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Cellular Respiration

Glycolysis: Glycolysis is referred to as series of chemical reactions that take place in the cytoplasm of cell. These reactions convert one glucose molecule (6 carbon molecule) into 2 pyruvates—a three carbon molecule that not only produces energy packets (ATP) but also reduces hydrogen carrying enzyme—NAD. Further, active transportation of pyruvate takes place from cytoplasm to mitochondria where coenzyme A combines with it producing Acetyl-coenzyme A along with carbon dioxide and hydrogen (Almeida et. al., 2004).

Pyruvate production in cytoplasm

Production of Acetyl-coenzyme A

Net gain during this process: For each molecule of glucose break down, two molecules of ATP and two molecules of NADH are yielded; total 2 ATPs are produced.

Krebs cycle: It is the next step in cellular respiration which takes place inside the mitochondrial matrix. Acetyl-coenzyme A produced in the previous step then actively moves to the mitochondrial matrix where it is reacts with oxaloacetic acid for citric acid formation. Citric acid is then converted into ATP, NADH and FADH through chemical breakdown. Hydrogen carried by NADH and FADH are then used to make ATP in the next stage (Kreb, 1937).

Net gain is 2 molecules of FADH2 and six molecules of NADH2, for each two acetyl CoA enzyme whereas that of ATP is 2.

Electron transport Chain: this is the next step in cellular respiration which takes place inside the mitochondrial membrane—folded into cristae. The rationale that nature selected this area for electron transport chain is its larger surface area conductive to step-by-step reactions. NADH and FADH produced in the previous steps bring Hydrogen with them which is then converted into Hydrogen ion and electrons. Electron then passes through series of carriers resulting in energy loss—the crux of ATP formation. On the other hand, larger accumulation of hydrogen ions causes elevated membrane pH. But no worries, oxygen molecules are there which react with hydrogen ions to produce water molecules. This is where “inhaled” oxygen is actually used (Kleinzeller, 1941).

Total ATP gain from the electron transport chain is 34.

Net gain of ATP for all the three reactions is 38.

Difference between substrate and oxidative phosphorylation

In the substrate level phosphorylation, ADP is directly combined with Phosphate with the help of energy coming from coupled reaction. This reaction requires sufficient amount of energy for active combination. On the other hand, NADH and FADH2 undergo oxidation generating ATP as an end product. This happens with the subsequent transportation of electrons and proton pumping. The resulting electrochemical gradient produces power that helps generating ATP (Christos et. al., 2018)

Works cited

Almeida, A., Moncada, S. and Bolanos, J. P. “Nitric oxide switches on glycolysis through the AMP protein kinase and 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase pathway. Nat. Cell Biol. Vol. 6, 2004, pp.45-51.

Kleinzeller A. “The formation of succinic acid in yeast.” Biochem J. vol.35, no.4, 1941, pp.495–501.

Krebs, HA. “Dismutation of pyruvic acid in Gonococcus and Staphylococcus.” Biochem J., vol.31, no.4, 1937, pp.661–671.

Christos Chinopoulos and Thomas N. Seyfried. “Mitochondrial Substrate-Level Phosphorylation as Energy Source for Glioblastoma: Review and Hypothesis.” ASN—Neuro, vol. 10, 2018.

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 1 Words: 300

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Lab Report



Carbohydrates as the name indicates; are a group of organic compounds present in living body tissues and food e.g., cellulose, starch and sugars (Hardy et. al., 2015). They contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in complex formation; amenable to be broken down into simple elements producing energy necessary for performing tasks. Carbohydrates are termed as the primordial energy sources for living bodies. They are found in fruits, vegetables, grains and milk. As a process of oxidation, they are broken down into glucose and transferred to the body through blood (Hardy et. al., 2015).

Enzymes, their functions and importance

Enzymes are referred to as catalysts present naturally in human body. They are macromolecules in nature. Their characteristic function is to accelerate the chemical reactions taking place in body (Murphy et. al., 2017). Substrates are the molecules over which enzymes act generating the end product called “product.” Enzymes are always substrate, temperature and pH specific in nature; particular enzymes accelerate particular substrates at specific pH value and temperature e.g., 37 degree Celsius. Typically, they are made up of proteins however; some RNA molecules also act as catalysts. Enzymology is the sub-discipline of biochemistry concerned with the study of enzymes and their mechanisms of action (Murphy et. al., 2017).

Amylase, functions and importance

Amylase is the enzyme that acts as a catalyst for hydrolyzing starch (a complex carbohydrate) into maltose (a simple carbohydrate) in humans and other living organisms (Stenesh, 1998). This reaction takes place during cellular digestion of food. Carbohydrate rich potatoes and rice acquire slight sweet taste during chewing because our saliva contains smaller amounts of amylase that converts them into simple sugars—sweet in taste. Dietary starch is hydrolyzed by alpha amylase—produced by salivary glands and pancreas—into poly-saccharides, eventually converting into glucose—the simple sugars (Stenesh, 1998). Chemical structure of amylase is as follows:

What is testing? Purpose of experiment

Experiment is referred to as a research method, scientific in nature aimed at examining the cause and effect relationship between two or more objects, events or phenomena. Experiment is conducted either in laboratory under full-fledge controlled conditions or in natural setting under partial control conditions called field experiments. Experiment is a form of testing in which researcher attempts to verify hypothesis and converts it into proven fact. After controlling all the other extraneous variables, effects of independent variable are investigated on the dependent variable. For example, “base turns red litmus paper” in blue is a hypothesis which will be tested under laboratory conditions. Results will either verify or reject this hypothesis.

The experiment under documentation is the digestion of starch which is highly assisted by amylase enzyme released by saliva and pancreas. Starch is converted into maltose (a trisaccharide) under the action of amylase.


I expect that in the amylase tube, starch is being converted into maltose which is then altered to glucose by intestinal enzymes.

Amylase will readily convert starch into maltose when it is boiled at 100° for 3 minutes; whether or not the enzyme performs well as without the enzyme


Initially three test tubes will be taken with same amount of starch. These test tubes will be introduced with 2ml distilled water, 2ml amylase and 2ml boiled amylase respectively. As soon as the mixing takes place, two drops from each test tube solution will be removed and introduced with IKI reagent for detecting the maltose. Solution will be removed till 11 minutes consistently. On the other hand; remaining solution will be introduced with Benedict’s reagent and boiling. Hence, three experimental groups will be undertaken experimentation with two conditions:

(Starch + distilled water) with IKI and Benedict’s solution

(Starch + amylase) with IKI and Benedict’s solution

(Starch + boiled amylase) with IKI and Benedict’s solution

In order to measure starch disappearance, one drop of IKI solution will be used. IKI solution is named after Iodine Potassium Iodide. Originally it colors yellow, the presence of starch turns it black. More instantly it turns black, higher the concentration of amylase is. If the result is positive, we will estimate that there is no starch in the solution; more starch has been converted into maltose.

On the other hand, Benedict’s solution will be used to detect presence of maltose in the remaining solution. It is a dark-blue colored alkaline solution. Upon interacting the reducing sugars (maltose) its color gets changed from blue green yellow orange brick red. Blue color means absent maltose; green means traces; yellow means low; orange means moderate and brick red means larger amounts of maltose are present. Amount of Benedict’s solution identical to remaining solution will be added and test tube will be kept in boiling water. If it gives positive results, it will be assumed that starch has been converted into maltose.

Controls for starch: as mentioned above, for detecting starch, IKI solution will be used. For the comparison of results with its negative and positive controls; it will be generated as follows. For negative control, IKI will be mixed with water in spot plate. This will indicate no color change (absent starch), in the second well, IKI will be mixed with starch solution—acting as positive control—giving black color; third well will be introduced with IKI solution and maltose giving away brown color.

Controls for maltose: 2ml of water, maltose and starch will be introduced with 2ml Benedict’s solution and will be heated for 4 minutes in water bath. In water and starch test tubes, its color remained blue (indicating no color change) acting as negative controls. Whereas positive control e.g., maltose will turn the reagent brick red.


Table 1

Tabular representation of IKI color change in control and experimental groups (STARCH)

Experimental group

IKI color change

Starch presence










Starch + water (0 min)



Starch + water (0-11min)



Starch + water (11min)



Starch + amylase (0 min)



Starch + amylase (0-11min)

Light Brown


Starch + amylase (11min)

Light Brown


Starch + boiled amylase (0 min)

Light Brown


Starch + boiled amylase (0-11min)



Starch + boiled amylase (11min)



Table 2

Benedict’s solution color change in control and experimental groups (MALTOSE)

Experimental groups

Benedict’s color

Maltose present








Brick red


Starch + water



Starch + amylase



Starch + boiled amylase

Brick red


Statement of results; Time:

The time taken by the first test tube (water + starch solution) in the digestion of maltose is greater than 11 minutes.

The time taken by the second test tube (amylase + starch solution) in the digestion of maltose is 4 minutes

The time taken by the third test tube (boiled amylase + starch solution) in the digestion of maltose is less than 4 minutes

Statements of results, color:

After 11 minutes, color of first test tube (starch + water) remains unchanged e.g., blue for Benedict’s solution whereas IKI solution turns black.

After 11 minutes, color of second test tube (starch + amylase) becomes orange for Benedict’s solution whereas IKI solution turns light brown.

After 11 minutes, color of third test tube (starch + boiled amylase) becomes brick red for Benedict’s solution whereas IKI solution turns brown.


In first test tube (starch and water), the color of Benedict’s solution remains unchanged whereas IKI solution turns black indicating that no maltose detected and only starch is present; digestion is not taking place at all. IKI solution took greater than 11 minutes to manifest slight digestion.

In second test tube (starch and amylase), the color of Benedict’s solution becomes orange whereas IKI solution turns light brown indicating that moderate amount of maltose is detected and low amount of starch is present; digestion is moderately taking place but at comparatively fast pace. IKI solution took only 4 minutes to manifest complete digestion.

In third test tube (starch and boiled amylase), the color of Benedict’s solution becomes brick red whereas IKI solution turns brown indicating that larger amount of maltose is detected and only a fraction of starch is present; digestion is taking place too swiftly. IKI solution took less than 4 minutes to manifest complete digestion.

The above mentioned results verify the hypotheses that:

I expect that in the amylase tube, starch is being converted into maltose.

Amylase will readily convert starch into maltose when it is boiled at 100° for 3 minutes; whether or not the enzyme performs well as without the enzyme.

Hence, it can be concluded that for the digestion of complex carbohydrates e.g., starch, amylase enzyme is highly effective as compared to the digestion with the absence of amylase. On the other hand, boiled amylase is more efficient than simple amylase. This experiment successfully demonstrated that amylase enzyme is essential for the digestion of nutrients with respect to time. Enzymes lessen the time required for digestion and we get energy from what we eat more instantly.

Works cited

Hardy K, Brand-Miller J, Brown KD, Thomas MG, Copeland L. “The importance of dietary carbohydrate in human evolution.” Q Rev Biol 2015: 90:251-68. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26591850

Stenesh J. Biochemistry. 2. New York, New York: Plenum. 1998: 83.

Murphy J M, Farhan H, Eyers P A. "Bio-Zombie: the rise of pseudoenzymes in biology". Biochem Soc Trans. 2017: 45: 537–544. doi:10.1042/bst20160400.

Works Cited

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

Global Warming

Global Warming

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Global Warming

Global Warming Affects the Potential of Hurricanes by Raising Temperatures Raising Sea Level and Humidity

As Global Warming has more than a few impacts, it affects the potential of hurricanes in many ways. One is, global warming affects the potential of hurricanes by raising the humidity and sea level. Global warming increases the possibility and potential of hurricanes as well as global warming is considered as one of the major reasons that raise temperatures and sea level while increasing temperatures and sea level result to hurricanes. It happens so because hurricanes are subject to certain global warming related influences, such as;

Warmer sea surface temperatures potentially deliver more damage

The rising level of the sea is prominent to make future coastal storms, including hurricanes as the sea level is rising by 1-4 feet since last years.

According to a report presented by Newsela, rising sea level and increasing temperatures always lead to higher possibility and occurrences of hurricanes and this has come to see over the past 2 to 3 decades, mostly in largest oceans of the world.

Despite, global warming effects hurricanes because it increases the concentration of water vapours present in the water. The water vapours (the gaseous state of water) are not generally seen to the human eye but its presence in the water and the way it increases lead to many problems in the climate. Hence, one of the problems which create due to humidity is heater temperature which further leads to the hurricanes. On the other side, humidity is one of the consequences of global warming and it (humidity) then leads to hurricanes. This means that there is a strong connection between global warming and hurricanes while the cause is increasing temperatures, raising sea level, and humidity.

End Notes

Marlowe Hood, Agence France-Presse "Newsela | Cyclones and Climate Change: Connecting the Dots". 2017. Newsela.Com. Accessed October 26, 2019. https://newsela.com/read/cyclones-climate-change/id/34439/.

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 1 Words: 300


Biology and life sciences

[Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees]

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Author Note

Biology and life sciences

The document aims to answer the questions below from the book ‘Can’t Hurt Me’ by David Goggins.

Question # 1

Three principles or lessons learned from David Goggin’s story to maintain a healthy lifestyle and overcome obesity including example of each principle and reason. 250

The three basic lessons learned from Goggins are commitment, finding power from negative situations and putting hundred percent in every task. The first and foremost comes the commitment. Commitment is one of the most powerful change one needs in the behavior to succeed in life. Committing to a cause or a goal lays the foundation to find a way to the success. If you are not committed to something whole heatedly, chances of achievement are minimal. Commitment drives strength, energy and desire one needs to get something they really want. It maybe success in studies, job, relationships, business or any other life matter, those who stay committed end up achieving it.

Secondly, finding power from negative situations is essential to drive the road to success. Life is not bed of roses. Every human being, rich or poor is facing different types of challenges in life. If you embrace all your hardship and challenges and seek power from them, nothing in life can push you back. On the other hand, losing hopes with the hardships coming in our way can lead to drastic failures. So, the main lesson learnt is to drive power from the unfavorable circumstances and hardships and use the same power to overcome that situation. Otherwise, everything bad we are going through leads to depression and we end up living a miserable life that wo do not want for ourselves.

Lastly, another important lesson is trying to given your hundred percent in every task. According to Goggins, most of the individuals put only forty percent of their strength to achieve what they want, nobody gives all hundred percent they have. There are various factors that stops us from putting more effort. One such factor is fear, fear of losing, fear of getting hurt or fear of failure. So, in order to put the most effort, you need to overcome these fears. Becoming fearless means challenging yourself, taking risks and all of these are critical to give your best, to put hundred percent of your effort to achieve what you want.

Question # 2

Making note of mentioned challenges in the book share your own unique challenge with someone struggling with weight loss and obesity. Detail the challenge and strategies to implement it.

Being obese is a shame in the society we’re living in. Although there are many causes behind it, people consider just one, overeating and would advice to stop eating to lose fat. The availability to healthy food is the biggest challenge to lose weight. The biggest challenge I faced was non-availability of healthy food in Latin America. According to United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), about two million people reside in low-income societies who travel one mile to get to the nearest supermarket. The poor areas have no access to supermarkets or grocery stores, even if they have, they lack healthy food options. They biggest market is outside the urban area and requires a bus ride to get there. The location lacks the access to affordable healthy food including vegetables, whole grains, fruits and low-fat milk.

Access to healthy food must be increased to overcome this challenge. This can be done by initiatives focused on food chain and supply companies. One way is to introduce new policies which make establishment of supermarkets in urban areas. At least one grocery store must be ensured in every area. This will not only increase access to healthy food items but also help to reduce increasing rates of obesity. Other strategies include increasing the geographic access, placing more supermarkets in deserted areas, altering inventory of convenience stores, limiting the selling of snacks and establishment of community gardens. These steps will decrease the consumption of snacks, certain type of beverages and other harmful food items promoting obesity.

Question # 3

An overall reaction to the story including realizations/personal thoughts concerning obesity and weight loss for self, family, community and healthcare system and nation 250

Overall, the story in inspiring giving life lessons. The child who had to suffer from abusive father, saw her mother struggling to pay the bills, later on suffering form obesity turned into the toughest man alive. It is truly inspiring how he overcame all type of challenges in his life by mastering his mind and keeping his hopes alive. Everything David has suffered from turned him to a man who never settled for the least demanding task. He kept challenging himself or all the steps.

David’s weight loss struggle is motivational. He advises to face your challenges and grow your strengths by overcoming all the fear. Weight loss requires a constant determination and effort, not only bodily effort, but the mind as well. When we can learn to master our mind, we are determined to achieve a goal, nothing can stop us. Losing weight and fighting obesity is truly challenging, the biggest challenge as mentioned above is non-availability to healthy food items. Others include social stigma, the society we live in do not appreciate your efforts. All they would is tell you to stop eating and lose the fat, but no one tries to understand the underlying causes of the amount of fat you’re carrying. Some national policies can drive change and help to fight obesity. The communities can initiate health clubs to promote healthy food practices. A little bit exercise or walk on daily basis can be very beneficial. Policies should be introduced to ensure availability of healthy food items, improving conditions of healthcare facilities and equal distribution of healthcare facilities.

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Greenhouse Effect

Green House Effect

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Green House Effect


Climate change is the striking global issue facing mankind due to the excessive emissions of green grasses in the atmosphere such as CO2, Nitrous Oxide, methane, and fluorinated gasses. Climate scientists revealed that humans have affected the earth's atmosphere over the past couple of centuries in dramatic ways which consequently caused global warming. Our planet is constantly striking with a huge amount of radiations from the sun, these radiations are in the form of ultraviolet rays, infrared, visible light, and various types of other radiations which are not visible to the human eyes. The greenhouse effect is the process through which the earth surface atmosphere is getting warm by the emission of infrared radiations. The infrared radiation is increasing continuously which resulted in the rise in temperature. While most of the IR is escaping to space which is emitted from the upper atmosphere. The photons of IR are mostly restricted by the green gases and clouds in the atmosphere which resists it to escape directly to space. According to the conference held in Paris by United Nations, 195 countries agreed to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide gas and other greenhouse gases for the purpose to restrict the raising temperature of the earth (Andersonn et al., 2016). The wellbeing of human beings and other creatures are tied to the nature of the ecosystem, the emission of these radiations causes many health issues to human beings (Pecl et al., 2017).

Statement of the issue or problem

Changes in greenhouse gases are the key drivers for the changes in climate which resulted in many public health issues around the globe. There are certain consequences of environmental changes such as the extreme heat waves, natural catastrophes, rising the sea levels, intense hurricanes, which directly or indirectly affected the physical, social and psychological health of mankind. For instance, toxic air pollution, toxic sunlights, and extreme weather events are the key drivers for many fatal diseases. The current study will focus on public health issues caused by greenhouse gasses.

The historical basis of the problem

The adverse effect of greenhouse gases was first claimed by a Swedish scientist Svante Arrhenius in 1896, he revealed the relationship between carbon dioxide gas concentration with the temperature of the earth. He stated that the infrared radiations are absorbed by the water vapours and carbon dioxide gas which kept the earth temperature up to 15-degree Celcius. He suggested that the increase in CO2 gas concentration would lead the earth temperature to 5 degrees Celcius rise. After the discovery of Arrhenius, this concept was ignored for a long time because at that time it was believed by other scientists that its impact is insignificant. They believed that oceans have sufficient carbon sinks which can cancel all our pollutions. In the 1940s it was proved that an increase in emission of carbon dioxide gas has resulted in higher absorption of infrared radiations. It was examined that water vapours absorb other types of radiation than CO2. In 1955 another scientist Gilbert Plass revealed that the growth in carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere would intercept the IR which will lose to space. In the 1960s with the use of modern technology it was observed that in the atmospheric CO2 has produced a concentration curve in Antarctica and Mauna Loa. These curves proved the cause of global warming for the first time. However, the media and some scientists had ignored the risk of global cooling which would be developed by the new ice age. Finally, in the 1980s, it was acknowledged that the earth temperature was far higher than in the past. The greenhouse effect theory was proposed UN Environmental Programme has founded IPCC which tried to find the impact of the greenhouse effect on the climate. The terminology of the greenhouse effect has changed from 1998 and onwards by the influence of media, and people used alternate terms for it such as global warming and climate change. Global warming has resulted in many infectious diseases due to the extreme weather and warming oceans, some of these diseases are new while others are re-emerged. It resulted in extended rainy seasons in many regions so the drought periods also extended. The wetter climate has increased mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, Rift Valley fever, and elephantiasis. The excessive rains resulted in more floods and standing water which boosted the reproduction of mosquitoes breed (Torres, 2015). The warmer oceans have become an ideal ground for the rapid growth of algae blooms, and the increase in nitrogen and phosphorus in oceans raised the production of cholera bacteria. These toxic organisms are spread in the world due to the changing winds which pushed them toward the coastline. These organisms contaminated the drinking water and caused cholera and other diseases. Moreover, the greenhouse effect has a significant impact on mental health and wellbeing. Research has found that changes in climate have exposed people to trauma which affected mental health. Climate change and natural disasters have raised the rate of anxiety and other emotional stress. The intensive migrations, drought, and heat have affected the social life of the communities which are vulnerable to these disasters. Agricultural land has severely affected, and diseases in children have increased which resulted in depression, and griefs in vulnerable communities.

Correction of the problem

There are many steps taken by the environmental departments to save the environment. On an international level there are certain campaigns to fight against global warming and reduce the emission of carbon dioxide. There are many ways to save our planet from such unrecoverable loses. Here I will discuss some of the steps which can reduce the greenhouse gases.

The use of hybrid cars can reduce the emission of toxic gases which can harm the ozone layer and causes global warming. Hybrid cars use more electricity and less use of gasoline, which reduce the emission of carbon dioxide.

At the corporate level, there is a trend of sustainability and eco-friendly operations. They use the latest machinery and technologies to save the environment and reduce the emission of toxic gases and other chemicals.

Use of renewable energy, and generate electricity from solar, wind, wave power, and hot rocks. To reduce the emission of greenhouse gases many countries in the world are replacing their energy system to green sources of energy.

The use of plastic bags is being replaced in many countries because it produces many toxic fumes when it is burnt. These bags are harmful to both marine life and wildlife. It is replaced in many countries by the cloth bags, however, it still needs to aware of public awareness and government actions to completely ban such bags and packagings.

Advantages to correction of the problem

There are many numerous advantages of reducing greenhouse gases and taking the above-mentioned steps.

It can prevent the causes of many fatal diseases and improve public health. Moreover, it could prevent premature deaths (New Research Quantifies Health Benefits of Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions., 2014). There are many countries where people die with heat strokes in summer. Especially children and elders are more vulnerable to the effects of the highest temperature.

The replacement of the plastic bag will not only save the atmosphere from its toxic gases when it is burnt but also save many animals and sea species. Many animals die by intaking plastic while grazing, which is disposed of by humans in their ways. In some developing countries, there is a poor system of disposing of wastes, some of these wastes are thrown to sea that can cause deaths of marine life.

It has been observed that people are switching to use those brands who strictly follow the standards of saving the environment. Researchers have proved that the sales of products have affected by the use of green HRM and eco-friendly practices by the corporations.

Disadvantages to correction of the problem

There are many advantages of these steps to save the environment, and reduce the emission of greenhouse gasses. Greenhouse gases have raised the temperature of the world and cause many environmental and health issues. There are many ways that can help to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. However, these actions have certain drawbacks which are significant and can not be denied. Here we will discuss the disadvantages of correction of this striking issue.

The use of green products is found highly expensive as compared to ordinary products. It can increase the costs so it would be difficult for the poor nations to afford these products.

The small businesses and low budgeted businesses can not afford the latest technology which reduces heat and carbon dioxide emission to a greater extent. To provide green products and environment-friendly machinery at lower costs, which will be affordable for low-income users and investors.

There is still a large gap to replace conventional products to green and eco-friendly products. These products could be replaced in future but still, it needs efforts and huge investments. There is also an impact of some lobbies, they don't want green products which will replace their products, the conflict of interest is one of the major obstacles in the way to adopt green practices.


Anderson, T. R., Hawkins, E., & Jones, P. D. (2016). CO2, the greenhouse effect and global warming: from the pioneering work of Arrhenius and Callendar to today's Earth System Models. Endeavour, 40(3), 178-187.

New Research Quantifies Health Benefits of Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions. (2014). News Center. Retrieved 11 April 2019, from https://newscenter.lbl.gov/2014/11/18/new-research-quantifies-health-benefits-of-reducing-greenhouse-gas-emissions

Pecl, G. T., Araújo, M. B., Bell, J. D., Blanchard, J., Bonebrake, T. C., Chen, I. C., ... & Falconi, L. (2017). Biodiversity redistribution under climate change: Impacts on ecosystems and human well-being. Science, 355(6332), eaai9214.

Torres, F. D. (2015). Climate change, biodiversity, ticks and tick-borne diseases: The butterfly effect.

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 5 Words: 1500


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Student name


Haemophilia is the selected genetic disorder and in most cases, it is inherited because of the impairment of the body to make blood clots and could not stop the blood in case of any injury or surgery. DNA is sequenced in a particular way so that it could determine the order of four blocks called bases which make up the molecule of DNA, but in the case of haemophilia is nothing happens with the sequencing of DNA rather just a mutation or sudden change in the genetic make of the gene takes place.

DNA profiling is the process used for determining the characteristics of an individuals DNA. Profiling of the DNA of each individual is unique just like the fingerprints so DNA analysis helps in identifying a species. In this process of DNA profiling, DNA sequencing is examined by a technician. In any field or the process where DNA is involved creating a DNA profile becomes a must. DNA profiling is also known as genetic typing. It is the collection, processing and analysis of VNTRs along with determining the unique sequences on the loci.

It is important to know the impact of genetic technologies on ethical considerations. There is a need to understand genetics as well as social context as in some countries use of genetic technologies is discouraged. The pace at which genetic technologies are developing is astounding, so ethical obligations of the clinicians begin with the maintenance of competence of handling this evolution (Boccalandro et al, 2019). Genetic technologies should not clash with the natural processes and genetic technologies must not support anything that deviates from the ethics. Genetic technologies help people in accessing the information about them so that they could know more about them but sometimes its better not to reveal those details with patients that may raise questions about their genetic parents such as DNA testing or different purposes.

Effects of Haemophilia

Following are the effects of the haemophilia

When one suffers from haemophilia, it affects their joints as there occur bleeding within the joints which leads to chronic joint pains and diseases.

Because of the haemophilia, there is some bleeding in the brain that give rise to long term problems such as paralysis and seizures.

There are high chances of death if the bleeding continues in any of the vital body organ i.e. brain.

Bleeding occurs in joints mostly and it affects the articulation in children and adults and may also destroy the joints.

Genetic causes of the haemophilia

Haemophilia is an inherited disorder in which the blood stops clotting properly and it is the condition in which spontaneous bleeding follows any surgery or injury. This genetic disorder is caused because of the absence of the bleeding clotting proteins in the body (Martorell et al, 2018). Specifically considering the genetic involvement, haemophilia is caused by the change or the mutation of the genes that guide about the making of blood-clotting protein so that blood could clot. Genes needed for providing instructions are located on the X chromosomes. In males, there is one X and one Y chromosome (XY) while in the case of females there are both X chromosomes (XX). Source of this X chromosome is a mother in case of males and they get the Y chromosome from their fathers. On the other hand, females get one X from each parent. It is the X chromosome that contains many genes that are missing on the Y chromosome, and males get only one copy of most of the genes on the X chromosome while females have two copies. So it has been analyzed that in males haemophilia is more common as if they inherit an affected X chromosome that went through mutation in either factor IX gene or factor VIII.

F8 gene is located on the X-chromosome so haemophilia is inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern. In the case of males, even single mutated copy of F8 gene in each of the cell is enough to cause haemophilia. For women, the F8 gene requires the mutation twice. This is the reason why males are affected more by this genetic disorder as compared to females. This X-linked recessive disorder affects males more and females act as carriers as there are 10 of females who experience abnormal bleeding (Shapiro Makris, 2019). Genetic causes of haemophilia are a mutation in the F8 gene that is responsible for making of Factor VII protein. This protein is an important protein plays that key role in the clotting of the blood. Change or mutation in the F8 gene reduces or absent level of Factor VIII in blood makes blood clotting hard.

Graph of the disorder and genetic causes

Table showing the relation between genetic causes and haemophilia

Chromosome sequencing with more chances of haemophiliaChromosome sequencing with fewer chances of haemophiliaXX XY

Trends or patterns revealed by the analysis of genetic data

From the analysis of the data that has been presented above, it could be observed that haemophilia is a purely genetic disease which is caused by the sudden change or mutation of the gene that helps in making proteins that clots the blood. Patterns suggest that a female who is the carrier has only one F8 mutation which means that there are just 50 (1 in 2) chances of having a son suffering from haemophilia (Elander,2019). Male with haemophilia cannot pass on this genetic disorder to his son but still, his daughter would remain a carrier.

Trends of the data collected above also shows that in family where a male child is the first person who is born with haemophilia, further testing are needed for determining, whether it is mother or father from whom this inheritance disorder is transferred or it is the mutation occurred for the very first in the child by chance.

Potential benefits of this research

Society would have multiple potential benefits of this medical/health research and has high value for society. This research would provide information to the society about this disease and would create awareness in them. It would also educate them about the effects and the genetic causes why this disorder occurs. This research would also enable society to know the reasons why haemophilia is more common in males than females. This research would make them aware of the role of mutation and chromosome and F8 factor or gene that helps in blood clotting. Society would come to know about the importance of the blood clotting proteins as well. Society would also come to know how severe health issues one could face if they have this genetic disorder in which their blood loses the ability to clot.


Elander, J. (2019). Haemophilia. Cambridge University Press.

Shapiro, S., Makris, M. (2019). Haemophilia and ageing.British journal of haematology,184(5), 712-720.

Martorell, L., Cortina, V., Parra, R., Barquinero, J., Vidal, F. (2019). Variable readthrough responsiveness of nonsense mutations in hemophilia A.Haematologica, haematol-2018.

Boccalandro, E. A., Dallari, G., Mannucci, P. M. (2019). Telemedicine and telerehabilitation current and forthcoming applications in haemophilia.Blood Transfusion,17(5), 385.




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Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 4 Words: 1200


Hair and Nails

[Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees]

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Author Note

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Nails and hair are the accessory structure of the skin which makes an integumentary system. The function of both is largely dependent on their anatomical structure ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"S8tjZTWd","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Dr, 2014)","plainCitation":"(Dr, 2014)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":154,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/CKNkWnK9/items/49BQV3GQ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/CKNkWnK9/items/49BQV3GQ"],"itemData":{"id":154,"type":"book","title":"Anatomy & Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function","publisher":"McGraw-Hill Education","number-of-pages":"1248","source":"Google Books","abstract":"A Doody's Core Title for 2017!With Saladin, students make connections through learning outcomes and assessments, integrated media, and a writing style that clearly depicts anatomy and physiology processes. A consistent set of chapter learning tools helps students identify and retain key concepts while the stunning visual program provides a realistic view of body structures and processes.Saladin's text requires no prior knowledge of college chemistry or cell biology, and is designed for a two-semester A&P course. Users who purchase Connect Plus receive access to the full online ebook version of the textbook, as well full access to LearnSmart, SmartBook, and Anatomy & Physiology Revealed. The seventh edition's changes focus primarily on new science (30+ updates based on advances in science), new writing (30+ new sections of text to improve discussion, update terminology, and include new Deeper Insight examples), and 40+ new and revised photos and illustrations. Also, a new appendix has been added to the 7th edition to include the complete genetic code. Significant improvements have also been made to the Connect question banks.","ISBN":"978-0-07-340371-7","note":"Google-Books-ID: lmr8nQEACAAJ","title-short":"Anatomy & Physiology","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Dr","given":"Kenneth S. Saladin"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2014",1,7]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Dr, 2014). Both are made up of dead keratinized proteins that protect skin and finger extremities. This anatomical relationship shows that both of them originate from the ectoderm, which is the outer most layer of skin. Inside a hair follicle bulge from which a hair originates, the epidermis is connected to erector pili muscles which are responsible for skin insulation ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"LXIbKEG8","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Fujiwara et al., 2011)","plainCitation":"(Fujiwara et al., 2011)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":167,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/CKNkWnK9/items/2MR53K2M"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/CKNkWnK9/items/2MR53K2M"],"itemData":{"id":167,"type":"article-journal","title":"The Basement Membrane of Hair Follicle Stem Cells Is a Muscle Cell Niche","container-title":"Cell","page":"577-589","volume":"144","issue":"4","source":"www.cell.com","abstract":"<h2>Summary</h2><p>The hair follicle bulge in the epidermis associates with the arrector pili muscle (APM) that is responsible for piloerection (\"goosebumps\"). We show that stem cells in the bulge deposit nephronectin into the underlying basement membrane, thus regulating the adhesion of mesenchymal cells expressing the nephronectin receptor, α8β1 integrin, to the bulge. Nephronectin induces α8 integrin-positive mesenchymal cells to upregulate smooth muscle markers. In nephronectin knockout mice, fewer arrector pili muscles form in the skin, and they attach to the follicle above the bulge, where there is compensatory upregulation of the nephronectin family member EGFL6. Deletion of α8 integrin also abolishes selective APM anchorage to the bulge. Nephronectin is a Wnt target; epidermal β-catenin activation upregulates epidermal nephronectin and dermal α8 integrin expression. Thus, bulge stem cells, via nephronectin expression, create a smooth muscle cell niche and act as tendon cells for the APM. Our results reveal a functional role for basement membrane heterogeneity in tissue patterning.</p><h3>PaperClip</h3>","DOI":"10.1016/j.cell.2011.01.014","ISSN":"0092-8674, 1097-4172","note":"PMID: 21335239","journalAbbreviation":"Cell","language":"English","author":[{"family":"Fujiwara","given":"Hironobu"},{"family":"Ferreira","given":"Manuela"},{"family":"Donati","given":"Giacomo"},{"family":"Marciano","given":"Denise K."},{"family":"Linton","given":"James M."},{"family":"Sato","given":"Yuya"},{"family":"Hartner","given":"Andrea"},{"family":"Sekiguchi","given":"Kiyotoshi"},{"family":"Reichardt","given":"Louis F."},{"family":"Watt","given":"Fiona M."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2011",2,18]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Fujiwara et al., 2011).

Critical thinking

The skin has three different layers known as 1) the outermost “epidermis” 2) the middle “dermis” and 3) the innermost “Endodermis” ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"YOWGnJMC","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Dr, 2014)","plainCitation":"(Dr, 2014)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":154,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/CKNkWnK9/items/49BQV3GQ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/CKNkWnK9/items/49BQV3GQ"],"itemData":{"id":154,"type":"book","title":"Anatomy & Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function","publisher":"McGraw-Hill Education","number-of-pages":"1248","source":"Google Books","abstract":"A Doody's Core Title for 2017!With Saladin, students make connections through learning outcomes and assessments, integrated media, and a writing style that clearly depicts anatomy and physiology processes. A consistent set of chapter learning tools helps students identify and retain key concepts while the stunning visual program provides a realistic view of body structures and processes.Saladin's text requires no prior knowledge of college chemistry or cell biology, and is designed for a two-semester A&P course. Users who purchase Connect Plus receive access to the full online ebook version of the textbook, as well full access to LearnSmart, SmartBook, and Anatomy & Physiology Revealed. The seventh edition's changes focus primarily on new science (30+ updates based on advances in science), new writing (30+ new sections of text to improve discussion, update terminology, and include new Deeper Insight examples), and 40+ new and revised photos and illustrations. Also, a new appendix has been added to the 7th edition to include the complete genetic code. Significant improvements have also been made to the Connect question banks.","ISBN":"978-0-07-340371-7","note":"Google-Books-ID: lmr8nQEACAAJ","title-short":"Anatomy & Physiology","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Dr","given":"Kenneth S. Saladin"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2014",1,7]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Dr, 2014). Both hair and nail are originated from the outermost layer epidermis. The function is highly dependent on the physiological structure of hair and nails which can be proved by the mechanism of “Pilo Erection”. Pilo erection is a process in which the hair on the surface of the human body erect in response to emotion and cold ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"2kmtD9ee","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Torkamani, Rufaut, Jones, & Sinclair, 2014)","plainCitation":"(Torkamani, Rufaut, Jones, & Sinclair, 2014)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":171,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/CKNkWnK9/items/QWR3KJ44"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/CKNkWnK9/items/QWR3KJ44"],"itemData":{"id":171,"type":"article-journal","title":"Beyond Goosebumps: Does the Arrector Pili Muscle Have a Role in Hair Loss?","container-title":"International Journal of Trichology","page":"88-94","volume":"6","issue":"3","source":"PubMed Central","abstract":"The arrector pili muscle (APM) consists of a small band of smooth muscle that connects the hair follicle to the connective tissue of the basement membrane. The APM mediates thermoregulation by contracting to increase air-trapping, but was thought to be vestigial in humans. The APM attaches proximally to the hair follicle at the bulge, a known stem cell niche. Recent studies have been directed toward this muscle's possible role in maintaining the follicular integrity and stability. This review summarizes APM anatomy and physiology and then discusses the relationship between the follicular unit and the APM. The potential role of the APM in hair loss disorders is also described, and a model explaining APM changes in hair loss is proposed.","DOI":"10.4103/0974-7753.139077","ISSN":"0974-7753","note":"PMID: 25210331\nPMCID: PMC4158628","title-short":"Beyond Goosebumps","journalAbbreviation":"Int J Trichology","author":[{"family":"Torkamani","given":"Niloufar"},{"family":"Rufaut","given":"Nicholas W"},{"family":"Jones","given":"Leslie"},{"family":"Sinclair","given":"Rodney D"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2014"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Torkamani, Rufaut, Jones, & Sinclair, 2014). Did you ever go out in the middle of a chilly night and experienced “Goosebumps”? This a body’s normal response to maintaining homeostasis. These goosebumps serve as a function of protection. They trap the necessary air inside, creating a layer of insulation that brings the body back to the normal temperature. Now the question is how the structure of hair plays a role in this process?

The epidermis layer constitutes a root of a hair which is called a hair follicle. In the base of the hair follicle, the epidermis is connected to the smooth muscles called “Erector Pilli muscles”. It usually extends to the second layer of skin called the dermis. When Erector Pilli muscles contract as a result of the response from the sympathetic nerve system, they lead to the erection of the hairs ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"zp0AAlTi","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Fujiwara et al., 2011)","plainCitation":"(Fujiwara et al., 2011)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":167,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/CKNkWnK9/items/2MR53K2M"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/CKNkWnK9/items/2MR53K2M"],"itemData":{"id":167,"type":"article-journal","title":"The Basement Membrane of Hair Follicle Stem Cells Is a Muscle Cell Niche","container-title":"Cell","page":"577-589","volume":"144","issue":"4","source":"www.cell.com","abstract":"<h2>Summary</h2><p>The hair follicle bulge in the epidermis associates with the arrector pili muscle (APM) that is responsible for piloerection (\"goosebumps\"). We show that stem cells in the bulge deposit nephronectin into the underlying basement membrane, thus regulating the adhesion of mesenchymal cells expressing the nephronectin receptor, α8β1 integrin, to the bulge. Nephronectin induces α8 integrin-positive mesenchymal cells to upregulate smooth muscle markers. In nephronectin knockout mice, fewer arrector pili muscles form in the skin, and they attach to the follicle above the bulge, where there is compensatory upregulation of the nephronectin family member EGFL6. Deletion of α8 integrin also abolishes selective APM anchorage to the bulge. Nephronectin is a Wnt target; epidermal β-catenin activation upregulates epidermal nephronectin and dermal α8 integrin expression. Thus, bulge stem cells, via nephronectin expression, create a smooth muscle cell niche and act as tendon cells for the APM. Our results reveal a functional role for basement membrane heterogeneity in tissue patterning.</p><h3>PaperClip</h3>","DOI":"10.1016/j.cell.2011.01.014","ISSN":"0092-8674, 1097-4172","note":"PMID: 21335239","journalAbbreviation":"Cell","language":"English","author":[{"family":"Fujiwara","given":"Hironobu"},{"family":"Ferreira","given":"Manuela"},{"family":"Donati","given":"Giacomo"},{"family":"Marciano","given":"Denise K."},{"family":"Linton","given":"James M."},{"family":"Sato","given":"Yuya"},{"family":"Hartner","given":"Andrea"},{"family":"Sekiguchi","given":"Kiyotoshi"},{"family":"Reichardt","given":"Louis F."},{"family":"Watt","given":"Fiona M."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2011",2,18]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Fujiwara et al., 2011). This phenomenon is normally observed in humans. However, organism with heavy hair coats are more likely to exhibit this behavior.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Dr, K. S. S. (2014). Anatomy & Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function. McGraw-Hill Education.

Fujiwara, H., Ferreira, M., Donati, G., Marciano, D. K., Linton, J. M., Sato, Y., … Watt, F. M. (2011). The Basement Membrane of Hair Follicle Stem Cells Is a Muscle Cell Niche. Cell, 144(4), 577–589. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2011.01.014

Torkamani, N., Rufaut, N. W., Jones, L., & Sinclair, R. D. (2014). Beyond Goosebumps: Does the Arrector Pili Muscle Have a Role in Hair Loss? International Journal of Trichology, 6(3), 88–94. https://doi.org/10.4103/0974-7753.139077

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 1 Words: 300


Name of Student

Name of Professor

Name of Class

Day Month Year

HCR 240

10. Down syndrome is the most common type of genetic disorder which occurs due to the abnormality in chromosome numbers. The main cause of Down syndrome is trisomy, which is the presence of three copies of some or all of Chromosome 21. The type of mutation that is involved here is called nondisjunction, where homologous chromosomes are unable to separate from each other. Prenatal test is used to diagnose patients with Down Syndrome.

11. Klinefelter Syndrome occurs as a result of an abnormal distribution of chromosome X in males. The males receive an extra number of chromosome X, so this syndrome is called XXY syndrome. While Turner syndrome is disorder most likely to occur in females. Both of these disorders are related to sex chromosomes. Both disorders occur as a result of nondisjunction, where chromosomes either get an extra pair or part of the chromosome is missing. Females with Turner syndrome have short height, swelling in hand and feet and receding jaw. While individuals with Klinefelter syndrome have less facial and body hair, reduced muscle tone and breast growth.

12. Since cystic fibrosis is an example of autosomal recessive inheritance. That means that in each parent one recessive carrier gene and other normal dominant gene must be present. Since the dominant gene is normal therefore the parents are less likely to get the disaese, but the child of such parents have 25% chances to inherit the disease. With each pregnancy the chances of getting the disease in offspring increases.

13. Hemophilia is an X-linked disease; mutation occurs at the X-chromosome which results in the occurrence of this disease. The disease primarily affects males, in females, the disease is less severe as compared to the males and can be traced through the maternal lineage.

14. As Huntington disease is an example of autosomal dominant gene mutation. So even only one parent has this autosomal gene mutation then there are 50% chances that the offspring will manifest the disease.

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 1 Words: 300



Author name


Structure and function of the heme group

There are four heme groups in hemoglobin. Each heme group in hemoglobin consists of a protoporporphoryn IX ring and an iron ion (ferrous). This ferrous ion can bind with four nitrogen atoms and make two additional bonds on either side of the porphyrin ring ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"pOTjdGYO","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Yuan, Tam, Simplaceanu, & Ho, 2015)","plainCitation":"(Yuan, Tam, Simplaceanu, & Ho, 2015)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2628,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/TKHBJRPN"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/TKHBJRPN"],"itemData":{"id":2628,"type":"article-journal","title":"New look at hemoglobin allostery","container-title":"Chemical reviews","page":"1702-1724","volume":"115","issue":"4","author":[{"family":"Yuan","given":"Yue"},{"family":"Tam","given":"Ming F."},{"family":"Simplaceanu","given":"Virgil"},{"family":"Ho","given":"Chien"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Yuan, Tam, Simplaceanu, & Ho, 2015).In the deoxygenated state, the heme group is nonplanar that results in the pulling of the iron atom from the plane of the porphyrin in the direction of the histidine residue. In the oxygenated state, the porphyrin ring has a planar configuration.

Hemoglobin has a functional specificity due to Heme group. Presence of heme group allows the binding of four oxygen molecules.This allows the hemoglobin to effectively carry the oxygen from the lungs and transport it to all tissues.

Conformational difference between the oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb

Oxy hemoglobin is a state when oxygen is bonded to the iron. It has a relaxed structure as a result of oxygen binding and porphyrins ring gets dome form. Now the size of the iron is condensed and it is easy for it to get into the cavity of the planar porphyrin ring.Therefore, there are less intra- and inter-subunit salt bridges in this configuration.Proximal histidine is dragged with these changes and brings conformational changes in other globin subunits. Thus, heme sites get opened for oxygen binding.On the other hand, deoxyhemoglobin is a state when oxygen is not bounded to the iron and all four of the corresponding locations of iron are engaged by nitrogen of porphyrin ring.A fifth site there is Histidine residue known as proximal Histidine of globin. Deoxy hemoglobin has a tense structure.It has two alpha-globin and two beta-globin subunits, each containing a heme group. Moreover, several salt bridges are present that stabilize this structure.

Specific amino acid change as a result of the sickle cell mutation in the beta-globin polypeptide

Mutations in the β-globin gene cause sickle cell anemia. It is a single nucleotide substitution (A to T) at amino acid 6. This substitution results in valine codon (GTG) in place of a glutamic acid codon (GAG). These people have altered hemoglobin known as HbS. the valine for glutamic acid substitution deforms the red blood cell resulting in a sickle-like shape ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"OiD5HWCu","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Steinberg & Sebastiani, 2012)","plainCitation":"(Steinberg & Sebastiani, 2012)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2627,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/NAS6MPGZ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/NAS6MPGZ"],"itemData":{"id":2627,"type":"article-journal","title":"Genetic modifiers of sickle cell disease","container-title":"American journal of hematology","page":"795-803","volume":"87","issue":"8","author":[{"family":"Steinberg","given":"Martin H."},{"family":"Sebastiani","given":"Paola"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2012"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Steinberg & Sebastiani, 2012). It is comparativelyunbending and incapable to cross the capillary couches. Now there are recurrent cycles of oxygenation and deoxygenation producing irreversible sickling ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"R6RAUzzd","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Gabriel & Przybylski, 2010)","plainCitation":"(Gabriel & Przybylski, 2010)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2626,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/CHRBHZB6"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/CHRBHZB6"],"itemData":{"id":2626,"type":"article-journal","title":"Sickle-cell anemia: a look at global haplotype distribution","author":[{"family":"Gabriel","given":"Abram"},{"family":"Przybylski","given":"Jennifer"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2010"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Gabriel & Przybylski, 2010). These sickling red cells then block the fine capillary beds and bring further complications such as reduced blood flow and severe bone pain.

Other mutations involved in some genotypes of the sickle cell disease

Change in a single nucleotide, known as point mutation causes sickle-cell anemia. There are different causes of mutations; unequal crossing-over during meiosis. Moreover, some areas of the genome are moresusceptible to mutation as compared to others. The UV light can also cause mutations and affect DNA. Whenever a person goes into the UV light, there is a danger or risk of mutation. In addition, different chemicals can also cause alternations in the genes causing this disease in a person.

It is a blood disorder and it is possible for a person to inherit this but do not develop the symptoms. Usually, a person gets two genes that generate beta-globin. It is a protein that is required for the normal hemoglobin production known as hemoglobin A. in case of sickle cell anemia, a person has one normal beta-globin gene/ hemoglobin A and one defective gene/ hemoglobin S. These traits can be passed to childrenand result in serious problems.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Gabriel, A., & Przybylski, J. (2010). Sickle-cell anemia: a look at global haplotype distribution.

Steinberg, M. H., & Sebastiani, P. (2012). Genetic modifiers of sickle cell disease. American Journal of Hematology, 87(8), 795–803.

Yuan, Y., Tam, M. F., Simplaceanu, V., & Ho, C. (2015). A new look at hemoglobin allostery. Chemical Reviews, 115(4), 1702–1724.

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 2 Words: 600

HGH In Men’s Sports

HGH in Men’s Sports

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

HGH in Men’s Sports


Humans have always been obsessed with the idea of living forever or remaining young forever. Both these ideas are highly fascinating and keep going on side by side. These fantasies keep the scientist and researchers busy and motivated to do more and more research in this field. The concept that humans can never die and life forever has not been much successful yet and the scientists are still finding a way to make them immortal but the idea that human being never gets old has gained a success to some extent. Doctors, scientists, experts, and researchers have succeeded to some extent to devise some of the ways in which the aging process can be, if not completely stopped, can be slowed down a little bit.

Various approaches have been adopted by scientist and medical professionals all over the world to slow down the aging process in humans. These multiple anti-aging techniques or process include a number of methods that can be adopted by one’s own self and can be easily applied by bringing some simple life changes in the lifestyle whereas there are some methods that need to be surgically inculcated in the body of a person. These practices include the oral or injectable introduction of various hormones and rugs in the body. These medicines or drugs include caloric restrictions, Hormonal therapies, Anti-oxidants, stem cell therapy, ALT-711 therapy and many other. All these therapies have been proved to be extremely successful and beneficial in at least bringing the age of a person to a little halt or at least make them feel younger for a little while. One of such therapies is the induction of Human Growth Hormone (HGH) in the bloodstream. As the name suggests it is a hormonal therapy that is used to slow down the effects of age in a person. This method is recently becoming extremely popular in every field especially the area of sports and athletics. Athletes and sportspeople are currently taking high advantage of this technology but is it worth the risk? Is the usage ear inculcation of Human Growth Hormone useful for human beings? Is this hormone even safe for human health and how much quantities should be taken by humans so that it can never be harmful? The following research paper tends to answer all these questions.


Human Growth Hormone or HGH is a peptide hormone that helps in the stimulation of growth, cell reproduction and cell regeneration in humans. It is not only present in human beings but also in other animals as well and perform the same function as it performs in humans. This hormone is most commonly known as the growth hormone or GH (in its short form) when it is generalized in terms of all living beings or animals. Also known as somatotropin, this hormone is highly crucial for the growth and development in animals and humans (De Vos, Ultsch, & Kossiakoff, 1992). It raises the concentration of glucose and free fatty acids in a person’s body in addition to the stimulation of the production of IGF-1.

The history of usage of hormones for the treatment of various diseases in animals and humans is not very long and does not date very far back. As discussed earlier scientists had been conducting experiments to slow down the aging process and they had been looking for means to slow down or stop the declination process in the humans from a very long time. The information about growth hormone came into existence in the early 1920s but the usage of Human Growth Hormone was only started in 1963. Initially, these hormones were used to treat children with developmental disorders (Cai, Xu, Yuan, Liu, & Yuan, 2014). These disorders happen because of the malfunctioning pituitary gland in the body. Initially, the use of this hormone garnered great controversy due to its short supply. Sin those times, the only source of this hormone was the humans. The matter became so serious that the extraction of this hormone was even banned for six months. But then a recombinant of this growth hormone was developed by the name of Protropin and thus the usage of HGH could be possible once again in the region of the United States of America.

Apart from the usage of Human Growth Hormone in general purposes, this hormone is also being extensively used in the field of sports and surprisingly, its use is legal in the USA. This hormone is mostly used by the players or athletes involved in power sports and endurance sports. These include bodybuilding, mixed martial arts, baseball, swimming, professional wrestling, soccer, cycling, weight-lifting, skiing, track and field and strength sports (Momaya, Fawal, & Estes, 2015). The drugs that contain HGH are commonly known as anabolic steroids and they are used in combination with a number of other performance-enhancing drugs to boost up the energy levels of a player. These performance-enhancing drugs often include androgenic anabolic steroids that contain testosterone that enhance the production and growth of erythropoietin.

The pure form of HGH is strictly banned not only in the sports circle but for the general use by the doctors and medical practitioners all over the country but the recombinant form is always available and permissible to be used. The history of usage of Human Growth Hormone dates back to the Ancient Olympic Games, where athletes reportedly took huge quantities of figs to bring an improvement in their performance. With the advancements in the area of science, especially endocrinology, many athletes tried experimenting with the mixture and cocktails of various drugs in order to increase their physical strength, overcome fatigue and perform for a longer time. These practices were completely considered legal and athletes, taking complete advantage of this leverage, went to surprising lengths to win the games.

Growth Hormone, especially Human Growth Hormone, is easily available as a prescription drug and in some cases, can even be found over the counter. This easy availability of the drug is due to the fact that it is used in the treatment of various developmental and growth diseases and the children who have short stature. Moreover, these drugs are also used in the case of adults to treat malfunctioning pituitary gland and various other gland s that assist in the process of growth. Coming towards the question of the effectiveness of HGH in order to improve the efficiency of sportsmen and athletes in the field of sports, it is still in doubt. Studies are being carried on in the respect that whether the inculcation of HGH is effective in the case of sportsmen or not and does it improve the performance of athletes in their respective areas of sports.

Although, the usage of HGH or GH does not guarantee success by any means and neither it has been proven to boost up the performance by any means, still, sadly many sports celebrities and athletes have admitted taking these drugs and hormones in order to get ahead of their other competitors. This situation has raised serious concerns among the regulators and controllers of the sports boards as this raises an alarm that these drugs, especially the hormone is being highly abused (Voss, et. al., 2014). This abuse of this hormone has led to a ban on all the drugs that contain GH or HGH by all the major sports regulatory authorities like Major League Baseball, the National Football League, International Olympic Committee, and the World Anti-Doping Agency. Despite all these bans, a number of athletes have still been found and caught to be using HGH and doping drugs during their practice sessions or when a series starts. These practices are detected and caught by regular conduction of dope tests and drug tests and the player may face a lifetime ban on him if the use of HGH or any performance-boosting drug is proved (Green, 2014).


Hence, it can be clearly seen that Human Growth Hormone or HGH has clearly many benefits and it is being used at a high level in the medical field by expert medical professionals and endocrinologists to treat many growth and development disorders. But this popularity or effectiveness of the hormone does not nullify or even reduce the fact that HGH also has some downfalls or side effects like every other drug or medicine. The usage of HGH can be seen at a very high level in the area of sports and athletes where the sportspeople and sportsmen take heavy doses of this growth and development hormone to increases the physical strength and boost up their stamina. The positive side effects of this hormone are still unknown but it has been completely immoral and unethical that one sportsman is getting a benefit over his or her other counterpart with the help of artificial means. This has led to the ban on the drug or hormone by various leading sports regulatory authorities like International Olympic Committee and it is highly expected that the player will get a lesson out of it and stop using this kind of means and shortcuts to get success.


Cai, Y., Xu, M., Yuan, M., Liu, Z., & Yuan, W. (2014). Developments in human growth hormone preparations: sustained-release, prolonged half-life, novel injection devices, and alternative delivery routes. International journal of nanomedicine, 9, 3527.

De Vos, A. M., Ultsch, M., & Kossiakoff, A. A. (1992). Human growth hormone and extracellular domain of its receptor: crystal structure of the complex. Science, 255(5042), 306-312.

Green, G. A. (2014). Drug testing in sport: hGH (human growth hormone). AMA Journal of Ethics, 16(7), 547-551.

Momaya, A., Fawal, M., & Estes, R. (2015). Performance-enhancing substances in sports: a review of the literature. Sports Medicine, 45(4), 517-531.

Voss, S. C., Robinson, N., Alsayrafi, M., Bourdon, P. C., Schumacher, Y. O., Saugy, M., & Giraud, S. (2014). The effect of a period of intense exercise on the marker approach to detect growth hormone doping in sports. Drug testing and analysis, 6(6), 582-586.

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 5 Words: 1500


LBL- Cell Cycle & Cell Division

Use the circle above and your textbook to diagram the cell cycle.

List the main activities of G1, S phase, and G2 of interphase in the circle above.

G1: Cells shows growth and normal function. The cell grows to its size doubled than the previous size and high amount of protein synthesis occurs

S: Chromosome number is doubled and the cell synthesizes its DNA

G2 phase: Cell resumes itself for division by continuing its growth until mitosis starts.

Briefly define the following terms:

chromatin- It is the mass of genetic material composed of two things, DNA and proteins which are condensed during eukaryotic cell division to form chromosomes. It is located in the nucleus of our cells.

chromosome- It is a thread like structure which is present in the nucleus of the most living cells, composed of nucleic acids and proteins and has the ability to carry the genetic information in the present genes in between them.

chromatid-When a chromosome is replicated from one copy into two copies from the parental chromosomes to daughter chromosomes, one-half of two identical strands of the two newly formed chromosomes is a chromatid, which is joined together through a centromere.

centromere- A centromere is a specialized sequence of DNA which links a sister chromatid pair.

kinetochore-It is a highly complex protein structure of a disc shape. It is associated in the duplicated chromatids of the eukaryotic cells, at the position where the spindle fibers are attached to pull apart the sister chromatids.

Draw a cell going through mitosis. List the main events of each phase.





Main events:

Chromosomes start condensation

Mitotic spindle begins to form which functions in the organization of the chromosome and during mitosis, keeps moving them around.

Nucleus will be ready to break down by the nucleolus disappearing.

Main events:

Chromosomes will align at the metaphase plate

Kinetochores of each chromosome attach to microtubules of opposite spindle poles

Main events:

Sister chromatids will start separation because the glue that holds them together will be broken down,

Each pair of chromosome will move apart, poles separation occurs.

Main events:

Mitotic spindle breaks down to its building blocks

Set of chromosomes is formed with two nuclei, one for each set.

Chromosome start to de condense and will reach their previous stage.

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 1 Words: 300


Bio. 430Name : Ashyria ___


Define the following terms (6 points):

Solution- a solution is a homogenous mixture which is composed of the addition of two or more than two substances. A solution consists of a solute, and a solvent. The solute is dissolved in the solvent e.g. mixing of water in the table salt creates a solution. Water is the solvent and salt is the solute.

Concentration- Concentration is referred to the components of a mixture or a solution. In other words, it is also said that concentration is the amount of a substance occupied per defined space. In terms of biology, it is the amount of solvent with respect to the solvent, or the total mixture.

Diffusion- the movement of molecules or ions down a concentrated gradient due to their kinetic energy until they reach equilibrium.

Osmosis- passive movement of water molecules across a selective permeable membrane from an area of higher to lower water concentration until equilibrium is reached.

Semipermeable- A semipermeable membrane is a biological membrane which has the capability of allowing of certain ions or molecules to pass through it, but prevents the others. Mostly, prohibited molecules are solutes. For example, cell membrane

Hydrostatic pressure-Sometimes, due to the force of gravity, a fluid at its equilibrium state exerts a pressure. This pressure is known as the Hydrostatic Pressure which increases as the depth of the water increases as measured from the above.

The diagrams below show U-shaped tubes separated by a semipermeable membrane that only water can cross. At Time0, the arms of the tubes were filled with aqueous solutions of varying concentrations. For each tube, draw an arrow to show the direction of net osmosis over time. (2 points)

48532148870950.9 mM NaCl

00 0.9 mM NaCl

32918408870040.5 mM NaCl

000.5 mM NaCl

480831173215500322081173279004394926163639500 15566578529862 mM Glucose

002 mM Glucose

145805166738500761998638725 mM Glucose

005 mM Glucose





List four of the factors that affect the rate of diffusion. (4 points)

1. Surface area

2. Temperature

3. Diffusion distance

4. Steepness of the concentration gradient

Describe two reasons why net osmosis would stop. (2 points)

1. When the amount of solute i.e water concentration is lower

2. When the amount of solute i.e water concentration is higher than needed for the equilibrium.

Osmosis and the Real World

Define the following terms (4 points):

Tonicity- It is an effective method for the measurement of the osmotic pressure gradient, defined by the water concentration and the potential of two solutions which are separated through a semi-permeable membrane.

They are of three types which are devised depending upon the concentration of the solute.

Hypertonic- The solution which has higher solutes concentration

Hypotonic- The solution which has lower solutes concentration

Isotonic- The solution which as equal solute concentration.

The diagrams below show red blood cells placed into either a hypertonic, hypotonic, or isotonic solution. Draw what each red blood would look like after being placed into the solution. Describe what happened to each cell using technical terms. (3 points)

Before After Description

-In the case of hypotonic, due to low concentration of water, the cells will become rigid

-In the case of hypertonic, blood cells will burst due to too much presence of the water.

-For Isotonic, the blood cells will remain in the same state for a longer amount of time because of the equilibrium state achieved.

1382395143510 3559175143510

35679742222500355654418783300342900162197Hypertonic solution

00Hypertonic solution

3559175280398138239527459216002003930654572001152525Hypotonic solution

0Hypotonic solution

4572002110740Isotonic solution

00Isotonic solution

160020023094951600200139001513823951270000354838012541251382395217868525412701379220 2530929217959225146001276351370330187579013817609243793556000945787

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 1 Words: 300



[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]


Case 1

Zygomatic bone

occipital plate of ethmoid

frontal process of maxilla

sphenoidal bone

Case 2

(Injury 1) Surgical Neck of femur

(Injury 2) Anatomical neck of femur

Case 3

White (Diagram 1)

Head of femur

Blue (Diagram 1)


Red (Diagram 2)

Head of femur dislocation

Yellow (Diagram 2)

Fracture of Acetabular

Other injury:

Dislocation of Head of femur from acetabulum or hip joint

Case 4

Patient 1- Fracture of medical condyle

Patient 2 - Styloid process of fibula

Case 5

Calcaneal fracture (Injury)

Talus, Navicular, Calcanium, Lateral cuneiform, first metatarsal bone, cuboid.

Case 6

Green: Dens of C2 Vertebra fractured – Axis

Red: C2 vertebra fracture

Case 7

Intervertebral disc fracture

Superior articular process fractured

Long term complication

Vertebral stenosis

Case 8

Sphenoid bone

Ethmoid bone

Frontal bone

Maxillary bone


Obstructed fluid in the rontal sinus


Frontal sinusitis

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 1 Words: 300

How Is Each Type Of Nutrient Is Absorbed By The Small Intestine.

Absorption from Small Intestine [Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees] [Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Author Note

[Include any grant/funding information and a complete correspondence address.]

Absorption from the Small Intestine

All the dietary intakes of a human body are absorbed in the small intestine, be it simple lipids, carbs, proteins or minerals like vitamins A, Vitamin K, etc. ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Ka6haDiN","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Smith & Morton, 2011)","plainCitation":"(Smith & Morton, 2011)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":"gH5f1quO/6pPt0pws","uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9FPdQOCJ/items/YU2LBHJP"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9FPdQOCJ/items/YU2LBHJP"],"itemData":{"id":59,"type":"book","title":"The Digestive System: Systems of the Body Series","publisher":"Elsevier Health Sciences","number-of-pages":"226","source":"Google Books","abstract":"This is an integrated textbook on the digestive system, covering the anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of the system, all presented in a clinically relevant context appropriate for the first two years of the medical student course.One of the seven volumes in the Systems of the Body series.Concise text covers the core anatomy, physiology and biochemistry in an integrated manner as required by system- and problem-based medical courses.The basic science is presented in the clinical context in a way appropriate for the early part of the medical course.","ISBN":"978-0-7020-4841-8","note":"Google-Books-ID: bbzHAAAAQBAJ","title-short":"The Digestive System","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Smith","given":"Margaret E."},{"family":"Morton","given":"Dion G."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2011",11,18]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Smith & Morton, 2011). Everything gets absorbed into the blood plasma. Unsurprisingly, the walls of the intestine are highly specialized. They are made up of specialized epithelial cells that have tiny root hair-like structures called microvilli ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"zP4noPV1","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Pappenheimer & Michel, 2003)","plainCitation":"(Pappenheimer & Michel, 2003)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":"gH5f1quO/6w4nSzzu","uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9FPdQOCJ/items/2YLRGT69"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9FPdQOCJ/items/2YLRGT69"],"itemData":{"id":114,"type":"article-journal","title":"Role of villus microcirculation in intestinal absorption of glucose: coupling of epithelial with endothelial transport","container-title":"The Journal of Physiology","page":"561-574","volume":"553","issue":"Pt 2","source":"PubMed Central","abstract":"Capillaries in jejunal villi can absorb nutrients at rates several hundred times greater (per gram tissue) than capillaries in other tissues, including contracting skeletal muscle and brain. We here present an integrative hypothesis to account for these exceptionally large trans-endothelial fluxes and their relation to epithelial transport. Equations are developed for estimating concentration gradients of glucose across villus capillary walls, along paracellular channels and across subjunctional lateral membranes of absorptive cells. High concentrations of glucose discharged across lateral membranes to subjunctional intercellular spaces are delivered to abluminal surfaces of villus capillaries by convection-diffusion in intercellular channels without significant loss of concentration. Post-junctional paracellular transport thus provides the series link between epithelial and endothelial transport and makes possible the large trans-endothelial concentration gradients required for absorption to blood. Our analysis demonstrates that increases of villus capillary blood flow and permeability-surface area product (PS) are essential components of absorptive mechanisms: epithelial transport of normal digestive loads could not be sustained without concomitant increases in capillary blood flow and PS. The low rates of intestinal absorption found in anaesthetised animals may be attributed to inhibition of normal villus microvascular responses to epithelial transport.","DOI":"10.1113/jphysiol.2003.043257","ISSN":"0022-3751","note":"PMID: 12937296\nPMCID: PMC2343570","title-short":"Role of villus microcirculation in intestinal absorption of glucose","journalAbbreviation":"J Physiol","author":[{"family":"Pappenheimer","given":"J R"},{"family":"Michel","given":"C C"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2003",12,1]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Pappenheimer & Michel, 2003). These hair-like projections tend to increase the surface area of the cells and the small intestine to facilitate the absorption of a large number of nutrients.

Each villus has a network of small capillaries and lymphatic vessels known as the lacteals, present in its vicinity ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"zP4noPV1","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Pappenheimer & Michel, 2003)","plainCitation":"(Pappenheimer & Michel, 2003)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":"gH5f1quO/6w4nSzzu","uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9FPdQOCJ/items/2YLRGT69"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9FPdQOCJ/items/2YLRGT69"],"itemData":{"id":114,"type":"article-journal","title":"Role of villus microcirculation in intestinal absorption of glucose: coupling of epithelial with endothelial transport","container-title":"The Journal of Physiology","page":"561-574","volume":"553","issue":"Pt 2","source":"PubMed Central","abstract":"Capillaries in jejunal villi can absorb nutrients at rates several hundred times greater (per gram tissue) than capillaries in other tissues, including contracting skeletal muscle and brain. We here present an integrative hypothesis to account for these exceptionally large trans-endothelial fluxes and their relation to epithelial transport. Equations are developed for estimating concentration gradients of glucose across villus capillary walls, along paracellular channels and across subjunctional lateral membranes of absorptive cells. High concentrations of glucose discharged across lateral membranes to subjunctional intercellular spaces are delivered to abluminal surfaces of villus capillaries by convection-diffusion in intercellular channels without significant loss of concentration. Post-junctional paracellular transport thus provides the series link between epithelial and endothelial transport and makes possible the large trans-endothelial concentration gradients required for absorption to blood. Our analysis demonstrates that increases of villus capillary blood flow and permeability-surface area product (PS) are essential components of absorptive mechanisms: epithelial transport of normal digestive loads could not be sustained without concomitant increases in capillary blood flow and PS. The low rates of intestinal absorption found in anaesthetised animals may be attributed to inhibition of normal villus microvascular responses to epithelial transport.","DOI":"10.1113/jphysiol.2003.043257","ISSN":"0022-3751","note":"PMID: 12937296\nPMCID: PMC2343570","title-short":"Role of villus microcirculation in intestinal absorption of glucose","journalAbbreviation":"J Physiol","author":[{"family":"Pappenheimer","given":"J R"},{"family":"Michel","given":"C C"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2003",12,1]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Pappenheimer & Michel, 2003). The material and the nutrients come from the food into the small intestine where villi absorb all the essential and required nutrients into the capillaries from the lumen of a small intestine. The amino acids and carbohydrates are absorbed into the blood via the capillaries, while the lacteals take up the lipids. From there, the food is transported and provided to different organs of the body to perform their functions. For example, the absorbed glucose is used to provide energy to perform different metabolic functions of the body and absorbed protein is used to form building blocks of the body. The food that is undigested and unabsorbed is transferred to the large intestine.

It is interesting to note that the essential materials like glucose, amino acids, vitamins, and simple fats that are broken by the enzymes are absorbed into the small intestine by the action of the hormones and certain electrolytes. The jejunum is the part where almost all the major absorption takes place. Nutrients like iron is absorbed in the ilium while the terminal part of the ileum is associated with the absorption of vitamin B12 and Bile salts. Passive diffusion also occurs there, and water and salts are absorbed through this process. Facilitated diffusion also occurs and fructose is absorbed via the same process. Co-transport of amino acid and glucose also occurs. Sodium bicarbonate is absorbed in the intestines with the aid of the active transport mechanism.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Pappenheimer, J. R., & Michel, C. C. (2003). Role of villus microcirculation in intestinal absorption of glucose: Coupling of epithelial with endothelial transport. The Journal of Physiology, 553(Pt 2), 561–574. https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2003.043257

Smith, M. E., & Morton, D. G. (2011). The Digestive System: Systems of the Body Series. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 1 Words: 300

How Does In Diabetes Pancreas Produces Little Or No Insulin?

Your Name

Instructor Name

Course Number


How does the pancreas produce little insulin in diabetes?

Diabetes is caused by the excessive sugar level in blood, and this disease affects the human organs like pancreas. The pancreas, when affected because of excessive sugar levels in the blood stops functioning and starts producing a slight amount of insulin.


Diabetes is a disease caused when glucose and sugar levels in the blood are produced at higher levels than normal. The sugar levels in our body depend upon some factors like our genetics, food, and our psychological states. The food we eat carries sugar and when we intake the food product they sometimes become the reason for a higher level of sugar in our body. Glucose is the main source of energy, and this glucose comes from the food we eat. Sometimes, increased levels of blood may cause some diseases, like, diabetes, and it is not limited to any specific age. People, often consider that the adults are more prone to this disease but it not true, individuals of different ages suffer from diabetes. Our body cells require the glucose to function properly, but it remains in the blood, and our body cells do not get glucose. The little amount of glucose supply becomes a cause for an increase in the glucose or sugar levels leading to diabetes.

Types of diabetes

Diabetes cannot be limit to one type; it has different types, and the types are; type one, and type two diabetes. Diabetes is a disease which is caused by varying factors, which may be genes, genetics, and environment where an individual life.

Type 2 diabetes

Type one diabetes is a desease, which occurs when our immune system, which is the system of our body fights for infections, and attacks the insulin by destroying it, and the insulin produces beta cells of the pancreas. This type of diabetes is considered to occur in the younger ages and can be treated or diagnosed at the age of 30 ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"vGRtRdOt","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Rawshani et al.)","plainCitation":"(Rawshani et al.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":592,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/F0XOCTdk/items/LYYAR7JU"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/F0XOCTdk/items/LYYAR7JU"],"itemData":{"id":592,"type":"article-journal","title":"Mortality and cardiovascular disease in type 1 and type 2 diabetes","container-title":"New England Journal of Medicine","page":"1407-1418","volume":"376","issue":"15","author":[{"family":"Rawshani","given":"Aidin"},{"family":"Rawshani","given":"Araz"},{"family":"Franzén","given":"Stefan"},{"family":"Eliasson","given":"Björn"},{"family":"Svensson","given":"Ann-Marie"},{"family":"Miftaraj","given":"Mervete"},{"family":"McGuire","given":"Darren K."},{"family":"Sattar","given":"Naveed"},{"family":"Rosengren","given":"Annika"},{"family":"Gudbjörnsdottir","given":"Soffia"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Rawshani et al.). The triggering factors include the autoantibodies, which react against the insulin or glutamic acid decarboxylase. The dysfunctioning of genes and environmental factors like viruses can be also triggering factors for this disease. This type of disease harms the body organs including eyes, kidneys, blood vessels, and heart. One can maintain the sugar levels in the blood, which may lower the risks of further complications.

Type 2 diabetes

Type two diabetes is a recent globally expanding health problem, which is associated with the epidemic of obesity, overweight, and physical inactivity. This type diabetes is also caused by genetic disorders of individuals, and the insulin-resistance may be a factor causing this. Overweight causes the insulin-resistance in the body, and the body fats including the belly fats are increased, and people who are not physically active, and they are likely to suffer from type two diabetes ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"0XZTO7mn","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Fuchsberger et al.)","plainCitation":"(Fuchsberger et al.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":594,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/F0XOCTdk/items/FSWZNMTG"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/F0XOCTdk/items/FSWZNMTG"],"itemData":{"id":594,"type":"article-journal","title":"The genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes","container-title":"Nature","page":"41","volume":"536","issue":"7614","author":[{"family":"Fuchsberger","given":"Christian"},{"family":"Flannick","given":"Jason"},{"family":"Teslovich","given":"Tanya M."},{"family":"Mahajan","given":"Anubha"},{"family":"Agarwala","given":"Vineeta"},{"family":"Gaulton","given":"Kyle J."},{"family":"Ma","given":"Clement"},{"family":"Fontanillas","given":"Pierre"},{"family":"Moutsianas","given":"Loukas"},{"family":"McCarthy","given":"Davis J."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Fuchsberger et al.). The external factors causing type two diabetes may include environmental factors, like inactivity, obese, and unhealthy eating patterns. However, the genetic factors also contribute to type two diabetes, causing the impairment of glucose homeostasis, which is led by the pathophysiological disturbances ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"EkVN1MNb","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(DeFronzo et al.)","plainCitation":"(DeFronzo et al.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":597,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/F0XOCTdk/items/P6EYZWZ7"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/F0XOCTdk/items/P6EYZWZ7"],"itemData":{"id":597,"type":"article-journal","title":"Type 2 diabetes mellitus","container-title":"Nature reviews Disease primers","page":"15019","volume":"1","author":[{"family":"DeFronzo","given":"Ralph A."},{"family":"Ferrannini","given":"Ele"},{"family":"Groop","given":"Leif"},{"family":"Henry","given":"Robert R."},{"family":"Herman","given":"William H."},{"family":"Holst","given":"Jens Juul"},{"family":"Hu","given":"Frank B."},{"family":"Kahn","given":"C. Ronald"},{"family":"Raz","given":"Itamar"},{"family":"Shulman","given":"Gerald I."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (DeFronzo et al.).

Gastrointestinal diabetes

Gastrointestinal diabetes is caused during pregnancy. The sugar levels are increased during pregnancy, and the placenta produces the insulin-blocking hormone. This develops during the 24th and 28th week of pregnant women, and this increases the chances of risks of diabetes in the fetus. Increased diabetic risks can lead to delivery complications in women. Usually, our pancreas makes insulin but when they stop making insulin, then, there will be a rise in the levels of sugars in our body, and that increase will cause gastrointestinal diabetes.


The sugar level increases more than the normal levels, but this can be reversed by appropriate diagnosis. There are no such symptoms for prediabetes, but the blurry vision, fatigue, and hunger are some of the symptoms.

Symptoms of diabetes

The symptoms for diabetes vary, and they are characterized according to the type of diabetes. Type one and type two diabetes include some early signs, and symptoms and they are as follows:

The food which we intake is converted to glucose that is used by our body cell for energy but insulin is needed to intake the glucose. When our body stops making enough insulin or our body cells resist making insulin then glucose is resisted to enter into cells and no energy is supplied to our body. Lesser energy will cause hunger, and fatigue in individuals, and this is an early sign of diabetes.

The change in levels of fluid in our body makes eye lenses swell, and the shape changes resulting in the blurred vision, and an individual can focus on things.

Yeast infection is also a symptom and both men, and women can suffer from this, while yeast infection is identified by checking between the fingers and toes, and under breasts.

One of the early signs can be gain or loss in weight.


Insulin is a chemical messenger, that is important to stay alive and the pancreas makes a hormone named the insulin which allows our body to use glucose from food which we intake to gain, and store energy. The food which we intake consists of the carbohydrates and this is the source from which sugar/glucose is taken to the body. Energy is the basic requirement of the body cells and after food intake; the beta cells are signals to produce insulin to the bloodstreams. Insulin is the key, which unlocks cells to allow glucose so that glucose would enter a cell. If the pancreas releases less insulin, then diabetes will develop resulting in higher amounts of glucose levels in the blood. The islets in our body are attacked by the immune system, which ceases the production of insulin, and it is not produced enough in the body. After this cease of islets, the glucose in our blood stays, and the cells do not absorb leading to failure in conversion of the glucose into the energy, which is required by our body.

Insulin production by the pancreas

To control the glucose, homeostasis the adequate amount of insulin is produced by the pancreatic beta cells. A person with the disease of obesity, the insulin is produced in a deficit amount, and it is supposed that there will be lesser secretion capacity of the pancreas ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"keUO9c1w","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Alarcon et al.)","plainCitation":"(Alarcon et al.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":598,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/F0XOCTdk/items/2IL5ACHW"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/F0XOCTdk/items/2IL5ACHW"],"itemData":{"id":598,"type":"article-journal","title":"Pancreatic β-Cell Adaptive Plasticity in Obesity Increases Insulin Production but Adversely Affects Secretory Function","container-title":"Diabetes","page":"438-450","volume":"65","issue":"2","source":"diabetes.diabetesjournals.org","abstract":"Pancreatic β-cells normally produce adequate insulin to control glucose homeostasis, but in obesity-related diabetes, there is a presumed deficit in insulin production and secretory capacity. In this study, insulin production was assessed directly in obese diabetic mouse models, and proinsulin biosynthesis was found to be contrastingly increased, coupled with a significant expansion of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (without endoplasmic reticulum stress) and Golgi apparatus, increased vesicular trafficking, and a depletion of mature β-granules. As such, β-cells have a remarkable capacity to produce substantial quantities of insulin in obesity, which are then made available for immediate secretion to meet increased metabolic demand, but this comes at the price of insulin secretory dysfunction. Notwithstanding, it can be restored. Upon exposing isolated pancreatic islets of obese mice to normal glucose concentrations, β-cells revert back to their typical morphology with restoration of regulated insulin secretion. These data demonstrate an unrealized dynamic adaptive plasticity of pancreatic β-cells and underscore the rationale for transient β-cell rest as a treatment strategy for obesity-linked diabetes.","DOI":"10.2337/db15-0792","ISSN":"0012-1797, 1939-327X","note":"PMID: 26307586","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Alarcon","given":"Cristina"},{"family":"Boland","given":"Brandon B."},{"family":"Uchizono","given":"Yuji"},{"family":"Moore","given":"Patrick C."},{"family":"Peterson","given":"Bryan"},{"family":"Rajan","given":"Suryalekha"},{"family":"Rhodes","given":"Olivia S."},{"family":"Noske","given":"Andrew B."},{"family":"Haataja","given":"Leena"},{"family":"Arvan","given":"Peter"},{"family":"Marsh","given":"Bradly J."},{"family":"Austin","given":"Jotham"},{"family":"Rhodes","given":"Christopher J."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016",2,1]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Alarcon et al.). The pancreas is that detector which, when there is a rise in glucose levels in our blood, controls the levels by secreting the insulin to absorb the glucose in the blood.

The glucose level is controlled by the insulin and allows to pass blood across cell membranes, and to the body cells. The energy absorbed by the cells is stored in the liver, muscular cells in the form of glycogen. This results in a decrease in the sugar level in our blood, and this decrease triggers the pancreas to stop releasing the insulin farther.

Diabetes and pancreatic functions

For our body mechanism, the pancreas plays an important role, especially in the endocrine and exocrine system. The endocrine systems consist of those body organs which produce the hormones, chemicals, and these chemicals are sent to the blood which helps in the regulation of mood patterns, growth, reproduction and the metabolism of our body. The exocrine consists of glands responsible for the release if the sweat, saliva and digestive enzymes in the pancreas.

The pancreas is responsible to produce insulin in our body and the beta-cell are responsible for the production of insulin. Beta cells are divided into groups inside the pancreas, which are named as the islets of Langerhans. The insulin regulates sugar in our blood, which assists the transportation of sugar from the blood to the cells.

The pancreas is linked with diabetes because insulin is produced by the pancreas which controls the higher levels of sugar in the blood and this can be a problem of the pancreas.

Type 1 and pancreas

In type one diabetes the beta cells are attacked by the immune of our body when beta cells are attacked more, then the pancreas starts producing a little amount of insulin to keep balance in the sugar levels, while this is the time when the symptoms of diabetes start appearing in people. However, our body still keeps producing the little amount of insulin after years.

Type 2 and pancreas

Insulin is resisted by our body immune, while the pancreas can still release the hormones to the body but body cells fail to use these hormones effectively. When there is no sufficient amount of insulin in our body then, diabetes is developed while the beta cells are damaged.

The pancreas is responsible to release the insulin in our cells to control and balance the higher levels of the glucose/sugar. But the beta cells get attacked and the insulin is resisted to control the higher level of sugar which results in the slow functioning of the pancreas and this leads to diabetes in people. Symptoms for diabetes can be identified before it takes too long to treat people in the initial levels of diabetes.

Works Cited

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Alarcon, Cristina, et al. “Pancreatic β-Cell Adaptive Plasticity in Obesity Increases Insulin Production but Adversely Affects Secretory Function.” Diabetes, vol. 65, no. 2, Feb. 2016, pp. 438–50. diabetes.diabetesjournals.org, doi:10.2337/db15-0792.

DeFronzo, Ralph A., et al. “Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.” Nature Reviews Disease Primers, vol. 1, 2015, p. 15019.

Fuchsberger, Christian, et al. “The Genetic Architecture of Type 2 Diabetes.” Nature, vol. 536, no. 7614, 2016, p. 41.

Rawshani, Aidin, et al. “Mortality and Cardiovascular Disease in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes.” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 376, no. 15, 2017, pp. 1407–18.

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

How Genes Work

Julie Niel

How Genes Work

Research Essay

1. Introduction

Protein biosynthesis, which takes place under genetic control, is only the beginning of complex, multi-stage biochemical processes of the cell. When studying vegetative propagating plants, evidence was obtained that individual parts of the body, such as a tuber, leaf, bulb, cuttings and so on, give rise to a normal plant. And this means that all the cells of this organism carry complete genetic information, as well as the original fertilized egg from which the animal develops. At the same time, any organism contains differentiated cells with a specific form and function. For example, a person has nerve, muscle, sex cells, etc. But, despite the fact that each cell of our body carries complete genetic information, that is, a complete set of genes received from parents, only certain genes function, the rest are in an inactive state (Kaiser et al., 2007).

2.  Mechanism

Indeed, a similar regulatory mechanism was discovered in bacterial cells in 1961 by French scientists Francois Jacob and Jacques Mono. F. Jacob and J. Mono proved that not all bacterial genes are identical in purpose.

One group is structural genes that provide information on the synthesis of certain polypeptide chains, and the other is regulatory genes that control the activity of structural genes by turning them on and off.

Regulatory genes are represented by an operator gene directly linked to a group of structural genes and a regulatory gene, which may be located at some distance from them.

An operator gene with a group of structural genes regulated by it was called an operon. The operon serves as a unit of transcription, that is, one molecule of i-RNA is written off from it.

·         The regulator gene does not act by direct contact with structural genes, but by means of a repressor protein. In the presence of sufficiently accumulated molecules of the synthesized substance, the protein repressor, combining with these molecules, activates and binds to the operator gene (Stotz et al., 2004). As a result, the synthesis of this substance stops. The repressor protein got its name due to the fact that it suppresses the activity of the operator gene, that is, puts it in the “off” position.  With a small number of synthesized molecules, the protein repressor remains inactive. Under such conditions, the action of the operon — the operator gene and structural genes — is not suppressed, and the synthesis will continue unhindered.

3.  Body

To each of our cells contains about 30,000 different genes, while certain bacteria enough only 500 genes. The genes contain codes according to which proteins are synthesized and the order of amino acids in them is determined. No matter where in the human body the cells are, they always contain the same set of genes. However, depending on the type of cells — skin cells, nerve cells or muscle cells — different genes are involved in them for the synthesis of new proteins. The long chains of DNA in the chromosomes of a cell are tightly compressed. The compact arrangement of DNA in the chromosomes is due to special proteins around which DNA strands are wound. But in the cell, there are proteins that, in order to facilitate the synthesis of new proteins according to the code contained in the DNA, transfer DNA from a compact form to an unfolded one if necessary. Under the influence of these proteins, chromosome cells preparing for division unfold and from that moment occupy 10 thousand times more space (Warnecke, F., Amann, R., & Pernthaler, J. (2004).

A gene is actively involved in the synthesis of new proteins when it transfers its RNA code using a special protein mechanism that copies the genetic code of DNA, which is a nucleotide sequence. The process of reading genetic information, called "transcription," begins with the discovery and deployment of a small part of the double helix of DNA at the end of the chromosome. The genetic codes of this chromosome region are then copied onto the RNA molecule growing as the copy process progresses; while the protein copying mechanism moves along the DNA strand. The process of transferring the genetic code ends when the so-called terminal group of amino acids is synthesized at the end of the RNA - its presence signals the end of the protein chain of this code. Many may think that after this, RNA is ready for the synthesis of the desired protein based on its matrix. However, like everything else in cells, things are not so simple (Chappell, J., Watters, K. E., Takahashi, M. K., & Lucks, J. B. 2015).


The key to understanding how living systems function is proteins and genes just provide the information by which proteins are synthesized. Knowing the structure of the human genome will tell you which proteins will be synthesized in cells, but this will not allow us to get an easy answer to the question of when and where such proteins will be synthesized in the body of a growing embryo. After all, tens of thousands of proteins constantly and continuously interact with each other inside the cell, but at the same time, the genome alone cannot determine the nature or sequence of these interactions.


Kaiser, C. A., Krieger, M., Lodish, H., & Berk, A. (2007). Molecular cell biology. WH Freeman.

Stotz, K., Griffiths, P. E., & Knight, R. (2004). How biologists conceptualize genes: an empirical study. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, 35(4), 647-673.

Warnecke, F., Amann, R., & Pernthaler, J. (2004). Actinobacterial 16S rRNA genes from freshwater habitats cluster in four distinct lineages. Environmental Microbiology, 6(3), 242-253.

Chappell, J., Watters, K. E., Takahashi, M. K., & Lucks, J. B. (2015). A renaissance in RNA synthetic biology: new mechanisms, applications and tools for the future. Current opinion in chemical biology, 28, 47-56.

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 2 Words: 600

How We Can Control Stress In Social

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The paper is about social stress. Social stress is a growing problem, especially in teenagers. Social stress results in bad social relationship and other psychological disorders. With the help of a literature review, various ways have been identified to cope with social stress. Today's world, causes of social stress include; comparison between wealth, status and jobs or grades. Whenever individuals experience the number of uncontrolled changes during the short period of time the chances of social stress increases. As stress may lead to mental disorder and physical illness, therefore, special attention should be paid to the cause. A person who finds out the symptom of stress or feel social phobia should consult with the physiatrist. Besides consultation of a physiatrist, one should do exercise, meditation, smile, and laugh. Taking social support from the family and the trust ones is also beneficial. Negative thoughts must be avoided and should be replaced by positive thoughts.

How We Can Control Stress in Social


Social stress is the stress that becomes the root of antisocial and isolated habit in individuals. It affects the physical and psychological development of the individuals. By nature, the human is the social being therefore when the social life gets disturbed it affects the whole personality of the individual. There are three categories of social stress which are daily hassles, life events, and chronic strains. Daily hassles indicate the minor difficulties faced throughout the working day like a traffic jam, life events relate to the number of life changes take place in the short period like sexual harassment while chronic strains explain the persistent events life getting failed in the paper or unemployment. When an individual feels difficult or impossible to cope with this stress, it starts causing social stress which impacts the health of the individual both physically and mentally.

Literature Review:

In the article ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"jAdzk9q6","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Five Tips to Help Manage Stress\\uc0\\u8221{})","plainCitation":"(“Five Tips to Help Manage Stress”)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":538,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/JNZ88655"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/JNZ88655"],"itemData":{"id":538,"type":"webpage","title":"Five tips to help manage stress","container-title":"https://www.apa.org","abstract":"Five healthy techniques that psychological research has shown to help reduce stress in the short- and long-term.","URL":"https://www.apa.org/helpcenter/manage-stress","language":"en","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",6,7]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Five Tips to Help Manage Stress”), various reasons for social stress have been discussed. Articles explain that stress increases when the demand placed on you whether at school, job or in the relationship. This stress can affect central nervous systems, cardiovascular, and neuroendocrine. Its symptoms include insomnia, bad immune system, high blood pressure, heart diseases, and muscles pain. Whenever an individual feels these symptoms he should use five healthy techniques. These techniques are introduced after various psychological researches. First, take the break from the stressor that is the thing which is making stress should be neglected. For instance, if the teenager is making stress at school, he should take some vacation and should take rest and avoid all the thought that making him upset. Second, he should do some exercise as it is beneficial for mental health. Third, he should smile and laugh. If the person is not feeling happy he should try to be happy as the brain has a connection with our facial expressions and emotions. Fourth, a person should take social support. To reduce social stress, support from the loved ones is important. Family and friends can help the person to eliminate his negative thoughts. Fifth, meditation and prayer should become the part of the life. Religion helps you feel relaxed from the soul. Therefore, pray to god is helpful it give strength to the self-compassion.

In the article ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"fjiO1yDE","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Melinda)","plainCitation":"(Melinda)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":535,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/8YXVRYIU"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/8YXVRYIU"],"itemData":{"id":535,"type":"post-weblog","title":"Social Anxiety Disorder - HelpGuide.org","container-title":"https://www.helpguide.org","abstract":"Do you get anxious in certain social situations? Learn about the signs and symptoms and how to overcome social anxiety disorder.","URL":"https://www.helpguide.org/articles/anxiety/social-anxiety-disorder.htm","language":"en_US","author":[{"literal":"Melinda"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018",11,2]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",6,7]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Melinda), social anxiety and social phobia are being discussed. The article not only discussed the solution of the issue it also helps to understand its symptoms and treatment. Articles explain social stress as social phobia which is the fear of social situations. Social stress arises especially whenever an individual feels that he cannot cope with the situation or he has no solution to the social problem. In addition when insecurities increase and individuals find himself loser or weaker than the other people living around him. To reduce social stress, an individual should challenge negative thoughts. Second, he should divert his focus from himself to the others. Third, the individual should try to control his breathing. Fourth, he should be ready to face his fear. Fifth, take the help of family and friend and try to be social with them it will be helpful to achieve the anti-stressful lifestyle.

In the article ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"O1KYqxmb","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Sontag et al.)","plainCitation":"(Sontag et al.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":545,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/97NDR7AR"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/97NDR7AR"],"itemData":{"id":545,"type":"article-journal","title":"Coping with Social Stress: Implications for Psychopathology in Young Adolescent Girls","container-title":"Journal of abnormal child psychology","page":"1159-1174","volume":"36","issue":"8","source":"PubMed Central","abstract":"This study investigated the impact of social stress on symptoms of psychopathology at the entry into adolescence (111 girls, Mage=11.84, SD=0.77). We examined whether peer stress and pubertal timing were associated with internalizing distress and aggression, and whether responses to stress and cortisol reactivity mediated or moderated these associations. Cortisol samples were collected from saliva samples during in-home visits, and the YSR was used to assess psychopathology. Interestingly, pubertal timing demonstrated a trend association with cortisol. Responses to stress mediated the association between social stress and symptoms of internalizing distress and aggression. Specifically, early maturers and girls with higher levels of peer stress exhibited more problematic responses to stress, in turn demonstrating higher levels of internalizing distress and aggression. Significant moderation effects also emerged. For example, early maturers who experienced higher levels of emotional/cognitive numbing in response to peer stress were at greater risk for aggression. Findings identify coping strategies that may be used in evidence-based programming to help girls transition more successfully into adolescence will be discussed.","DOI":"10.1007/s10802-008-9239-3","ISSN":"0091-0627","note":"PMID: 18465219\nPMCID: PMC3117326","title-short":"Coping with Social Stress","journalAbbreviation":"J Abnorm Child Psychol","author":[{"family":"Sontag","given":"Lisa M."},{"family":"Graber","given":"Julia A."},{"family":"Brooks-Gunn","given":"Jeanne"},{"family":"Warren","given":"Michelle P."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2008",11]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Sontag et al.), it is explained that feeling nervous is normal however, losing hope is not. Fear of being judged, embarrassment, sometimes leads to the avoidance of the situation. This avoidance and staying away from the events or the situations may result in social stress. Articles well defined social stress by discussing its symptoms both physically and emotionally, a situation which develops stress, causes, risk factors, complications, and prevention. To reduce social stress, the individual should get help as soon as he notices symptoms. In addition, he should prioritize issues in life and avoid unhealthy substance like alcohol and drugs.

In the article (staff), the demand of today's world is explained. We have a lot of things to do in different places. We have responsibilities at home, work, or school and when the sudden emergency comes in the way it becomes difficult to handle the situation. The body deals with challenges on a daily basis and it requires energy, extra work leads to a feeling of anxiousness, worries, fear, and uptight. To avoid stress within social life one should exercise and eat healthy food. The person should sleep well and meditate for the relaxation of mind. All these things can help in reducing social stress.

In the article ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"NwZfX5UW","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Social Anxiety Disorder (Social Phobia) - Symptoms and Causes\\uc0\\u8221{})","plainCitation":"(“Social Anxiety Disorder (Social Phobia) - Symptoms and Causes”)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":533,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/LN75XNCZ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/LN75XNCZ"],"itemData":{"id":533,"type":"webpage","title":"Social anxiety disorder (social phobia) - Symptoms and causes","container-title":"Mayo Clinic","URL":"https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/social-anxiety-disorder/symptoms-causes/syc-20353561","language":"en","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",6,7]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Social Anxiety Disorder (Social Phobia) - Symptoms and Causes”), research has been made to understand the social stress in women. In adolescence social stress is normally feel during pubertal timing and because of peer stress. Girls in early mature feel it difficult to handle the peer pressure and other complicated situation. They feel emotional and physical stress. This is the age when girls become introverts and start avoiding social gathering. The author concluded that to reduce social stress in young girls, they should use evidence-based programming and therapy. Self-care is beneficial to fight with the situation quickly.


Social stress is a growing problem in contemporary time. With so many challenges and competition individuals often feel difficulties to handle the events which can lead to the fear of failure and embarrassment. This change in emotional feelings can cause social stress. To cope with the social stress various steps can be taken. These include; exercise, meditation, good sleeping pattern, healthy diet, avoidance of drugs and alcohol, consultation of a physiatrist, and therapy. Through these steps, it is possible to cope with social stress.

Works Cited

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY “Five Tips to Help Manage Stress.” Https://Www.Apa.Org, https://www.apa.org/helpcenter/manage-stress. Accessed 7 June 2019.

Melinda. “Social Anxiety Disorder - HelpGuide.Org.” Https://Www.Helpguide.Org, 2 Nov. 2018, https://www.helpguide.org/articles/anxiety/social-anxiety-disorder.htm.

“Social Anxiety Disorder (Social Phobia) - Symptoms and Causes.” Mayo Clinic, https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/social-anxiety-disorder/symptoms-causes/syc-20353561. Accessed 7 June 2019.

Sontag, Lisa M., et al. “Coping with Social Stress: Implications for Psychopathology in Young Adolescent Girls.” Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, vol. 36, no. 8, Nov. 2008, pp. 1159–74. PubMed Central, doi:10.1007/s10802-008-9239-3.

staff, familydoctor org editorial. “Managing Daily Stress.” Familydoctor.Org, 1 Oct. 2001, https://familydoctor.org/stress-how-to-cope-better-with-lifes-challenges/.

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Hunting The Nightmare Bacteria - Frontline

Hunting the Nightmare

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Hunting the Nightmare

The documentary tends to investigate the increase of deadly drug-resistant bacteria. There is no doubt that in the future there will be seen a rise in the infections. It must be considered that a large number of people realize that the main reason behind this feeding of antibiotics to livestock. There is a high need for each individual to not engage in such practices. However, when it comes to the pharmaceutical and agricultural lobbies, they are quite powerful to defeat on such issues. The matter of fact is that such lobbies are not interested in public health, but in profit. In the current scenario, some drugs companies have been observed that develop new antibiotics. The reason for that is quite simple as it is considered less profitable for developing antibiotics that are taken occasionally. Whereas there is a high profit in the drugs that are used on a regular basis.

Studies and research show that every year in the U.S. a minimum of 2 million people is seen to become infected with bacteria. Apart from this, about 23,000 people die every year due to the direct result of such infections. It must be considered that only government research with assistance from tax dollar can resolve such problems. The aim of a good government is to work on the common good of citizens. In the 21st century, private corporations consider profits as their only concern. The perfect example in such a scenario would of tobacco which tends to kill millions of people each year. The point to be noted here is that the tobacco industry is spreading tobacco from decades now. When it comes to the Tobacco industry, it tends to cover up the issue ever since tobacco was a profitable product. However, the government gradually exposed the problem. All of this was done by the placing constraints on publicizing tobacco and its sale as a public health hazard.

There have been successive measures taken for cleaning up the environment after the decades of polluting water, earth, and air. All of this has resulted in the creation of EPA. The undeniable fact is that there are certain deadly effects due to lead products, lead paint, and leaded gasoline (Chavda, 2017). However, there has been no measure taken to prevent the usage of these products in an industrial area. The reason for that lies is quite simple as it has helped the industries in the past to gain profit. The industries have never given an ear to the people who are behind died, but the government has saved the citizens somehow. In the 21st century, as the global climate change tends to proceed unabated, it has been seen that the fossil fuel companies with allies lie and deceive. Again here, the reason is simply nothing but the profit itself. There is no doubt that only governmental power can become a hindrance to the ruination.

In the current scenario, there is a high need for certain steps such as creating a new economic system. There can be initiated some changes to the current economic system as well. When it comes to the political side, there should be global cooperation. The matter of fact is that the majority of the problems that are currently being faced are across the international borders. The documentary by PBS is extremely great. It must be considered that it was not profitable to investigate all of this for a small audience. Apart from this, without adequate funds, individuals are forced to beg for money. However, the broadcast has performed a great public service.


Chavda, K. D. (2017). Carbapenem Resistant Enterobacteriaceae: Hunting the Nightmare Bacteria (Doctoral dissertation, Rutgers University, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences).

Hunting the Nightmare Bacteria | Season 31 Episode 14 | FRONTLINE. (2019). PBS.org. Retrieved 25 June 2019, from https://www.pbs.org/video/hunting-nightmare-bacteria-update-nqil1d/

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Hypomelanosis Of Ito Syndrome

Hypomelanosis of ITO Syndrome

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Hypomelanosis of ITO Syndrome

Hypomelanosis of Ito Syndrome is mainly a rare health condition which is basically characterized by unique changes in the skin in which parts of the individual’s skin are deprived of skin color which is also called hypo pigmentation. The changes in the skin are often represented as streaks, patches, and even some spiral shaped areas. Although these are some of the most common symptoms of this particular condition but in some individuals various other symptoms also occur that majorly affect the areas outside of the skin (Pavone et al., 2015). There are some other additional symptoms in individuals who have this disease condition such as seizures along with developmental delays and also some musculoskeletal signs that include the irregular curve of the spine these are some of the most common signs that are associated with this disease. There are a majority of patients in which the diseases occur because of genetic abnormalities which are mainly present in some cells of the body but these cells are not present in other parts. The skin changes that occur in the individual occur during the first two years of life. This particular disease is caused by irregular nerve termination in the affected area of the skin (Pavone et al., 2015)...

Till date the exact cause of this disease is not fully known but there are cases which are linked with genetic mosaicism and other gene mutation. Genetic mosaicims is the term used in people who mainly have two different cell lines in the individual's body which develops due to a gene mutation that occurs during the embryonic development (Ruggieri &Pavone, 2000).Mosaicism normally leads towards two cell lineages which results in the areas of hypo pigmented which refers to the light area of the skin and also hyper pigmented which refers to darker regions of the skin. In case of hypomelanosis of Ito X-chromosome alterations are also quite commonand researches have shown that the activation or inactivation of X-chromosomes is some of the major causes of these color differences in the skin.

In most of the individuals who have this condition as there are 2 cell lines so the one cell line have normal chromosomes that are 46 but the second cell line does not have the normal cell line. Therefore, it is this second cell lines that may contain various irregularities and abnormalities which majorly affect the chromosome such as a mutation in this specific gene or presence of an additional element on the chromosome which is commonly referred to as trisomy or a portion of a chromosome is lost which is known as monosomy or any other chromosomal translocation. There are some specific chromosomal abnormalities that have been recognized in the cases of hypomelanosis of Ito and some of these abnormalities affect the chromosome 9q33, chromosome 15q11-q13 and also Xp212. these abnormalities occur after the fertilization and they occur for unknown reasons (Taibjee et al., 2004).


Pavone, P., Praticò, A. D., Ruggieri, M., &Falsaperla, R. (2015). Hypomelanosis of Ito: aroundon thefrequency and type of epileptic complications. Neurological Sciences, 36(7), 1173-1180.

Ruggieri, M., &Pavone, L. (2000). Topical review: Hypomelanosis of Ito: Clinical syndrome orjust phenotype?. Journal of child neurology, 15(10), 635-644.

Taibjee, S. M., Bennett, D. C., & Moss, C. (2004). Abnormal pigmentation in hypomelanosis of Ito and pigmentary mosaicism: the role of pigmentary genes. British Journal of Dermatology, 151(2), 269-282.

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Hypomelanosis Of Ito Syndrome.

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Hypomelanosis of lto Syndrome


Hypomelanosis of Ito is a genetic disorder. It is also called incontinentia pigmenti achromians and is a neurocutaneous disease CITATION Sus13 \l 1033 (Jayaprasad, 2013). A patient suffering from it manifests skeletal, muscular and nervous system symptoms, and has hypopigmented macules on his/her body. Soles, palms, and scalps are those parts of the body which remain unaffected. The macules are usually on both sides of the body, however, the patches are not symmetrical. Patients with Hypomelanosis suffer from mental retardation, eczema, pes cavas, inverted cilia (of the eye), ventral hernia, back pain, reduced hearing, and much more.

It is not possible to arrive at any conclusions about extracutaneous symptoms, but there are some symptoms which cannot be ignored such as hypotonia, cramps, retardation and delayed development CITATION Tho14 \l 1033 (Thomsen, 2014). Neurological problems associated with hypomelanosis of lto are found in 76% of patients of hypomelanosis of lto during the first ten years. Moreover, about 50% suffer from seizures or epilepsy.

In order to diagnose hypomelanosis of lto, evaluation with Wood’s lamp is most often used. Some additional genetic testing is also recommended. At present, there is no cure for the disease. Therapies are conducted which only treat the symptoms such as scoliosis and seizures. Moreover, usually, a multidisciplinary team provide the healthcare services to such patients. The prognosis depends on the intensity of symptoms. Patients having only skin symptoms usually live longer.

Hypomelanosis is more common in women than in men. The ratio is about 2.5:1. Moreover, about 1 in 10,000 people suffer from this syndrome. The symptoms usually appear in the first two years of their life. In medical literature, it was first mentioned in 1952.

What genetic mutation is it made up of?

Hypomelanosis of Ito is usually sporadic. In this context, sporadic means a new mutation as a result of which a genetic disorder has occurred for the first time in a family. It may also mean the appearance of a non-genetic disorder which is unlikely to recur in coming generations of a family. Family history of hypomelanosis of Ito (type skin lesions) exists in less than 3% of the patients. However, these cases are transmitted as autosomal traits. These autosomal traits are dominant. Nearly 10% of all patients of this disease have family history epilepsy and/or seizures.

In many patients of hypomelanosis of lto, not all cells have the normal 46 chromosomes, resulting in many abnormalities and mutation in genes. It may also result in extra material on a chromosome. Having extra material on chromosomes is called trisomy. Another possibility is mommy which is a loss of a certain portion chromosome. Monosomy is also called chromosomal translocation. Translocation involves the breaking off of certain portions of chromosomes and then their rearrangement. Consequently, genetic material is shifted and altered in the daughter cells. Some chromosomal abnormalities associated with hypomelanosis include chromosome 9q33 and chromosome Xp21.

What chromosome or gene is affected in the body?

In most cases, the causes of this disease cannot be identified CITATION CKJ14 \l 1033 (Janniger, 2014).. However, some cases have shown chromosomal abnormality. Mosaicism is reflected by the skin pattern sometimes. Mosaicism is a condition in which some of the skin chromosomes are normal and some have a gene or chromosomal abnormality, which results in dark and light areas appearing on the skin. Some cases also show alterations of X-chromosomes. Studies show that this alteration of X-chromosome along with mosaicism causes the said differences in the skin. It has also been observed that the in less than 3% of the patients, family history of hypomelanosis exists. In hypomelanosis of lto, the pigmentary phenotype may be attributed to karyotype abnormalities which disrupt the function of pigmentary genes.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Janniger, CK. "Pediatric Hypomelanosis of Ito." (2014).

Jayaprasad, Sushmitha. "Hypomelanosis of Ito: A rare cutaneous syndrome ." 2013.

Thomsen, Christine Rohr. "Hypomelanosis of Ito presenting with pediatric orthopedic issues: a case report." Journal of Medical Case Reports (2014).

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 2 Words: 600

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