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Environmental Issues


Professor name



Climate justice

Initial post

Climate justice means justifying out actions towards climate. This reflects that every individual living in a society is socially and ethically responsible for his action. Such if a person burn trees he cannot justify his action because it contributes to global warming that is linked to climate change. Similarly companies that are engaged in the process of manufacturing and release tons of toxic agents or harmful gases are also unable too justify their actions because they are playing negative role.

I believe that climate justice stresses on the significance of saving this climate for the future generations. We all have heard about the fight if the environmentalists for implementation of the environmental protection policies by focusing on limiting negative human activities. The central concept linked to climate justice is global warming. There have been many reasons behind this global warming such as increased use of fossil fuels, deforestation and emission of toxic gases. Massive industrialization and urbanization are also common causes of global warming. I think that the excessive release of greenhouse gases is constantly threatening the world and its population due to rising temperatures and other changing impacts of the world. There is no doubt in saying that all communities and in fact everyone is impacted by global warming CITATION Gua05 \l 1033 (Guarín & Taylor, 2005). Scientific evidence has revealed that climate change is the result of high deforestation, cutting of tress and increased dependence of society of fossil fuels. It therefore reveals that everyone is socially and ethically responsible for taking care of the environment and controlling their practices that are threatening the sustainability.

I believe that climate justice is extremely important for protecting it from the adverse human activities and saving it for our future generations. Climate change has become a serious issue of justice because global warming is increasing with every passing years CITATION Gua05 \l 1033 (Guarín & Taylor, 2005). Irrespective of all the measures and policy changes no progress has been made. The world is still facing the challenge of climate change. This concept is also linked to justice because climate is affecting the lives of the poor and deprived more. Considering potential climate justice ideas are important for identifying the ways that can promote its sustainability. Declaration on Climate Justice is an important step that engage global leaders and works to increase education of the people about climate justice.


I agree with the post of David Atwereboanda because she explains the aftermath of climate change and how deteriorating it would be for the human population. I like the discussion on ethical and political issues related to climate change. Populations are at risk because the change is continually threatening the world and the people. I agree that there has been significant growth in the victims hurricanes belonging too certain communities. The common threats linked to climate change include storms, hurricanes, typhoons and other natural disasters. I agree that the environmentalists have threatened the world due to consistent rise in the temperature CITATION Gua05 \l 1033 (Guarín & Taylor, 2005). Evidence and scientific researches have also confirmed that world temperature is increasing every year compared to the previous years. Hickey has managed to provide adequate support for her argument by including the reference of Haiti earthquake and the article “Hurricane hit the poor the hardest”. This effects he has considered only credible sources for evaluating the environment related issues. I think Hickey has provided adequate evidence to support the claims that climate change pose serious threats to human health and safety CITATION Jef031 \l 1033 (Fox, 2003). After reading the post it is clear that immediate measures are needed to be adopted for minimizing the challenges posed by climate change.

Climate denial

Initial post

Climate change denial is real because the most of the people in this world are not willing to change themselves for protecting it. Arguments have been made that the central reason for increased global warming is the denial of the people. This philosophy claims that climate change has been natural for freeing the humans from the responsibility of protecting climate. I don’t agree with this idea because it only dismisses the claims that human activities have the central cause behind global warming CITATION Jef031 \l 1033 (Fox, 2003). I think the central reason behind this ideology is the distrust of people on science and evidence. Deniers have debunked the criticism made on humans for damaging the ecology. I believe that deniers are only rejecting to accept their responsibility towards the environment. Another reason for this skepticism is the misconception that scientists have manipulated the data for making things look different. It is actually hard for them to accept that they have a responsibility for looking at their activities and cutting the ones that are linked to global warming. Take for example the use of fossil fuels. Majority of the population today is consuming energy and eating fast food that is linked to high fossil fuel use. Deniers want to reject the findings of the science for disconnecting from the responsibility. They want to see things as they are and deny the level of damage to the climate. Deniers have also rejected that importance of climate justice irrespective of the awareness campaigns and protests.

I believe that the industries and owners of the big companies also fall in the category of deniers because they are directly involved in activities the leads to greenhouse gas emission and global warming CITATION Gua05 \l 1033 (Guarín & Taylor, 2005). They are not willing to control their negative business practices such as release of toxic agents and increased use of fossil fuel. Deniers believe that everything that happens to climate is natural. Human activities don’t play significant role in protecting the climate. One reasons for this belief is the role of misinformation campaigns. I think it is possible to change the belief of the deniers by building trust for scientific evidence and convincing them that every person is responsible for protecting the environment and has a responsibility towards the climate. It is important for the campaigners to environmentalists to identify the right way of responding to their claims.


I like the post of Joseph M Hickey because he manages to make a valid point by explaining that it is important to examine the issue of climate change from both sides. The viewpoints of Hickey are important for understanding the role of climate denial and how prevalent it is in current times. I agree with him on the point that the remarks of people on climate change reflect their political orientation. Climate change has somehow resulted in the social and ecological collapse. I agree that the environmentalists have stressed on adopting adequate measures for saving this planet. The first Earth Day was founded in 1970 with the goal of giving awareness to the people about the threats that the world is facing due to destructive human activities. I like the point made by Hickey that even a common man can understand what is happening to this climate and the causes behind them. I also agree that the climate and planet earth has experienced much destruction due to the human activities. There is need for taking the responsibility of saving the climate by committing to avoid practices that threatens its sustainability.


Fox, J. (2003). People and Environment. Springer.

Guarín, A., & Taylor, A. H. (2005). Drought triggered tree mortality in mixed conifer forests in Yosemite National Park, California, USA. Forest Ecology and Management,Vol 218 .

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

Environmental Issues

Title page

Climate change

Joelle’s Topic

Climate change resilience in Boston

Boston is among the American states that are facing severe threats due to climate change. People of Boston are affected by natural calamities including heavy rain, storms, snow and flooding. The state has thus launched “Climate Ready Boston” for planning to give awareness to the people about the climate threats that the citizens are facing. The purpose is also to plan management of climate and building a resilient future. The initiative is focused on advancing the vision for this initiative. Resilient harbor vision is also part of Boston’s strategy of protecting the people and the community from the rising sea level CITATION Mar194 \l 1033 (Walsh, 2019). I think the steps taken by the state are crucial for assuring the safety and protection of its people. Some of the important actions taken by the Mayor of the state include investments in infrastructures including 10 percent spending in prepping of parks and improving buildings. The emphasis of the state is to minimize the potential threats posed to the climate. The strategy of the state is also focusing on pushing climate adaptation such as through its mission of green gentrification. This is considered as a practical resilience strategy for controlling the deteriorating impacts on the toxic gas emission. There are 2000 units of public housing in Dorchester that also depicts the needs for enhancing green spaces.

I think one of the important initiatives taken by the mayor of the Boston city is reconsidering the expansion of parks across 60 acres of South Boston waterfront. The part is seen as a pathway to flood as there are low-lying areas nearby. The challenge is to assure adoption of the right strategy that will eliminate the potential threats to climate. Redesigning of the Moakley part is also due to the climate concerns. The state can thus focus on adopting strategies for providing protection to the communities in low-lying areas.

However, there is still need for adopting more programs that could inform the people how climate change is linked to human activities. This requires arranging different awareness campaigns that provides education and awareness to the community people about the implications of wasting natural resources like water. Similarly, the use of fossil fuels is also linked to climate change because it is the major contributor of greenhouse gases. I think even if the state provides first aid and support to the affected communities in Boston, the challenge of climate change remains unmet. There is a need for controlling activities that are directly harming the climate and contributing to the temperature rise. These could help devise a national policy plan that restrict companies for engaging in harmful practices such as release of toxic agents or gasses.

William’s Topic

Best approaches to solve climate change on the individual/ personal scale

It is crucial to find the best approaches to solve climate change. I think one of the effective ways of solving climate change at individual level is by reducing our ecological footprint. This can be attained by involving states and environmental protection agencies that give education to the people and community for managing their use of resources. There are several platforms where people can check their consumption of fossil fuels in the form of electricity or transportation that leads to climate change. The states need to take initiative for convincing people that they are responsible for the protection of the environment for themselves and for the future generations. This is only possible when they accept their responsibility and agree to become part of the climate protection campaigns. Each citizen can take initiative to cut their consumption of water, fossil fuels and refrain from unnecessary traveling. This will have positive impact on the environment. Similarly, the campaigns can be organized at schools and colleges that give awareness to the children about protection of climate. This will be important for building environmentally responsible citizens who will be ready to take initiative for the protection of climate.

Individuals should be banned from cutting of trees or overconsumption of water. Another step is use of energy wisely that means refraining for unnecessary travelling. Similarly, by installing energy efficient light bulbs every individual can contribute to save energy. Every citizen can take the role of a responsible citizen by plugging off the devices like computers, laptops and cell phones. Installation of renewable energy at homes and offices is also a practical solution for overcoming potential climate challenges.

I think there could be some strict actions taken by the state such as imposing penalties on the companies that are engaged in harmful practices. There are organizations that are engaged in over exploitation of resources such as water and deforestation. Taxes can be imposed on multinational companies for investing in climate protection programs. There should be a national policy for cutting the consumption of fossil fuels at individual and collective levels CITATION Gol16 \l 1033 (Gold, Ewing, Banks, Groom, & Hinckley, 2016).

Another important step that I believe could bring a solution to the society and world is changing our eating habits. Most of the fossil fuel is consumed by fast food companies. So, by cutting consumption of fast food and processed meat every individual can contribute to this climate protection mission. People can take initiative of eating more vegetables and organic food and replace them with meat. People can also save climate by refraining from wasting food. Recycling can be adopted at person level such as by reusing plastic and tins. These are solutions to climate change and leads to a stable environment.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Walsh, M. J. (2019). PREPARING FOR CLIMATE CHANGE . Retrieved 09 29, 2019, from https://www.boston.gov/departments/environment/climate-ready-boston

Gold, W., Ewing, K., Banks, J., Groom, M., & Hinckley, T. (2016). Collaborative Ecological Restoration. ResearchGate .

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Environmental Issues

Title page

Environmental issues

Calculator 1: My carbon footprint is 14.45 tons calculated on conservation.org. This means that it will take 206 trees to offset my carbon footprint.

Calculator 2: My ecological footprint is 6.9, carbon footprint in tons per year is 12.7 and total ecological footprint is 64. These results are calculated via footprintcalculator.org.

Calculator 3: Nature.org is the third calculator used for calculating my carbon footprint. The estimated carbon footprint is 6.7.

Carbon numbers obtained from three different sources differ. I think there are many reasons such as each source asked for different questions so that naturally make the results different. I also think the accuracy of each platform for measuring carbon footprint is also different because each relies on a different method. According to conservation.org the price that I need to pay for offsetting my estimated carbon footprint is $14. One reason for difference is that all platforms have considered different characteristics for calculating the carbon footprints. Such as the first scale considered average travelling distance while the second and third scales considered miles of traveling. The answers have varied among websites due to the methodologies used. This could be due to the fact that one calculator has relied on the estimation of fuel consumption while the other one also considered the electricity usage at home. Including extra factors or removing few could result in significant differences. Goods and services are only considered in the second source that makes the resultant figure different from others.

It is also important to evaluate the transparency of the calculators. The primary factor that can be considered for assessing the transparency is the time factor. The calculator that takes more time is more reliable and most probably will give the accurate value. Evidence reveals that online carbon footprint calculators are a reliable tool for evaluating carbon footprint at individual and household level. Second and third scales are more reliable because they have considered miles of traveling by car and air. It is more appropriate to include quantities for getting accurate estimation. Normally carbon footprint is calculated not by only estimating the amount of carbon but the activities that causes its generation. The scales that manage to integrate all activities like electricity consumption, traveling and sources of energy are more likely to give reliable measures. The calculators that fail to consider all these factors are not transparent. It is possible to see different factors hidden in the equation by observing the questions and determining what activities they are referring to. Transparency can also be evaluated by considering the indirect factors that are responsible for carbon emission. Nature.org is a transparent calculator because all factors are evaluated in numeric form. Conserrvation.org is also reliable scale because it include most of the factors like such as fuel consumption and number of trips and their nature that make it more authentic. Factors can be identified by assessing the questions.

All three calculators are authoritative and taken from the trusted sources. The credibility of the sources can be evaluated by considering the list of factors used for estimating the carbon footprint. The sources have covered all activities that essentially contributes to the generation of carbon emission. Individual activities such as travelling per miles is the most important indicator that relies on the use of fossil fuel, the biggest source of carbon emission. I think that one should use common sense for observing which site makes the most use of factors that leads to more authentic results. I still believe that all three calculators have not included all activities that could lead to carbon emission such as their shopping tends, clothing expenditures and travel for different purposes. I also noticed that no source has included food consumption and other daily activities that have direct impact on carbon emission.

I think no particular bias is evident in the calculators because the user’s evaluation depends on the figures that they enter on the site. The site cannot manipulate the calculations because they are solely based on the data entered by users. The sites just use the same basic formula for calculating the carbon footprint for each user which makes bias non-existent. The obtained results lead users to a common conclusion of determining how their carbon footprint can be reduced.

The three scales have used some common inputs such as travelling in miles is considered by all sources. However they has used different methods for estimating travelling of the individuals. Such as the first source has used miles according to the nature of the travel. The second source has only considered the miles for car, bike and airplane. The third source has used many other factors like size of household, earning and spending.

Each calculator offer some strengths such as the results obtained from the footprint calculations allowed me to identify the issues prevailing at a larger level as every person is responsible for wasting resources. I think nature.org gives the most authentic scale because it has tried to cover the maximum human activities that could directly cause carbon emissions. The other two sources have emphasized only on travel and computing activities that reflects limitations. Nature.org is a superior source compared too the other two sources because it has included distance traveled across all transports including car, train, transit, air and motorbike. I think the maximum factors have been included in this scale that makes it better.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Conservation. (2019). Carbon Footprint. Retrieved 09 08, 2019, from https://www.conservation.org/carbon-footprint-calculator#/resultsmultiple?formSubmitted&secondFormSubmitted&thirdFormSubmitted&journey=individual&travel_longflights=2&travel_mediumflights=3&travel_shortflights=2&travel_hotel=5.5&household_size=0.76_4&household_type=0.95&household_sizing=0.97&household_clean=0.67&household_recycle=0.1819&household_diet=2.5&household_check2=TRUE&household_check1=FALSE&household_check3=FALSE&household_check4=FALSE&transportation_check4=TRUE&transportation_check1=FALSE&transportation_check2=FALSE&transportation_check3=FALSE&trans_check4_mileage=1749.5&trans_check4_fuel=17&trans_check4_electric=FALSE&zipCodeInfo=727.603

Footprint. (2019). Carbin footprint. Retrieved 09 08, 2019, from https://www.footprintcalculator.org/result1a

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Environmental Issues

Title page

Environmental issues

Lab 4

4.1 Introduction to biomes

Do certain zones appear along coasts?

Yes certain zones appear along the coast as shown in the image.

Are they in the interior of a continent?

Zones are in the interior of the continent such as consider moist tropical ‘A’ zone.

Are they located north or south of the equator?

Zones are located both on the north and south.


Use the map and legend to answer the questions below:

In what general latitude bands, or sections of the map, are the deserts located?

Temperate rain forest, temperate deciduous forest and temperate grassland are located at ‘X’ 10 degrees latitude band. Deserts in hot desert zone are located at ‘Y’ latitude.

Where are the moist tropical climates located? Do they seem to have a particular region within which they occur?

Moist tropical climates are located between hot and cold deserts.

Where do you find the severe winter (extremely cold) climates?

Severe winter extreme cold is at O degrees.

What climate zone do you live in? Where else does it occur?

I live in cold climate zone it occurs in

Once you have located the biome in which you live, find it on the Whittaker Classification diagram:

What is the range of annual temperatures you can expect in this area?

Annual temperatures are between -5 degrees to 30 degrees.

What is the range of annual precipitation that can be expected?

Annual precipitation expected is 400 cm for deserts in hot desert area

Look to see what would happen if the average temperature in this area increased by 5˚C, and precipitation decreased by 25 cm per year? Compare the vegetation in the current biome to that of the new biome, and describe any shifts you might expect.

If the average temperature is increased by 5˚C and precipitation by 25 cm per year vegetation conditions will be affected adversely. This rise in temperature will undermine the agricultural activities which also reflects climate change. New biome suggests more adverse living conditions due to high temperature and precipitation.

Biomes and climatology

Explore biomes and geography

How do the biomes change as you go from west to east across the United States? Use your knowledge of regional climate forces to explain this pattern.

Biomes change as I go from west to east across the US. This suggests that in east ocean currents play prominent role in adding moisture so the climate is not very dry. Temperate deciduous desert is on the east where precipitation changes from 28 inches. This causes frost in winter and even summer. Temperature goes to below zero. While in west temperature is high and there is more sun than frost.

Explore climate and geography


2. Look for two cities around the world that share a biome type and compare their climographs. Do they have similar temperatures and receive similar patterns of precipitation?Two cities around the world that have similar biome are Philadelphia, US and Beijing, China. This is because both cities fall in the temperate desert zone. Temperate forest zone covers north America and also northeast Asia. Due to these similarities biomes are same. Biomes represent low rainfalls and temperature contrasts strongly between winter and summer. 3. Describe the animals and vegetation that you see in the images of the climate zones.Animals in temperate climate zone are classified as 40 degrees to 70 degrees. There are no extreme temperature zones. Mountain regions will include animals like mammals, songbirds and meadowlarks. Sparrows, ground squirrels and badgers are also present. Vegetation conditions are good which means more crop production. 4. How does climate and life vary around Earth's surface? Give specific examples from this Google Earth project.Climate and life vary around earth’s surface due to two central reasons. First is that sun generate different energy or radiation at different points on its surface. This means that every zone will receive different energy level from sun. Second reason is the variation in the circulation of oceans and atmosphere. Heat and moisture will change across different arcs. Change in climate affect lives of people such as in hotter places people will adapt to the climate by wearing light dresses. Similarly in cold places people would wear warn clothes. 5. Imagine you are a modern-day explorer and have been charged with describing how climate and biomes change as you travel north to south across a continent.

As I traveled from north to south I realized biomes changes massively. In the North I learned about Tundra that is the coldest region. There is frost and temperature goes below zero. This means survival in extreme cold is difficult. When I traveled the south region I experienced warmth of places. This region is wet and humid which means survival is possible. The temperature is increasing in this region which is due to global warming and high ecological footprint. Extreme changes in climate exhibits future challenges for the society.

Discussion week

If I had the option of saving two ecosystems, I would save forests and wetlands. This is because of the fact that forests are a greater source of generating oxygen and absorbing CO2. This would require taking a large-scale action in order to restrict deforestation. Cutting trees is damaging the environment because it affects the capacity of absorbing carbon dioxide, and releasing oxygen. Forests remove carbon dioxide at a massive level that has a significant impact on environment sustainability and protection. By investing in forests and wetlands it is possible to fight against climate change. Forests have always been climate saviors because there are hundred of trees that absorb carbon dioxide generated by human activities CITATION TED171 \l 1033 (TED, 2016). I think reforestation programs at a large-scale could play a significant role in mitigating climate change risks. Carbon sequestration is linked with forestation that offers social, economic and environmental benefits CITATION Jos081 \l 1033 (Canadell & Raupach, 2008). Countering carbon emissions is also possible by developing wetlands. Environmentalists have found that wetlands absorb huge amounts of carbon dioxide that is deteriorating for the environment. These are also prominent sources of carbon sequestration and can protect the environment in the long run. Researchers have also found that wetlands are important for removing pollution. I think forests and wetlands could protect future human populations and allow countries in attaining its global agenda of climate protection. There is a need for building more forests and wetlands across the world. I believe that it is not possible to stop the generation of carbon dioxide because consumption of electricity is increasing at a rapid pace, which is increasing the threats by environment degradation. Goals of forestation could include spreading awareness to the population about protecting forests and refraining from activities such as cutting trees.

DDT lab

DDT in algae = 0.0003 mg in the chosen lake

DDT consumed by shrimp = 10g algae x 0.0003 = 3ppm

Total amount of fish eaten = amount eaten per day x number of days in individual’s life

If a person eats 1 fish per day then total amount of fist eaten in 60 years of life is

= 1 x 21,900

Total fish = 21,900

If a person eats 2 fish per day then total amount of fist eaten in 60 years of life is

= 2 x 21,900

Total fish = 43,800 fish

DDT is Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane that is the danger caused by upsetting the natural balances due to extensive use of farm area. Researchers and scientists have found that DDT is linked to deteriorating human health. Exposure to DDT could result in various diseases in humans of different ages. Calculated DDT at the lake is 3ppm, which indicates that it will threaten the health of human beings in the nearby areas. Pregnant women in these areas will be more likely to give birth to immature babies. The insecticide could also increase the risks of death. The overall estimate of 3ppm DDT indicates that the death risks are increased by 15 percent. DDT will also have indirect effects, such as, influencing the bird reproduction and crop production. Insecticides could damage crop fields at a large scale that means infected food intake by humans will lead to other diseases. Overall generation of crop will be affected as it is linked to human consumption. DDT is also identified as a cause of respiratory diseases such as asthma. It indicates that the babies born in the neighborhoods might develop respiratory problems including asthma.

Response to Jason

After reading the “Open Letter to Greta”, I agree with the viewpoints of Jason D. Hill because he provides criticism to the solutions presented by Greta. I agree that the solutions mentioned by Greta are unrealistic because no one will be willing to act in the way he wants. According to Greta, rational adults must act fairly and consciously by considering the repercussions of their actions. Throughout the discussion, Greta has blamed humans for damaging the environment and the world. Most of the points addressed by Greta are based on his personal experiences which make her less convincing towards the world. The strongest argument made by Hill is that survival without technology and civilization is not possible. I strongly agree with him because it took centuries to build technology and refine human ways of living. However, Greta is suggesting to go back to the stone age when people had no electricity or technology. I don’t accept this as a realistic solution because Greta has not considered the desires of the current population. I am living in the age where the youth is more inclined to learn and explore new things. For them living without smartphones, computers and gadgets is not possible. It has also been observed that the demand for technology has been growing massively since the twenty-first century. I agree with Hill that technology has caused more good to the society by making lives easier and convenient.

I also agree with Hill that Greta’s generation is less efficient compared to the older population. Younger generations are contributing massively to carbon emissions and global warming because they are addicted to social networking and gadgets which means excessive use of electricity. I strongly agree with Hill’s argument that suggestions presented by Greta are based on illogical facts. She has suggested that humans must live primeval conditions which is impossible. Hill has rightly pointed out that living in jungles would increase the risks of getting bitten by dangerous animals or insects which means a shorter life span. I agree with the statement, “we would have to adapt ourselves to nature rather than adapt nature to meet our needs, like all members of civilized civilizations do”. I agree that the system suggested by Greta is illogical and will cause more deaths and miseries. Surviving in such a system means more starvation, poor pluming systems, ineffective irrigation systems and more diseases. Living in jungles, means people will be attacked by animals and everyone would live in fear. I also believe that no one will be willing to adapt to the nature by choosing the same old ways of living. Society continues to progress because it is a natural phenomenon.

Critical analysis of Hill has made me realize that there could be more effective solutions for mitigating the risks of climate change rather than relying on the personal views of Greta. I totally agree with Hill that society has advanced in every aspect of life due to development in technology and civilization. The concepts discussed by Greta are vague and based on a false analysis. I accept the argument that human activities such as using excessive water and other natural resources are constantly threatening the environment. However, the solutions offered by Greta cannot be attained. I think Hill has provided better ways of dealing with some of these challenges such as companies switching to environment sustainable methods of production. I disagree with Greta’s views because she had rejected the very idea that human population progresses with time. The methods discussed by her are unrealistic and unacceptable by even her own generation.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Young, E. (2001). DDT finally linked to human health problems. Retrieved 01 30, 2020, from https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn1012-ddt-finally-linked-to-human-health-problems/

AMADEO, K. (2019). Climate Change Facts and Effect on the Economy . Retrieved 10 12, 2019, from https://www.thebalance.com/economic-impact-of-climate-change-3305682

Canadell, J. G., & Raupach, M. R. (2008). Managing Forests for Climate Change Mitigation. Science , 13, 1456-1457.

TED. (2016). Architecture that's buillt to heal. Retrieved 10 11, 2019, from https://www.ted.com/talks/michael_murphy_architecture_that_s_built_to_heal?language=en

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 6 Words: 1800

Escherichia Coli

Escherichia Coli

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Description of the Microorganism

Escherichia coli is commonly known as E. coli, a bacterium that lives in the lower intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is a gram-negative, coliform bacterium that belongs to the Escherichia genus. It is a rod-shaped bacterium and each has a width of 0.5 µm and length of 2µm. E. coli cells are stained gram-negative as they have a cell wall that is made up of 1 or 2 layers of peptidoglycan. This microorganism is harmless but there are some serotypes or strains that could cause severe food poisoning in the host they live in and are responsible for food contamination. There are many types of bacteria, but among them E. coli has no pigment, so it won't be wrong to say that their colonies lack color. Focusing on the morphology, it could be seen that E. coli is pink because of lactose that indicates it is a gram-negative bacterium. It has a single cell arrangement and can live with or without oxygen.

Virulence factors

Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are the major agents that infect the urinary tract, cystitis and pyelonephritis. All the complications caused by this microorganism lead to renal failure and the patients may need renal transplants. Virulence factors help the pathogens of bacteria in invading the host and then causing diseases. In the next step, this pathogen evades the defense system of the host. Components on the surface allow the bacteria to encode themselves on the plasmids, but in most cases, they encode themselves on chromosomes. Studies show that pathogenic bacteria most of the time become colonize areas around the mucosal sites by getting the assistance of pili (fimbriae) to adhere to the cells.


Evidence has shown that in some people, immunity genes protect the body from E. coli infections while other people fall ill. According to the research, resistance to E.coli bacteria in patients comes down to their DNA. The activity of 29 immune-related genes predicts illness or wellness of the person exposed to E.coli. The immune system creates some antibodies as well as some immune cells that destroy or deactivate infectious E. coli microorganisms. Immunity against E coli could be developed through vaccination. There are certain molecules called HVEM. These molecules are present on the lining of both the intestines and lungs. These molecules are viewed to be important for protecting the body from E. coli infections.

O15: H7 strain of E. coli initiates the infection and gives a signal to the host’s immune response. A protein called NIeH1 is secreted by invading bacteria. This protein directs the host's immune enzyme IKK-beta to initiate specific immune responses.

Infectious disease information

E. coli is one of the infectious bacteria that cause many infections such as cholecystitis, cholangitis, urinary tract infections, traveler’s diarrhea, and bacteremia. Pneumonia and neonatal meningitis are some other conditions caused by E. coli.

E. coli can affect the urinary track that would cause kidney damage as well.

Infection of the E. coli can be easily treated, but if the infection is left untreated the consequence are severe. They include hemorrhagic diarrhea and kidney failure that ultimately lead towards death.

An individual's immunity system and the severity of an attack of E. coli determines whether the infection will be chronic, latent or acute. In most of the case, it has been witnessed that infection is wither acute or chronic.

Urinary and respiratory organ systems are mainly infected by this bacterium.

It is an opportunistic kind of bacteria. It is most commonly found in the gut of both warm-blooded animals and humans. Some of the strains of these bacteria like Shiga toxin cause foodborne diseases.


During an outbreak investigation of hemorrhagic colitis in 1982, the Escherichia coli was recognized for the first time. Before 1993 the E. coli infections were linked to undercooked and raw food. It was considered to be a threatening pathogen. Disease control and prevention departments highlighted the epidemiology of these bacteria from 1982 to 2002. WHO provided scientific assessments to control the E. coli infections through the proper treatment of food. These assessments were based on guidelines provided by authorities responsible for framing international food standards and guidelines. The aim of these steps taken by WHO is to promote and strengthen food and safety systems and educate people regarding the appropriate consumption of food whilst avoiding contamination. Not only is food hygiene important, but good practices of personal hygiene are also essential to control E. coli infections. Proper management of water and wastes has a positive influence on reducing infection risks. Household preventive measures can reduce the risk of E. coli infection to a great extent.


A ten-year-old boy was transferred to a hospital with a 4-day history of diarrhea, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. Some of the basic symptoms that were diagnosed in that boy were malaise, mild dehydration and stomach cramps, vomiting, fever, and nausea. From the history, it was revealed that he probably acquired infectious E. coli by eating contaminated food, later revealed to be ground beef. Research shows that E. coli can survive on meat. After the examination and diagnoses, it was found that specific indicators were present in the blood. Generally, it has been seen that the level of sugar in the patient’s blood or urine elevates, but in this hypothetical situation glucose become the main source of sustenance for the E. coli, as it is used to provide faster growth than any other sugars. The most preferred source of food for E.coli bacteria is glucose.


E Coli is a bacteria living in the intestines of humans and animals. Most of its varieties are harmless and some cause brief diarrhea. People are exposed to E. coli due to contaminated food and water, especially undercooked beef and raw vegetables. There is no vaccine for E. coli infections, however researchers are working on potential vaccines. There are some steps that can help prevent this infection.

Avoid risky foods and cook the food at higher temperatures.

Drink pasteurized milk and juices. Bottled juices kept at room temperature and are pasteurized.

Wash raw food gently to remove dirt and harmful bacteria to the greatest extent. Though rinsing cannot remove E. coli bacteria completely, especially from leafy green vegetables.

Use hot water and detergents to wash all utensils before and after use, especially those which come into contact with raw meat and fresh produce.

There is a need for taking preventive measure at all the stages of the food chain, stating right from the agricultural production, and up to the processing and preparing of foods in household kitchens and commercial industries. Basic food hygiene practices must be promoted everywhere as suggested by the WHO. These practices are the five keys to safer foods. These five keys are

Keep surroundings clean

Separate both cooked and raw food

Cook thoroughly

Keep food at a safe temperature

Use pure water.


Antimicrobials are used to treat E. coli. The most commonly used agents against this microbe are β-lactams, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones.

When an infection of E. coli is diagnosed, after confirming through a stool test in the laboratory, doctors prescribe the patient some precautionary measures. For an illness that E. coli caused, no current treatment can be viewed as effective. Most common suggested treatments for patients of E.coli infection are:


Fluids that help for preventing fatigue and dehydration.

Other measures that are an important part of the treatment suggested for the patients is that they have to avoid taking any anti-diarrheal medication as this kind of medication slows down the process of digestion that would prevent the body from getting rid of the toxins that need to be extracted. Antibiotics are not recommended as they could increase the risk of serious complications. In severe cases, E. coli infections may a syndrome called hemolytic uremic. Patients can be hospitalized and would require extensive care. This care would include kidney dialysis, blood transfusion, and IV fluids. Doctors asked will likely advise rest and plenty of fluids to replace the fluids that the body loses through diarrhea and vomiting.

Clinical relevance

Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is the multi-drug resistance most of the time collaborates with dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) genes in integrons. It is a healthcare-associated pathogen.

In any healthcare setting, a young child or the older adult is at more risk of developing the infection, since they have a weakened immune system as well as reduced levels of stomach acid.

Resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, and ampicillin-sulbactam is the most prevalent of all. Antibiotics that are used are against the MDR strains of E. coli are listed are ciprofloxacin, cephalosporin, and levofloxacin.

E. coli bacteria cause a range of diseases such as urinary tract infections, diarrhea, and pneumonia. However, most of its strains are harmless to humans. The most common infections are fever, vomiting, and nausea. In some cases, E. coli infections can lead to kidney failure. Its symptoms usually appear in 3 to 4 days when a person is exposed to the bacteria. Abdominal pain and watery diarrhea start soon. In some cases, the toxin damages the intestines so it results in the bloody stools around the day.


Lippolis, J. D., Holman, D. B., Brunelle, B. W., Thacker, T. C., Pearson, B. L., Reinhardt, T. A., ... & Casey, T. A. (2018). Genomic and transcriptomic analysis of Escherichia coli strains associated with persistent and transient bovine mastitis and the role of colonic acid. Infection and immunity, 86(1), e00566-17.

Meyer, A. J., Segall-Shapiro, T. H., Glassey, E., Zhang, J., & Voigt, C. A. (2019). Escherichia coli “Marionette” strains with 12 highly optimized small-molecule sensors. Nature chemical biology, 15(2), 196.

Monk, J. M., Lloyd, C. J., Brunk, E., Mih, N., Sastry, A., King, Z., & Feist, A. M. (2017). iML1515, a knowledgebase that computes Escherichia coli traits. Nature Biotechnology, 35(10), 904.

Nataro, J. P., & Kaper, J. B. (1998). Diarrheagenic escherichia coli. Clinical microbiology reviews, 11(1), 142-201.

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 5 Words: 1500



[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]


The study developed a framework for analyzing urban sustainability by evaluating the damages to human health and the quality of the environment. The author collected the data of neighborhood scale of human health and resource depletion. The concept of urban sustainability has been emerged and considered as the critical research because of the increase in migration from rural to urban areas with time.

The author analyzed the resources used in industrial activity and disposal of waste material in the environment. The practitioners of urban sustainability use policies to balance and consider an option which minimizes externalities1. For evaluating the impact on the environment and human health the author used the complementary framework of assessment known as LCA and UM. The life cycle assessment tool is used for analyzing the process of production from raw material to goods and services. A practitioner of UM have widely examined the damages to human health, resource depletion and damages to environmental quality. The assessment tool of LCA has been used for making policies for ecological sustainability, and it also developed a method to calculate these impacts. Author integrated the LCA and UM assessment tools in four stages1. The um practitioner should focus on evaluating the macro scale urban effects. The method used could develop new strategies for the assessment of infrastructure process and activities on macro scale urban areas.

The author proposed in the emergent behavior of the metropolitan regions does not include social and cultural dynamics in physical flows. The recommended method which author developed to define urban sustainability can be incorporated by joining the LCA and UM Assessment methods for understanding damages on environment quality, resources and human health. The model developed for assessment of sustainability was concentrated in the single city of the urban region. The study has developed assessment techniques but not analyzed the possible ways to control these problems. There are also damages in the rural areas on human health and resources which were not investigated by the author. Also, it didn’t find any sustainable ways for efficient waste management that are released in the natural environment.

End Notes

1.Chester, Mikhail, Stephanie Pincetl, and Braden Allenby. "Avoiding unintended tradeoffs by integrating life-cycle impact assessment with urban metabolism." Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 4, no. 4 (2012): 451-457.

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Ethical Considerations When Treating AIDS Patient

Ethical Considerations When Treating AIDS Patients

Your Name (First M. Last)

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)

Ethical Considerations When Treating AIDS Patients

In the contemporary era, ethics have assumed an instrumental role in all walks of life. The significance of ethical values has become critical in the medical and clinical paradigm. A wide range of ethical values and issues ought to be considered while treating patients. However, one of the most prominent dimensions where the need for ethical and legal compliance accelerates is treating patients suffering from AIDS. The legal ethics also surface in these circumstances supplemented by the state laws of essential protection dispensed to individuals as informed decision making while refusing or choosing to be tested for HIV and autonomy. Thus, it is essential to underpin the critical ethical and legal duty while treating patients suffering from AIDS.

To begin, healthcare professionals work in a diverse environment to care for patients suffering from AIDS. The ethical issues become very complex in settings involving HIV treatment. It is imperative to comprehend the knowledge, attitude and skills to respond to the critical circumstances in an ethically warranted and appropriate manner. As per an ethicist Fredrick Reamer, the HIV epidemic has potentially evaluated the moral standards of the healthcare professionals in a manner that no previous public health crisis did ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"d5Bb9xLd","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Nursing ethics in the care of people with HIV - HIV Management Guidelines,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“Nursing ethics in the care of people with HIV - HIV Management Guidelines,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":445,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/h6KbaPMu/items/I6AHKVQH"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/h6KbaPMu/items/I6AHKVQH"],"itemData":{"id":445,"type":"webpage","title":"Nursing ethics in the care of people with HIV - HIV Management Guidelines","URL":"http://hivmanagement.ashm.org.au/index.php/hiv-management-for-nurses-and-midwives/nursing-ethics-in-the-care-of-people-with-hiv","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",5,3]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Nursing ethics in the care of people with HIV - HIV Management Guidelines,” n.d.). Despite the robust advancement since the previous decades, the statement is still true and poses several impediments for the professionals to treat patients with AIDS. It has challenged the professionals to evaluate their professional and personal ethical values to honor the ethical values of the professions among profound stigmatization of the affected elements. In addition, the ethical issues pertinent to confidentiality and privacy, access to innovative experimental measure and reproductive rights have been stressed throughout the epidemic of HIV because of the associated stigma. The intricate affiliation between the essential human rights breach and the impact and spread of HIV on communities and individuals is understood in the contemporary era.

Besides, the stigma related to HIV stems from the affiliation with the manner wherein the transmission occurs as sex between men, sharing injected equipment and sexual transmission in itself. A wide range of empirical studies has reflected that the people suffer from HIV discrimination subjected mostly by nurses ranging from lack of eye contact, prejudicial attitudes, use of excessive infection precaution, brusque speech and denial of care ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"fpmRWcLt","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Melton, 1988)","plainCitation":"(Melton, 1988)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":447,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/h6KbaPMu/items/HWGJA9B6"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/h6KbaPMu/items/HWGJA9B6"],"itemData":{"id":447,"type":"article-journal","title":"Ethical and legal issues in AIDS-related practice","container-title":"American Psychologist","page":"941-947","volume":"43","issue":"11","source":"APA PsycNET","abstract":"The AIDS epidemic has presented many new ethical dilemmas regarding psychologists' obligations to their clients and third parties. Both ethical and legal norms remain unsettled in regard to most of these dilemmas. In general, psychologists should strive to protect the privacy of their clients and to promote the welfare of individuals affected by AIDS. When compelling interests of third parties lead to a different result, intrusions on clients' interests should be no greater than necessary. Although a lack of training about AIDS may limit psychologists' competence and constrict their duties to people with AIDS, the duty remains for clinicians to obtain training to remediate such gaps in knowledge or skills and to advocate for resources and protection from discrimination for people affected by AIDS. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)","DOI":"10.1037/0003-066X.43.11.941","ISSN":"1935-990X(Electronic),0003-066X(Print)","author":[{"family":"Melton","given":"Gary B."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1988"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Melton, 1988). For instance, pregnant women suffering from HIV or about to be pregnant are treated harshly than the others. The impact of these practices is detrimental. People often succumb to the fear of being discriminated and thus prefer not to access the treatment plan. The consequences of these aspects cause diminished self-esteem, rates of depression, poor physical health. Thus, stigmatization is a potential breach of ethics.

Moreover, it is widely known belief that there exists no legal regulation authorizing healthcare professionals to know the medical diagnosis of a person. The people with HIV are not obliged to disclose their health status with the nurses or professionals. Likewise, it is productive for treating professionals to be equipped with comprehensive clinical information to offer potential treatment and avoid the complexities involved in the treatment of HIV. Another critical aspect is the principle of confidentiality which is intimately pertinent to the concept of privacy. It is essential to mention that it is both an ethical and legal requirement. Though regulations related to ethical obligations and confidentiality are applicable on people with diverse health conditions, the confidentiality of HIV is accomplished after an enhanced significance and underpinning the shortcomings in the health-care system ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"ByZwgSWk","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Harvard Health Policy Review,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“Harvard Health Policy Review,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":449,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/h6KbaPMu/items/YD83AS9U"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/h6KbaPMu/items/YD83AS9U"],"itemData":{"id":449,"type":"webpage","title":"Harvard Health Policy Review","URL":"http://www.hhpr.org/","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",5,3]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Harvard Health Policy Review,” n.d.).

Furthermore, one of the most critical ethical and legal principles is the value of informed consent. The necessity for the consent to be well informed is justified on the moral grounds of avoiding adversity, exploitation or unfairness and protecting the right to self-discrimination and autonomy of the patient. The following aspects comprise the dimensions of the informed consent: consent give voluntarily, competence, disclosure and comprehension. For instance, it is the legal necessity before undertaking the tests for HIV for a person to give informed consent. Thus, the person essentially agrees to tests on the grounds of comprehending the procedure, the manifestations for test and is competent to evaluate the personal consequences of tests. These legal duties ensure every person is responded and treated as a unique individual and helped to have informed decisions related to the care without being prejudiced on the basis of language, culture, economic status, health status or sexuality. Such critical are the manifestations of legal duties in the paradigm of treating patients with HIV.

Likewise, the legal concerns pertaining to the confidentiality of results of HIV testing and the profound access to care for treatment are regulated by several state and federal laws. Certain general principles are also practiced. The HIV infected prisoners and jails possess the constitutional right to be treated that ensures the adherence to appropriate community standards and the fundamental right to privacy about the infection status. Irrefutably, the prisoners; right to healthcare is discrete than the liberated citizens as prisoners ought to harness the corrections officers to meet their medical needs ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"PUgvax3e","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Ethical Dimensions of HIV/AIDS,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“Ethical Dimensions of HIV/AIDS,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":451,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/h6KbaPMu/items/86JMXBGH"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/h6KbaPMu/items/86JMXBGH"],"itemData":{"id":451,"type":"webpage","title":"Ethical Dimensions of HIV/AIDS","URL":"http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu/insite?page=kb-08-01-05","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",5,3]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Ethical Dimensions of HIV/AIDS,” n.d.). To address the issue of consent, courts advance to pursue two definite approaches. The contemporary approach highlights the perception of the standard of disclosure possessed by several medical profession have a minor relationship to the data a patient needs in order to make an informed choice. Since the patients are sanctioned the essential rights to be aware of the implications of medical treatment or diagnosis, they ought to be made familiar with the material facts. However, the right to be informed is often deemed an issue outside the medical dimensions and thus outside the expertise of the healthcare professionals. The deliberated standards need to be pursued to establish a cohesive bonding between a patient with AIDS and the healthcare provider to address the legal and ethical controversies.

To conclude, ethics have assumed a core element of HIV treatment and it is arguable that professionals treating HIV have remained at the forefront of ethical and legal practices since the very beginning of the epidemic. The professionals need to be enlightened and made competent in making sound ethical decisions after harnessing the evidence. In addition, the need of the hour is adhering to the legal grounds to dispensing the rights of the patient with HIV in true letter and spirits. A wide range of crucial issues in HIV have been highlighted as the HIV disclosure, discrimination and stigma, confidentiality and prisoners' right to treatment, and informed consent. These issues are applicable to all the ethical and legal issues encountered while treating patients with HIV. The onus relies on the healthcare providers to contribute potentially for the best possible ramifications for people with AIDS. Promotion and protection of patients’ right, collective and individual advocacy, and adhering to the core basis of ethical and legal variables can remove the impediments to treat the patients. The bottom line is that several ethical and legal controversies encompass the treatment of HIV and the onus relies on the healthcare professionals to adhere to ethical standards and legal provisions without discrimination.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Ethical Dimensions of HIV/AIDS. (n.d.). Retrieved May 3, 2019, from http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu/insite?page=kb-08-01-05

Harvard Health Policy Review. (n.d.). Retrieved May 3, 2019, from http://www.hhpr.org/

Melton, G. B. (1988). Ethical and legal issues in AIDS-related practice. American Psychologist, 43(11), 941–947. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.43.11.941

Nursing ethics in the care of people with HIV - HIV Management Guidelines. (n.d.). Retrieved May 3, 2019, from http://hivmanagement.ashm.org.au/index.php/hiv-management-for-nurses-and-midwives/nursing-ethics-in-the-care-of-people-with-hiv

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

Evaluation Of Polyphenols In Blackcurrants And Greencurrants On The Inhibition Of Yeast And Human α-glucosidase

Title page

Evaluation of polyphenols in blackcurrants and greencurrants

The study examines the inhibition of α-glucosidase activity in blackcurrants in comparison to greencurrants. α-glucosidase is effective in the breakdown of carbohydrates in the small intestine that also limits the transportation of glucose that passes through. The study also investigated the AGI of berry metabolism by using a stimulated model after vitro gastro-intestinal digestion. Freeze dried currants are used for phenolic analysis. The methods are used for determining photochemical existence in berries. Effect of individual phenols in humans and yeast α-glucosidase are examined. α-glucosidase is isolated from human intestinal Caco-2 cell line and AGI of metabolites are also evaluated. One-way analysis of variance depicts that the value of phenol is a= P<0.05, b= P<0.01 and c= P< 0.0.

Graphical analysis explains the differences among berries on the basis of photochemical. The scatter plot diagram also shows the differences that exist in the berries. Heat map is also used for examining phenolic compounds. They are arranged from highest to lowest according to these differences among berries. The findings depict that blackcurrants contain specific anthocyanin, which are comparatively low in greencurrants. It is also determined that blackcurrants exist in compound form that offers benefits such as helping in regulating postprandial hyperglycaemia. A common advantage includes prevention from the development of type-2 diabetes. In conclusion, it is confirmed that the α-glucosidase inhibitor varies in blackcurrants and greencurrants. Their high presence in blackcurrants depicts phenol activity is more apparent in them, compared to greencurrants. Blackcurrants are effective in prevention of type-2 diabetes because the process of breaking down carbohydrates is rapid.

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Exam And Quizes

Dear Client! I have completed your quizzes.Have a nice day. Best of Luck

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 23 Words: 6900

Exam And Quizes

1. A key element of quality management and improvement is measurement. Measurement depends on the optimal collecting of data. Which of the following is a consideration in data collection?

The time involved in collecting data

The cost of data collection

Consideration of inpatient vs. outpatient level of care

All of the above

2.According to the text, "Data Collection," identifies which four categories of quality measurement?

Inpatient, outpatient, long-term care, and hospice

Clinical quality, financial performance, patient/physician/staff satisfaction, and functional status

Clinical, administrative, community benefit, and patient engagement  

Patient level, microsystem level, macrosystem level, and environmental level

3.Which of the following is an advantage of retrospective medical record review?

It is believed to be the most accurate method of data collection.

Medical record reviews yield different data than can be found in typical administrative databases.

Focused medical record review is the primary tool for answering the "why" in a given situation.

All of the above

4.Which of the following is a downside to asking nursing staff to perform prospective data collection?

Nurses are not qualified to perform data collection.

 It can distract nurses from their direct patient care responsibilities.

Nurses do not understand the processes of care as well as trained research analysts

Answers 1 and 2 are both correct

5.Which of the following is not an advantage of administrative databases?

They are a less expensive source of data than other alternatives, such as chart review.

The volume of available indicators is greater than that available through other data collection techniques.

Administrative databases produce more reliable data than that acquired through chart review.

Most administrative databases are staffed by individuals who are skilled at sophisticated database queries.

6.The most efficient data collection tools follow the actual flow of patient care and medical record documentation, whether the data are collected retrospectively or prospectively.



7.Stratification is a means of dealing with confounders- that is, factors that might have a hidden impact on the data.  An example of a confounder when considering scheduling might be the day of the week that data is collected.



8.Quality improvement teams should avoid data sampling as the goal of a project is to measure every possible case effected by a process



9.Measurement for improvement is the same as measurement for accountability



10.A baseline measurement looks at process performance before any improvements have been made



11. Improvement projects involve creating initial hypotheses regarding the failures of performance at the start of the project.  These hypotheses cannot be changed once the project has been initiated.



12.The goal of any improvement project is to focus accountability



13.The neonatal intensive care unit has established a team for an improvement project.  The stated aim of the project is "to improve infection rates in the NICU." This is an example of a well defined aim statement.



14.Quality Improvement Models include all of the following assumptions EXCEPT:

Improvement efforts focus on system failures rather than individual failures

Teamwork is valued

Errors are unacceptable and should be punished

15.Input from people familiar with processes is essential

Most improvement projects can be resolved with 1 PDSA cycle



16.The main focus of the IHI model for improvement is on creating value and eliminating waste



17.The Cardiac Cath Lab keeps three times the number of stents on hand that are typically used because the staff is afraid they will not have a stent available if needed.  This is an example of:




Value Stream

18.The neurology ward wants to decrease the number of patient falls and plans to use the IHI Model for improvement.   According to that model, the questions that the staff must address before performing a PDSA cycle include all of the following EXCEPT:

How will we identify improvement?

What is the goal of the project?

Why is this improvement project important?

What change can be made that will result in an improvement?

19. Standard deviation refers to

another term for average

the midpoint

a significance test

a measure of variation

20. Six sigma describes processes using the mathematical equation y=f(x) in which x refers to the outputs or outcomes of a process



21.A hospital laboratory improves their performance from a 3 sigma level to a 4 sigma level.  This results in a ten fold decrease in defects.




Which scenario is best represented by the above graph

A quality improvement team found that nurse led discussions about smoking cessation was associated with higher quit rates in patients

A quality improvement team found that longer ER wait times was associated with decreased patient satisfaction

A quality improvement found that excessive patient load was the number one reason for job dissatisfaction among nurses.

The quality improvement team found no association between patient level of sedation and amount of time patients spent on a ventilator.

23.Correlation proves causation




A Quality Improvement Team did an analysis of a Patient Survey identifying their Primary Concerns about a recent office visit.  According to the results of the analysis, time spent with providers...

Is a major issue because providers need time to perform a good history and physical

is more important to quality of health care than the types of available magazines

is one of the trivial few issues affecting patients

should be addressed as a priority


A quality improvement team brainstormed about the reasons for delay in discharge and created a fishbone diagram based on these discussions.  A fishbone diagram is an example of a quantitative improvement tool




A Quality Improvement Team created a control chart evaluating the number of medication errors reported in a 21 week period.  The team determined that the process was in control. Statistically speaking, the number of errors observed in week 6 represents a big improvement over week 5.



27. A quality improvement team was evaluating the use of flash sterilization in the operating theater.  Flash sterilization is a faster process than the usual sterilization but the results are generally not as good and hospitals prefer to avoid them.  The team noted the following result.  It appears that the difference between the use of flash sterilization from weeks 1-10 compared with the use from weeks 11 onward can be explained by common cause variation.



28. A Quality Improvement Team ran a series of PDSA cycles to decrease the amount of infectious waste produced in the intensive care unit.  They analyzed the results with the following control chart and determined that the changes they made had resulted in an improvement.  This improvement is demonstrated by the presence of special cause variation on the control chart. 



29.A Quality Improvement Team was looking to decrease the amount of time to discharge a patient.  When they reviewed a run chart of the data they noted the following cyclical pattern. This pattern suggests that to get a better understanding of performance, the team might want to...

Reprimand staff when their discharge times are higher than the median

Change their choice of measurement as the one they have chosen appears to be unreliable

Stratify their data because the processes they are observing might be different on different days.

Employ the 5 whys to explain the results

30. The goal of physician profiling is to improve performance through

Through the use of feedback

By exposing "bad applies"

By encouraging the use of evidenced based practice

Both answers 1 and 3

31.Benchmarking involves the comparison of physician performance to

A physician's prior performance

Best practice and performance of other physicians

Goals arbitrarily set by department heads

None of the above

32.The Affordable Care Act established new payment models that link payment to quality performance. This concept is broadly referred to as _________________.

Value Based Purchasing


A single payer system

Fee for Service

33.Physicians have wholeheartedly embraced the widespread use of physician profiles.



34.Because of advances in medical technology and science, the United States already has the best-quality healthcare in the world.



35.Physician profiles should only include conditions for which evidence-based guidelines exist.



36.Many physicians underrate their performance and are pleasantly surprised when they see their performance data.



37.Health IT for prevention involves

using health IT to detect an event about to occur.

using health IT once an event has occurred.   

using health IT to prevent an event from occurring.

using health IT to act on an event that has occurred. 

38.According to the text, if you are looking to yield the best return on your health IT dollars for healthcare quality and safety, where would you spend your resources?

Clinical decision support and simulation

Alerts and Clinical decision support

Telemedicine and Simulation

Alerts and Telemedicine 

39. Developing and sustaining a culture of healthcare quality and safety involves which of the following EXCEPT?

Internal champions

Early successes

A completely top-down approach

Data transparency

  40.What is the optimal method for tracking variation in data over time?

Fishbone Diagram

Pareto chart

 Scorecard or dashboard

 Statistical process control char

41.Evidence for an improved process includes which of the following?    A) Decreased variation    B) Improvement in the average data    C) It is not necessary to continue to track improvements    D) Wider distribution of data around the mea

A and D

A and B

B and D

B and D

42. Which of the following is an example of an ideal partnership of health IT and quality improvement?

    A) Providing an admission order set for patient care    B) Creating an algorithm-driven dashboard that parallels the needed workflow at the bedside    C) Health IT providing education to providers about a new protocol    D) Healthcare providers including health IT in all quality improvement projects

A and B

B and C

A and C

B and D

43.Which of the following is true regarding automated alerts?    A) They are intended to support clinical decisions about the safety and efficacy of drug therapy.    B) They are typically communicated through pop-up warning messages.    C) They have important effects on childhood ambulatory immunization rates.    D) They are most effective in capturing the user's attention when utilized as soft stops.

A, B, and C

A, B and D

A, C and D

A, B, C and D

44.Soft stops ________________________________.    A) provide information to the clinician about a potential drug safety problem    B) are often overlooked or quickly overridden    C) require minimal or no action on the part of the user to proceed    D) contribute to alert fatigue

A, B and C

A, B and D

B, C and D

A, B, C and D

45.Automated reminders and alerts ___________________________________.    A) require effective implementation and use of an electronic health record    B) require knowledge of clinical workflow and care processes    C) may be most effective when used in conjunction with an active error reporting system    D) rarely cause alert fatigue

A, B and C

A, B and D

B, C and D

A, B, C and D

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

Extra Credit

Your Name

Instructor Name

Course Number


The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks

The “The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks” book is halfway between journalistic documentary, biography and popular science. In parallel, we discover three distinct narratives. The story of Henrietta Lacks and her cells deserves to be known to all as she is exceptional and incredible. The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks written in a fairly basic style, presents several aspects ranging from popular science to the story of the family epic.

The history of the rules and abuses in this area told by the author shows us that there has been a clear progress since the time of Henrietta Lacks. The final chapter also shows us that everything is not settled. Henrietta finds herself in the position of a plowman who finds a treasure in his fields, with the difference that alone, she would not have discovered this treasure nor been able to enjoy it. Companies have made a fortune in replicating and reselling HeLa cells, but in general, it's mostly looking for the benefit of the humanity that these cells served. So what to do? How to prevent the descendants of Henrietta from being so poor as to be unable to afford the doctor? And why only them? In what way are they more deserving?

Her name was Henrietta Lacks. She saved many lives without even knowing it. Thanks to its cancer cells, used without its consent, named HeLa, several vaccines and scientific advancements have emerged. It is, among others, with her that protection against Polio was possible. This book, which is in a way the biography of Henrietta Lacks and her relatives, tells us their stories as well as their torments. Because, indeed, a local doctor extracted sick tissues on Mrs. Lacks before her death, without having had, previously, the authorization. Her family was stunned to learn that their mother's cells were still alive, many years later, and that

This is the story of Henrietta Lacks, a young black American woman working in the tobacco fields and whose cancer of the uterus has led to major scientific discoveries. It is the cells cultured under the name of HeLa that have survived and have allowed many drug trials and have helped to understand the mutations of bacteria and other viruses. It was in 1951 that the doctors at John Hopkins Hospital of Baltimore discover the malignant tumor of Henrietta Lacks, she is 31 years old and complains of a knot in the belly. It is this knot that will kill her and make her immortal. Immortal by its cells, the first ones that will survive a culture and that will establish a vaccine against polio, but also many discoveries in the field of bacteriology, genetics, oncology, laboratory techniques (Skloot).

This is his life and family (especially his children and grandchildren) discussed in this book, how they have recognized and learned to accept the immortality of their own and the fact that part of Henrietta could be taken without his consent. Half novel, half scientific document, this book addresses all topics: science, scientists and their thirst for discovery, segregation, slaves working tobacco fields, consanguineous marriage, methods of cancer care of the 50s , the benefits derived from these HeLa cells while the Lacks family still lives in extreme poverty.

Personally, I was very surprised to learn how little we have as a citizen. Were you aware that when you collect blood, for example, it is likely that scientists will keep your samples and DNA for research without you being notified? According to the law, they are waste left on the spot, thus recoverable by anybody. But if we had a single cell that would be worth gold for pharmaceutical companies, why would not we benefit?

It is a touching book, moving, which brings to great reflections on this subject which remains too often unnoticed, but which is heavy consequences. Congratulations to Rebecca Skloot, who has kept promise to loved ones (who has no recourse against pharmaceutical giants). She created a non-profit organization to help Ms. Lacks' direct family: Dental Care, Prosthetics, etc. Because, unfortunately, they are poor and cannot even get quality services, despite what their mother did for science.

It is this incredible story that the author begins to tell us in this book halfway between popular science book and biography. In the first part, the story alternates skillfully between the chapters devoted to the progress of science and those dedicated to the life of Henrietta Lacks. the reader thus learns, thanks to simple explanations, what are the cells, the culture and freezing techniques of these, or some notions of genetics. Rebecca Skloot also chose to make us discover the fate of Henrietta Lacks, this young African American woman born in the 20s in Virginia and who remains unknown to the general public despite her contribution to science (Nisbet, Matthew C., and Declan Fahy).

Through his biography, we dive into America in the 50s, still strongly marked by segregation. The second part of the book then focuses on the heirs of Henrietta Lacks (whom the author had great difficulty meeting and convincing) and on the way in which they have apprehended the story of their mother (which has been hidden from them for years). This part of the story is much less convincing because it has many lengths and repetitions and finally brings little to the general purpose.

To conclude, this is a very detailed survey (the author took more than ten years to write this book) that pays tribute to Henrietta Lacks and discusses exciting debates on ethics (patient consent). , patients' rights over their own tissues) and society (inequalities in care, profits generated by laboratories, etc.).

Works Cited

Skloot, Rebecca. The immortal life of Henrietta Lacks. Broadway Books, (2017).

Nisbet, Matthew C., and Declan Fahy. "Bioethics in popular science: evaluating the media impact of The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks on the biobank debate." BMC medical ethics 14.1 (2013): 10.

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Forensic Biology

PART 1: History, Research and Innovations

History of Forensic Biology

Forensic labs, since the mid twentieth century has the outcome of the prescription abuse issue, weight on the police and courts to grow their reliance on dynamically target forms of verification, consistent achievement in such fields as DNA testing that especially choose the wellspring of biological substances, and a standard culture that has gotten a handle on forensic science through both episodic and real crime media. Furthermore, these types of progress and improvement of forensic science organizations, negligible distributed research exists on the usages and effects of forensic science verification (Peterson et al. 2010). Early examinations amid the late twentieth century demonstrated physical verification was open all things considered crime scenes, yet negligible legitimate evidence was accumulated and had irrelevant impact on case result.

The most low down examinations of the usage of sensible verification in the examination and mediation of cases were sponsored by NIJ amid the 1980s. Also, at the police examination level, (Moenssens et al. 2007) opportunity rates of offenses with evidence deductively explored were around various occasions more important than in circumstances where such verification was not used. A second accomplice consider found intelligent evidence to have an obliged activity in decisions to convict a respondent anyway had its genuine effect on censuring; lab reports, all around provoked higher rates of detainment and was the primary sort of confirmation to affect the length of the sentence. Later examinations of DNA confirmation (Lovrich et al. 2004) found plan rates of property crime increased when DNA evidence was accumulated, prosecutions duplicated, and DNA was fundamentally more convincing than fingerprints in using confirmation databases, (Moenssens et al. 2007) found murder cases with DNA verification were generously progressively subject to achieve court and emphatically influenced juries' decisions to convict.

Continuous censuses of crime labs have archived the a considerable number cases yearly submitted to the US’ crime labs and the creating excess of cases foreseeing examination. Moreover, beginning with the report of a crime to police, the response by watch and examination personnel, the search for and social event of verification, and its settlement to explore offices, physical evidence may be submitted for one reason noted above (Moenssens et al. 2007). In view of the volume of intelligent evidence being submitted to inquire about offices, crime scene authorities, and the labs themselves have raised channels to screen out verification before it achieves lab workplaces.

Historical Figures

The greater part of the heedlessly picked assault events over the five domains shared typical attributes. Most ambushes happened inside between young, minority folks who knew each other as of now, anyway a sizeable number included male on female damaging conduct at home. Most events had no spectators and most abused individuals got therapeutic treatment or something like that. Physical evidences were accumulated, with Firearms, the principle class of verification amassed. In just about twelve percent of circumstances where verification was accumulated was the evidence submitted to the crime investigate office, and its larger part was Firearms/Weapons and Latent Print confirmation (Siegel & Saukko, 2012). Examinations in cases drove over all crime labs yielded 34 cases with recognizing bits of evidence of verification, most by far of them including firearms related confirmation. To the extent individualizations, there were a couple of cases with weapons singularities and four distinct autonomies including Latent Prints (Siegel & Saukko, 2012).

Several of strike events had a catch. Bivariate relationships of cases with and without crime scene verification showed truly critical higher rates of catch, agent referral, charging, and conviction for cases with forensic evidence. Moreover, multivariate examinations confirmed that the collection of physical confirmation was a truly gigantic pointer of catch. Nevertheless, most verification was not investigated early of the genuine catch, which exhibits that information got from research office examinations all things considered had no impact on catch decisions (Hammer, 2011).

Examinations showed that non-forensic variables harmed singular reports to the police, individual relations among unfortunate setback and suspect and being caught inside ten minutes of the event were significant markers of charging. As a rule, almost twenty percent of each uncovered scene achieved a conviction. The most grounded marker of conviction was harmed singular restorative treatment. The basic impact of the physical confirmation was clearly at the motivation behind catch and that influence reduced as the case pushed ahead through the justice technique. Around ninety percent of case sentiments were overcome demands. Bivariate information exhibited that the proximity of physical confirmation for a circumstance improved in a general sense the likelihood that the case would be settled through trial (Hammer, 2011). Nevertheless, lab examined evidence did not separate solicitation from trial. In addition, forensic verification factors were not imperative pointers of supplication/trial in the determined backslide examination.

Research in the Field

Since the beginning of the twentieth century police and courts in the US, just as various blue-strip crime sheets, all have prescribed the extended use of science in lighting up crime and achieving justice. Amid the late twentieth century, the President's Crime Commission Task Force reports called for increasingly important reliance on physical confirmation in the examination and settling of crimes (Toom, 2012). In the more than four decades since the distribution of those reports, there have been pivotal degrees of progress in the advancement of forensic abs serving the criminal justice structure and in the refinement of intelligent strategies used to take a gander at and interpret physical snippets of information. Forensic research focuses have copied just around four-cover since the mid 1970s as the outcome of extending the medicine abuse issue in the open eye that arranges the creation recognizing evidence of controlled substances, weight on the police and courts to manufacture their reliance on progressively target forms of confirmation, coherent jump forward in such fields as DNA testing that curiously choose the wellspring of biological substances, and a standard culture that has gotten a handle on forensic science through both recounted and real crime media (Toom, 2012).

Slighting these types of progress and advancement of forensic science organizations, negligible distributed research exists on the usages and effects of forensic science evidence. That audit similarly recorded that most of this evidence was not accumulated from the scene, and even less was dismembered in a crime look into focus.

Case Example

Amid the 1990s, three critical Supreme Court choices in like manner cases provided guidance regarding the agreeableness of verification in government cases. In Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 509 US 579 (1993), the judge was assigned a gatekeeping occupation to ensure that ace legitimate affirmation was seen to be strong before it could be surrendered as evidence. In General Electric Co. v. Joiner, 522 US 136 (1997), the Court cleared up that consistent affirmation must be huge to the present case to be satisfactory. Finally, the decision in Kumho Tire Co. v. Carmichael, 526 US 137 (1999) extended the degree of ace announcement to join a wide scope of specific confirmation, while holding speedy to the steadfast quality and significance necessities. These three cases, every now and again implied as the Daubert-trilogy, made a two dimensional test for the adequacy of verification choice, specifically that consistent evidence used in court must be both reliable and huge.

The Daubert trilogy addresses a critical achievement in the intersection purpose of science and the law by mentioning that appropriateness decisions rely upon contemporaneous coherent checks. Regardless of the way that the adequacy of DNA verification to some degree went before the Daubert trilogy, it gives a better than average model to how show day coherent advances should be composed into the justice system: specifically, legitimate validation should go before reasonableness.


Peterson, J., Sommers, I., Baskin, D., & Johnson, D. (2010). The role and impact of forensic evidence in the criminal justice process. National Institute of Justice, 1-151.

Moenssens, A. A., DesPortes, B. L., & Edwards, C. N. (2007). Scientific evidence in civil and criminal cases. New York, NY: Foundation Press.

Siegel, J. A., & Saukko, P. J. (2012). Encyclopedia of forensic sciences. Academic Press.

Hammer, R. M. (2011). Forensic nursing: A handbook for practice. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Toom, V. (2012). Bodies of science and law: Forensic DNA profiling, biological bodies, and biopower. Journal of Law and Society, 39(1), 150-166.

Lovrich, N. P., Pratt, T. C., Gaffney, M. J., Johnson, C. L., Asplen, C. H., Hurst, L. H., & Schellberg, T. M. (2004). National forensic DNA study report, final report. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice.

Part 2: Case Analysis

Case Summary

Mary Landry called and informed at 911 while she was on baby sitting duty. she informed that while on duty, she fell asleep. When she got up, she found that her Pablo Castillo who was her boyfriend, had been shot and stabbed and was lying on the floor in a pool of blood. The dispatcher educated her to perform CPR and to check the indispensable status of the person in question, without much of any result. Paramedics and Police were dispatched to the scene. After checking for the child, it was discovered that Ms. Jackson was not in her room, where Ms. Landry reviewed last observing her.

The resulting examination concerning the foundation and way of life of Mrs. Jackson prompted the disclosure of an extramarital issue. Two partners, Mr. Steve Aleman and Ms. Amy Frank, workers of Yellow's Gym gave proclamations authenticating the connection between Mrs. Jackson and Mr. Aaron Andrade.

A pursuit of the home of Mr. Rios on 19 May 2012 prompted the revelation of an open air shed, where Ms. Ariana Jackson seemed to have been kept. The child did not endure any major physical mischief and was taken to the Children's National Medical Center for examination (Reports appended).


At the point when quality inside a Forensic setting falls underneath a specific standard slip-ups, for example, defilement in the assault case seen above can happen. On the off chance that quality is to be kept up all through, more routinely checks ought to be finished by both the Accreditation bodies and proprietors of organizations. This will guarantee the dimension of support required is kept up constantly, all standard methodology are being pursued for testing done by new and existing researchers and gear is completely checked and cleaned to counteract defilement. The standard of value may have dropped when the FSS was shut, as they got heavier outstanding burdens which lead to them committing numerous errors yet in addition in light of the fact that many experienced and learned researchers in explicit regions were left without a vocation. Despite the fact that the standard of value may have dropped, I trust the standard of value has ascended in the Forensic world as cases, for example, Stephen Lawrence, would not have had the leap forward it did if the standard of value in the Laboratory was low and if the quality attempted by the researcher's did not achieve the dimensions required in the present Forensic science administrations.

In this case, the queries by Defense attorney can be:

If the child was abducted by her own mother, or in collaboration of her mother, how come she was present at the restaurant?

While being on dinner date with her husband, how is the accused being blamed for shooting her ex-husband?

Why was Pablo Castillo shot/stabbed while the babysitter remained unharmed and sleeping?

A response by the expert witness can be:

The babysitter remained asleep as she caused no obstruction in abduction. She was not alarmed or was not awake as the child being abducted made no resistance or sound as she probably knew the kidnapper very well and was comfortable with him/her.

Case Concussion

After an examination of four claims against Mrs. Lisa Jackson, we trust we have confirmation that substantiates each of the four charges. In view of the proof, we infer that Mrs. Jackson was having an extramarital illicit relationship with Mr. Aaron Andrade and chose to arrange a kidnapping to acquire cash from her husband, before seeking legal separation. Mrs. Jackson and Mr. Andrade contrived with Mr. Rios to finish the kidnapping, with Mr. Andrade being available amid the occasion. We accept from our examination that Mr. Andrade, actually, shot Mr. Pablo Castillo the evening of the kidnapping, and that Mr. Rios wounded the expired on different occasions. At last, amid the examination it was likewise discovered that Mrs. Lisa Jackson was in charge of the passing of Mr. Daniel Gonzales, having covered the perished in the forest behind their home.

Works Cited

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 7 Words: 2100

Fragile X Syndrome

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of Instructor]



Fragile X Syndrome

1: Fragile X Syndrom is a genetic disorder which occurs when a mutation takes place in the FMR1 gene, the FMR1 gene is normally involved in providing instructions for the synthesis of a protein that is called FMRP. This protein is present in many tissues including the brain, ovaries and also testes ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"MvF8uYKB","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}Fragile X Syndrome - Genetics Home Reference - NIH})","plainCitation":"(Fragile X Syndrome - Genetics Home Reference - NIH)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1428,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/M85K6RXQ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/M85K6RXQ"],"itemData":{"id":1428,"type":"webpage","title":"Fragile X syndrome - Genetics Home Reference - NIH","URL":"https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/fragile-x-syndrome","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",4,10]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Fragile X Syndrome - Genetics Home Reference - NIH).

2: The Fragile X Syndrome is inherited in an X-linked dominant pattern. X-linked dominant means that in women mutation in any one of the two copies of a gene is enough to cause the disorder ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"whbT7Isf","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}Fragile X Syndrome - Genetics Home Reference - NIH})","plainCitation":"(Fragile X Syndrome - Genetics Home Reference - NIH)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1428,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/M85K6RXQ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/M85K6RXQ"],"itemData":{"id":1428,"type":"webpage","title":"Fragile X syndrome - Genetics Home Reference - NIH","URL":"https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/fragile-x-syndrome","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",4,10]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Fragile X Syndrome - Genetics Home Reference - NIH).

3: There are various symptoms of fragile X syndrome including large, protruding ears, long face, hyperextensible thumbs, flats, soft skin and also flat feet.

4: Conservative estimates suggest that this particular syndrome can affect 1 in 2500-4000 males and 1 in 7000-8000 women. The prevalence of females carrier status is considered to be as high as 1 in 130-250 population and also the prevalence of men carries status is thought to be 1 in 250-800 population. As it is an X linked syndrome, therefore, there are chances that it can effect females more as compared to males ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"A177zCun","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}Fragile X Syndrome: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology})","plainCitation":"(Fragile X Syndrome: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1430,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/DI7BVAV2"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/DI7BVAV2"],"itemData":{"id":1430,"type":"webpage","title":"Fragile X Syndrome: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology","URL":"https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/943776-overview","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",4,10]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Fragile X Syndrome: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology).

Credit: U.S. National Library of Medicine

Work Cited

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Fragile X Syndrome - Genetics Home Reference - NIH. https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/fragile-x-syndrome. Accessed 10 Apr. 2019.

Fragile X Syndrome: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/943776-overview. Accessed 10 Apr. 2019.

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Gene Expression

Gene Expression Lab Report




This lab report is intended at documenting laboratory activity regarding gene expression in terms of “survival” and “illumination” of bacteria in controlled and experimental conditions. Bacteria were inoculated with genes of interest through plasmids (one lux plasmid for illumination and one controlled pUC18). Both the plasmids contained Ampicillin resistance gene responsible for bacterial survival through deactivating antimicrobial peptides (Amp); which kills gram positive and gram negative bacteria. After series of experimentation, it was revealed that genes can be used to develop desired characteristic within the host cell as bacterial cell grew even in the presence of antimicrobial peptides when Ampicillin resistance genes were introduced and they demonstrated light reactions when lux containing plasmid was introduced. Transformation efficiency of bacterial cells was also calculated using scientific formula in the end.


Gene is referred to as DNA or RNA nucleotide sequences responsible for developing structural, functional and biochemical properties of cell through the process of coding (Markus & Mariana, 2006). Genes are composed of DNA, RNA or proteins. Gene expression is the process responsible for utilizing genetic information for synthesizing functional gene product. The end products typically encapsulate proteins with the exceptions of functional RNA in case of non-proteins coding genes e.g., transfer RNA (t-RNA) and nuclear RNA (Chen & Dubnau, 2004).

During the process of gene expression, the first step is known as transcription involving transformation of DNA into RNA. The transcribed RNA is either directly functional or functions are an intermediate template for protein formation that performs specialized functions. The second step involves translation of transcribed RNA molecules into poly-peptic sequences responsible for executing particular cellular functions (Chung, Niemela & Miller, 1989).

Typically, phenotypic traits are inherited when transmission of genes takes place from parent cell to off-springs. Specialized DNA sequences responsible for unique genetic make-up are referred to as genotypes. Environmental and developmental factors coupled with the genotypes determine the nature of phenotype that individual will be more likely to express through his physical, cognitive, emotional and behavioral ramifications (Noble, 2008).

A bulk of literature is evident that poly-genes and interactional process between genes and outside environment of individual are the powerful determinants of biological traits. Out of these biological traits, some are instantly visible including height, weight, number of limbs, skin and eye color whereas some are latent encompassing risk of acquiring physical or mental disorders, blood group type, and numerous fundamental biological processes that attempt to aggregate life (Benzer, 1959). This process is utilized by all the known life forms including eukaryotes and prokaryotes for generating macromolecular machinery to sustain life.

As genes are carrying genetic materials known as DNA, it is typically assumed that only cell nucleus contains DNA, which is nothing more than a misconception. Plasmids are small round shaped structures carrying DNA particularly in bacterial cells. DNA present in plasmids is independent in terms of physical placement and functional activities e.g., replication and translational aspects.

Plasmids are carrying certain genes favorable for organisms’ survival particularly for providing resistance against antibiotics to bacteria. Chromosomes are large enough and contain essential genetic information for surviving under optimal conditions whereas plasmids are comparatively smaller and contain information about how to survive in the drastic environmental conditions (Inoue, Nojima & Okayama, 1999).

Within the laboratory settings, synthetic plasmids are widely used for inserting desired genes into host body which then undergo replication and translation forming colonies—acting as vectors. The process of transformation allows the introduction of plasmids into host cell. The successful completion of transformation requires three conditions; host for the insertion of foreign DNA, vector for introducing foreign DNA into host cell and identification and selection of transformed cells (Hanahan, Jessee & Bloom, 1991).

In this lab report, the practical manifestation of transformation will be elaborated. Following materials will be used to accomplish transformation; the host cell, gene of interest and vector. The host cell selected to undergo introduction of foreign gene was E. coli bacterium. This specie was selected for several reasons; it has one chromosome made up of approximately 5 million base-pairs with rapid growth rates and short reproduction time (Noble, 2008).

Gene of interest was Ampicillin-resistance gene which enables E. coli to develop immunity against antibiotics. It codes for the enzyme known as beta-lectamase that in turn deactivates the ampicillin along with the other antibiotics. The other gene of interest is lux operon which facilitates the production of luminescent proteins that in turn generate light reactions when chemical energy in converted into light energy.

Vector mediates the incorporation of foreign DNA into the host cell. The selected vector for laboratory activity was plasmid—pUC18. Plasmids were used because they are small in size, less susceptible to physical damage and replicate more effectively giving away numerous copies of DNA. Calcium chloride makes the bacteria more welcoming for plasmid which is an essential reagent in transformation.


1. Bacteria in Luria Broth with Lux plasmid undergo lawn growth and do not demonstrate illumination

2. Bacteria in Luria Broth with Lux plasmid and antimicrobial peptides (Amp) undergo colonial growth and demonstrate illumination

3. Bacteria in Luria Broth with antimicrobial peptides (Amp) and no plasmid undergo no growth at all


Preparation of competent cells

630 μL solution of CaCl2 was introduced to the 50 μL bacterial solution using sterile pipe. After that, mixture was allowed to incubate in ice for 10 minutes. Due to this practice bacterial cells become competent; more open for up-taking foreign DNA.

Uptake of DNA by component cells

Two Eppendorf tubes were labeled as C (for control plasmid) and lux (for lux plasmid) and 5 μL solution of each plasmid was placed in the prospective tubes. 70 μL competent bacterial cell solution was poured in each tube using sterile transfer pipette and kept in ice for ten minutes. Meanwhile, “no plasmid” tube was prepared using 35 μL competent cell solution only. A water bath maintained at 37° temperature was introduced with all the tubes and allowed to set for 5 minutes. 275 μL nutrient broths were added in all the three tubes and were allowed to incubate at 37° for 45 minutes.

Identification of cells who have taken up the plasmid

130 μL solution of each of the three tubes (control, lux and no plasmid) was poured into the three separate agar plates. A cell spreader dipped and flamed in ethanol lamp was used to spread the mixture on agar plate. Plates were covered with lids, kept for 10 minutes, inverted and incubated at 37°.

Examining culture in the dark:

Each tube was removed from the refrigerator. After removing lid, it was observed whether bacteria are grown in the medium or not and if they are grown, which sort of growth patterns they have. Bacterial illumination was observed keeping the plates in the dark room and transformation efficacy was calculated.

Table 1.0



Expected result


Reason for expectation


Growth, lawn


Amp is not present to kill E. coli


Growth, colonial


Amp will be deactivated by plasmids


No growth


Amp will kill E. coli because there are no plasmids


Results of the above mentioned laboratory activity were as follows:

Bacteria underwent lawn growth in Luria Broth with Lux plasmid and did not demonstrate illumination

Bacteria underwent colonial growth in Luria Broth with Lux plasmid and antimicrobial peptides (Amp) and demonstrated illumination

Bacteria underwent no growth at all in Luria Broth with antimicrobial peptides (Amp) and no plasmid

Table 2.0







Growth, lawn


Amp is not present to kill E. coli


Growth, colonial


Amp is deactivated by plasmids


No growth


Amp killed E. coli because there are no plasmids


Bacteria underwent lawn growth in Luria Broth with Lux plasmid and demonstrated illumination because there were no antimicrobial peptides to kill them and Lux operon genes were incorporated due to which they were supposed to demonstrate illumination when observed in dark room but actually did not show illumination because of lawn growth (Tang et. al., 1994).

Bacteria underwent colonial growth in Luria Broth with Lux plasmid and antimicrobial peptides (Amp) and demonstrated illumination because Ampicillin resistant bacteria allowed them to deactivate antimicrobial peptides which made their survival possible. Illumination was due to the lux operon plasmid which is responsible for producing proteins that assist light reactions (Inoue, Nojima, & Okayama, 1990).

Bacteria underwent no growth at all in Luria Broth with antimicrobial peptides (Amp) and no plasmid because they were not inoculated with plasmids having ampicillin resistant genes and hence were killed by antimicrobial peptides (Amp) (Tang et. al., 1994). All the hypotheses formulated before starting experiment were verified by the results along with the predictions.

Transformation efficiency is the efficiency of cells through which extracellular DNA (through plasmid) is taken up by the host cells (bacteria) (Tang et. al., 1994). It is directly proportional to the cell competence and is calculated through dividing the number of colonies by the actual amount of DNA used. This may range from 1 ×102 cfu/μg to 1× 1011 cfu/μg in case of plasmids (Mercenier & Chassy, 1988).

Transformation efficiency = Total no. of colonies on the LB/AmpLux plate

Total amount of DNA spread on the LB/AmpLux plate

= 10


Transformation efficiency = 1.3 × 103 cfu/μg

Hence, transformation efficiency for each plate with colonial growth can be determined using above formula.

Various factors affect the transformational efficiency of bacterial cells including plasmid size, cell genotypes, forms of DNA, methods of transformation, growth of cells, and damage to DNA (Ymer, 1991; Inoue, Nojima, & Okayama, 1990; Hanahan, Jessee, & Bloom, 1991; Tang et. al., 1994; Gründemann & Schömig, 1996; Chen, 2004). Such factor must be addressed carefully while performing laboratory experiments.


Benzer, S. (1959). On the Topology of the Genetic Fine Structure. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 45(11), 1607–1620. doi:10.1073/pnas.45.11.1607.

Chen, I., Dubnau, D. (2004). DNA uptake during bacterial transformation. Nat Rev Microbiol, 2, 241–249. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15083159

Chung, C. T., Niemela, S. L., Miller, R. H. (1989). One-step preparation of competent Escherichia coli: transformation and storage of bacterial cells in the same solution. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 86, 2172–2175. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2648393

Gründemann, D., Schömig, E. (1996). Protection of DNA during preparative agarose gel electrophoresis against damage induced by ultraviolet light. BioTechniques. 21(5), 898–903. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8922632

Hanahan, D. Jessee, J. Bloom, F. R. (1991). Plasmid transformation of Escherichia coli and other bacteria. Methods in Enzymology. 204, 63–113. doi:10.1016/0076-6879(91)04006-a

Inoue, H., Nojima, H., Okayama, H. (1990). High efficiency transformation of Escherichia coli with plasmids. Gene, 96, 23–28. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2265755

Markus G., N., Mariana H., (2006). Definition of historical models of gene function and their relation to students' understanding of genetics. Science & Education. 16 (7–8), 849–881. doi:10.1007/s11191-006-9064-4

Mercenier, A., Chassy, B. M. (1988). Strategies for the development of bacterial transformation systems. Biochi, 70, 503-517. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3139069

Noble, D. (2008). Genes and causation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A. Mathematical and Physical Sciences. 366 (1878), 3001–3015. doi:10.1098/rsta.2008.0086.

Tang, X., Nakata, Y., Li, H. O., Zhang, M., Gao, H. (1994). The optimization of preparations of competent cells for transformation of E. Coli. Nucleic Acids Research. 22(14), 2857–2858. doi:10.1093/nar/22.14.2857.

Ymer, S. (1991). Heat inactivation of DNA ligase prior to electroporation increases transformation efficiency. Nucleic Acids Research. 19 (24), 6960. doi:10.1093/nar/19.24.6960.

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 7 Words: 2100

Gene Mutation

Your Name

Instructor Name

Course Number


Gene Mutations

A gene mutation is a permanent alteration of the DNA sequence from which a gene is composed. The size of the mutations varies, which affects from a single basic component (base pair) of the DNA to a large segment of a chromosome with several genes. In genetics, a spontaneous and unpredictable variation in the sequence of genes that make up the DNA of a living being is called, which introduces specific changes of a physical, physiological or other type in the individual, which may or may not be inherited from His descendants.

Mutations can translate into positive or negative changes in the vital performance of organisms, and in that sense they can boost adaptation and evolution (even creating new species in the long run), or they can become genetic diseases or inherited defects (Solinas, Cinzia, et al). These types of changes occur for two essential reasons: spontaneously and naturally, due to errors in genome replication during the phases of cell replication; or externally, due to the action of mutagens of various types on the organism, such as ionizing radiation, certain chemical substances and the action of some viral organisms, among others.

Most of the mutations that living beings experience are of a recessive type, that is, they do not become manifest in the individual in which they originate, but remain inactive and inadvertent, although they can be transmitted to the offspring in case they (at least for multicellular living beings) the alteration occurs in the content of sex cells (gametes).

Mutations can occur at three levels:

Molecular (gene or specific) . They occur in the chemical bases of DNA, that is, in their own nitrogen bases, due to some change in the fundamental elements that compose them.

Chromosomal. A segment of chromosome is altered, that is, much more than a gene, and in that sense large amounts of information can be lost, duplicated or relocated (Pearson, 400)

Genomic. It affects a certain set of chromosomes, causing excesses or lack thereof, and substantially varying the entire genome of the organism.

As it turned out, there are special changes that accumulate during the life of generations. It also became known that there are facial mutations, consisting in a slight distortion of the original product. The provision on the re-emergence of new biological traits applies exclusively to gene mutations.

Causes of Gene Mutations

Mutagenic factors. Most mutations have a detrimental effect on the body, disrupting traits regulated by natural selection. Each organism is prone to mutation, but under the influence of mutagenic factors, their number increases dramatically. These factors include: ionizing, ultraviolet radiation, elevated temperature, many compounds of chemicals, as well as viruses.

Antimutagenic factors, that is, protection factors of the hereditary apparatus, can safely be attributed to the degeneracy of the genetic code, the removal of unnecessary sites that do not carry genetic information (introns), as well as the double chain of the molecule’s DNA.

1. Progeria . Progeria is considered one of the rarest genetic defects. This mutation manifests itself in premature aging of the body. Most patients die before they reach the age of thirteen, and few manage to save their lives up to twenty years. This disease develops strokes and heart disease, and that is why, most often, the cause of death is a heart attack or stroke.

2. Syndrome on Juner Tan (SUT). This syndrome is specific in that those exposed to it move on all fours. Usually people with SUT use the simplest, most primitive speech and suffer from congenital cerebral insufficiency.

3. Hypertrichosis. Also has the name “werewolf syndrome” or - “Abrams syndrome”. This phenomenon has been traced and documented since the Middle Ages. People prone to hypertrichosis differ in body hair in excess of the norm, especially for the face, ears and shoulders.

4. Severe combined immunodeficiency. Those affected by this disease already at birth are deprived of an effective immune system, which the average person possesses. David Vetter, thanks to whom the disease became famous in 1976, died at the age of thirteen, after an unsuccessful attempt at surgical intervention to strengthen immunity (Gataullina, Svetlana, et al. 389).

5. Marfan syndrome. The disease occurs quite often, and is accompanied by a disproportionate development of the limbs, excessive mobility of the joints. A deviation expressed by intergrowth of ribs is much less common, resulting in either bulging or sinking of the chest. A common problem prone to bottom syndrome is spinal curvature.

To conclude, it is important to understand that determining how harmful or beneficial it is depends largely on the genotypic environment. Many environmental factors can disrupt the ordering of genes, a strictly established process of their self-reproduction. In the process of evolution and natural selection, man acquired not only useful features, but also not the most favorable ones related to diseases. The human species pays for what it received from nature through the accumulation of pathological signs.

Works Cited

Gataullina, Svetlana, et al. "Gene mutations in paediatric epilepsies cause NMDA‐pathy, and phasic and tonic GABA‐pathy." Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology (2019).

Pearson, Helen. "What is a gene?." (2006): 398.

Solinas, Cinzia, et al. "BRCA gene mutations do not shape the extent and organization of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in triple negative breast cancer." Cancer letters 450 (2019): 88-97.

Subject: Biology and Life Sciences

Pages: 2 Words: 600

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