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There are four chambers in the heart. Two are named atria and the other two are named ventricles1. One atrium and one ventricle are situated on the right side of the heart. The other atrium and ventricle are located on the left side of the heart. The blood enters the heart from the atria1. And the blood exits the heart through the ventricle. Deoxygenated blood that is received from the superior vena cava, the vein responsible for the supply of blood to organs located in the upper portion of the body, enters from the right atria1. Additionally, it also receives blood from inferior vena cava, the vein responsible for the supply of blood to the organs located in the lower part of the body1. The deoxygenated blood from the coronary sinus enters the heart from the right atrium. The deoxygenated blood then moves to the right ventricle through the atrioventricular valve1. This valve prevents blood from flowing backward into the right atrium. Once filled, blood is pushed towards the lungs through the pulmonary arteries for re-oxygenation1. Right semilunar valve stops the blood from flowing back into the right ventricle. Once the oxygen level in the blood replenishes, it enters the heart from the left atrium through pulmonary veins1. Chambers of heart on the left side are segregated by the mitral valve. The blood enters into the left ventricle through the mitral valve from where it is pumped out via the aorta, an artery of the body which is responsible for supplying oxygenated blood to the organs and muscles of the body1. After pumping out the blood in the aorta, the aortic semilunar valve closes1. The aortic semilunar prevents blood from flowing back into the left ventricle. This sequence of blood flow is called double circulation1. The flow of blood in all mammals takes place in this sequence.
Midgett, M., Thornburg, K., & Rugonyi, S. (2017). Blood flow patterns underlie developmental heart defects. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 312(3), H632-H642.
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