement of craftsmanship.

Tesla first denied any quality concerns and silenced the employees that highlighted the problem with the battery car models. The company adopted a smear campaign for clarifying the quality concerns but later addressed the issues by instructing the engineering team. The team focused on resolving the issues by identifying the cause and making improvements in the battery car model. The best strategy adopted by Tesla was to lower its production from 20,000 to 2,500. This gives adequate time for testing the performance of the developed cars. Other strategies that the company considered for addressing the issues include resolving discrimination, talent shortage, and retaliation. To further overcome the manufacturing problems the company emphasized on rework on the defected parts CITATION Pau182 \l 1033 (Eisenstein, 2018).

Louis Vuitton for addressing its quality issues adopted advanced factory model. The company emphasized on resolving the manufacturing defects and manages more workshops for catering client needs. The company can adopt a strategy of improving its reputation by using public relationships and improving its quality. Effective advertising that portrays celebrity could be a practical tool for emotional advertising. The company can research different markets for determining customer preferences that will help in identifying the most relevant clients. The common strategies that can help LV in recapturing larger market shares include; advertising, public relations, celebrity events, websites, and deals. These are effective ways of building positive emotional appeal among customers. The central focus of the company should be on customer loyalty and high satisfaction (Thompson, 2011).

Tesla and Louis Vuitton faced manufacturing problems that affected their reputation and caused significant loss of customers. To resolve the issues and regain market positioning the companies must focus on improving public relations, advertising and branding.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Eisenstein, P. A. (2018). Tesla under fire after quality issue allegations and the loss of senior executives. Retrieved 03 11, 2019, from https://www.nbcnews.com/business/autos/problems-are-piling-tesla-quality-issues-mount-executives-flee-competition-n856946

IVEY. (2016). The growth rate of Louis Vuitton (LV) was not sustainable. IVEY.

THOMPSON, D. (2011). Branding Louis Vuitton: Behind the World's Most Famous Luxury Label. Retrieved 02 16, 2019, from https://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2011/05/branding-louis-vuitton-behind-the-worlds-most-famous-luxury-label/238746/

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Writer's Choice


[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]


The variation in consumption and the significant decrease in the unemployment rate are the prominent changes observed in the remote environment of the United States of America (USA). Since the consumption patterns are influenced by the relative prosperity of several market segments, businesses must observe the economic trends in chunks which impact specific industries. For instance, inflation rates and trends in the rise of the gross national services are the essential economic variables that have impacted the businesses in the recent years ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"dLEqQnU2","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Regulation and the Economy,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“Regulation and the Economy,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":26,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/h6KbaPMu/items/FIMULIWY"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/h6KbaPMu/items/FIMULIWY"],"itemData":{"id":26,"type":"webpage","title":"Regulation and the Economy","container-title":"Committee for Economic Development of The Conference Board","abstract":"Regulation is a major way in which government influences the U.S. market economy. The scope of government regulations is vast and reaches all sectors of the economy and all aspects of our daily lives. ...","URL":"https://www.ced.org/reports/regulation-and-the-economy","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",2,23]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Regulation and the Economy,” n.d.). To discuss the technological influence, the displacement and rapid advancement of technology are worth observing. The old school procedures for conducting business operations have diminished. In the United States, the geographic limits have been occupied after the emergence of virtual traffic ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"OIK4ITEy","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Technology Industry\\uc0\\u8217{}s Impact Felt in US Economic Growth, Workforce Gains,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“Technology Industry’s Impact Felt in US Economic Growth, Workforce Gains,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":28,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/h6KbaPMu/items/WNIM82UJ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/h6KbaPMu/items/WNIM82UJ"],"itemData":{"id":28,"type":"webpage","title":"Technology Industry’s Impact Felt in US Economic Growth, Workforce Gains","URL":"https://www.comptia.org/about-us/newsroom/press-releases/2018/03/27/technology-industry-s-impact-felt-in-us-economic-growth-workforce-gains","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",2,23]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Technology Industry’s Impact Felt in US Economic Growth, Workforce Gains,” n.d.). The business models are primarily utilizing profound wireless communication to strengthen the interaction with both domestic and global customers.

In the successive decade, climate change is likely to cast adverse impacts on the food industry. The damage of crops caused by catastrophic events as tornadoes and hurricanes are the leading environmental threat. Besides, the scarce availability of water resources is a major concern. The rising temperature and the explosion of the population will make it further challenging to sustain contemporary crop levels ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"1sNCxMXO","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Environmental Effects of the U.S. Food System - A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System - NCBI Bookshelf,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“Environmental Effects of the U.S. Food System - A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System - NCBI Bookshelf,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":24,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/h6KbaPMu/items/X62T6H4H"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/h6KbaPMu/items/X62T6H4H"],"itemData":{"id":24,"type":"webpage","title":"Environmental Effects of the U.S. Food System - A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System - NCBI Bookshelf","URL":"https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK305182/","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",2,23]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Environmental Effects of the U.S. Food System - A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System - NCBI Bookshelf,” n.d.). The wholesale food industry will receive detrimental consequences. For instance, variations in the cost of goods and products are equated by increasing the price of the agricultural commodity. This cost plays an instrumental role in the operations of the business. The rice in the processing cost is an explicit manifestation of a firm’s operational disruption. Furthermore, the technological advancement has changed the models by reducing the intervals between delivery and order ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"0q4REbl5","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Commentary: Technology and the Future of the Food Workforce: An Exploration \\uc0\\u8212{} CUNY Urban Food Policy Institute,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“Commentary: Technology and the Future of the Food Workforce: An Exploration — CUNY Urban Food Policy Institute,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":22,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/h6KbaPMu/items/PSMS8E64"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/h6KbaPMu/items/PSMS8E64"],"itemData":{"id":22,"type":"webpage","title":"Commentary: Technology and the Future of the Food Workforce: An Exploration — CUNY Urban Food Policy Institute","URL":"http://www.cunyurbanfoodpolicy.org/news/2017/6/20/zmcu3izwu3is6q3e27gce587tb80m3","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",2,23]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Commentary: Technology and the Future of the Food Workforce: An Exploration — CUNY Urban Food Policy Institute,” n.d.). The electronic interaction with the customer will assume a vital role in the next decade.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Commentary: Technology and the Future of the Food Workforce: An Exploration — CUNY Urban Food Policy Institute. (n.d.). Retrieved February 23, 2019, from http://www.cunyurbanfoodpolicy.org/news/2017/6/20/zmcu3izwu3is6q3e27gce587tb80m3

Environmental Effects of the U.S. Food System - A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System - NCBI Bookshelf. (n.d.). Retrieved February 23, 2019, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK305182/

Regulation and the Economy. (n.d.). Retrieved February 23, 2019, from https://www.ced.org/reports/regulation-and-the-economy

Technology Industry’s Impact Felt in US Economic Growth, Workforce Gains. (n.d.). Retrieved February 23, 2019, from https://www.comptia.org/about-us/newsroom/press-releases/2018/03/27/technology-industry-s-impact-felt-in-us-economic-growth-workforce-gains

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Writer's Decision

Business Communication and Role of Leadership

Your Name (First M. Last)


Business Communication and Role of Leadership


The concept of business communication recognized as an important aspect to attain a successful form of business. It is critical for the management of the business organizations to understand the importance of business communication and adopt the techniques of communication which are suitable aligns with the overall culture of the organization. This idea of business communication is defined as the prospect of information sharing between different entities who are linked to the organization in the form of important stakeholders. It is categorized as the tool which is used by the business firms to transmit an important form of knowledge to the people to achieve business goals ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"0XtpiIJY","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Gibson, 2002)","plainCitation":"(Gibson, 2002)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1705,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/UNSA3JE3"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/UNSA3JE3"],"itemData":{"id":1705,"type":"book","title":"Intercultural Business Communication: An Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Intercultural Business Communication for Teachers, Language Trainers, and Business People.","publisher":"Oxford University Press","ISBN":"0-19-442180-5","author":[{"family":"Gibson","given":"Robert"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2002"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Gibson, 2002). It is also vital to explore the role of leadership is critical when it comes to the idea of proper application of the features of business communication. It is one of the primary tasks for the business leaders to timely and appropriately delivers important information to every shareholder, so all individuals have a better understanding of the specific tasks. It is worthy to mention that organizations faced different forms of challenges due to the improper consideration of the approach of effective communication. Insufficiency of organizations in this form ultimately become the reason for failure to achieve organizational goals. The comprehensive approach of the business communication and the related challenges can better understand through the critical examination of the organization ABC who faced the challenge of poor communication between different working departments due to the incompetence of its leadership. Here the particular focus is to critically analyze the organizational issue relevant to the facets of business communication and the role of leadership.


Business communication and leadership both are two prominent features of the organizational setting. It is important to consider the broader ideas of business communication and leadership actively linked with different forms of considerations. It is vital for the management of the organizations to focus on the need for communication and implement better practical measures. The contribution of leaders can never be neglected in this perspective because they are identified as the key shareholder in the entire scenario of organizational setting. It is one main core responsibility of the leader to develop an effective communication system within and outside the organization to actively react to different organizational challenges.

Identification of the Issue

Improper or insufficient business communication is one common challenge faced by any organization. It is observed that most of the time, organizations are not focused to understand the importance of actively delivery of the crucial information to the workers. Lacking in the paradigm eventually reflect in the form of organizational failures to achieve potential goals and objectives in both short-run and long-run ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"ZYTtJRch","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Prewitt, 2003)","plainCitation":"(Prewitt, 2003)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1704,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/N6D6KBX6"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/N6D6KBX6"],"itemData":{"id":1704,"type":"article-journal","title":"Leadership development for learning organizations","container-title":"Leadership & Organization Development Journal","page":"58-61","volume":"24","issue":"2","author":[{"family":"Prewitt","given":"Vana"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2003"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Prewitt, 2003). Managers of the organizations play a critical role to develop effective corporate relationships between the employees and the higher authorities of the organizations. Nowadays’ it becomes the main priority of the corporate entities to hire the managers who have good communication skills.

Concerning the concept of business communication and the role of leadership, the practical example of the organizational setting of company ABC can be helpful. It reflects the situation when the organization faced the challenge of poor performance by the workers. The situation is getting worse with each day that required necessary and immediate interaction. At the first place, it is immensely crucial to observe the main cause that becomes the reason for the inefficiency of workers to achieve their organizational tasks. The domain of proper organizational monitoring and evaluation helps to determine that workers have concerns when it comes to the working association with the manager. There are many workers who come up with the point that they have concerns about the entire form of process handling. They do not have a proper understanding of different aspects related to their job tasks. There is a need for proper training and instructions of the main responsibility of the work which is effectively shared by their manager. This particular situation is alarming because it eventually becomes the reason for the poor performance of the employees and incompetency of the organization to meet its objective. Detailed consideration of the approach of the manager is also essential to reach the conclusion and offer some practical measures to better handle the situation. The higher management and the department of human resource management involve the whole scenario and conduct a meeting with the manager. The issues between the manager’s style of leadership and the concerns of workers are devastating for the overall performance of the organization that requires necessary attention. The assessment of the current situation reveals that there is an issue of business communication. The domain of effective communication is never effectively utilized by the managers that become problematic for the workers to do justice with their tasks. Manager of the company shows a commitment to align his approach with the workers. On the other hand, employees are also interested to work effectively and efficiently but the main concern is that they are not able to understand the actual requirements of the task. Another critical aspect relevant to this whole scenario is that receiving a late message about the work-oriented features is another concern of the workers. They come up with the opinion that the manager never plays a proactive role to determine and deliver to the employees about the actual need of the work task in the particular span of time. A thorough assessment of the situation reveals that there are various forms of issues exist in the organizational setting due to the improper consideration of the main idea of business communication. It is vital to get a better understanding of the different issues, ideas, and theories relevant to the approach of communication to propose better solutions to this sort of organizational situation.

Importance of Cohesive and Comprehensive Communication Strategy

At the first stage, it is important for the management of the organization to consider the need for adoption of effective communication strategy. The leader should have a prior understanding that why it is important to communicate well in the organizational culture and achieve the targets ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"qqHdz65z","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Ahmed, Shields, White, & Wilbert, 2010)","plainCitation":"(Ahmed, Shields, White, & Wilbert, 2010)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1703,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/RMZETJS3"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/RMZETJS3"],"itemData":{"id":1703,"type":"paper-conference","title":"Managerial communication: The link between frontline leadership and organizational performance","container-title":"First Annual General Business Conference Conference Proceedings","page":"69","author":[{"family":"Ahmed","given":"Zia"},{"family":"Shields","given":"Frank"},{"family":"White","given":"Rayondraous"},{"family":"Wilbert","given":"Jessica"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2010"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Ahmed, Shields, White, & Wilbert, 2010). Building a necessary connection between corporate communication and business strategy ultimately cause the effective completion of all business operations. It is vital for the management to adopt the domain of formal comprehensive communication strategy that is completely relevant to the main requirements of the organizational culture. It is utmost important to set the pattern that helps to send consistent messages to the workers about the work requirements. The leader of the organization needs to deliver regular messages that explicitly describe the actual mission, vision, and the overall culture of the organization.

The Impact of Effective and Ineffective Communication Strategy

It is vital to enhance understanding level about the implications of the suitable and ineffective communication strategy in the organization. This form of consideration helps management to determine the usefulness of the particular communication strategy. In other others, this sort of evaluation categorized as the roadmap for the leadership of the organization when they are thinking about the consideration and application of communication strategy for all the workers working at different levels in the organizational setting ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"BMaTwzNS","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Guffey & Loewy, 2012)","plainCitation":"(Guffey & Loewy, 2012)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1706,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/9UJ9Z8SG"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/9UJ9Z8SG"],"itemData":{"id":1706,"type":"book","title":"Essentials of business communication","publisher":"Cengage Learning","ISBN":"1-111-82122-4","author":[{"family":"Guffey","given":"Mary Ellen"},{"family":"Loewy","given":"Dana"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2012"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Guffey & Loewy, 2012).

The greatest impact of an effective communication strategy is that it is a great source to enhance the confidence level of all the employees. It is referred to as the feature that becomes the source of job satisfaction and engagement of the workers. The approach of effective communication strategy is also relevant to the proper understanding of employees about their job tasks and the terms and conditions associated with their working paradigm. Comprehensive communication strategy also gives a chance to the workers to openly deliver their main concerns to their respective leader. It is the phenomenon that gives the chance of voice to the workers. The prospects of working processes and all the related strategies also polished with the effective utilization of the suitable communication strategy. It is also determined the negative consequences of the application of ineffective communication strategy. This form of perspective can be immensely detrimental for the organization because it ultimately cost a higher rate of dissatisfaction and misunderstanding for the workers. Utilization of a wrong communication instrument can increase the challenges for the workers to figure out the actual working domain set by the leader of the organization.

The Role of Leaders

The entity of organizational leaders characterized as an integral part to develop and implement the suitable communication plan for the workers. The approach of effective leadership can never be completed without the adoption of effective communication tools and strategies. The prospect of communication is only recognized as the tool that assists leaders to deliver their organizational vision and line of action to the employees. It is vital for the leaders to develop and utilize effective communication techniques to align the working domain of the employees with the main objective of the organization. It is the only way adopted by the leaders to inspire all the workers to accomplish their personal and organizational goals. The phenomenon of great leaders is associated with great communicators.

Different Approaches to Communication

It is essential for the organizational leaders to have detailed knowledge about the available options to effectively adopt and implement communication strategy. This form of realization further helps the leader to meet the requirements of the communication linked to the specific organizational situation. There are three main things that need to be considered by the leader when it comes to the effective idea of communication. These three factors established as timing, location, and the message. It is mandatory for the leader to deliver the main idea or work instructions to the workers when three standards of the time, location, and the effectiveness of the message completely fulfil. The leader of the organization has many options that can be used to overcome the issues of communication and develop a better communication plan for the organization in a broader form. It is useful to critically understand these particular and viable instruments of communication.


The option of a newsletter is adopted by the leaders to effectively and efficiently convey their message to all the shareholders. Both options of print or electronic version of the letter can be used as a suitable tool of communication within the organization.

Town Hall Meetings

The option of town hall meetings is effective when an organization is going through with a collective form of concern. It is one successful platform for the leader to openly and clearly transmit the objectives and strategic plan of the organization to all the workers.


This form of communication is an easy and fast way for the leader to communicate with all the related entities. It is recognized as the formal source of communication that is used to provide an immediate form of instructions to the different individuals working for the organization ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"YCqiwx6X","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Gimenez, 2000)","plainCitation":"(Gimenez, 2000)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1707,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/M8JIAJZ4"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/M8JIAJZ4"],"itemData":{"id":1707,"type":"article-journal","title":"Business e-mail communication: some emerging tendencies in register","container-title":"English for specific purposes","page":"237-251","volume":"19","issue":"3","author":[{"family":"Gimenez","given":"Julio C."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2000"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Gimenez, 2000).

Face-to-Face Meetings

It is another option of communication for the leaders to figure out the actual concerns related to the workers; performance and offer some viable plan of action for the future. It is the most suitable technique in the situation when the leader wants to deliver some sensitive form of information to the concerned individual.


The telephone is another well-known way of communication within an organizational setting. It is a great opportunity for the leader to share information and briefly instruct about the tasks to the subordinates as early as possible.


Two-way communication is one significant and critical aspect of the business communication that needs to be considered by the management. It is one major task for the leader to provide a platform to the workers so, they become able to share their concerns and ideas to the higher management. The method of survey is used by the leaders to build strong interpersonally communication level with the employees.

Proper Alignment of Communication Theories and Leadership Styles

It is important for the organizational leaders to develop particular leadership that effectively aligned with the needs of effective communication. There are various theories of communication that are characterized as an effective source of consideration for the leaders. Communication accommodation theory is one significant form of the practical implication that provides a suitable ground for leaders to determine their leadership style according to the need of time. It is the specific explanation of the circumstances when the leader adjusts their leadership style according to the others. Adaptive structuration theory (AST) is another theoretical domain that helps to determine that organizations are constructed based on some specific rules and regulations. The phenomenon of structure development ultimately influenced the decision-making domain for the leaders ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"k8C7iBiu","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Littlejohn & Foss, 2009)","plainCitation":"(Littlejohn & Foss, 2009)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1708,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/P3TQ38CD"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/P3TQ38CD"],"itemData":{"id":1708,"type":"book","title":"Encyclopedia of communication theory","publisher":"Sage","volume":"1","ISBN":"1-4129-5937-3","author":[{"family":"Littlejohn","given":"Stephen W."},{"family":"Foss","given":"Karen A."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2009"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Littlejohn & Foss, 2009). Coordinated management of meaning is also one important theoretical form that indicates the role of people when they collectively develop meanings through the perspective of active coordination with each other. It reflects the strong connection between the domain of communication in the form of a message and the people involves into the entire process.


Referring to the particular organizational situation affected by the ineffective communication strategy, it is important to suggest some feasible solutions for the leadership of the organization.

It is recommended for the leader to adopt a flexible approach of leadership so, workers never hesitate to communicate their concerns and problems related to work tasks.

It is suggested for the leader to continuously enhance leadership and communication skills to better handle the situation of ineffective communication prospect.

Development of the flexible organizational culture is one effective strategy to align all the workers with the main vision and values of the organization.

Proper utilization of different communication vehicles is integral to attain the best outcomes from the communication plan for the organization.

Two-way communication is obligatory for the organization to achieve the desired objectives of employees’ performance. It is important to give the necessary chance for the workers to show their ideas and problems in a suitable manner.


To conclude the discussion about the idea of business communication and its relevance to the active role of leadership, it is necessary to indicate that without effective leadership, the objective of better communication plan can never be achieved. Leaders of the business firms need to be proactive to timely assess the situation and offer a better communication plan for all the related individuals. Proper implementation of the communication strategy is also one critical phase that requires the significant role of leader to strongly apply desired strategies in the organization. Adoption of the effective communication model and encouraging role of leaders are the two main driving forces to meet the target of effective performance.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Ahmed, Z., Shields, F., White, R., & Wilbert, J. (2010). Managerial communication: The link between frontline leadership and organizational performance. In First Annual General Business Conference Conference Proceedings (p. 69).

Gibson, R. (2002). Intercultural Business Communication: An Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Intercultural Business Communication for Teachers, Language Trainers, and Business People. Oxford University Press.

Gimenez, J. C. (2000). Business e-mail communication: some emerging tendencies in register. English for Specific Purposes, 19(3), 237–251.

Guffey, M. E., & Loewy, D. (2012). Essentials of business communication. Cengage Learning.

Littlejohn, S. W., & Foss, K. A. (2009). Encyclopedia of communication theory (Vol. 1). Sage.

Prewitt, V. (2003). Leadership development for learning organizations. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 24(2), 58–61.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 8 Words: 2400

Writers Choice

Preparing Businesses for Global Internet Access

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Preparing Businesses for Global Internet Access


Global internet access is one of the business dimensions that can bring an evolution in business. A flashback of past highlights how organizations have been strengthened by using the internet. Starlink is one of the events of 2019, that embedded tint of resolutions of businesses, but it was a motivation for all beginners. Starlink is an ambitious network of 20 internet satellites and Space X has planned to launch about twelve thousand satellites in the next few years so as to provide broadband service throughout the entire planet ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"nImorK37","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Cashel, 2019)","plainCitation":"(Cashel, 2019)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":348,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/6bWeQAmN/items/DBLDXTIS"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/6bWeQAmN/items/DBLDXTIS"],"itemData":{"id":348,"type":"article-magazine","abstract":"They’ll need to rethink their business models and platform strategies.","container-title":"Harvard Business Review","ISSN":"0017-8012","source":"hbr.org","title":"How Businesses Should Prepare for Global Internet Access","URL":"https://hbr.org/2019/07/how-businesses-should-prepare-for-global-internet-access","author":[{"family":"Cashel","given":"Jim"}],"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2020",1,16]]},"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019",7,16]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Cashel, 2019).


As the launch of Mosaic browser 26 years ago brought a sudden revolution to the world of business, it was found that only half of the global population had access to the internet. According to the information collected from the United Nation's State of Broadband report, it was found that 49.2 per cent of the total population have affordable access to the internet. Technology aims at the revolution of broadband exertions in a more expressive way ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"nv1Wr4jT","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Meyers, 2002)","plainCitation":"(Meyers, 2002)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":350,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/6bWeQAmN/items/QIMM3QKC"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/6bWeQAmN/items/QIMM3QKC"],"itemData":{"id":350,"type":"book","publisher":"Academic","source":"Google Scholar","title":"Encyclopedia of physical science and technology","author":[{"family":"Meyers","given":"Robert A."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2002"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Meyers, 2012). In the prevalence of Balloons, and drones’, satellites are one of the promising solutions to the internet problems that are faced by the world. In addition to the narrow edges, SpaceX will be leading the race in the form of LEO satellites, that will be launched up to eight hundred in number by 2020. The first initiative of the Starlink will be practiced in Telkom Kenya, with an aim to provide 4G internet in the rural parts of Africa ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"xDm4VEf4","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Cashel, 2019)","plainCitation":"(Cashel, 2019)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":348,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/6bWeQAmN/items/DBLDXTIS"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/6bWeQAmN/items/DBLDXTIS"],"itemData":{"id":348,"type":"article-magazine","abstract":"They’ll need to rethink their business models and platform strategies.","container-title":"Harvard Business Review","ISSN":"0017-8012","source":"hbr.org","title":"How Businesses Should Prepare for Global Internet Access","URL":"https://hbr.org/2019/07/how-businesses-should-prepare-for-global-internet-access","author":[{"family":"Cashel","given":"Jim"}],"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2020",1,16]]},"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019",7,16]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Cashel, 2019).

It is assumed that within the next three to five years, a major portion of the planet will have access to the internet. However, the first adopters will be government agencies, businesses, health clinics, and different schools. There are some set dimensions that will interact with the initiative of Starlink. Distinct and diverse populations is one of the major targets taking into account that almost a billion of the consumers who will be using this internet will be low-income communities. Among them, many of them will have limited access to education. In order to address the subject population, products and services will be offered by using the internet so that there are clear instructions for those who are new users. Localized communication is also one of the major necessities to be addressed such as Mandarin, English, Arabic, Hindi, and Spanish (De Waal Alberts & A, 2020).

Many of the consumers will be located in low-income countries who will be having limited resources. Under this initiative, there will be a lot of opportunities for the hybrid business model that involves both philanthropic and governmental partnerships ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"fyiXSLAf","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Meyers, 2002)","plainCitation":"(Meyers, 2002)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":350,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/6bWeQAmN/items/QIMM3QKC"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/6bWeQAmN/items/QIMM3QKC"],"itemData":{"id":350,"type":"book","publisher":"Academic","source":"Google Scholar","title":"Encyclopedia of physical science and technology","author":[{"family":"Meyers","given":"Robert A."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2002"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Meyers, 2012). In addition, the World Bank is planning to invest about 200 billion dollars in renewable energy products in emerging economies by the year 2025. It is more like an initiative that is expected to result in a significant number of opportunities for the private sectors and the new beginner businessmen (Meyers, 2002).

It is also important to note that under this initiative some of the new businesses will be given a prominent chance to come up to the large market with different platforms such as Facebook, because, in many markets, Facebook is offered free. Usually, the consumers are not offered and made aware of the online sources or the other services besides Facebook. Audio and video communication is also one of the major initiatives that will be taken, and these services will be administrated by smart speaker technologies such as Alexa and Google Assistant that are becoming one of the major tools in the latest services. Another reason for introducing audio and visual tools is to analyze and critically evaluate customer usage taking into account that the major population uses smartphones for online functioning ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"IBNvcdDa","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Zuehlke & Henderson, 2020)","plainCitation":"(Zuehlke & Henderson, 2020)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":352,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/6bWeQAmN/items/EL39QMJN"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/6bWeQAmN/items/EL39QMJN"],"itemData":{"id":352,"type":"paper-conference","container-title":"AIAA Scitech 2020 Forum","page":"0230","source":"Google Scholar","title":"Geostationary Satellite Constellation Tracking and Identification Using Normalized Cross Correlation","author":[{"family":"Zuehlke","given":"David"},{"family":"Henderson","given":"Troy"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2020"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Zuehlke & Henderson, 2020).

Then, it is highlighted that this initiative of providing the internet will also mitigate the gaps that are faced by people in terms of using the current services such as that of rural areas and low income. It is very expensive to work by using the lay fibre optic cable or any of the other cables in this area. Cell towers are also a major topic of discussion taking into account that the coverage of a cell tower is less expensive when it is compared to the other sources of internet facility. Also, there is a need of critical mass of paying the customers so as to make it more economically viable. This issue of economic growth is introduced by different technology firms whereas in the past decades many of the internet firms have experienced “leapfrog” innovations so that they can be provided with better and broader internet coverage. In comparison, the new satellites aim to be smaller, faster and powerful in their performance. It will also offer an internet latency period of about 25 to 35 milliseconds which is more or less equal to or better than the DSL system and cables ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"VHTIQTOM","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Zuehlke & Henderson, 2020)","plainCitation":"(Zuehlke & Henderson, 2020)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":352,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/6bWeQAmN/items/EL39QMJN"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/6bWeQAmN/items/EL39QMJN"],"itemData":{"id":352,"type":"paper-conference","container-title":"AIAA Scitech 2020 Forum","page":"0230","source":"Google Scholar","title":"Geostationary Satellite Constellation Tracking and Identification Using Normalized Cross Correlation","author":[{"family":"Zuehlke","given":"David"},{"family":"Henderson","given":"Troy"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2020"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Zuehlke & Henderson, 2020).


A new broadband network under the name of “Starlink” is one of the initiatives and major topics of discussion in the business world in 2019. It can bring a revolution in the business world because internet is one of the best necessities to bring a shift in the current practices of the business world. Although there are a lot of business models and technological platforms that are working to provide better internet facilities, still there is a gap that defines a business as either a high market or low market. In order to mitigate this gap and promote the technology, this new broadband network will be a shift and a good luck mark for the market to grow both nationally and internationally.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Cashel, J. (2019, July 16). How Businesses Should Prepare for Global Internet Access. Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2019/07/how-businesses-should-prepare-for-global-internet-access

de Waal Alberts, A. (2020). A System of Enquiry for the Establishment of a Developmental Agenda for Space in Africa that Could Ensure Positive Economic Contributions for African Societies. In Space Fostering African Societies (pp. 231-243). Springer, Cham.

Meyers, R. A. (2002). Encyclopedia of physical science and technology. Academic.

Zuehlke, D., & Henderson, T. (2020). Geostationary Satellite Constellation Tracking and Identification Using Normalized Cross-Correlation. AIAA SciTech 2020 Forum, 0230.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 3 Words: 900

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