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3d Printing Concrete


3D Printing Concrete within the Construction Industry


[Name of the Institution]


3D printing is an enabling technology that emboldens and promotes innovation with the freedom of designing intriguing objects with reduced cost and a tool-less process. 3D technology is an emerging technology that is energy-efficient as it provides environmental efficiencies not only in the manufacturing process but throughout the manufactured product operating life. It utilizes almost 90% of the material required to construct an object. 3D printing technology facilitates in designing several components of the objects precisely that in turn bypass the assembly requirements of the components. Thus, various sophisticated geometrical shapes can be created with much ease with no additional costs. Previously, this technology was only limited to the industrial prototyping and manufacturing processes. However, as modern life spins around the elements of technologies making it an indispensable part of our lives, 3D printing has also become more accessible to the wider audience. As the use of 3D printing technology is increasing day by day the exponential adoption rate of this technology growing tremendously. This thesis will explore the background of 3D printing, its working mechanism, and issues associated this technology along with its role in the construction industry mainly focusing on the use of concrete as a building material.

Keywords: 3D printing, construction, concrete, manufacturing, building materials

Table of Contents

TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u Abstract PAGEREF _Toc21290119 \h 2

Chapter 1 PAGEREF _Toc21290120 \h 8

1.Introduction PAGEREF _Toc21290121 \h 8

1.1 Historical Background PAGEREF _Toc21290122 \h 8

1.2.Current industry uses of 3D printing PAGEREF _Toc21290123 \h 12

1.2.1 Aerospace and defence PAGEREF _Toc21290124 \h 12

1.2.2. Automotive PAGEREF _Toc21290125 \h 13

1.2.3. The dental and medical industry PAGEREF _Toc21290126 \h 13

1.2.4. Consumer goods PAGEREF _Toc21290127 \h 14

1.2.5. Construction industry PAGEREF _Toc21290128 \h 14

1.3. Common Issues/downfalls of 3D Printing PAGEREF _Toc21290129 \h 14

1.3.1. High energy consumption PAGEREF _Toc21290130 \h 15

1.3.2. Environmental hazards PAGEREF _Toc21290131 \h 15

1.3.3. 3D printing and weaponry production PAGEREF _Toc21290132 \h 15

1.3.4. Construction industry issues PAGEREF _Toc21290133 \h 15

Chapter 2 PAGEREF _Toc21290134 \h 17

1.3D printing technology PAGEREF _Toc21290135 \h 17

2.1. 3D printing working mechanism PAGEREF _Toc21290136 \h 17

How it Works PAGEREF _Toc21290137 \h 17

2.2.1. Steps involved in printing PAGEREF _Toc21290138 \h 18

Step 1 PAGEREF _Toc21290139 \h 18

Step 2 PAGEREF _Toc21290140 \h 18

Step 3 PAGEREF _Toc21290141 \h 19

Step 4 PAGEREF _Toc21290142 \h 20

Step 5 PAGEREF _Toc21290143 \h 20

Step 6 PAGEREF _Toc21290144 \h 21

Step 7 PAGEREF _Toc21290145 \h 21

Step 8 PAGEREF _Toc21290146 \h 21

Chapter 3 PAGEREF _Toc21290147 \h 22

3. 3D printing methods PAGEREF _Toc21290148 \h 22

3.1. Material Extrusion PAGEREF _Toc21290149 \h 22

3.2. Vat polymerization PAGEREF _Toc21290150 \h 24

3.3. Powder Bed fusion PAGEREF _Toc21290151 \h 25

3.4. Material jetting PAGEREF _Toc21290152 \h 26

3.5. Binder jetting PAGEREF _Toc21290153 \h 27

3.6. Direct energy deposition PAGEREF _Toc21290154 \h 29

3.7. Other processes PAGEREF _Toc21290155 \h 30

Chapter 4 PAGEREF _Toc21290156 \h 31

4.3D printing Techniques PAGEREF _Toc21290157 \h 31

4.1. SLA PAGEREF _Toc21290158 \h 31

4.1.1. SLA machine parameters PAGEREF _Toc21290159 \h 32

4.1.2.Support structure PAGEREF _Toc21290160 \h 32

4.2. FDM PAGEREF _Toc21290161 \h 33

4.2.1. FDM printer parameters PAGEREF _Toc21290162 \h 34

4.2.2. Warping PAGEREF _Toc21290163 \h 34

4.2.3. Support structure PAGEREF _Toc21290164 \h 34

4.3. SLS PAGEREF _Toc21290165 \h 35

4.3.1.SLS printer parameters PAGEREF _Toc21290166 \h 36

4.3.2.Warping, Shrinking and Over-sintering PAGEREF _Toc21290167 \h 36

4.4. SLM/DMLS PAGEREF _Toc21290168 \h 37

4.4.1. Printer parameters PAGEREF _Toc21290169 \h 38

4.5. DLP PAGEREF _Toc21290170 \h 38

4.5.1. DLP projection system PAGEREF _Toc21290171 \h 39

4.5.2. Continuous DLP PAGEREF _Toc21290172 \h 39

4.6. LOM PAGEREF _Toc21290173 \h 39

4.7. Photopolymer phase change Inkjets PAGEREF _Toc21290174 \h 41

4.8. Plaster based 3D printing PAGEREF _Toc21290175 \h 42

4.9. Other techniques PAGEREF _Toc21290176 \h 42

4.9.1. SDL PAGEREF _Toc21290177 \h 42

4.9.2. EBM PAGEREF _Toc21290178 \h 43

4.9.3. DOD PAGEREF _Toc21290179 \h 43

Chapter 5 PAGEREF _Toc21290180 \h 45

5.3D Printing Materials PAGEREF _Toc21290181 \h 45

5.1. Plastic PAGEREF _Toc21290182 \h 45

5.2. Metals PAGEREF _Toc21290183 \h 46

5.3. Stainless- Steel PAGEREF _Toc21290184 \h 47

5.3. Ceramics PAGEREF _Toc21290185 \h 47

5.4. Paper PAGEREF _Toc21290186 \h 47

5.5. Powders PAGEREF _Toc21290187 \h 48

5.6. Resin PAGEREF _Toc21290188 \h 48

5.7. Carbon fibre PAGEREF _Toc21290189 \h 49

5.8. Biomaterial PAGEREF _Toc21290190 \h 49

Chapter 6 PAGEREF _Toc21290191 \h 51

6.1. Introduction PAGEREF _Toc21290192 \h 51

6.2. 3D printing concrete PAGEREF _Toc21290193 \h 51

6.3. History PAGEREF _Toc21290194 \h 52

6.4. Working mechanism PAGEREF _Toc21290195 \h 53

6.5. 3D printing concrete advantages PAGEREF _Toc21290196 \h 54

6.6. Challenges associated with 3D printing concrete PAGEREF _Toc21290197 \h 55

6.7. Recommendations and Solutions PAGEREF _Toc21290198 \h 57

Chapter 7 PAGEREF _Toc21290199 \h 59

7.1. Conclusion and future work PAGEREF _Toc21290200 \h 59

Bibliography PAGEREF _Toc21290201 \h 60

List of Figures

TOC \h \z \c "Figure" Figure 1 Parts of printer used in material extrusion (Lboro.ac.uk, 2019). PAGEREF _Toc21290288 \h 23

Figure 2 Parts of printer used in vat polymerization (Lboro.ac.uk, 2019). PAGEREF _Toc21290289 \h 24

Figure 3 Parts of printer used in powder bed fusion (Lboro.ac.uk, 2019). PAGEREF _Toc21290290 \h 25

Figure 4 Parts of printer used in material jetting (Lboro.ac.uk, 2019). PAGEREF _Toc21290291 \h 27

Figure 5 Parts of printer used in binder jetting (Lboro.ac.uk, 2019). PAGEREF _Toc21290292 \h 28

Figure 6 Parts of printer used in direct energy deposition (Lboro.ac.uk, 2019). PAGEREF _Toc21290293 \h 29

Figure 7 Design printed by 3D printer using concrete as a build material (Bos and Salet, 2016). PAGEREF _Toc21290294 \h 52

List of tables

TOC \h \z \c "Table" Table 1 Types of plastics used in 3D printing (Ngo, 2018) PAGEREF _Toc21288939 \h 45

Chapter 1


The 3D printing is an umbrella term that is comprised of variety of processes during which a specific material is joined under computer control to generate a three-dimensional object. Various styles of objects can be created with the computer-aided design model that is also known as CAD (Kamran, 2016). Owing to the process of creating several geometrical shapes by layering the material this process is also known as addictive manufacturing. Generally, the two fundamental innovations that 3D printing has brought with itself are object manipulation into their digital format and object manufacturing by layering the materials. While constructing a porotype it is necessary to have an idea of the tools that are required to construct objects. Also, it is important to consider the availability of tools in the market. Typically, the production of porotypes falls into three categories that are 3D printed parts, Injection molded parts and CNC machined parts. 3D printing has always been a top priority for rapid porotype development. However, due to several advancements in the technology 3D printing has a major impact on the manufacturing world as well. Especially, many medical devices are constructed using this technology. Additionally, 3D printing has also paved its way in the construction field as well because of the utilization of build materials like concrete and cement. Hence, this technology has changed the dimensions of how objects used to be manufactured in the past.

1.1 Historical Background

The process of making physical objects from a three-dimensional digital model by layering a specific material is called 3D printing. The earliest idea of 3D printing became visible in the late 1980’s. During this time several addictive materials and equipment’s were developed. Although, at that time this technology was termed as Rapid Prototyping. The reason why this technology was termed as rapid prototyping was due to its ability of creating cost-effective and fast porotypes of the products used in the industry. In May 1980 the first patent application for rapid prototyping technology was filed by Dr Kodama (Wohlers, and Gornet, 2014). He presented two methods that can be used to fabricate three-dimensional models by using photo-hardening thermoset polymer. He utilizes scanning fiber transmitters to control the area of UV exposure. Even though, he filed application first yet he failed to file the detailed specification within the given dead line. Therefore, the origin of 3D printing can be tracked back to 1986 when Charles Hull filed a patent for a stereolithography fabrication system (Savini and G, 2015). According to his system layers are added by preserving photopolymers with ultraviolent light lasers. Charles was also the inventor of SLA machine which was invented in 1983. His contributions include STL file format and digital slicing. He also cofounded a 3D system corporation which is one of the largest and most reputed organization that is operational in the 3D printing sector today. In 1987 first commercial rapid prototyping system was introduced which after passing through several testing was sold in 1988. Even today most of the 3D printers use fused deposition modeling which is a special application of plastic extrusion that was developed by Scott. SLA was not the only technology that was in the development phase at that time because in 1987 Carl Deckard a member of University of Texas also filed a patent for selective Laser Sintering rapid prototyping process. Despite filing patent in 1987 the patent was issued to him in 1989. Later SLS was licensed to DMT Inc which was then acquired by 3D systems (Horvath, 2014).

In the context of 3D printing, 1989 was considered as the year of Scott who was the cofounder of Stratasys Inc. because during this year he filed a patent for Fused Depositing Modelling. FDM is a technology that still being used by many entry-level machines. FDM machine was first marketed in 1992 (Wohlers, and Gornet, 2014). During 1980s and 1990s AM process such as selective laser sintering and selective laser melting, etc went by their own names. Additionally, all metalworking was done by the process that are now known as non-additive processes. Despite applying automation to several technologies such as robot welding, the concept of tool moving through a 3D work envelope altering a raw material in to desired geometric shapes with toolpath was typically associated with processes that removed metal. For instance, CNC milling and EDM, etc. In the same year at Stanford University, several metal deposition techniques such as micro-casting were developed.

Due to the increasing demand of SL processes EOS focused heavily on laser sintering process that is still in use. In 1990 EOS sold its first Stereos system and made its name in the top industrial prototyping applications of 3D systems. During these days’ various 3D printing technologies were emerging. The most prominent were Ballistic Particle Manufacturing that was patent by William Masters, Solid Ground Crucing Patent by Itzchak and three dimensional printing patent by Emanuel. Thus, one can say that nineties witnessed an increasing number of numerous competitive companies yet only three of them exists today. The companies that still exists today are EOS, 3D systems and Startasys. The term 3D printing was coined after the development of custom inkjet print head by MIT in 1993 the term 3D orienting. In 1995 selective laser melting was developed by was developed by Fraunhofer Institute (Su & Al'Aref, 2018).

. However, in terms of commercial operation several companies such as sanders Prototype was established in 1996 while Arcam was established in 1997 and Objet Geometries was established in 1998.

In the year 2000 SLM technology was introduced by MCP technologies. These companies played avital role in growing the Western companies operating all over the world. During this time the high end 3D printing was at its peak although it was very expensive and was used to design high value sophisticated engineering parts. Even today 3D printing is used the complex engineering parts yet several other applications of 3D printing such as aerospace, medical, fine jeweler and automotive design are now being learned. Owing to various applications of 3D printing many manufacturers were focused on to improve functional prototyping to make cost-effective and user-friendly systems. Although, today the price is affordable but in the past 3D printing was way too expensive. Even in the year 2007 the accessibility of 3D printing technology was way beyond the reach of common people and even many industrialists. In 2009 FDM patent was expired yet during this time the first commercially available 3D printer was offered for sale. The year 2010 was the year that has seen the growth of metal end use parts in job production as well. In 2012 Filabot designed a system that enabled FDM or any other 3D printer to print with different types plastics (Horvath, 2014). This year is also known as the year of alternative 3D printing process. During this year more people were interested to know what 3D printing is. Even several media channels also highlighted the 3D printing technology. The popularity of this technology increased even in the year 2013. During this year the acquisition of Makerbot by Stratasys took place. In the year 2014 the first multi-material and vertically integrated printed electronic platform for additive, manufacturing was demonstrated by Dr. Benjamin. This platform allows 3D printing of functional electronic operating up to 40GHZ. Since 2013 the progress in the 3D printing technology was remarkable (Su and Al'Aref, 2018). In 2019 as well 3D printing is widely used and is less expensive. Also, using 3D printing concrete is considered by many construction companies. Thus, 2D printing concrete is expected to change the dimension of construction business.

Current industry uses of 3D printing

Owing to the immense benefits that 3D printing is offering, its use in several industries is also growing day by day. Many industries are there that use 3D printing technology to make a variety of products that are high in demand. This innovative technology allows industrialist to make products that are used in every field of like. Some of the most common industries that use 3D printing technology are as follows:

1.2.1 Aerospace and defence

Aerospace and defence industry is considered as one of the earliest industry to use 3D printing. Several functional prototypes and lightweight components can be built by using this technology. In the aerospace industry, the use of 3D printing is not limited to only making prototypes buy it is also used to make various real-life components that can be used in the aircraft (Gutierrez and Holzer, 2018). Using 3D printing in the aerospace industry is very helpful in producing low-volume highly complex parts. Due to 3D printing, the aerospace industry does not have to buy expensive equipment to manufacture various materials.

In aerospace space industry weight is the most important factor that affects the performance of aircraft and planes, etc. Weight is interrelated to carbon-dioxide production. Thus increasing weight will increase the amount of carbon dioxide emission. 3D printing can facilitate in making lightweight complex geometric designs thus reducing carbon dioxide emission. Additionally, 3D printing allows for repairing several aircrafts components as well.

1.2.2. Automotive

The trend of using 3D printing in the automotive industry is growing tremendously. Specifically, in racing cars and motorsports, the 3D printing is used to not only several components but are used to design sophisticated parts as well. Prototyping facilitates in testing how the components will work after they are manufactured. 3D printing is a cost-effective way to manufacture porotypes. Also, it is the fastest way of manufacturing prototypes (Nematollahi & Sanjayan, 2017)

In the automotive industry, every automobile needs a specific design. Due to the ability to customize any component or art 3D printing is considered an effective way to customize components as per the requirement. Additionally, the complex geometry that every part of the automobile possesses can also be made by using 3D printing technology.

1.2.3. The dental and medical industry

The dental and medical industry is one of the fastest-growing adopters of using 3D printing. The 3D printing technology facilities in making implants and several dental appliances that are cost-effective (Ventola, 2014). Additionally, the detailing that is required I making implants can be attained by using 3D printing techniques. Recently, several prosthetics are also made using 3D printing that facilitate lots of patients. Due to immense benefits researchers are focused more on using a material that is safe and does not emit toxins. With the help of non-toxic material, the use of 3D printing in the medical and dental industry will increase more.

1.2.4. Consumer goods

Since the evolution of 3D printing, the competition in the market has increased. Due to this reason, consumers’ goods industry is also using 3D printing technology. Specifically, consumer electronics are made using 3D printing. Before the launch of the product, it is necessary to validate the design that whether it will be able to meet consumers’ needs or not. As 3D printing technique makes prototypes efficiently, this technique is used to test the design of a product before manufacturing and launching it. Moreover, the customized products can also be made using 3D printing in a very short time (Lee and Chua, 2017).

1.2.5. Construction industry

Owing to the materials such as concrete and various types of plastics, 3D printing is widely used in the construction industry. Not only making walls or ceiling of the houses, but this technology is also used in making architectural designs as well. Many artists use 3D printing using concrete to design sculptures and statues (Thomas and Claypole, 2016).

1.3. Common Issues/downfalls of 3D Printing

Despite having several advantages some issues are associated with this technology.

The most common issues are listed below:

1.3.1. High energy consumption

3D printing requires the melting of powders and build materials. To melt the material a lot of energy is required. According to several studies, 3D printing consumes 50-100 times more energy than any traditional manufacturing does. In an era where people are already suffering from an energy crisis, the use of 3D printing is increasing the crisis (Oropallo and Piegl, 2016).

1.3.2. Environmental hazards

Materials such as plastics and metals that are used in 3D printing, during melting produce toxic compounds that may pollute the environment. Additionally, most of the materials are on-recyclable that also play a key role in damaging the ecosystem. Although researchers are trying to build material that is ecofriendly yet still most of the 3D printing techniques use plastic which is very harmful to the environment (Ionita et al., 2014).

1.3.3. 3D printing and weaponry production

As this technology is used widely people are using it make weapons such as knives, explosives and guns. Due to wide availability criminals can use this technology to make as many weapons as they want that is one of the major disadvantages of 3D printing (Oropallo and Piegl, 2016).

1.3.4. Construction industry issues

Scale and size limitation is one the major issue that 3D printing technology is facing. The printers cannot print giant walls or a whole house, therefore, it cannot replace traditional manufacturing methods. Also, to print walls and ceiling it is necessary to take the machine on the construction site. However, transporting a machine and then operating on site is nearly an impossible task to do (Bos and Salet, 2016).

Chapter 2

3D printing technology

3D printing also referred to as additive manufacturing is a process of in which materials are layered to achieve the desired physical object. To start this process, the first step is to construct a digital model. This model can be created using a variety of software that is available online. For industrial use, the software is 3D CAD while for makers and consumer several simple software are available online. After designing the model, the next step is slicing during which the design is converted into a file that is readable by 3D printer. The material that is to be used to construct the object is processed and layered according to the design. Every 3D printing technology has a unique way of processing the raw material. Nowadays metals, functional plastics and metals, etc are used widely in the industrial prototyping industry. Due to the increasing demand for this technology researchers are now focused on to use biomaterials for 3D printing making this process environment-friendly. Despite these efforts plastic is currently the most used material in 3D printing.

2.1. 3D printing working mechanism

How it Works

As mentioned different types of 3D printers use completely different technology to process material. Some 3D printers use powdered materials such as nylon, ceramic and plastics by utilizing light source to melt or fuse the powder to turn to into the preferred shape. On the other hand, many 3D printers use polymer resin materials. Although they also use a light source to solidify the resin in several ultra-thin layers. As parts in 3D printing are printed directly it is possible to construct sophisticated and intriguing objects with built-in functionality (Kamran, 2016). Even though the process looks simple yet several complications are involved while designing an object for 3D printing. The process is also very time consuming and extremely complicated especially engineering designs require lots of efforts during the build process. However, whatever procedure a 3D printer utilizes the basic method is usually the same.

2.2.1. Steps involved in printing

Regardless of what type of 3D printer is being utilized the main process remains the same. Below are the steps that are involved in the process of 3D printing (Wohlers, T. and Caffrey, 2011)

Step 1

In the 3D printing process, the first step is to design a digital model. There is a variety of software, present in that help in designing a digital model yet the computer-aided design CAD is the most common method used for designing the objects. With the help of scientific data this software also gives some hints regarding the structure of the finished products. The scientific data regarding the material that is being processed to design an object can facilitate in creating virtual simulations of how an object will behave under certain conditions. There are a variety of CAD programs that are compatible with 3D printing. While constructing an object it is necessary to evaluate several design considerations. Determining the geometry limitations or escape-holes requirements while designing a model for 3D printing will help in creating a stable model.

Step 2

After designing a model, it is necessary to convert it into STL format. STL is an acronym for standard tessellation language. A conversion of the CAD model to STL distinguish the additive manufacturing from traditional manufacturing methods. STL file format was developed by SLA machines in 1987. Most 3D printers are compatible with the STL file format. STL utilizes polygons to demonstrate the surface of a model. To convert the file design into STL it is necessary to understand the STL resolution. As this process involves a series of triangles to determine the surface of the model so increasing the resolution will result in increasing the STL file size. In contrast in the case of low resolution, the triangles will be visible once the object is printed making it less desired. After choosing an appropriate resolution it is necessary to select the right exporting parameters. Most CAD software utilizes two main parameters that are chord height and angle to help in identifying the STL resolution. Although, it is recommended that the chord height should be 1/20 of the 3D printing layer thickness. Thus, it is necessary to evaluate all the necessary recommendation while converting a digital model to the STL file format. After the generation of the STL file. The generated file will be imported into a slicer program where it will further be converted to G-code. The G-code is used in computer-aided manufacturing that facilitates in controlling automated machine tools. G-code is a numeric programming language. The slicer program allows the designer to customize the design according to his or her requirements (Wohlers and Caffrey, 2011).

Step 3

After importing a file to the slicer program the next step is to transfer the file to an AM machine. This stage involves STL file manipulation where a designer can modify the STL file according to the requirements. After modifying the file the STL file is copied by the user to the computer that is operating a 3D printer. At this stage, the object size and its orientation for printing are determined. This process is similar to that of the 2-D printing process where before printing the size and orientation of the material to be printed is determined. Also, the printer is installed in the computer the same way as in 2-D printer.

Step 4

To prepare a machine for a new print job every printing machine has its own set of requirements. While setting a 3D printer it is necessary to focus on every detail. Therefore regular maintenance and correct calibration are critical to producing precise and multifaceted prints. Typically, setting up a printer for a new print job involves series of steps such as refilling polymers and maintaining binders, etc. specifically, discussing 3D printers the raw material used in the printing process has a limited shell life and therefore careful handling is required. Although, several materials can be recycled yet using the same material over and over again make material lose its original properties. Generally, 3D printing machines do not require regular monitoring as the process is automated. However, issues may arise during printing if the material is not provided adequately or there is an error in the software.

Step 5

As mentioned earlier the build process is automatic and therefore does not require monitoring. In this step, the printer will start producing the object according to the digital design that was provided. Typically, the thickness of each layer is 0.1 mm. However, in many cases, the thickness may differ based on the design requirement. Owing to the complexity of the design and material used for printing the desired object, the process of 3D printing can be very time-consuming. It can take days to fully build an object. In many cases, if the design is not complex and the material is also easy to process 3D printing can take a few hours to print an object. It is recommended to check the machine to avoid any errors.

Step 6

After the printing of the object is completed it is necessary to carefully remove the printed object from the printing platform. However, the industrial 3D printing or the printing of various engineering parts are highly complex. So the removing of complex designs comprises precise extraction of the print while it is attached to the printing platform. Therefore, highly skilled machine operators are required to remove the printed object from the printing platform. Additionally, removing process is critical o it is highly recommended to take precautionary measures to protect yourself from toxic chemicals and extremely hot surface to avoid injuries.

Step 7

For every 3D printer, the post-processing is also different. Typically, post-processing involves removal of powder residue or removal of water-soluble support. The newly printed object may be weak and therefore require some time to cure. The SLA components can be cured under UV and if the printed material used was metal then it will require stress relieve in the oven. On the other hand, FDM parts do not require cure and can be handled right after printing. There are many post-processing techniques such as tumbling, colouring and high-pressure air, etc that are to be used to prepare a printed object for the end-user.

Step 8

Following all the above-mentioned steps the object is finally ready to use.

Chapter 3

3. 3D printing methods

Since 1970s several 3D printing processes have been invented. Previously, 3D printers were very expensive and were larger in size as compared to the printers used today. Several additive processes are available now as compared to the past. The only difference between the processes is due to the method of layers’ deposition to constructs different objects and in the raw material used. For instance, to produce layers many methods melt the materials while some methods in spite of melting the material just cure liquid materials to create objects. Similarly, many 3D printing companies use polymers and plastic for constructing an object while others use off-the-shelf business paper for manufacturing an object. Several factors are involved in while choosing the type of process such as speed and cost, etc. Typically, printers that use metals are a bit expensive as compared to the printers that use different materials. The processes that are used currently in 3D printing are as follows:

3.1. Material Extrusion

It is a 3D printing process in which filament of solid thermoplastic material is melted with the help of heated nozzles. The process of material extrusion is explained with the help of figure below:

Figure SEQ Figure \* ARABIC 1 Parts of printer used in material extrusion (Lboro.ac.uk, 2019).

As shown in the figure the nozzle head is used to heat the material and switch the flow on and off. To control the flow, stepper motors are employed that facilitates in moving the extrusion head. After the material is being melted the printer will deposit it on a build platform. At the build platform, the filament is then solidified to form an object. Fused pellet deposition is another technique that is developed recently where pellets of plastics replace filament usage.

Generally, this process uses plastic as a raw material to build an object. Although, different types of polymers such as polycarbonate, high-density polythene and high impact polystyrene, etc are also used as well. Due to the ability to withstand high temperature, materials such as fluoropolymers can also be used. Additionally, metal and glass can also be used but are typically very expensive and only reserved to be used for artworks. After the development of WAAM, the cost of using metal for the purpose of 3D printing has reduced significantly. The types of 3D printing technology that use the process of material extrusion are FDM. The main advantage of this process is that it provides the best surface finish. While the disadvantage of this process is that the printed object is inelastic and is brittle (Gonzalez and Holzer, 2018).

3.2. Vat polymerization

The process of vat polymerization is explained with the help of figure below:

Figure SEQ Figure \* ARABIC 2 Parts of printer used in vat polymerization (Lboro.ac.uk, 2019).

As shown in figure above a Vat polymerization is a 3D printing process where a photopolymer resin is cured by the light of a specific wavelength. Due to this exposure a chemical reaction occurs that solidifies photopolymer resin. This process only occurs when photopolymers comprise of chromophores. In the absence of chromophores, photosensitive molecules are used to react with the solution to initiate the process of polymerization. The process of polymerization facilitates in creating polymers that change the property of a solution. The build plate is then moved downwards where the liquid polymer is visible to light. This process is repeated until the object has been constructed completely. Typically, inkjet printers spray photopolymer material in ultrathin layers on a build tray. In this case, as well the photopolymer is exposed to the light. Another type of inkjet printer that prints a polymer with intermediate light curing is also available in the market. This method is used to make ophthalmic lenses. The types of 3D printing technology that use the method of Vat polymerization are SLA and DLP. The advantage of using this method is that it provides that have a smooth surface finish with fine detailing of the object features. The disadvantages of this method are that it is not suitable for constructing mechanical parts (Gibson and Stucker, 2015).

3.3. Powder Bed fusion

It is another 3D printing technique in which a thermal source of energy is utilized to induce fusion between the particles of plastic or metal powder that are present in the build area to construct a solid object. The process of powder bed fusion is explained with the help of figure below:

Figure SEQ Figure \* ARABIC 3 Parts of printer used in powder bed fusion (Lboro.ac.uk, 2019).

In this technique, parts of the layers are fused until the object has been built. Most of the powder-based fusion technologies use the mechanism for spreading thin layers of powder due to which the constructed object is encapsulated in powder after the construction is completed. As this technique utilizes the unfused medium to support thin parts that are being constructed, the need for temporary support for the part that is constructed is not needed anymore. All the PBF technologies use the same process yet they vary because of the different energy source and powders that are used in the process.

The types of 3D printing technologies that use the method of powder bed fusion are SLM, SLS and EBM. The main advantage of this method is that it can be used to make complex geometrical objects and several functional parts. The disadvantage of this technology is that it is very costly and required a lot of time to build an object (Duda and Raghavan, 2016).

3.4. Material jetting

It is a 3D printing process in which the droplets of material that is used for the manufacturing of an object are deposited and cured on a build platform. The process of material jetting is explained with the help of figure below:

Figure SEQ Figure \* ARABIC 4 Parts of printer used in material jetting (Lboro.ac.uk, 2019).

This technique helps in the printing of different materials in the same object. This method is similar to standard inkjet printer where multiple layers are assembled upon each other to construct a solid part. After jetting hundreds of photopolymer droplets the print head then solidifies the droplets with the help of UV light exposure. This process is repeated until the whole design is completely constructed. Objects that are printed using this technique requires support.

The types of 3D printing techniques that utilize this method are MJ and DOD. Like other methods discussed above this method also provides the best surface finish. However, this method is different from other methods because the printers that use this method are able to construct objects made from full-colour. It also offers multi-material printing. Additionally, the printer that uses this method is faster than other types of 3D printers. The disadvantage of this method is that it is not suitable for constructing mechanical parts (MacDonald and Wicker, 2016).

3.5. Binder jetting

It is a 3D printing process in which a binding agent is deposited on a powder bed to build one layer at a time. The process of binder extrusion is explained with the help of figure below:

Figure SEQ Figure \* ARABIC 5 Parts of printer used in binder jetting (Lboro.ac.uk, 2019).

In this process, layers formed in the process will bind together to form a solid component. The materials used in this process can be metals or ceramics. This method is also called as called an inkjet 3D printing system. The printer builds an object by utilizing a print head that moves over a build platform and deposits one layer at a time. Layers can be deposited by spreading powder and printing binder using an inkjet-like process. This method is similar to a type of 3D printing technology that is SLS. As SLS technique also requires an initial of powder to construct an object on a build platform. However, there exists one dissimilarity between the binder jetting process and the SLS. In SLS to sinter powder, a laser is used while in binder jetting a print head is used to deposit binder droplets. Typically, the diameter of the droplets is 80 microns. After a layer has been printed the powder bed is then lowered and the process is repeated to until an object is formed. To gain strength the object is left in the powder. After the object is cured the powder is then removed using compressed air. The type of 3D printing technique that uses this method is BJ. The main advantage of this method is that it is low cost and can build functional effectively. It also allows the printing of coloured prototypes. The disadvantage of this method is that it is that its mechanical properties are not as good as compared to the powder bed fusion method (Lv and Liu, 2019).

3.6. Direct energy deposition

It is a 3D printing process in which parts are created with the help of melted powder material. The process of direct energy deposition is explained with the help of figure below:

Figure SEQ Figure \* ARABIC 6 Parts of printer used in direct energy deposition (Lboro.ac.uk, 2019).

In this method, materials are fused using thermal energy. The thermal energy facilitates in melting a material while they are deposited in the form of powder or wire on a build platform. This method is also known to utilize the robotic welding process that helps in high rate deposition however the resolution is typically very low. This technique can be considered as a mixture of both material extrusion technique and powder bed fusion technique. A DED printing machine consists of a nozzle head that helps in depositing material in multiple directions. This is because the nozzle head can move around a fixed object. After the deposition of the first layer, the nozzle head moves upward and start preparing to deposit another layer of the material until an object is formed. Generally, DED systems use plasma and laser beam to melt the material that is used to construct an object. The main advantage of this technique is that it helps in repairing and improving the preexisting parts. This technique is widely used in the medical fields. The types of 3D printing techniques that use this method are DLF, DLD, DMD and EBDM (Gibson and Stucker, 2015).

3.7. Other processes

The above-mentioned processes are the most common processes that are used in 3D printing. However, there still exists some other processes as well that are also used in 3D printing. Liquid additive manufacturing is another method that is used in the process of 3D printing. In this process, a liquid or a viscous material such as liquid silicon is deposited on a build platform to create an object. The liquid material is then solidified by utilizing heat. Another process used in 3D printing is lamination. It is the most commonly used low-cost 3D printing process. The paper is used as a building material (Chia and Wu, 2015). The ultrasonic consolidation is also a 3D printing technique that is a printing technique for metals.

Chapter 4

3D printing Techniques

3D printing can be done by utilizing various techniques. Some of the widely used techniques are listed below:

4.1. SLA

Stereolithography is the world’s first and the most widely used 3D printing technology that was invented in 1986 by Chuck Hull. This type of 3D printing utilizes the Vat polymerization method. The machine that uses this technique is known as a stereolithograph apparatus (SLA). Generally, all the 3D printing techniques follow the same printing process yet the difference occurs in the type of material and methods that are being used to construct an object. Likewise every other 3D printing types, SLA also requires a computer-aided design file that contains all the necessary information regarding object orientation and measurements. The CAD file is then converted to STL and then it is sent to the computer that is linked with the printer. Typically, printers eject some amount of ink to the surface however, SLA requires liquid plastic that after some time solidifies to form an object. The object that is built by using 3D printing techniques have smooth surface yet the quality of the object depends upon the quality of the SLA machine that is being used.

SL can be described as a laser-based process that works with photopolymer resins. The photopolymer resins react with a laser to form multiple layers on the build plate. After the layering depositions, the layers are cured to form a solid object. The resulted object is precise and sophisticated. SLA utilizes a build platform that is immersed in a translucent tank that is packed with liquid photopolymer resin. After the immersion of a platform, a laser that is located inside the SLA machine maps a layer of a digital model through the bottom of a tank to solidify the material. After solidifying the first layer the platform is lifted and start preparing for a new layer of resin that will flow beneath the first layer. The process is repeated several times until all the layers are deposited, forming a complete object. After the construction of the object, an object is then cured with the exposure of UV light. This will help in refining the mechanical properties of the object (Griffey, 2014).

4.1.1. SLA machine parameters

SLA machines have fixed parameters that are designed by the manufacturer. These parameters cannot be changed. Typically, the layer height used in SLA is 25-100 microns. The build size, however, depends upon the SLA machine that is being used. SLA machine setups can be categorized into two setups. The first one is a top-down setup in which the laser is placed above the tank due to which parts are built in the upward direction. The main advantage of this setup is that it has faster build time and provides with large build size. The disadvantage of this setup is that it is expensive and require a professional operator. The second setup is a bottom-up setup in which the laser is placed under the translucent laser tank. After the deposition of every layer, the resin is cured and is removed from the bottom of the tank. The main advantage of this setup is that it is not expensive and is available widely while the disadvantages include small build size and need for extensive support.

Support structure

The objects build by utilizing SLA require support due to which the support structure is built with the parts. After the construction is complete the support is manually removed. The support structure is different for top-down and bottom-up SLA printers. In top-down SLA printers, it is necessary to print accurately the overhangs. However, the orientation of the parts can vary and the objects are printed flat that help in minimizing the need for support. In bottom-up SLA printers’ overhangs need full support (Griffey, 2014).

4.2. FDM

(FDM) fused deposition modelling is a type of 3D orienting technology was developed in 1980 by Scott Crump. It is a technique that utilizes the extrusion of thermoplastic material. It is also known as fused filament fabrication (FFF). The FDM process is also similar to the SL. Firstly a design of an object is made by using CAD. Then the design is cut into several layers by using special software. This helps in calculating the way through which a printer extruder will build each layer. In this technique, the pats are built using strings of a thermoplastic material. This material comes in the form of filaments. The filament is melted when it is passed through the heated nozzle. The printer then continuously moves around to deposit the material at a precise location following the digital design. After the deposition of the material is completed the material is then left to cool. After cooling the material solidifies forming a complete physical object. FDM facilitates in printing not only the functional prototypes but also the final end-users’ products. It is the only 3D printing technology that can build parts with production-grade thermoplastics. The objects that are printed using this technique possess excellent mechanical and thermal qualities. The main advantage of FDM is that it uses thermoplastic material for construction that is widely available and can be used for both industrial purposes and commercial purposes. The disadvantage of FDM is that the printed objects have the lowest dimensional accuracy. Additionally, the printed objects have visible layers’ line and therefore requires post-processing to achieve a smooth finish (Kun, 2016).

4.2.1. FDM printer parameters

Unlike SLA printers FDM printers allow the changes in parameters. It not only allows to change the temperature of the nozzle but the height of the layers can be changed as well. The speed of a cooling fan and build form can also be adjusted. Typically, the build size is 200 x 200 x 200 x mm for the desktop 3D printer while the build size of the FDM printer used for industrial purposes can be up to 1000 x 1000 x 1000 mm. The height of the layer that is mostly used ranges from 50-400 microns. However, smoother geometric parts can be created by using reducing the height of the layers. For industrial purposes, the larger height layers are used as it facilitates in printing the pats faster thus reducing the overall cost of the process.

4.2.2. Warping

FDM technique faces a major issue that is called warping. This defect occurs because the thermoplastic material when cooled results in decreased dimensions. The reason for the decrease in dimension is because while depositing the layers, each layer cools at different rates. Although, warping can be prevented by closely monitoring the temperature and increasing adhesion between the build platform and printed parts. It is therefore recommended to avoid the large flat area while designing a model to prevent warping. Also, adding fillets to the sharp corners also help in avoiding warping.

4.2.3. Support structure

The objects that are printed using the FDM technique requires support especially for the applications that use overhanging geometry. This is because melted thermoplastic used for the construction in the FDM technique cannot be deposited on thin air and therefore requires support. It is recommended to design a model that requires less support. To provide support a water-soluble material is used that can easily be washed once the objected is printed completely. On the other hand, if a breakaway material is used for support then it can easily be removed manually. The water-soluble material is typically used by industries only as it is very costly (Guo and Leu, 2013).

4.3. SLS

Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) is a 3D printing type in which an object is created by using a polymer powder and the powder bed fusion technology. In this technique, a laser is used as a power source. This technique was invented the 1980s by Carl Deckard and Joe Beaman. This technique is different from SLA as instead of using liquid resin it uses powdered material to build an object. Like all the process mentioned above, this process also starts by designing a model using CAD. The file created in the CAD is converted to STL format and then transferred to the computer that is linked with the printer. In this technique, a thermoplastic material is heated and then a wiper blade deposits the powder in a thin layer on the build plate. Only one layer is deposited at a time. After the deposition of the first layer on the build plate, the cross-section of the part is then sintered by a laser. This help in solidifying a material. The process is repeated until all the layers are deposited. The powder that is not sintered during the process helps in providing support to the printed object. The main advantage of this technique is that it does not require a support structure. This is because when an object is printed it is surrounded by un-sintered powder. This un-sintered powder is removed after the process is completed. SLS can be used to manufacture functional parts that are complex in design. The making of complex functional parts requires a lot of time, therefore, SLS require longer lead time. Also, it is very expensive as compared to the FDM technique.

This technique is commonly used by the manufacturers because it requires high-powered lasers due to which the cost of the printer is very high. However, to make this printing technique more accessible to the masses researchers are trying to make low cost SLS printing machines by using a material that is cheaper than thermoplastic material used for industrial purposes (Kruth and Rombouts, 2005).

SLS printer parameters

In SLS printers all the parameters are already predefined. The default height of the layer is 100-200 microns. As this technique does not require support, it can be used to make freeform geometries that are nearly impossible to create by using any other type of 3D printing techniques. Another point that should be taken into consideration is that the height of a bin used in the printer is predetermined. The time required to print a part depends upon the height of a bin, not on the number of parts that a bin contains. This is because the total processing time depends upon re-coating steps. Thus, the packaging of bin affects the time required to complete small orders.

Warping, Shrinking and Over-sintering

While printing an object using the SLS technique, high temperature is required to melt the material used for manufacturing an object. After the layers are deposited they are let to cool for some time. During this time layers’ experience warping and shrinking. To prevent shrinking the dimensions are increased by 3-3.5% before printing. The increase in the dimensions before printing does not affect the design of the object. To prevent warping ribs are added to increase the stiffness of the objects. On the other hand, over-sintering occurs when the un-sintered powder is fused around the features of the object. This can affect the detailing of the small features of an object. Over-sintering is dependent on the wall thickness and size of a feature being printed. It is therefore recommended to select the thickness and size precisely so that the end product can be without any imperfections (Kruth and Rombouts, 2005).


Selective laser melting is a 3D printing technique that made its first appearance in 1995. This technique is also known as direct metal laser sintering (DMLS). In this technique, a digital model is converted into a physical object by using a high-power laser beam. The laser beam melts and fuses metallic powder. Like many other techniques mentioned above, this technique also follows similar steps. First, a design is made using CAD which is then converted to STL file format. The file is then sent to the computer that is attached to the printer. The fine metal powder is distributed evenly on the plate after which the digital model is fused by applying high power laser. As soon as the laser beam hits the powder it joins the particles of the material together. After depositing the first layer the process is repeated until the object is completed. After the completion of the process, the excess and unused powder are removed manually. The metals that can be used for SLM are stainless steel, aluminium and titanium. SLM is often considered as a category of SLS however they both are different techniques. This is because in SLM the powder is melted completely while in SLS the powdered material is melted partly. SLM is used for making complex geometric objects. Specifically, the aerospace industry uses this technique in their projects. As this technique is costly it is not popular among the masses however it is widely used in not an only aerospace industry but also medical orthopedics industry (Yadroitsev and Smurov, 2007).

4.4.1. Printer parameters

The printing parameters in SLM are predefined by the manufacturers. Typically, the height of the layer in SLM is 20-50 microns while the build size is 250 x 150 x 150. The main advantage of this technique is that the material used is recyclable with less than 5% is wasted. The waste is due to the material used for a support structure

4.5. DLP

The direct light processing (DLP) is a type of 3D printing technique that was created by Larry Hornbeck in 1987. The technique is very identical to SLA. This is because DLP also works with photopolymers. However, both the techniques are different because both use a different source of light. DLP utilizes light projectors screens that help in flashing a single image of each layer at once. Each layer image is made up of square pixels that result in a layer that is formed from rectangular bricks known as voxels. DLP technique uses a conventional light source, for instance, DMD or crystal display panels. The light source is then applied to the surface of the building material. DLP uses liquid plastic resin as a building material. This material is placed in a translucent container. After the light source is applied to the material it solidifies quickly. DLP printing technique is typically faster than SLA printing. This is because in the DLP technique the entire layer is exposed at once. DLP printing provides excellent resolution and is robust. Additionally, DLP requires less material to construct an object as compared to SLA printing. Due to the usage of less material, DLP is less expensive than SL. DLP also produces highly precise parts with excellent resolution (Olmos, 2017).

4.5.1. DLP projection system

Colours in DLP can be projecting by using two primary methods that are single-chip projectors and three-chip projectors. The single-chip projectors produce colours by placing a colour wheel in between the DLP chip and white lamps. The colour wheel contains multiple sections. The first section contains primary colours while the other contains white colour. Another method through which single-chip projectors produced colours is by using an individual light source. This light source helps in producing primary colours. To display any colour the synchronization of the DLP chip and colour wheel is necessary. The DLP projectors also have the ability to produce a rainbow effect. For this purpose the need a mechanical spinning colour wheel is required. On the other hand, the three-chip projectors utilize prism to split light. After splitting each colour is routed to DMD chip. Generally, three-chip projectors are widely used in higher-end home theatres and digital movie theatres.

4.5.2. Continuous DLP

Continuous DLP is also known as CLIP that is an acronym of continuous liquid interface production. It is similar to DLP yet the only variation is that in CLIP the build plate is continuously in motion. This helps in faster build time because in this process there is no need to stop the printer for separating the parts from the build plate (Mu and Wang, 2017).

4.6. LOM

Laminated object manufacturing (LOM) is a type of 3D printing that was developed by Helisys. Inc. This technique is considered as an affordable technique of 3D printing. Like every other 3D printing technique this technique also uses the same steps. First, a CAD file is designed which is then converted to STL file format. The STL file is then sent to a computer that is connected with the printer. After connected to a printer the layers of plastic or paper are fused by heat and pressure to build an object. After the fusion of the material, the layer is cut using a computer-controlled laser to get the desired design. After one layer is deposited the platform moves down to prepare for another layer. Excess material is also removed using the sharp laser. This will help in easy removal of the object once it is completed. The process is repeated again and again until the object is completely built. However, if in spite of plastic, the material used for building an object is paper then the object needs to be protected from moisture. Due to this reason, the object is covered in paint or lacquer. As this technique use paper and plastic as a raw material to form an object it is less expensive as compared to other 3D printing techniques. This is because plastic and paper are widely used and are easily available. This process is not so popular today as 3D printing has improved a lot as many other techniques are available that facilitate in providing extremely complex geometric objects. Despite, not being used today this technique is still the fastest 3D printing technique. Large objects can be built by using this technique. As this technique is low-cost many architects and artist use this technique to build objects of their choice. The disadvantage of this technique is that when a paper material is used to build an object the accuracy and stability of the end product is not good. Also, the object lacks stability (Xia and Sanjayan, 2016).

4.7. Photopolymer phase change Inkjets

Photopolymer phase change inkjets is a type of 3D printing technology in which objects are created by the deposition of several layers using the inkjet head. This technique was developed in 2000 by a company named Object-Geometrics and named this technique as Polyjet. Later the right of this printing technique was taken by Stratasys in 2011 with the same name. Polyjet printing is similar to the material jetting process. A Polyjet printer comprises of a material container, jetting print heads, and a build platform. To start the process first a container is filled with photopolymer material. After this, the material is heated. The heating of material facilitates in attaining the desired viscosity. The print heads then jet the resin across a build platform in a form of droplets. After the droplets are jetted they are exposed to the UV light that helps in curing the droplets and converting them into a solid object. The process is repeated over and over again until an object is fully constructed. After the object is fully constructed material is removed from the building plate. The removal of a material can be done by using hands or by water (Udroiu and Braga, 2017).

Due to the presence of multiple print heads, different materials can be printed at once. Thus, making this technique the only technique that can support multiple building materials. Also, the support material is built along with the object so there is no need for extra support. Ever Polyjet printed excellent precision along with smooth surface and fine detailing on the object. This technology is considered as the most powerful 3D technique as complex geometric shapes can be achieved by using this technique. It also incorporates a variety of colours and materials. Recently, bio-resins are being used as a construction material. Another feature of this technique is that it can stimulate plastic and rubber material to human tissues.

4.8. Plaster based 3D printing

Plaster based 3D printing is a type of printing technique in which plaster is used as a building material. Even the SLS printer also used plaster as a building material. Z printer is a company that held the patent of this technique. However, several open-source printer models are available online as well. To attain full-colour 3D models this technique is often combined with inkjet technology. The mixture of water and dry powder forms a paste known as plaster. To harden the plaster heat is applied due to which some amount of water is evaporated from the paste. At first, the plaster particles are spread over the build plate, then with the help of print adhesives, the particles are fused to form an object. After one layer is deposited the printer starts preparing for the next layer and the process continues until an object is fully formed. This technique does not require support while building an object as overhangs are typically supported by the powder. As this technique uses plaster so it requires post-processing as well. Another advantage of this technique is that it supports full-colour printing. The main disadvantage of this technique is that the object formed at the end is not smooth as the plaster is brittle naturally. This technique is used by artists. This type of printing is usually used for display purposes (Guo and Leu, 2013).

4.9. Other techniques

4.9.1. SDL

Selective deposition lamination (SLD) is a 3D printing technique that is similar to LOM. This technique uses paper as a building material. In this process layers of paper are glued together by utilizing a heated roller. The pressure is then applied to the glued papers to ensure a bond between the sheets of paper. After the layers are glued they are cut to the desired shape by a laser cutter. The process is repeated until the object is fully constructed. The build size is limited in SDL. As this technique uses paper, it is relatively low in cost and is popular among the masses. SDL technique can also be used to produce full-colour components. To produce full-colour, the SDL use CYMK colour palette. Additionally, no post-processing is required and the process is eco-friendly (Crawford, 2005).

4.9.2. EBM

Electronic beam melting is another type of 3D printing in which a high energy beam is utilized to induce fusion between the metal powder and particles. The difference between SLM and EBM is the power source utilized by both techniques. SLM uses a high power laser while EBM uses an electron beam. To start a printing process an electronic beam is focused upon a thin layer of powder. The beam scans the thin powder layer that causes the powder to melt. Generally, the process is conducted under a high-temperature environment. After the powder is melted it solidifies and the process is repeated again and again until the object is completed. EBM is faster than SLM due to higher energy density. This technique is widely used in the aerospace and medical industry. This technique can create fully-dense parts it can facilitate in building fully functional parts (Tan and Chua, 2014).

4.9.3. DOD

Drop on Demand (DOD) is also a 3D printing technology in which two inkjets are used. The purpose of using two inkjets is because one inkjet is used to deposit the built material while the other facilitates in dissolving support material. The build material is a wax-like material. Like every other 3D printing process DOD also follows the same steps. Metal is melted in a heated chamber of a print head to form a metal liquid. The liquid metal is then manipulated electromagnetically to form a droplet that is ejected with precision through a ceramic nozzle. In this technique, a material is deposited on the build platform to construct several components of an object. The printers that use DOD technique use a fly-cutter that scans the build area after the deposition of each layer to ensure a flat surface. DOD is considered as a variation of MJ 3D printing method (Dong and Morris, 2006).

Chapter 5

3D Printing Materials

Due to the increase in the use of 3D printing researchers are focusing more on incorporating as many materials as possible to print different kinds of objects. Some of the most common materials that are used in 3D printing are as follows:

5.1. Plastic

It is the most common material that is used in 3D printing. This material is used widely and is not limited to industrial use only. It is firm, strong and provides several color options that make it an ideal printing material. A variety of products such as household fixtures, utensils, and toys, etc can be printed using this material. It has the ability to combine with powdered aluminum to produce material for sintering known as alumide. Typically, FDM printers use plastic as the build material (Ngo, 2018). The table below contains types are that are widely used in 3D printing.

Table SEQ Table \* ARABIC 1 Types of plastics used in 3D printing (Ngo, 2018)







Easy to print and is eco-friendly

Texture is not smooth



Non-toxic and is very strong

Very high melting point



Water soluble

Expensive and is toxic



Less expensive and strong

Require extremely high temperature



Food safe and is transparent

Requires lot of time to print



Easy to dissolve

Require high temperature


Metal filament

Metal like finish

Very expensive


Wood filament

Similar to wood

Very expensive


Conductive filament

Excellent conductor



Carbon fiber mix

Lightweight and is similar to carbon in texture


5.2. Metals

It is the second most common printing material in the 3D printing industry. It is used by the DMLS printers. Aluminum and cobalt are the most common metals that are used in the process of 3D printing. However, titanium is another metal that is supplied in the form of powder is also used as the 3D printing build material. Metal can be used to make jewellery, components of air-travel equipment and many more. As the objects that are printed by using metal as a building material are strong it is widely used in industries. Metal is used in the form of dust which is then fired to achieve the desired hardness. After the printing of an object is completed, the object needs to be electro-polished before it is released to the market (Lee and Chua, 2017). The types of metals that are most commonly used in 3D printing are as follows:

5.3. Stainless- Steel

It is ideal for printing several households’ items such as cookware and utensils, etc.


It is used in making jewellery that includes bracelets, necklaces, etc. It is also an expensive metal.


It is cheap metal and used to print object-like vases and fixtures.


Highly recommended for making thin objects.


It is the most preferred metal for 3D printing as it is very strong. It is used for industrial purposes.

5.3. Ceramics

Ceramics are not as popular as plastic and metal yet they are still used in 3D printing. However, objects made from ceramics using 3D printers also have to go through the same process that is glazing and firming as the ceramics do in traditional methods (Stansbury and Idacavage, 2016).

5.4. Paper

It is the most cost-effective material that is used in 3D printing. Mcot. technologies who use the SDL technique for 3D printing required. Designs printed using paper helps a lot in illustrating what a realistic prototype of any component will look like. This material is environmentally safe as it is recyclable. Additionally, objects printed using paper as build material do not require post-processing (Chia and Wu, 2015).

5.5. Powders

Powdered materials are used widely in 3D printing. The powder is melted and deposited layer by layer on the build plate evenly. After the deposition of layers, the material is left to cool down after which it solidifies creating an object (Lee and Chua, 2017). The powder can come from several sources yet the most common sources of powder used in 3D printing are as follows:


A mixture of polyamide and grey aluminium is used in 3D printing. The objects that are made from this powder are very strong. Several industrial prototypes are created by using this powder mixture.


It is also known as nylon. Polyamide is typically very flexible yet strong due to which they are used to make detailed and complex 3D printed objects. Polyamide powder is used for joining pieces in 3D printed models.

5.6. Resin

Resins are also used as 3D printing material yet the use is very limited. The material offers limited strength and flexibility. Resins are made up of liquid polymer and the object printed using this material are cured by UV light exposure. Usually, resins are found in black and white colours yet so of them also provide red and orange shades of colour as well (Xia and Sanjayan, 2016). The types of resin material used in 3D printing are as follows:

High-detailed resins

This type of resin is used to print small objects that require sophisticated details.

Paintable resins

This material helps in providing smooth-surface 3D prints. Specifically, figurines that require precise facial details also used this type of material.

Transparent resin

It is the strongest resin as compared to high-detailed and paintable resin. It is used to print models that require transparent appearance and smooth surfaces.

5.7. Carbon fibre

Carbon fibre is a type of material that is used for top-coating plastic material. It helps in making plastic stronger. It is also considered as an alternative to metal material that is used in 3D printing (Van et al., 2016).

5.8. Biomaterial

Since the awareness regarding environmental issues, people are more concern regarding the material used in 3D printing. For this reason, researchers are working on making biomaterial that is eco-friendly. Specifically, in medical application, the need for biomaterial for 3D printing is very necessary. Therefore, researchers are considering to make material that does not produce toxins during the manufacturing process that may harm the environment (Ventola, 2014).

Chapter 6

6.1. Introduction

The popularity of 3D printing leads to the advancement of this technology significantly. Researchers are not only focused on improving this technology but to use a variety of materials for printing an object. Recently, 3D printing has made its way to even the construction industry as well. Construction 3D printing is a type of 3D printing in which components used in the construction industry are built. Specifically, discussing the construction scale, 3D printing has various methods. These methods are 3D printing concrete, 3D printing wax and additive welding (Buswell and Dirrenberger, 2018). This chapter will focus on 3D printing concrete along with a brief history, methods, advantages and disadvantages. Also, potential improvements in the 3D printing concrete will be discussed that will facilitate in mitigating issues associated with this type of printing.

6.2. 3D printing concrete

Since the invention 3D printing has seen several revolutions in the context of the material being used for creating an object. Specifically, the use of concrete as a building material is emerging these days. 3D printing presents itself as a promising tool that facilities in the construction industry. Building an object using concrete is expensive and time-consuming however researchers are focused on to develop tools that may facilitate in making an object with concrete much faster and cheaper (Bos and Salet, 2016). Additive manufacturing is a technique that is used by 3D printers when using concrete as a building material. The figure below shows some design that are printed by 3D printer using concrete as a build material.

Figure SEQ Figure \* ARABIC 7 Design that are printed by 3D printer using concrete as a build material (Bos and Salet, 2016).

6.3. History

To facilitate building process tests regarding automated construction were made quite early. In the early 1960s, an automated machine was developed that uses pumped concrete. In 1995 two techniques were developed one which utilizes sand as a building material while the other was contour crafting (Bogue, R., 2013). The First method was invented by Joseph Pegna. In his proposed method sand or cement use steam to join the layers of material to form a solid object. However, this technique was never validated. The second method that is contour crafting was developed by Behrohk in which cranes that are controlled by computers to construct objects rapidly and efficiently. After several years, in 2000 many new construction techniques were developed due to which there was a need to incorporate concrete as a building material with these new techniques. In 2003 Rupert store planned to build a 3D printer that uses concrete as a building material. After several attempts, in 2008 3D concrete printer was developed and started printing at Loughborough University. Since then many companies have built 3D printers that require concrete/cement as a building material to build components that are used in the construction industry (Wohlers and Gornet, 2014).

6.4. Working mechanism

Concrete 3D printers working mechanism to the FDM printers. As both the printers are controlled by g-code which is a machine language used for directing print head. Concrete 3D printers also use the x, y, z-axis. To start a process a block of concrete is mixed with water to form a paste. This paste is then pumped to the hose which is connected to a printer head. At the nozzle, the pressure will be applied to the concrete mixture by the pump that pushes the mixture towards the printer head. The printer head is connected to the nozzle from which the filaments of concrete leave the printer. It is recommended to adjust the nozzle size appropriately as the diameter of a nozzle depends upon the flow-ability of the concrete mixture. As if a diameter of a nozzle is increased the flow-ability of a mixture should be decreased to get the desired object (Tay and Leong, 2017). Typically, 3 D printer concrete requires continuous monitoring and control of the material during the printing to attain the desired object. This is because in concrete 3D printing lacks a support framework and therefore concrete that is used traditionally in making buildings cannot be used directly. Due to lack of support, there is a high chance of deformation in the layers that were deposited by the printer while printing. It is therefore recommended to use low viscosity concrete as this will provide ease of pumping material to the print head. Also, while using low viscosity concrete it is important to use chemical accelerator at the nozzle. This will ensure a quick setting of the material once it is printed upon a building surface. Another important feature of 3D printing concrete is that it provides a small resolution to attain 3D freedom that facilitates in controlling complex internal and external geometries (Kreiger, and M.P, 2015).

6.5. 3D printing concrete advantages

3D printing is considered economical as less material is used to build an object rather than traditional manufacturing processes. While discussing the overall manufacturing process the cost of a machine is an important factor to consider. Generally, machine cost plays a very small part of the total cost of the construction process. It is difficult to create parts in the industrial environment with high precision because a lot of energy is required to create a design. However, there is a freedom of creating a complex and intriguing design that can be developed in less time (Rael and San Fratello, 2011). Thus, the total cost of a machine is counterbalanced by the savings made during the construction process. Another advantage of this technique is that it helps in reducing labour cost. In traditional construction process many people are required to operate machines to build a single part but in 3D printer require only one operator. Additionally, material cost is also reduced in 3D printing concrete rather than the traditional manufacturing process.

One major advantage of 3D printing concrete is that less time is required to build an object as compared to the traditional methods. Typically, after constructing a component by traditional method requires days until the concrete solidifies and sets completely. However, in 3D printing, an object or part can be created in very less time. Also, 3D printed structures are strong that can be helpful to combat any disastrous situation.

It is not new that while providing instructions regarding the design of an object a miscommunication can occur. Due to which the completed object can be completely different from what it was expected to look like. As 3D printing can create an object timely the chances of error are reduced. Also, alterations can be made during the manufacturing process. Additionally, a fully customized design can be created by using 3D printing concrete (Mpofu and Mukosera, 2014).

3D printing concrete is considered as a solution to the housing crisis. Many construction companies are now considering to use 3D printing concrete to create homes and other buildings. A company named WASP, which is an Italian company has now developed a 3D printer large enough to build a home. Not only homes 3D printing concrete is used in the construction of bridges. Another advantage of 3D printing concrete is that it can be used to make sophisticated architectural designs. Recently, NASA has launched a program named as printed habitat challenge in which using 3D printing concrete homes are built in space so that people in future can explore space.

6.6. Challenges associated with 3D printing concrete

Despite having several advantages 3D printing concrete face several challenges as well. The first and foremost challenge is the maintenance of the printer. To operate a printer that uses concrete as a building material an operator is required that possess a special set of skills. However, a construction labour shortage is already an issue that many construction companies are facing. So, it is a great challenge to find an operator for a printer. Another challenge that is faced by 3D printing concrete technique is quality. While printing it is necessary to take all the precautions to avoid any errors but if not monitored properly the result can be a very expensive mess (Oropallo and Piegl, 2016).

Specifically, discussing building houses, a house consists of many parts. These parts are a foundation, walls, ceiling, etc. A 3D printer concrete is not able to build a house entirely rather it can print walls only. To start a construction process, large printers begin printing individual parts of a building. These parts are then assembled. However, to construct walls a large printer is required. So, if a construction company wants to use a 3D printer that uses concrete as a building material they have to place a printer at a construction site which is not possible. It is extremely difficult to transport a printer to a construction site and operate it. As mentioned in the earlier chapters that to initiate the 3D printing process there is a need to design a model in the CAD. To build a house it is necessary to consider both internal and external factors that might impact a construction process. So to design a precise and sophisticated that incorporate all needs it is necessary to hire an expert that knows all the software specifications which is another challenge. Despite knowing the software specifications a designer can't incorporate all the external factors. This makes design vulnerable. Also, in the traditional construction process before processing, the workers measure the resistance and other external factors. While using, 3D printing concrete to construct a building it is not possible to take into account the external factors as it requires testing. Thus, testing the material resistance and then constructing a building is very costly.

Another issue that is faced during the construction of a building arises is the horizontal structure of floor slabs and ceiling. While creating horizontal structure support is necessary. Typically, printing horizontal slabs using plastic can resolve the issue as plastic support can be removed easily. However, while using concrete as a building material support will also be made up of concrete and removing concrete after the building process is complete is nearly impossible. Moreover, wet concrete solidifies after some time and therefore while printing details of components or parts the solidification of concrete results in wastage of building material (Ionita et al., 2014).

6.7. Recommendations and Solutions

Some recommendations may help in overcoming the challenges that 3D printing concrete is facing. Most of the people have concerns regarding the stability of a printed wall or other building components. To address this concern it is necessary that before extrusion the consistency of the concrete paste must be considered. A concrete paste that can be pumped easily to the print head will remain stable after it solidifies. Wet concrete is key to an excellent print. When concrete is mixed with water it loses its workability which is another major challenge that construction companies face while printing. So, to overcome this challenge, water-reducing admixtures can be added so that the concrete workability is maintained for a long time. Another challenge that was highlighted in the previous section was deformations of the printed object. Generally, when weight is put on a wet concrete it tends to slump. However, this issue can be resolved by adding a no-slump concrete mix that will facilitate wet concrete to withstand the weight. Filament cracking is another challenge that is faced while constructing an object. This challenge can be resolved by monitoring the nozzle speed. If the movement around the corners is increased then there is less chance of filament cracking (Thomas and Claypole, 2016).

While constructing parts of a building there is a need for a digital design that can be made with CAD. If not a professional person is hired to design a model, then a design can be turned into a disaster. However, several online software is present that can help in creating a design so this issue can be resolved by utilizing the research conducted on the design of an object. Thus, the design accuracy of the printer can be improved if the abovementioned recommendations are followed.

Chapter 7

7.1. Conclusion and future work

Technology has become an indispensable part of our lives. People regardless of their age rely more upon technology. 3D printing is an innovative technology that enables people with the freedom of designing highly sophisticated and intriguing design objects. Due to the wider accessibility of 3D printing technology the exponential adoption rate of this technology is increasing remarkably. Owing to the advancements in the technology 3D printing has a major impact on the manufacturing world as well. Especially, many medical devices are constructed using this technology. Additionally, 3D printing has also paved its way in the construction field as well because of the utilization of build materials like concrete and cement. Despite immense benefits, there are some issues associated with this technology that cannot be neglected. Many researchers are trying to improve 3D printing to make it more environment-friendly by using biomaterial rather than toxic materials and increase its scalability. Thus, it is without any doubt that in coming years’ 3D technology will evolve more and people will be able to get benefits from this technology.


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Subject: Education

Pages: 40 Words: 12000

4 & 5 Questions

4 and 5 questions

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Questions 4 And 5

Answer 4

OSHA refers to the federal and occupational safety as well as health administration, an agency of the United States Department of Labor. This administration was created to ensure that men and women are given a safe working environment. There are different approaches that are used for the prevention of hazards in the workplace such as traditional approaches that include, development of the guidelines that are specific to the nursing home industry, refusal of necessary steps by the employees for their safety and establishing an outline to ensure that the employees are aware the issues and employees are taught to treat them. One of the best approaches to address issues is, the use of a proactive measures that can be used because traditional approaches can be reactive and very seldom reduce risk in many of the scenarios. This approach involves making employees trained to problem-solving, using SMART goals and teaching employees to be consistent with decision making in adherence to training and workshops.

Answer 5

OSHA has changed the requirements for fall protection on the roofing projects and new systems are introduced such as using a Personal Fall Arrest System, using a Fall Restraint System and, use of a Guardrail System. Among all the techniques, Personal Fall Arrest System is one of the most effective techniques because it keeps the human body safe from any sudden situation and it is best to address the roofing problems such as placement of the ladder, weather conditions, any kind of holes in the roof, poor line of sight as well as split over roofing. These issues are very common and can easily be addressed by using Personal Fall Arrest technique because in almost all types of the above mentioned circumstances Personal Fall Arrest System is one of the best solutions for roofers to keep themselves safe. However, the only requirement for the technique is the training of the roofers, because without training the technique would not be able to serve its purpose.

Subject: Education

Pages: 1 Words: 300

4.3 Unit Assignment: Core Questions



Larry Williamson



Core Questions

The five models of George Hendry’s description: generation, fabrication, emanation, mind/body relationship, and play explain that there have been several models of creation. By generation he meant that God created the universe as a parent. Fabrication depicted God as a builder and emanation portrayed the overflow of His abundance. The mind/body relationship states the intimacy of God whereas the play represents the active nature of the Creator. The most accurate model according to me is generation, as it shows the merciful nature of God.

The Christian understanding of creation reveals that everything in the universe is created by the Almighty, who is all powerful and able to do anything He wants. He created the world as He wanted to share life and its joys with others. He, therefore, welcomes everyone in His creation.

God followed the concept of (creatio ex nihilo) as He created world out of nothing. The author Cross cited these verses 4:17, 11:13, 7:28 to highlight this phenomenon of creation out of nothing . He mentioned Roman scripture that stated the world was created by the word of God, whereas the in Hebrew it was mentioned that God is all powerful to do anything.

Swinburn used the word ‘create’ to reveal that God is the Father, who is the owner of all creation. He is in support of theism because he believes in the presence of God in this world, and that He is in total control of our lives.

The watchmaker analogy is the allegory that sates that nothing in this world exists without a creator. As the watch has some design and a designer, so this beautiful world has some designer and creator as well. Hence, it is none other than the God.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Cross, Terry. “God the Father Almighty, Maker of Heaven and Earth” (n.d.): 5.

Migliore, Daniel L. Faith Seeking Understanding: An Introduction to Christian Theology. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004.

BIBLIOGRAPHY Swinburne, Richard. European Journal of Philosophy of Religion 2 (2010): 1-24. <http://users.ox.ac.uk/~orie0087/pdf_files/Papers%20from%20Philosophical%20Journals/Swinburne_2010-simplest.pdf>.

Subject: Education

Pages: 1 Words: 300


Literature Review

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Fatin Amirah Ahmed Shukri, R. M. (2013). An overview of teh fleet maintenance and operating cost: Key components and methods. International journal of commerce,business and management.

CITATION Fat131 \l 1033 (Fatin Amirah Ahmed Shukri, 2013)The cost of operation comprises mainly of the defense vehicles maintenance. The study looked at the Malaysian military department. The management of the vehicles is supposed to be a long term complete cycle that has to be carefully managed. There exists a variety of statistical techniques used to analyze transport data. The study looked deeply into the factors directly affecting the operating costs of defense vehicles. The factors studied include the fuel, overhauling, wear and tear, tires and maintenance. This included a specific type of equipment only, the 3 ton 4x4. The authors emphasized all the aspects of costs should be considered while estimating the maintenance and operating cost of the fleet vehicles. The study gathered the past data and implemented the key characteristics to the present study. The authors developed two models, one of which shows the components of life cycle cost. The second model showed the regression analysis between the total maintenance and operating cost and the factors that affect these costs. The mechanistic model was used to analyze the data. The equipment life cycle is seen as a combination of four phases, concept, acquisition, service and disposal. All these phases have their own distinct strategies to be implemented. If this combination of phase and strategy is broken, this will affect the organization adversely. The maintenance costs can be controlled by controlling the truck related costs.

Tan, D. F. (2012). Review of vehicle operting costs and road roughness:past, current and future. Shaping the future: linking policy, research and outcomes. Perth: ARRB group ltd. Australia.

CITATION DrF12 \l 1033 (Tan, 2012) reviewed the implication of the roughness of road with respect to the cost of running the vehicles. Various studies in different countries have been examined by the authors to examine the various aspects of the issue. In this regard the studies in America and New Zealand have been observed. The mechanistic models are better than the regression models. The regression models were published before the availability of the International roughness index. The regression models are less robust as compared to the mechanistic models. Further there is a problem when the regression models are applied to some modern vehicles. NIMPAC and HDM III models have been used to analyze the data. The variable named vehicle operating cost has been operationalized in terms of fuel consumption cost. This variable is then further divided into sub variables like engine efficiency adjustment etc. The roughness is considered to be affecting the rolling resistance. The findings depicted that the road roughness has an impact on the operational cost of the vehicle. If the speed is not altered, certain studies have shown that the roughness and fuel consumption are positively correlated. The results are consistent across the countries.

Momcilovic, V. &. (2017). Influence of an integrated maintenance managementon the vehicle fleetenergy efficiency. Thermal Science. doi:10.2298/TSCI170209122V

CITATION Vuj17 \l 1033 (Momcilovic, 2017) Took the transportation process into account to better manage the maintenance of vehicles. Various requirements were defined in order to establish an operational plan. These are some of the requirements that the fleet will have to accomplish in a specified period of time. The process based maintenance system is used in the study. The maintenance measurement requires that all the variables are defined precisely with respect to the specified measures. There has to be a state of management defined so that we can refer to it when required. The fleet is constructed according to a construction- operation setup. The variables included were start time, reaching time, quantity of weight to be carried on. The next part is the making of integrated maintenance management conditions. In this regard, the number of transport machines, the number of vehicles that can be kept in not ready for operations with respect to time are defined. Next the variables are to be analyzed against the criteria set by the top management. The comparison of achieved and threshold values will give the managers insights into the situations. The results suggested that the company under consideration has become more efficient when considering the vehicle management. They analyzed the effects of road roughness on traffic speed and road safety. The roughness was analyzed in detail. Factors affecting road safety and speeds of vehicles were analyzed. Data were collected on crashes, crash rates and roughness of roads were calculated. Heavy vehicles were also considered while studying crash data. The profiling devices were used to ascertain the roughness of roads. The smooth travel exposure was used as a statistical measure for road roughness. The roughness data was collected with the help of road data asset request form. This data was compared against the given or laid standards. The roads were generally adhering to the given standards. The speed data was collected through the traffic analysis and reporting system. Various statistical methods are applied to this data to analyze it. A large range of information has been collected regarding the crash data. The conclusion was made that the road condition does have an impact on the speed and crash data. In all cases of various crashes, the road situation is directly proportional to the number of accidents happening. The study also shows that the speeds at which the drivers go are affected adversely by the road quality. The time delays caused by the adverse conditions of the roads are especially detrimental to the trucking industry. The integrated maintenance management is found to contribute in increasing the energy efficiency of the vehicles. The same kind of research can be implemented in some public organizations.

Zemourri, S. D. (2019, March 16). http://publications.lib.chalmers.se/records/fulltext/239190/239190.pdf. Retrieved from http://publications.lib.chalmers.se: http://publications.lib.chalmers.se/records/fulltext/239190/239190.pdf

CITATION Sel19 \l 1033 (Zemourri, 2019) analyzed the maintenance management process to analyze the value of vehicle maintenance activities. In this regard, the maintenance management is analyzed at first. The authors suggested that the department of maintenance should be added to the basic hierarchy of an organization. This department should work in coherence with all other departments in order to achieve the organizational goals effectively. The maintenance management comprises of two parts, namely the strategy formulation and the strategy implementation. The definition of strategy objectives comprises an important part for the making of strategy. The definition of the maintenance strategy has to be taken from the business plan directly. The service delivered to the customer is a criterion for the evaluation of implementation of strategy. Thus a properly defined maintenance strategy will save the organization many indirect expenses in the terms of customer dissatisfaction etc. The data analysis used the truck OEM model which comprises of either corrective or preventive maintenance measures. The preventive maintenance is used on the account of operations. This kind of maintenance can be prevented. The corrective maintenance is generally concerned with the repairs. The authors have used three times to study the data. The first stage studies the time taken by the vehicle for going to a place and coming back to the same point. The second part is the time taken by the vehicle to add some value to the chain. The last aspect is the overall value added by the whole process. There was considerable time wastage and the bulk of that was due to the tools positioning and revision of schedules. The writers suggest that the cost benefit analysis of all options should be carried out in order to ascertain the best alternative to manage maintenance. Estimated the costs associated with the vehicle maintenance, the author studied the support that has to be forwarded for maintenance to be applied successfully. The help is forwarded to the maintenance managers to ascertain, control and decrease the maintenance costs. Various elements of the cost have been studied. After considerable short listing, the authors selected 28 companies for which comprehensive data was collected.

The total costs were divided into operational, maintenance and general administration budgets. The costs were broken down into various elements like labor, repair etc. Finally the maintenance costs were distributed by functional areas like corrective maintenance etc.

The study found that the larger organizations keep full time employees for the maintenance department. All costs have to be stated clearly so that corrective actions are easier to manage. Information systems and technology also has an important part to play in this scenario. The study suggest that not all the components of the costs are easy to affect. Thus the maintenance managers should keep an eye on the cost components that are easier to influence. After choosing the cost components, the managers then should work out the appropriate tools available for the cost measurement and control. Larger fleet sizes were having more costs, both variable and fixed. The findings presented in the study are applicable all across the country. A manager can control certain factors affecting the discussed topic. Some differences in the other areas as compared to California. The overall percentage contribution to the total cost may not vary significantly. They further analyzed the concept used in various business models. The basic elements of any business model can be identified as technology, market offer and network design. Each element has been broken down into a number of sub elements. The theory and methods have been connected. Thus the developed set is used to ascertain the changes in the music industry for the last three centuries. The start, development and the final structure of the business model is shown over time. The business models are said to be powerful if they are able to make out some actions and also suggest how these actions are joined together. The connections between small level and large level factors have been established. The practical implications of these models are also considered. The study suggested that the business models should be used as a set of overlapping things. Thus various parts of business models should be brought together to form various viable options.

Deshmukh, G. &. (2006). Maintenance management: literature review and directions. Journal of Quality in maintenance engineering. doi:10.1108/13552510610685075

CITATION Gar06 \l 1033 (Deshmukh, 2006) reviewed the literature regarding the management of maintenance. The overall literature is divided into maintenance optimization models, ways to maintain, the time span of maintenance, how to measure the output regarding the maintenance, the information technology aspects of the maintenance, policies formed to look after the maintenance. The models can be numerical as well as non-numerical. The general model shows a technical system, its working and its necessity. If the system is not performing well enough then the reasons should be pointed out clearly. How can management act to the problem? The problem and solution should be balance to each other. Making the maintenance schedule is a difficult activity. The performance of the maintenance department should be measured as a feedback of performance.

Some problems existed in the application of numerical models and techniques. The models are least applicable to the industry. The innovation in IT has helped in publication of a large number of papers. The models are mere quantitative researches. So far no practical application has come up in the form of a case study. The person who is originally facing the problem should be included in the formation of the model. Thus there should be a combination of quantitative and qualitative work. They used the analytic network procedure and a fuzzy set theory to analyze the transportation in Saipa Tehran. Various factors have been considered and are broken into several sub factors. The problem is clearly defined in the first step. The factors are broken down into various sub factors and the management is asked to weight these elements according to their relative importance. A super matrix is formed out of the relationship matrix. The matrix is super weighted and these weights are divided by the number of column inputs. We opt for the best based on the weights obtained. The writers came up with the conclusion that security, cost, added value and feasibility are the main factors affecting the subject under consideration i.e. Saipa company in Tehran.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Deshmukh, G. &. (2006). Maintenance management: literature review and directions. Journal of Quality in maintenance engineering. doi:10.1108/13552510610685075

Fatin Amirah Ahmed Shukri, R. M. (2013). An overview of fleet maintenance and operating cost:Key components and Methods. International journal of Commerce, business and management, 2(6).

Momcilovic, V. &. (2017). Influence of an integrated maintenance managementon the vehicle fleetenergy efficiency. Thermal Science. doi:10.2298/TSCI170209122V

Tan, D. F. (2012). Review of vehicle operting costs and road roughness:past, current and future. Shaping the future: linking policy, research and outcomes. Perth: ARRB group ltd. Australia.

Zemourri, S. D. (2019, March 16). http://publications.lib.chalmers.se/records/fulltext/239190/239190.pdf. Retrieved from http://publications.lib.chalmers.se: http://publications.lib.chalmers.se/records/fulltext/239190/239190.pdf

Subject: Education

Pages: 7 Words: 2100

5.2 Threaded Discussion: Healing And Suffering

Terry Cross’ Views About Healing And The Problem of Suffering

Terry Cross explains that the world is cursed, where the believers are being saved. Atonement, both spiritually and physically, is the key to lift the curse under which the human race lives it life on this planet. Although the spiritual and physical aspects of a person’s life are so blended with each other that they cannot be dealt in separation but the physical realm of disease is less real than the spiritual realm of health. Therefore, a believer must confess God’s Words to heal if a disease invades his body. However, humans are given liberty in taking decisions. Thus, they will be judged on the basis of the decisions they make in this world.

Response No. 1 (Jashua Lyle)

I would like to respond to the last part of your argument that what if suffering is a disguised blessing. I totally agree to this notion. I am primary believer in the fact that humans, in this world, are lost souls who are wandering here to find peace. However, during they stay in the world, they forget the real purpose of their life. Therefore, God sends suffering upon them. In this way, they come out of the deep sleep, and begin working on their purpose again.

Response No. 2 (Robert Houston)

Yes, I totally agree with you on the point that if someone has not been healed it does not mean that God is not with him/her. God loves every individual because we are all His creatures. Therefore, it is not possible for a Creator to love one of His creations more than the other. However, every person comes to this world with a particular set of happiness and grieves, which s/he has to live through. Some of us have one thing more than the other. It does not mean that God loves us any less.

Subject: Education

Pages: 1 Words: 300

5.3 Unit Assignment: Core Questions

1. What is Boyd’s argument against Calvin’s anthropomorphism? Do you agree with Boyd’s assessment?

Anthropomorphism means depicting God in human terms. Boys argued that no part of the Scripture suggests the God changes His mind, is disappointed and surprised, etc. (Boyd et al., 2009). He further argued that no part of the text that we must depict all passages an anthropomorphic (Boyd et al., 2009). I think Boyd is right in his assessment because if the text must be taken in literal sense, i.e., God changes his mind, then it means that God will come to the earth from heaven as well.

2. Given your reading thus far, do you think God can “change his mind?” Why or why not?

God’s promises are unassailable and His purposes are unfailing. It means that God is dependable. We must maintain a strong trust in Him, because we believe that He will not, indeed cannot, change.

3. What is Chrysostom’s basic response to suffering that we experience as believers in this world?

Chrysostom provided the following three terms, i.e., chastisement, retribution, and suffering. He explained that a person could use a sort of spiritual algebra to calculate the pleasure to be rewarded or suffering to be exacted in the afterlife (Han et al., 2001).

4. How would John Calvin evaluate Chrysostom’s view of free will and God’s providence?

Calvin believed that an unbeliever is in total bondage of sin. It means that s/he has to sin willfully, i.e., without any coercion. Therefore, if s/he wants to liberate oneself from the bondage, s/he is totally dependent on God to do so.

5. Summarize the main points of Hall’s Chapter 8 “God Is Wise and Loving Providence.”

This chapter discusses human race. It elaborates the facts that God is a wise Creator and His providence is based on wisdom (Hall, 2009). It further explains that on this planet, the humans go through much turbulence and suffering (Hall, 2009). However, God uses such situations to influence the lives of the human race on earth with the purpose of bringing their attention back to their main purpose of life (Hall, 2009).


Boyd, G. A., Hunt, D., Craig, W. L., & Helm, P. (2009). Divine foreknowledge: Four views. InterVarsity Press.

Hall, C. A. (2009). Learning theology with the church fathers. InterVarsity Press.

Han, Y. C., Arrington, F. L., Cross, T. L., Dayton, D. W., Gause, R. H., Macchia, F., Simmons, W (2001). Transforming Powers: Dimensions of the Gospel. Pathway Press

Subject: Education

Pages: 1 Words: 300

60’s Sitcom Reflection Paper

1) Gender roles during that time as seen through the lens of society at that time.

In 1960s, women are often confined to roles stereotyped and reductive: seductive woman, woman object, submissive woman, mother woman (associated with softness, protection), woman as housewife and fragile.

In “I Dream of Jeannie”, “Bewitched” projected gender role as a sexual energy related to woman. The traditional gender roles impede personal development and the realization of existing potential. It was the impetus for the concept of women as a sexual power. However, in “Gilligan's Island” the gender role seems realistic according to society. The leading role of woman deals with traditional gender roles and “women's movement”. Gender discrimination, this term, born in the 1960s, was created by feminists, based on racism. Sexism is defined as a discriminatory attitude towards a person because of his (often female) sex. It denounces the representations and norms conveyed by society that serve to justify these discriminations and to legitimize the domination of men over women. The fundamental feminism of Bewitched exposed a “typical housewife” but in reality, she was more powerful than her spouse. Samantha used her witchcraft powers to do all sort of work and resolve issues even after the promise with her husband not to practice her witch powers. “Bewitched” is occasionally compared with other play named “I Dream of Jeannie”, in which a young, attractive lady with magic power. Both the sitcoms were based on super natural powers of woman that she applies but seems a good housewife and depends on her husband. All of the three sitcoms of 1960 show feminism clearly in one or other ways and it was portrayal of that era when these feminism movements were started.

2) Stereo-types (ethnic, racial, or social class) and how they are portrayed in the show (or not portrayed)

The miscellany of gender roles in diverse cultures and in unlike eras appears in favor of the thesis regarding that gender roles are shaped by culture. It is distinguished that the customary system of distinction of sex roles and associated stereotypes of femininity-masculinity was considered as for example: female and male actions and individual potentials varied very abruptly and appeared polar; these alterations were sacred by religion or by nature reference and appeared eternal; female and male roles were not just complementary, but also ordered, women were assigned a dependent, subordinate role. “I Dream of Jeannie”, and Gilligan's Island all portrayed social class and race. Moreover, the fact that the feminine or masculine gender is very sparse in these cases is indicative of these specific sexual roles. Someone’s gender identity will be associated with age identity, someone’s perception of their body, their appearance, sexuality; for some, gender identity implies certain personality traits, for example, the concept of a real man. It does not exist as a general characteristic.

3) Cite specific evidence from the shows that we watched.

Like in Bewitched, a native boy weds a witch and the power of feminine (in form of witch is clear). In a Halloween episode Samantha tries to force her husband to a witch so he looks more modern. This is something stereotype behavior projected in this series. The storyline revolved around stereotypes attitude and representations of minorities those were never portrayed at Tv in this manner. As in first episode of, “I Dream of Jeannie”, male hero as astronaut and woman as a good house wife and submissive. Like when Tony arrives home he found her finance wearing his husband’s shirt while after taking shower and she gets upset because it was not allowed to women to wear husband’s cloth. Examples of gender stereotypes in these shows are; "Girls who wear short skirts are easy girls", "Boys have more sexual needs than girls" o "A boy, do not cry!"

Subject: Education

Pages: 2 Words: 600

7 NYT Newshour Responses

7 NYT Newshour Responses

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

7 NYT Newshour Responses

Microsoft’s Bing Back Online in China After Apparent Blockage (Jan. 24, 2019)

The current article was based on the blockage of the bing in China last week. The interesting part of the article is that tends to provide information that unlike other countries, China has isolated its internet network, but still, as compared to the other internet browsers “Bing" has attempted to survive n China. However, it is always monitored, as the blockage of this engine points out that there might be any information that the country’s government might consider inappropriate. Thus, I agree the stance Microsoft president provided in the article.

The Trouble With Autism in Novels (February 4, 2019)

The article is based on fiction as the title of the article represents. This article is interesting in the way of providing a scenario or plot on a particular disease or disorder and the impacts of the fictions regarding that illness. As the author leads the arguments with the example of her child and emphasizes on the literature and its presentation of the psychological disease named as Autism. Moreover, the arguments that the author provided regarding fantasizing the symptoms of the illness through novels and stories are quite true, considering the already existing examples.

Italian Alpine Spas, Where Sports Are an Afterthought (February 4, 2019)

This article highlights an attempt of the Italian Alpines Spas, for introducing and creating Spas that makes people have a space and time for spending their holidays while being in hot tubs and observing the views as well as enjoying their time with more comfort. The most exciting aspect of this article is that it points at a new holiday goal for travel lovers. Also, it introduces that there are also other ways to travel lovers to try than sports. However, to some extent, I do not agree with the author as this activity is amazing but still, sports are better than to keep soak in a hot water tub. But still, it can be tried for a new venture.

Get a Workout and a Vacation at the Same Time (February 5, 2019)

As the title of the article presents, this article is based on the strategies that can be tried for having a vacation ideas along with following the workout plan alongside. The article is interesting it is a way because it sometimes gets difficult for the fitness at the same time travel lovers to follow their goals alongside. Hence, this article showoff some of the options that can be tried by those. Hence, I agree with the proposed ideas of the author.

A Rare Bird Indeed: A Cardinal That’s Half Male, Half Female (February 9, 2019)

The reason for which this article is interesting is based on the fact and findings that the author has provided. As this news focuses upon the findings of the bird that is half male and half female. This is a fact to be known about, as it rarely happens. This article showcases the findings of the researchers and biologists about this rare happening of birds to contain two sexes at the same time. I agree to the author on the point as the findings are proven scientifically.

Dr. John Gunderson, 76, Dies; Defined Borderline Personality Disorder (February 8, 2019)

Dr. John Gunderson has been an essential figure for describing and providing knowledge about borderline personality disorder, that is considered one of the significant occurring as well as an important disorder in the field of personality disorder. He has served as a major resource based on the personality area he was working on. This news highlights his death, which can be regarded as an important loss. Furthermore, the author in this article has attempted his major work. This article is an interest in the way of knowing the primary work of Dr. John Gunderson in his field.

A High-Tech Pill to End Drug Injections (February 7, 2019)

High-Tech is a unique innovation in the field of drugs as well as health. The major point of interest in this article is that the technology covered here is very interesting. With the development of technology, a unique transformation has been happening every new day, but this one can be considered as one of the most important development.


Subject: Education

Pages: 3 Words: 900

7.2 Threaded Discussion-Sin; Nature Or Nurture

7.2 Threaded Discussion- Sin, Nature, and Nurture

Name of the Writer

Name of the University

7.2 Threaded Discussion- Sin, Nature, and Nurture

Are babies born innocent (without sin) and then learn sin from their environment, or are babies born with sin and simply live out their inner nature when they grow up?

A child, when born, is innocent and free from any and all sins. This is because he does not have the mental development to know the difference between right or wrong. How can a child who cannot even properly think and act, be liable to be judged as a sinful being? Sin is committed when actions, thoughts or words that are forbidden by religion, are done, spoken or entertained. Their lies the argument that when a child who has just been born and does not have the knowledge of what is right or wrong or what is acceptable or what is forbidden can actually be referred as sinful. Some theologians, who suggest that every child born is contaminated and bears the responsibility of the original sin or the inherited sin, regretfully fail to take into account the sacrifice of Jesus Christ, which cleansed mankind of the original sin. This is supported by Wesley who says that inherited guilt or the original sin was canceled because of Christ’s sacrifice but what was more concerning is the guilt stemming from our own actions.

As a child grows older, he or she develops the understanding of what is right and wrong and then his actions could be deemed either good or sinful. This supported by Pelagius, who rejects the idea of the original sin and supports the notion that a child learns sin from his/her environment. He states that humanity is born into neither sin nor virtue, rather we grow into it. This is because we are not fully developed when we are born but have with us the capacity to do either good or evil.

Responses to Students

Robert Houston

Your view on this subject is a bit interesting and provokes thinking into the behavior of children of various ages. But the fact is that the child who is acting contrary to how they have been raised is not only influenced by the teachings of their closest relationships but from other individuals in society as well.

Picky Mela

The way you have described the matter at hand, and how you have supported your arguments is very exceptional. I share your views and would say that committing sin is a matter of nurture rather than nature.

Subject: Education

Pages: 1 Words: 300

7.3 Course Project-Calvin Analysis Paper

Title page

Calvin analysis paper

The central argument of John Calvin about providence claims that God is in control of everything. Calvin’s institute spent great deal of time for determining the role of doctrine and reality behind God’s existence. The deeper analysis of Calvin’s ideology depicts the significance of exploring reality of this world and its relevance with God. The argument of providence help humans to understand the purpose of world’s existence and the role that people need to play in the society. Without finding this reality one is unable to derive the meaning and the purpose of this world. Calvin focused uncovering the purpose of life and encouraged people to learn about the things having relevance to the universe and God’s creation. The study of the mechanisms that explains evils and goods allows people to adopt procedures and produce same evils or goods. Milgore mentions, “God the creator does not abandon the creation, leaving it to run on its own, as deism teaches”. The selection between evil and good depends on the choices that individuals make.

God is taking care of the human beings and the world. Providence means “the almighty and ever-present power of God whereby he still upholds, as it were by his own hand, heaven and earth together with all creatures, and rules in such a way that leaves and grass”. This confirms that God is existing and controlling the nature. Without God the existence of world was not possible. The concept of natural laws and prevalence of systematic order also confirm Calvin’s argument. God has preserved human liberty for permitting them to choose between obeying and disobeying. This is a matter of belief and disbelief. Non-believers are more inclined to disobey while believers obey due to the influence of natural laws.

Another argument made by Calvin is that a wicked act is motivated by will not compulsion. The free will depends on the capacity of an individual to choose the possible course of his action. In many circumstances an individual face social, moral and economic constraints that influence his free will. The answer is not simple as the free will is linked to the freedom of actions. However, Calving has emphasized on differentiating between the concepts of compulsion and will. He claimed that human beings are in control of actions and their evil actions are motivated by free will. This is due to the fact that committing sin or doing wrong is not a compulsion. This allowed Calvin to draw a line between two kinds of humans; the ones who have weaker will power and the others with strong will.

People choose not to do evil because of their faith in God, and they believe that God watches them. The reasons for not choosing evil depends on their belief in God and their reputation as they desire to be known as good people. Calvin argues that if people are told directly about the consequences' of evil, they will be more convinced to choose right. However, if people know evil exists as a possibility they can learn to perform evil. He develops the relation between moral evil and good actions. An important question raised by the non-believers is God’s inability of helping humans in their misery. Natural evils such as earthquakes are to test the faith of human beings. People that face no miseries and have easy life gets rare opportunities to perform good actions. They lack opportunity to manifest greater goodness.

The central argument of Calvin states that although God created man but he left adequate room for free will. The answer to the question is complex though Calvin has attempted to prove free will by considering different situations encountered by human beings in real life. People in certain situations have free will such as when they have to choose between right aand wrong. Calvin’s ideology by stating “whether we have encountered or experienced an accident, sickness, natural disaster or war with its accompanying horrors, the question wells up within us Why?”. He fosters that the occurrence of moral evils is related to people’s choice to perform good actions. The argument thus proves that the sufferings in the form of calamities are considered as moral evil. The purpose is to examine how such miseries affects or influence human body and souls. However human beings possess freedom when they have to choose between wrong and right.

Calvin presents an adequate reasoning to justify his argument. The arguments do not deny the existence of God, but it emphasizes on the rationality of God’s existence. The arguments emphasize on the reasons for the prevalence of natural evil that influence people to choose between right and wrong. The philosophy of Calvin claims that “since all men are of same nature, able both to hold fast and to do what is good; and on the other hand, having also the power to cast it from them and not to do it”. All human beings are created by God with the same nature so it is possible for all to avoid bad when few are can retrain from evil. This reflects the role of power and control. Human beings who possess greater control over selves exhibit strong faith in God that prevent them from committing evil. The implications of the human actions and their thoughts about their deeds encourage promoting good actions only when they have belief in God. The belief that God is watching them and that every situation they encounter is under his control develops a natural power in them to perform good actions.

The natural and moral evil causes people to suffer and brings them in pain like state. Calvin defends the theist belief with the justification that only under pain and sufferings’ people get a chance to do deeds that make them good in the eye of God and also as good people of society. Though the possibilities to perform evil exists but human belief in God prevents them from adopting actions that are wrong. This relflects that they consider the knowledge that God passed to them about good and bad. Hall explains philosophy of Calvin by mentioning, “God has placed the power of choice in both human beings and as well as angels so that those who had yielded obedience might justly possess what is good, given indeed by good but preserved by themselves”. He uses different examples and demonstrates the actual meaning of belief. He builds a relationship between the choices’ of actions and natural evil. It is not that God’s existence depends on no evil, but he limits the evil to provide people opportunities to choose between right and wrong. This belief states that God put human beings in conflicting situations where they need to make choices. People who choose good are acting to show their obedience towards God.

The arguments’ of Calvin rejects the relation between natural evil and will. The reason for existence of evils is to provide people opportunities to distinguish between right and wrong. People having strong will power can choose the appropriate course of action that forms good deeds. God controls evil, and he allows it only to the extent to give people a choice between moral and immoral. Under same conditions, one man chooses to endure pain because he has belief in God and prefers right over wrong and the other man chooses to bemoan because his faith is weaker and chooses wrong. Calvin differentiates between the natural and moral evils. He claimed that, “evil is neither illusion nor mere appearance nor a gradually disappearing force in the world”. He illustrates the connection between natural evil and free choices of people. Humans have free choices under natural evil. The concept of natural evil reflects people can themselves learn evil things as the laws of producing evil provides information about how things work.

Two significant arguments raised by Calvin are existence of God and free will. Without finding the reality of God’s existence one is unable to derive the meaning and the purpose of this world. The argument claims God’s existence in creation of humans and the world. Although God is controlling the world but it does not eliminate free will. Human beings have freedom to choose between evil and good depending on their faith in God. People having faith are more convinced to choose right over wrong.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Hall, C. A. (2002). Learning Theology with the Church Fathers. InterVarsity Press. Kindle Edition.

Koller, C. W. (2007). How to Preach Without Notes. Baker Books.

Lasort, W. S., Habard, D. A., & Bush, F. W. (1996). Old Testament Survey: The Message, Form, and Background of the Old Testament. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.. Kindle Edition.

Migliore, D. L. (2014). Faith Seeking Understanding: An Introduction to Christian Theology, third edition. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co Kindle Edition.

Tenney, M. C. (1961). New Testaament Survey. WM. B. Eerdman's Publishing Company.

Subject: Education

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

: Conceptualization Of What Constitutes A Hate Crime

Kedarie Johnson: Debate on Hate Crime

Student’s name

Professor’s name




On the fateful morning of 2nd March 2016, the dead body of Kedarie Johnson was found an alley in a South Hill neighborhood in Burlington (Davey, 2017). He was sixteen years old, and a high school junior at that time (Davey, 2017). Kedarie was a well-known, well-liked, and gregarious teenager (Davey, 2017). His mother referred to him as a gender-fluid individual instead of a transgender due to the fact that he sometime dressed as a male and went by his birth name whereas at other time, he dressed as a woman and went by the name Kandiece (Davey, 2017). His mother further told that he did have girlfriends but preferred to have boyfriends (Davey, 2017). His mother and friends believe that Kedarie’s murder is a hate crime. The victim’s friend testified that he stopped by her house on the night of the murder, to borrow her bras, and was worried on being followed by a few people (Davey, 2017). Presenting as a woman, he was walking on the road against the biting wind when a car pulled over, and the defendants convinced him to get inside (Davey, 2017). The two men took him to the apartment to have sex with him. However, they got enraged on finding out that he was biologically a male (Davey, 2017). They knocked him off, stuffed a plastic bag in his throat, wrapped a gag around his face, and covered his head with a plastic bag (Davey, 2017). He was alive when they took him to an alleyway, where he gained consciousness and was struggling to breathe when they shot him twice (Davey, 2017). They then doused his body with bleach to destroy any traces of DNA (Davey, 2017). The court did not count the offense as a hate crime, and convicted the defendants of first-degree murder. They have been given life in prison.


A hate crime is an offense motivated by the offender’s bias against a gender identity, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, disability, religion or race (Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2017). However, hate is not the only factor; other factors such as disgust (Cottrell & Neuberg, 2005), anger (Ray et al., 2004) or fear (Ray & Smith, 2002) might also be involved in hate crimes. Such an act exhibits an extreme form of prejudice developed mostly in the context of social or political change (Franklin, 1997). For this reason, perpetrators and members of unfamiliar groups may feel that the demographic changes threaten their way-of-life or livelihood (Stacey et al., 2011).

Therefore, hate crimes are different from merely malicious or hateful acts. These crimes hinge on motivation (Boeckmann & Turpin‐Petrosino, 2002). Also, as pointed out earlier, the motivation must be based on a bias (Perry, 2012). For this reason, the victim needs not to belong to a protected class under a law. It means that if a murderer kills a person because he thinks that he is a Jew while in reality he was an agonistic Catholic, the offense will be a hate crime (the murderer’s intention was based on prejudice against Jews). Putting it in simple words, being wrong about whom to target does not excuse the offender from the conviction of a hate crime.

Furthermore, hate crimes have far-reaching psychological consequences (Herek et al., 1999). They do not only affect and his/her immediate family members and close friends but others as well (Perry & Alvi, 2012). Generalized terror spreads in the targeted group whereas ominous effects are made on the minority groups, which identify themselves with the target group on the basis of a doctrine or ideology (Iganski, 2001). Moreover, factionalism and divisions, largely damaging multicultural societies, arise in response to hate crimes (Craig & Waldo, 1996).

In the case under discussion, the murder was not a parallel crime due to the fact that the victim, Kedarie Johnson, sometimes dressed as a woman and went by the name Kandiece (Davey, 2017). On the night of the murder, he was wearing female cloths and presenting as a woman wearing leggings, a pink headband and hair extensions (Davey, 2017). The defendants began to follow him slowly, and flirted with later. They convinced him to get into their vehicle (Davey, 2017). Then they drove him to the apartment they often took young women for sex (Davey, 2017). The prosecutor in the case suggested that the murderer mistook him as a woman and grew angry when they found otherwise and killed him (Davey, 2017). Moreover, they never killed anyone before (or at least, there is no evidence of any prior murder at this point in time). Therefore, it is suggestible that the teenager had been killed on the grounds of prejudice.

Although there are no eyewitnesses to the kidnapping, torture and murder but the forensic, electronic and physical evidence left behind support the case. The CCTV footage of the store, where he used to hang out and use Wi-Fi showed him presenting as a woman (Davey, 2017). The teenager’s friend testified that he stopped by her house, to borrow her bras, and was worried on being followed by a few people (Davey, 2017). The two men took him to the apartment, knocked him off, stuffed a plastic bag in his throat, wrapped a gag around his face, and covered his head with a plastic bag (Davey, 2017). He was alive when they took him to an alleyway, where he gained consciousness and was struggling to breathe when they shot him twice (Davey, 2017). They then doused his body with bleach. A bleach bottle was found next to his dead body whereas his shoes and backpack were found in the apartment (Davey, 2017). The murder weapon was found in the car, which was used to pick the teenager from the road (Davey, 2017).

Based on such elaborative evidence, it can easily be concluded that the murder was a hate crime. It was an actuarial bias offense and cannot, and must not, be considered a symbolic bias offense. The Iowa Department of Criminal Investigation and the Burlington (Iowa) Police Department, with assistance from FBI, investigated the case (Davey, 2017). The local authorities, in charging the defendants with the murder and not hate crime, concluded that under the Iowa’s statute, the killing did not amount to a hate crime (Davey, 2017). The statute prohibits committing crimes against people on the grounds of sexual orientation, religion and race (Davey, 2017). However, the element of gender identity is not covered (Davey, 2017). Therefore, the local authorities convicted the defendants of first-degree murder, which carries a serious penalty, i.e., life in prison (Davey, 2017).

The outcome of the case is not fair despite the fact that life in prison was given to the defendant. The murder of the teenager meets the requirements of a hate crime as defined under the federal law. However, the Iowa’s statute does not include the term ‘gender identity’. Therefore, the defendants have only been convicted of first-degree murder. Being convicted of hate crime would have taken them to death penalty. The situation is unfortunate because it exposes a particular group of people to hate crimes, which would go unnoticed. Although efforts were made in 2015 to add the factor of gender identity as a ground for hate crime in Iowa’s statute but they died in the Legislature. Charging a hate crime is not just about the penalties, it sends a message to the world at large that a state recognizes a vulnerable group and does not tolerate any kind of prejudice behavior.


Boeckmann, R. J., & Turpin‐Petrosino, C. (2002). Understanding the harm of hate crime. Journal of social issues, 58(2), 207-225.

Cottrell, C. A. and Neuberg, S. L. (2005) ‘Different emotional reactions to different groups: A sociofunctional threat-based approach to “Prejudice”’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88(5), 770–89.

Craig, K. M., & Waldo, C. R. (1996). „So, what's a hate crime anyway?” young adults' perceptions of hate crimes, victims, and perpetrators. Law and Human Behavior, 20(2), 113-129.

Davey, M. (2017). An Iowa Teenager Was Killed in an Alley, but Was It a Hate Crime? The New York Times. Retrieved from: https://www.nytimes.com/2017/10/26/us/transgender-iowa-murder-trial-kedarie-johnson.html

Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2017). Hate crimes. Washington, DC: U. S. Department of Justice. Retrieved from

Franklin, K. (1997). Psychosocial motivations of hate crime perpetrators: Implications from prevention and policy. Paper presented at a congressional briefing co-sponsored by the American Psychological Association and the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues. Washington, D.C.

Herek, G. M., Gillis, J. R., & Cogan, J. C. (1999). Psychological sequelae of hate-crime victimization among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 67(6), 945.


Iganski, P. (2001). Hate crimes hurt more. American Behavioral Scientist, 45(4), 626-638.

Perry, B. (Ed.). (2012). Hate and bias crime: A reader. Routledge.

Perry, B., & Alvi, S. (2012). ‘We are all vulnerable’ The in terrorem effects of hate crimes. International Review of Victimology, 18(1), 57-71.

Ray, L. and Smith, D. (2002) ‘Hate crime, violence and cultures of racism’, in Iganski, P. (ed.) The hate debate: Should hate be punished as a crime? London: Profile Books, pp. 88–102.

Ray, L., Smith, D. and Wastell, L. (2004) Shame, rage and racist violence. British Journal of Criminology, 44(3), 350–68

Stacey, M., Carbone-López, K., & Rosenfeld, R. (2011). Demographic change and ethnically motivated crime: The impact of immigration on anti-Hispanic hate crime in the United States. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 27(3), 278-298.

Subject: Education

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

: Cybersecurity Training At The Department Of Homeland Security

Cyber Security Training:


Institution Affiliation:

Training is very important in preparation of the cyber security workforce of tomorrow. It enhances the workers remain up-to-date concerning the skills required and concerning the threats that are evolving (Busch Givens 2012).. Department of Homeland security provides the country with access to cyber security training and development of the workforce to ensure there is a more resilient country and that there is a capable cyber nation. Cyber space is exposed to a wide range of risks which stem from not only physical threats but also cyber threats and hazards. Cyber actors take advantage of these treats to disrupt, destroy and make the delivery of important services difficult.

A program known as Homeland security exercise and evaluation program (HSEEP) is responsible for providing principles which guide the department, evaluate en improve the planning. It is through this program that managers can develop and evaluate the activities identified by the leaders.

Withdrawal from Iraq and partial withdrawal from Afghanistan has made the largest traditional defense efforts of the year 2014 (Busch Givens 2012). Currently, the department has over two hundred and forty thousand employees. It has cooperated with over twenty two agencies. However, this department has been ridiculed over years over its disorganized nature. It is also said that it is unwieldy and that it is a source of waste. It has however tried to clean its image over the years. The greatest areas that the department is trying to improve includes complying with the government, they have also tried to work on their transparency. They have tried to fix the immigration system and also they have come up with better measures to counter terrorism activities.

Currently the department has worked on their information technology and cyber security. In the year 2010, it was reported that the department has continued to strengthen their security programs. The department has implemented a plan that would improve on four key areas. That is, plan of action and milestone, weakness remediation, quality of certification and accreditation, annual testing and validation and security program oversight.

All professionals in homeland security at all levels are required to undergo through training inform of practicum, classroom and on the job training (Busch Givens 2012). This helps all the professionals to internalize the most essential principles, procedures and activities in their area of specialization. Instructors are usually professionals who have years of experience, and academic qualifications attained after a rigorous course of study.

Training programs are offered at different levels. One that is called in-service training is done before one has been fully employed. It equips people with knowledge and experience within their area of specialization. It is within this period that orientation is done to familiarize the in-service people with the day to day operations of the department. In service training serves two main purposes. First, it provides advanced knowledge on new concepts and practices developed after the first training (Busch Givens 2012). It is a requirement for almost all organizations in homeland security that all professionals participate in In-service training during their career period because of the rapid changes which are there. This helps the professionals to be up to date concerning whatever is in the nation because the current world is very dynamic. Failure to keep training may make the professionals to rug behind which would make their activities difficult out of dealing with terrorists who might have a lot of knowledge concerning information technology.

There is a federal level training which is the lead agency for homeland security at the federal level. This is the department of homeland security (DHS). It is responsible for all the professionals at all levels of the government and partly on private sector. It has training facilities which include center for domestic preparedness. This body is responsible for providing training to local and state emergency responders who have weapons of mass destruction. There is also a center known as energetic materials and research testing center. It gives information to teams concerned with bombs. It equips them with knowledge on bomb neutralization, removal of the same and analysis of bombs (Busch Givens 2012). This has enabled the homeland department to have high knowledge on bomb neutralization and all the deals concerning bombs have been dealt with. There is also a center for biomedical research and training. This center offers more than twenty five courses to emergency medical responders as well as to ten online courses. It is therefore equipped with matters concerning medical issues and incase of any issue that has emerged concerning medicine it can be dealt with amicably.

There is also a national disaster preparedness training centre. This center is responsible for provision of remedial actions in case of a disaster occurring in coastal and island communities. It therefore ensures there is enough security and that incases of any disasters along the coast and island communities they can be dealt will in the right manner and without wasting time. Other centers include, counter terrorism operations support, national emergency and rescue training center among others.

Finally, there is a state level training. The federal government provides the guidelines for training, resources required for training but the states are the ones that provide specific training regime for homeland security professionals in the state. Programs take into consideration the state of that region as states are different. Characteristics of each state are taken into consideration to ensure that there is effectiveness in service delivery. Training programs, though different, incorporate the same standards of effectiveness which are required in the entire country. This ensures the effectiveness of cyber security training at the department of homeland security.


Busch, N. E., & Givens, A. D. (2012). Public-Private Partnerships in Homeland Security: Opportunities and Challenges. Homeland Security Affairs, 8(1).

Kessler, G. C., & Ramsay, J. D. (2014, January). A proposed curriculum in cybersecurity education targeting homeland security students. In 2014 47th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (pp. 4932-4937). IEEE.

Lewis, T. G. (2014). Critical infrastructure protection in homeland security: defending a networked nation. John Wiley & Sons.

Ralston, P. A., Graham, J. H., & Hieb, J. L. (2007). Cyber security risk assessment for SCADA and DCS networks. ISA transactions, 46(4), 583-594.

Von Solms, R., & Van Niekerk, J. (2013). From information security to cyber security. computers & security, 38, 97-102.

Yet, A. W. S. (2005). Homeland security.

Subject: Education

Pages: 3 Words: 900

: Cybersecurity Training At The Department Of Homeland Security

Cyber security Training at the Department of Homeland Security

Student’s Name


Cyber security Training at the Department of Homeland Security

For the last decade, the cyber security training ha resolved and a lot of programs update has been included to reflect the current challenges. During the early days, the homeland security training programs captured mostly preparedness to address natural disasters, homeland terror and other minor crimes. With the rise of technology, the training programs have been upgraded and cyber security trainings focus on the investigation, prevention and compiling evidence on major technology related crimes. The current cyber security training at the department of homeland security focuses on the infrastructure protection. As stated by () the cyber security trainings also focus on the financial frauds focusing on crypto currency, dark web, social media analysis and network infrastructure. The current training is conducted to equip law enforcement officers with knowledge and skills on how to investigate and detect various cyber frauds using computer technology.

Benefits of cyber security trainings

The current trainings benefit law enforcement officers and other individuals in the cyber security field. It is pointed that the Department of Homeland Security signed private –public partnership with several private companies to provide help in designing programs and also to train personnel. Therefore, the current cyber security training programs help in improving the understanding of some of the challenges in cyber security and provide individual candidates with knowledge and skills on how to detect, prevent, investigate and persecute various cyber security cases both local and international. () pointed out that cyber security training offered by the Department of Homeland is well elaborate and therefore, the trainings have helped in conducting cyber security cases. It is therefore, important to state that the training has helped in solving cyber security issues faster and efficient with limited errors. The current cyber security training has also helped in reducing errors. It has also enhanced security, protect organizational reputation, and increase compliance as well. The training has also helped in securing that businesses are secure. The fact that current training covers almost all the industrial challenges a trained an individual would be able to solve several security related issues in the country.

Cost incur

The cyber security training is an elaborate training method in the technology field. It offers several security solutions and therefore, the training cost must be expensive. The individual who pursue a course will cyber security training to become a fully trusted to set the condition for the proper without much different. Therefore, the cost of cyber security training ranges from $5000 to 15000. The cost is based on the units taken by individuals and the content which are being studied by an individual. Mostly pure technical and some of the lasts security challenges are expensive. Since the department of homeland have partnered with other institutions and other interested parties to address the challenges in the market, the problems have been addressed through cost sharing. In the past the department of homeland security has partnered with other institution to ensure that cyber security trainings are affordable.


The current trainings of cyber security focus on several issues especially challenges experienced in the cyber security industry. According to CITATION Hay18 \l 1033 (Evans, 22018) the trainings put a lot of focus on the jobs in the market, the technical aspect in the cyber security, and the methods which are used to investigate fraud and other related major crimes. The training, which are being provided by the Homeland Department with the police offices focus on crime scene analysis to obtain enough evidence and also to prevent a crime as well. Though cyber security training is more practical and focus on providing a proof, there is needed to work with relevant bodies and authority to analyze some of the challenges in order o come up with solutions. First, it recommended for the training to focus on some of the latest security related challenges. Therefore, the trainings address the training cover areas such as the Phishing Landscape Evolves, BYOD Enhances the Workplace, but at a Steep Cost, Surge in Ransomware Attacks Targeting Local Governments, and Strict Cloud Security Measures Lead to End-User Trust. These are key elements in technology and therefore, security training should focus on improve their performance.

However, the current training method does not have a clear method which can be used for the performance of evaluation of the result of trainings which are offered by the departed if government. There must be a clear methods which are used to establish whether the current system support the survey. According to Beyer and Brummel (2014), survey is one of the tools which are used for that analysis and representation and therefore, it is important to plan fruit of discipline and department heads

It is also established that the new training equips law enforcement officers on how to investigate and detect cyber fraud and other cybercrime-related through the use of computer technology CITATION Nat15 \l 1033 (Nathan & Givens, 2015). According to Beyer & Brummel, (2014), the new challenges in technology are cybercrime and some of the cyber crimes are new and of high tech. therefore., lack of without training on law enforcement on social media, network architecture, network infrastructure a computer of system protection CITATION Hay18 \l 1033 (Evans, 22018). Cyber security training should be more transparent. It also needs to involve training on how to assess the need for a company so that trained personnel can be able to provide necessary and needed cyber security protection, the law related to cyber security and other performance

In conclusion, with 85% a budget of nations’ infrastructure is under privacy protection, the private-public partnership is critically important for the governmen CITATION Bey14 \l 1033 (Beyer & Brummel, 2014)t. It also willing to support advantages and other family activities Security in partnership with private sectors has developed training courses to develop the capacity of the private sector to protect infrastructure from unauthorized access and violation of privacy and cyber terror attack which one of the latest terror attacks being used to caused problems. It is, therefore, evident that the improvement is based on the current challenges resulting from advance technology CITATION Bus12 \p 21 \l 1033 (Busch & Givens, 2012, p. 21). Therefore, the current training in cyber security covers most current challenges being faced in the cyber security system


BIBLIOGRAPHY Beyer, R. E., & Brummel, B. J. (2014). Implementing Effective Cyber Security Training for End Users of Computer Networks. Society for Human Resource Management and Society for Industrial and Organizational , 2-18.

Busch, N. E., & Givens, A. D. (2012). Hard National Security Choices SUPPORT. https://www.hsaj.org/articles/233 , 2-15.

Evans, H. (22018). Summary: The Department of Homeland Security’s Cybersecurity Strategy. Hard National Security Choices SUPPORT , 2-15.

Nathan, B., & Givens, A. (2015). Public-Private Partnerships in Homeland Security: Opportunities and Challenges. Dudley Knox Library , 2-15.



Subject: Education

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

: Policy Recommendation

Policy Recommendation

[Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees]

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]


The main role of Criminal Justice is to provide justice to the people that have fallen victim to crime. Crime comes in many forms and may result in different issues related to people. The criminal justice department works on the policies and procedures that have been defined in order to handle any situation that may arise and cause concerns for the people. Although the right policies are in place there is still room for improvement due to the ever-changing nature of crimes.

Keywords: Criminal Justice, Crime, Terrorists

Policy Recommendation

The current setup of criminal justice is in full effect and is there for the people to feel safe. Yet there are certain ways through which this can be made even better. Bringing better changes to these would allow for better provision of rights and justice to the affected people. Justice is the basic right of everyone and it should be the duty of the state to provide it to them. Crime is present in different forms. It is committed by different people due to their own reasons. These criminals can be part of a street gang or they might be domestic or foreign terrorists. In any case, the main goal is to eradicate the issues related to criminal activities which disrupt the normal way of life.

Literature Review

When talking about justice and crime-related policies one of the major things that can be seen is the use of the reactive approach to solving any case ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"4xMIU9Ue","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}Advancing Criminology and Criminal Justice Policy - Google Books}, n.d.)","plainCitation":"(Advancing Criminology and Criminal Justice Policy - Google Books, n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":88,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WKtM8IGm/items/7UKMB6YM"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WKtM8IGm/items/7UKMB6YM"],"itemData":{"id":88,"type":"webpage","title":"Advancing Criminology and Criminal Justice Policy - Google Books","URL":"https://books.google.com.pk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=Ohy4CwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=criminal+justice+policy+and+practice&ots=lUJyltlcsN&sig=69MDy2Yd4YfcLe3sXhI0jS6Lhnw&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=criminal%20justice%20policy%20and%20practice&f=false","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2020",1,22]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Advancing Criminology and Criminal Justice Policy - Google Books, n.d.). Many of the departments are trying to move the reactive approach towards the proactive approach so that the crime can be handled even before it is committed. Normally the reactive approach results in the crime already committed and therefore takes time to resolve the entire issue by searching the culprit and all the legal process. With the implementation of the proactive approach, the possibilities of a crime being committed would be studied and gathered which would result in the elimination of those triggers that cause criminal activities to commence. The proactive approach is also a great way to avoid the expenses that are incurred on the investigations and catching of the criminals due to a reactive approach. It would also help in the identification of more and more clues that would help in furthering removing the causes that lead to the crime.

Criminal justice is a public policy and is to be handled by the government. The crimes can be listed in different ways e.g. visible crimes, violent crimes, property crimes, etc. All these crimes have been categorized by the people ranging from the most severe to lesser severe. The most severe one is bombing and killing multiple people. A less offensive crime would be the one where physical violence to women is apparent. This classification is done based on people’s opinions of how they see these crimes. When the role of criminal justice is being played, often it happens that the victim is neglected in all the investigation. The most important reason for providing justice is to sooth the victim’s wounds, whereas many victims are not even updated regarding the procedure being done to bring them justice and solving the case. Victims are the ones that should be given the utmost importance as they are suffering the actual pain. By giving them regular updates and making them part of the process will ensure that they are satisfied with the work which is being done to resolve the entire case ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"deEqmHH0","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Davies et al., 2017)","plainCitation":"(Davies et al., 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":96,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WKtM8IGm/items/ETCGUZ94"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WKtM8IGm/items/ETCGUZ94"],"itemData":{"id":96,"type":"book","title":"Victims, Crime and Society: An Introduction","publisher":"SAGE","number-of-pages":"305","source":"Google Books","abstract":"This book provides a thorough account of victimisation across the social spectrum of class, race, age and gender. The second edition has been fully revised and expanded, with two parts now spanning the key perspectives and issues in victimology. Covering theoretical, social and political contexts, the book: Includes new chapters on defining and constructing victims, fear and vulnerability, sexuality, white collar crime and the implications of crime policy on victims Examines a global range of historical and theoretical perspectives in victimology and features a new chapter on researching victims of crime Reinforces your learning through critical thinking sections, future research suggestions, chapter summaries and a glossary of key terms Victims, Crime and Society is the essential text for your studies in victimology across criminology, criminal justice, community safety, youth justice and related areas.","ISBN":"978-1-4739-1091-1","note":"Google-Books-ID: ZfkaCAAAQBAJ","title-short":"Victims, Crime and Society","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Davies","given":"Pamela"},{"family":"Francis","given":"Peter"},{"family":"Greer","given":"Chris"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017",4,13]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Davies et al., 2017).

The policies that are formed are there to aid the people in the struggle against crimes. The main reason for the development of policies is that it may help in the reduction of crime rates. These crimes are what keep people awake late at night and in fear. One of the things that should be highlighted is that the age of the individuals is quite related to crime. There are other factors as well which include biological factors, factors relate to the mind etc. But it is seen in this country that juvenile people are more likely to cause crime and it was the case a few decades back. Since the overall number of young people has decreased so it means that the overall crime rate has also decreased ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"AiCwQ8CG","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Wilson & Petersilia, 2010)","plainCitation":"(Wilson & Petersilia, 2010)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":86,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WKtM8IGm/items/WBU5XTGE"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WKtM8IGm/items/WBU5XTGE"],"itemData":{"id":86,"type":"book","title":"Crime and Public Policy","publisher":"Oxford University Press","number-of-pages":"657","source":"Google Books","abstract":"Crime in the United States has fluctuated considerably over the past thirty years, as have the policy approaches to deal with it. During this time criminologists and other scholars have helped to shed light on the role of incarceration, prevention, drugs, guns, policing, and numerous other aspects to crime control. Yet the latest research is rarely heard in public discussions and is often missing from the desks of policymakers. This book accessibly summarizes the latest scientific information on the causes of crime and evidence about what does and does not work to control it. Thoroughly revised and updated, this new version of Crime and Public Policy will include twenty chapters and five new substantial entries. As with previous editions, each essay reviews the existing literature, discusses the methodological rigor of the studies, identifies what policies and programs the studies suggest, and then points to policies now implemented that fail to reflect the evidence. The chapters cover the principle institutions of the criminal justice system (juvenile justice, police, prisons, probation and parole, sentencing), how broader aspects of social life inhibit or encourage crime (biology, schools, families, communities), and topics currently generating a great deal of attention (criminal activities of gangs, sex offenders, prisoner reentry, changing crime rates). With contributions from trusted, leading scholars, Crime and Public Policy offers the most comprehensive and balanced guide to how the latest and best social science research informs the understanding of crime and its control for policymakers, community leaders, and students of crime and criminal justice.","ISBN":"978-0-19-978114-0","note":"Google-Books-ID: URhwAgAAQBAJ","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Wilson","given":"James Q."},{"family":"Petersilia","given":"Joan"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2010",12,20]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Wilson & Petersilia, 2010). Another, major behavior of criminals that can be seen is that they try to target the areas that are close to their territories. Among such criminals include, street gangs that almost always try to hit the area that is closest to them. No street gang would travel long to visit another place to commit crimes. Many times, people would shift from the region where there is a higher concentration of street crimes to a region where there is a lower concentration of crime thereby saving themselves from it. As many people move from a single territory, this means that there would be fewer opportunities for the members of the street gang to cause criminal activities there. All these relationships to crimes give the policymakers a fair indication regarding the mind of the criminals. These can be utilized to remove the main cause that keeps these criminals and their activities going. These policies would not only aid the victims but also the criminals as well as it may give them a new hope towards life by properly rehabilitating them.

The word crime and youth have a long history. The young people due to their juvenile behavior forget what implications their actions might produce. ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"YSSdAdVl","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Pyrooz & Densley, 2018)","plainCitation":"(Pyrooz & Densley, 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":90,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WKtM8IGm/items/8Z775WPV"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WKtM8IGm/items/8Z775WPV"],"itemData":{"id":90,"type":"article-journal","title":"On Public Protest, Violence, and Street Gangs","container-title":"Society","page":"229-236","volume":"55","issue":"3","source":"DOI.org (Crossref)","DOI":"10.1007/s12115-018-0242-1","ISSN":"0147-2011, 1936-4725","journalAbbreviation":"Soc","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Pyrooz","given":"David C."},{"family":"Densley","given":"James A."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018",6]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} Pyrooz and Densley (2018) also, highlight the fact that street crimes are mostly due to the intervention of young members. These members result in the activities that cause disruption of the normal way of life and they may be involved in criminal offense. The young members are the ones in their 20s and they are the most vulnerable towards criminal activities. They may form part of a gang and commit crimes through a street group or get into other activities and cause issues for the general public. The young members can be lured in by the other members of the gang and then train them to commit whatever they please.

Every state tries its best to eliminate the crime from its region to help people live their lives in peace. As there are new advents in crime so it is necessary that the policies and programs implemented are updated. New strategies should be devised to better mitigate the risk of crime and even go as far as eliminating it. These would also help in a proactive approach towards fighting crime so that the basic cause of the crime is eliminated. Similar is the case with this country with many anti-crime policies present and working. These programs tend to create such an environment that would aid in the elimination of crimes that these are focused towards. ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"h712PgfK","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Department of State, n.d.)","plainCitation":"(Department of State, n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":91,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WKtM8IGm/items/864NK7CP"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WKtM8IGm/items/864NK7CP"],"itemData":{"id":91,"type":"webpage","title":"Department of State Announces Redesign of 2009-2017.state.gov","container-title":"U.S. Department of State","URL":"//2009-2017.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2009/dec/133733.htm","author":[{"family":"Department of State","given":""}],"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2020",1,22]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Department of State, n.d.) highlights the importance of new approaches that would be used to fight against crime. These approaches would be used to make sure that there are new strategies that would try to improve the current state of crime-fighting and take it to a better level. One important thing to keep in mind is that by implementing a program does not mean that things would move towards improvement. There should be clear methods that the authorities are willing to adapt to enforce these rules. Since these programs are there to provide justice, the Government should do everything in its power to make the people follow it.

When working with policies, it is always a plus when relating your policy to the actual cause of the issue. The same is the case with criminals and terrorists. Domestic terrorists are one of the offenders that are a major threat to the country. But these are not the type of criminals that would do something for the sake of causing trouble. They are driven by issues that cause them to be in a state of mind to destroy others. Some such major issues are highlighted by ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"EyHiIIkF","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Ghatak & Gold, 2017)","plainCitation":"(Ghatak & Gold, 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":83,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WKtM8IGm/items/83M8RJ7G"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WKtM8IGm/items/83M8RJ7G"],"itemData":{"id":83,"type":"article-journal","title":"Development, discrimination, and domestic terrorism: Looking beyond a linear relationship","container-title":"Conflict Management and Peace Science","page":"618-639","volume":"34","issue":"6","source":"DOI.org (Crossref)","DOI":"10.1177/0738894215608511","ISSN":"0738-8942, 1549-9219","title-short":"Development, discrimination, and domestic terrorism","journalAbbreviation":"Conflict Management and Peace Science","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Ghatak","given":"Sambuddha"},{"family":"Gold","given":"Aaron"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017",11]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} Ghatak and Gold (2017). These include poverty. Not everyone in a society is the same and is treated the same. This leads to an increase in the mindset that is inclined towards violence. Such people come with the mindset that they have nothing, so there is nothing to lose. Such a mental approach allows them to make horrible decisions that ruin the lives of so many. Another major point highlighted is that people who have higher education are more vulnerable to performing criminal activities. One of the main supportive statements in this regard is that these people are more aware of the injustice that is being done in the society. This awareness paired with the ability to understand the consequences gives rise to people who have criminal intentions.

The authors ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"0nsyx0lv","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Ghatak et al., 2019)","plainCitation":"(Ghatak et al., 2019)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":82,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WKtM8IGm/items/PT3Z3BPP"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WKtM8IGm/items/PT3Z3BPP"],"itemData":{"id":82,"type":"article-journal","title":"Domestic Terrorism in Democratic States: Understanding and Addressing Minority Grievances","container-title":"Journal of Conflict Resolution","page":"439-467","volume":"63","issue":"2","source":"DOI.org (Crossref)","DOI":"10.1177/0022002717734285","ISSN":"0022-0027, 1552-8766","title-short":"Domestic Terrorism in Democratic States","journalAbbreviation":"Journal of Conflict Resolution","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Ghatak","given":"Sambuddha"},{"family":"Gold","given":"Aaron"},{"family":"Prins","given":"Brandon C."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019",2]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} Ghatak et al. (2019) are of the view that societies are always in competition to get the most of the resources. The groups that consider themselves to be superior have the thinking that they are the rightful owners of certain privileges. These concepts lead to the foundations of discrimination. Such an attitude gives rise to feeling of complex among the other societies which may result in some undesirable actions to be taken by them. Discrimination and lack of justice are one of the main reasons why people resort to the actions that they might never want to commit. Removing discrimination in society is difficult even when a democratic state is in the question. But the least a person can do is try hard to resolve the matters that people might have. The privileged class would also be able to tip the judgment of the courts and other authorities in their favor. This would completely eliminate the concept of justice. Due to this reason, the concept of the popular vote is used. If the Government appoints members of the judiciary, there might be a clear distinction among the classes. This would promote wrong activities not just among the people being deprived but among the ones that are exploiting the system. They would feel that they could get away with anything they do.

Policy Recommendations

It is not a hidden fact that the provision of justice is one of the major roles that the Government needs to play towards the rights of its citizens. The current system of justice that is being used is performing its job well but it can be made better by employing a few techniques. These techniques would ensure that the victims are satisfied with the outcome of the case and proper rehabilitation of the criminals is done. Crime is always on the shift and more and more ways are being introduced. There is a major need to have a system that could sniff out these activities early or even before they take place. It would ensure that not only there are fewer victims but also that cost and time are saved. Keeping this in mind, there are certain recommendations that the authorities might employ to make the task of crime-fighting even better and much more efficient. Certain changes in the policies are all that is required to change the whole outlook of the criminal justice scene. The recommended policies that may be implemented are:

One of the major policies that should be implemented is the use of a proactive approach as the main approach to solving crime cases and providing justice to the people. The reactive approach is necessary in many cases when the crime has been committed and the departments are trying to find the culprit. But the proactive approach should be used more often to eliminate the cause of crime. This can be done through the efforts of the justice departments as well as the local communities. Taking the feedback and then acting upon it would help reduce crimes that are started by the street gangs. This would also help in the larger picture and not just common street criminals ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"RW0z5nwY","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Bardach & Patashnik, 2019)","plainCitation":"(Bardach & Patashnik, 2019)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":102,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WKtM8IGm/items/WGRL958N"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WKtM8IGm/items/WGRL958N"],"itemData":{"id":102,"type":"book","title":"A practical guide for policy analysis: The eightfold path to more effective problem solving","publisher":"CQ press","ISBN":"1-5063-6889-1","author":[{"family":"Bardach","given":"Eugene"},{"family":"Patashnik","given":"Eric M."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Bardach & Patashnik, 2019).

The person that is affected the most through all these crimes is the victim of that particular case. The main aim of judicial departments is to provide the utmost concentration to the affected party. This can be done by providing them a chance to be constantly in contact with the concerned departments. A representative of the Government should be providing the necessary updates to the victims or their families to ensure maximum satisfaction.

Community policing should be evolved and made the center point for justice provision and crime reduction. Community police aids in the participation of the community to catch any unusual activity that might occur in a particular area. Not only does this help in making split-second decisions but it also elevates the participation of the community which results in a better understanding and trust among the community and the police.

The overall severity of some types of punishments for the criminals should be curtailed. Punishments like solitary confinement and violence will have to do more harm than good on the personalities of the criminals. This leads to even more severe bouts of rage and anger that could worsen the situation instead of making it better.

The departments involved in providing justice and criminal investigation should be more lenient towards the criminals. Many times these people are responsible for harsh attitude even towards the others that have no link to crime. Such actions should not go unnoticed and the people involved should be properly punished so that this would set an example and further such actions would be avoided. It has been proved that the use of force can worsen the situation of the culprits. So proper treatment should be given to them so that they may not continue with their activities in the future.

It has been observed that victims have to usually suffer from the strict policies designed by the law agencies therefore, it should be discouraged. The support and ultimate concentration of the law agencies should be towards the victim party to support them fully. It is the responsibility of the law agencies to provide justice to the victim within the provided rules and regulations of law. Certain policies in the law agencies should be designed in a way that completely supports the victim in all circumstances. The law agencies that provide support and justice to the victim’s families should take the responsibility to provide them with security as and when required.

Consequences of the Policy Recommendations

The proactive approach to fight crime is a great way to ensure the minimization of any means by which crime may be committed. It would help to remove the cause of the crime before it is even committed. It would also help the crime-fighting departments in keeping an eye out for particular ways in which crime might be committed and be ready for them in case they occur. But it requires a lot of effort of the concerned department to look for every lead that would help them in taking the root of the cause out. Also, by using the proactive approach is not necessary that every single possibility can be accounted for. There might be possibilities that some options might be missed and thus would cause issues.

The inclusion of victims and their families in the overall process of criminal justice is a way forward as it would help them in realizing the stage that the case is in. It would ease their mind by knowing that they are part of the overall investigation and build their confidence in the authorities. They would have a clear insight into what is happening regarding their case. A major unintended consequence of the approach could be the rash behavior of the victim when it comes to the process. The victims might be tempted to include themselves in the investigation more than they are intended to. This could result in delays and problems for the justice departments.

Community involvement is a great step in the reduction of crime. It would help in going to the deep roots of the crime and realize how the mind of the criminal works and where it is focused. This would also aid in the implementation of the proactive approach as the authorities would be warned in advance about the potentially criminal activities that could take place in the future. But, it should be remembered that the people that take part in the community are not experts in the field. They might not be able to account for every possibility and skip out on some which could result in loss of precious time for the concerned departments.

As there are a variety of offenses that could be performed by the criminals, there should be a clear distinction upon the severity of each. This would help in ensuring that the crime is punished based on the severity of the act. This would mean that proper justice is provided to the criminals and it cannot be challenged. Many people due to the implementation of criminal justice policies are under the radar even when they don’t belong there. They actually become the victims of the punishment that they don’t deserve. There should be facilities that are present for such people. It should involve a drug rehabilitation program, education programs, etc. so that these people may be corrected using alternate methods that would be suitable for them.

It is necessary for the justice providers to provide the necessary treatment to the criminals but also they are not supposed to be inhumane by any means. By applying such tactics, the people would be more inclined and supportive of their criminal justice authorities. It would build confidence among the people that the right things are being done by them. Granted that there are some times where being strict is the only way to go and it would be the only way to resolve the matter.

Taking victims through the entire processes of investigation would encourage justice in the communities. People would be aware of the fact that law agencies work honestly to provide them justice. Accountable and dynamic justice providers would take responsibility to support completely throughout the process of investigation. It has also been suggested that several health promotion and education programs should be initiated in the court systems. These programs would enable criminals to learn and adapt to the socially positive and acceptable behaviors. People involved in crimes need rehabilitation services and education to modify their behaviors. These programs will also help them to avoid such habits that are socially not acceptable in the communities. To reduce the crime rate from a community, it is essential that socially acceptable behaviors are prevalent among people; these behaviors can be promoted through education and awareness.

Unnecessary punishments and penalties often discourage young criminals. It has been observed that people involved in crimes have some psychological problems that motivate them to attempt murders and rapes. It has been observed that lack of significance from the families is also a contributing factor for the criminals. Individuals involved in crimes develop a sense of viciousness and they think that power and strength can help them to achieve their target and aims. Therefore, it is important to organize rehabilitation programs to educate these individuals. According to Carl Rogers, socially acceptable behaviors can be modified through cognitive development. Rehabilitation services to criminals can effectively modify their behaviors through cognitive behavioral therapy. For juvenile and young criminals, courts should preferably introduce rehabilitation and cognitive behavioral therapy programs in their systems. These rehabilitation programs are effective in implementing and modifying positive behaviors among individuals.

The criminal justice system should implement such policies in the punishment laws that help criminals to improve their behaviors. To punish criminals through penalties would not reduce the rate of crimes from communities. It is essential to develop and implement such policies in the criminal justice system that aid in the reduction of crime rates from communities. Therefore, the criminal justice system needs to establish some policies such as strict gun laws and surveillance can effectively reduce the purchase of illegal guns. Reducing the means of crime would ultimately help systems to reduce the crime rate. Environmental changes such as improving socio-economic conditions of the societies would encourage individuals to develop positive and socially acceptable behaviors. Improving the lifestyle of communities would also aid in the reduction of crimes from communities. Improving educational systems and resources of employment will consequently result in educated communities. It has been observed that education and awareness can significantly improve the lifestyle of communities.

Collaboration among the educational system, justice system, and governmental entities can help in implementing such policies that can make it possible to develop a healthy community. Justice and law agencies should upgrade their rules to implement effective policies. Governmental entities and law agencies should work in collaboration with private organizations to work for the same cause. The aims and objectives of the criminal justice system should be to reduce the crime rate from communities. Community workers and organizations collectively can work to report suspicious activities and to report crimes. It has been observed that people usually avoid getting involved in the reporting and investigation of crimes or suspicious activities. This is because of the fact that police departments and law agencies have adapted some unnecessary investigation strategies that bother persons. Therefore, police departments should implement flexible policies that help the person who reports about an incident. Various studies have shown that most of the crimes left untreated because they are not reported in the criminal justice systems.

Reducing the means of crimes can help in the reduction of crime rate, for example, removing laptops or expensive jewelry from out of view. Also, leaving expensive things on ladders or gardens would encourage people to commit the offense. Therefore, removing targets and reducing the means of crimes would help to decrease the probability of crimes to occur. Access control is another way to reduce crimes from the communities, for example, looking at actions that will control access to a site, an individual or thing. Improving surveillance around business facilities, homes and public places would also help justice systems to deter criminals. It would be helpful for the criminal justice systems to encourage people to report crimes and suspicious activities. Carl Rogers was a great psychologist of his tie, he has observed that behaviors of people would be significantly changed when you pay attention and give significance to them. Therefore, people involved in crimes should be considered as a client not as criminal while providing them cognitive behavioral therapy or rehabilitation.

Policy Recommendation Evaluation

The updated policies should be properly tested in order to make sure that they are functioning as intended. In order to test them a proper system needs to be implemented that would measure the success of these for each new clause. This would give the policymakers the idea regarding which areas need to be focused on more and which areas are functioning properly. Measuring the overall success of the policy is necessary and quite easy. All it takes is regular monitoring of the situation to ensure that no important detail is missed.

The proactive approach clause can be tested by measuring the rate of a particular crime in a particular area. This can be done to the incidents reported of that crime. After implementing the proactive approach, the measurement should again be taken to make sure that there is a reduction in the overall rate of that particular crime. This can be done by asking the community, getting in contact with the local law departments, etc. This can be done through online portals, emails or by selecting the representatives of the community and having a face to face meeting to discuss the general progress.

The clause regarding the inclusion of victims can be tested by proper interviews of the victims with the experts. It would make sure that whether the victims are satisfied with the response they are getting from the justice providing departments or not. This would ensure that the victims are satisfied and are in full participation with the case they are involved in. The feedback of the victims can be gained through meetings.

The involvement of the community in the process of fighting crime is essential so that people would feel like they are contributing to the efforts for reducing crime. Also, it would help to take crime fighting to a core level which would aid in removing the cause of the issues. The communities would be to give feedback to the law enforcement departments regarding the progress of this approach. The members of the community would take part in regular meetings with the local law enforcement agencies so that they would update them about the progress of the approach. It would not only help build confidence in the community but also help fight crime in a better a manner than it is being currently done.

The rehabilitation of criminals is necessary but in a way that would promote improved behavior in them and not aggravate them. The incidents of all the criminals should be properly monitored before applying the new policy as well as after applying the new policy. It would help to measure whether the policy had the desired effect on the particular individual or not. If the criminal is no longer seen in the acts that he had committed earlier, it would prove an overall positive response to the rehabilitation efforts. If there is no improvement in the attitude of the criminal, a new way of rehabilitating him should be used until the desired results are seen. As mentioned above that poverty is another reason for the acts of crime. The criminals that are not rehabilitated and are in need of financial help should be employed with the help of the government so that they may proceed in living a peaceful life.

The behavior of the law enforcement agencies and justice providing departments has a major impact on criminal activities. They neither should be too aggressive so that innocent people or people who have done small offense are punished hard and nor should they be too lenient so that there is no improvement in the overall crime rates. Proper training should be given to the members that are responsible for handling the cases and their overall behavior should be monitored with the help of a senior member of the team. This would make sure that the data is collected regarding the overall progress of the members in light of the new policy that has been implemented.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Advancing Criminology and Criminal Justice Policy - Google Books. (n.d.). Retrieved January 22, 2020, from https://books.google.com.pk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=Ohy4CwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=criminal+justice+policy+and+practice&ots=lUJyltlcsN&sig=69MDy2Yd4YfcLe3sXhI0jS6Lhnw&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=criminal%20justice%20policy%20and%20practice&f=false

Bardach, E., & Patashnik, E. M. (2019). A practical guide for policy analysis: The eightfold path to more effective problem solving. CQ press.

Davies, P., Francis, P., & Greer, C. (2017). Victims, Crime and Society: An Introduction. SAGE.

Department of State. (n.d.). Department of State Announces Redesign of 2009-2017.state.gov. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved January 22, 2020, from //2009-2017.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2009/dec/133733.htm

Ghatak, S., & Gold, A. (2017). Development, discrimination, and domestic terrorism: Looking beyond a linear relationship. Conflict Management and Peace Science, 34(6), 618–639. https://doi.org/10.1177/0738894215608511

Ghatak, S., Gold, A., & Prins, B. C. (2019). Domestic Terrorism in Democratic States: Understanding and Addressing Minority Grievances. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 63(2), 439–467. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022002717734285

Pyrooz, D. C., & Densley, J. A. (2018). On Public Protest, Violence, and Street Gangs. Society, 55(3), 229–236. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12115-018-0242-1

Wilson, J. Q., & Petersilia, J. (2010). Crime and Public Policy. Oxford University Press.

Subject: Education

Pages: 15 Words: 4500


Customer Experience Management

Student’s Name




Customer relationship is key to the success of any company. It helps in building customer loyalty and therefore, essential in increasing market share. It is, therefore, important for organizations to have an effective strategy for customer management. This paper, therefore, presents a brief experience with customer experience, thought and discussion of CEM concepts.

Brief Experience

It happened when I was working at a fashion and clothing store as a sales representative. A customer had ordered for some shoes through the company online store with clear specifications but the client claimed that the wrong items were delivered to her. The client lives 21 miles away from the store and therefore, the delivered or return of a product can be done within a day. Unfortunately, the client could not properly get an assistant on the phone so she could return the items for exchange because she made an order from different stores located almost 40 miles. That day the client came to the store so annoyed, making a lot of noise, which could scare the rest of the clients in the store. I apologetically, approach the client and apologize for the mistake and asked her if we could have a private conversation. In our conversation, I apologize again and exchange the shoes to her based on her specifications. I also gave her a discount card and a coupon, which she could use in any of our stores. This calmed her down and she became a frequent customer to the company with the most positive review on our website.


During the customers’ issues, I thought about the image of the company what other clients would imagine. It was about the impact of the noise and what it could cause the company if not addressed properly. Although after checking the order details, I realize that the client indicated a wrong specification different from what she was claiming. It was upon us to ensure that the situation at the store is controlled to bring order and show customers that we care for their concerns, which is the main goal of the company. It is also important to note that issuing an apology to the customer directly before of other customers puts the needs and wants of the customers first and created a connection with customers CITATION Mar17 \p 16 \l 1033 (Rouse, 2017, p. 16). Addressing such issues requires an understanding of the consequences of handling the issue wrongly and therefore after an apology has been issued. The client was invited for a brief conversation where she was briefed. The customer was issued with a discount card and coupon to ensure she leaves the store happy so she can trust the company again, which it was achieved. The thoughts were about the future of the customer and what she can do to the brand if she is not served properly.

However, it is important to point out that customers experience managements about the journey, needs and wants of a customer. By accepting the mistake and apologizing for means that the company care for the needs and willing to create a connection with the customer, which is a great asset to building customer loyalty in the market CITATION Ian19 \p 21 \l 1033 (Michiels, 2019, p. 21). The company believes that with constant customer engagement through having a healthy discussion it is possible to solve customers’ problems. The centric engagement is critical to success and therefore, the company puts a lot of focus on customers rather than the product and therefore, it values the input of all clients. The company culture is building around customers’ management and it is the reason it has an online platform for feedbacks.

A different customer experience happened when I visited a different hotel and the client lost his hotel, which he forgetfully carried out of the hotel. The hotel supervisor forced the customer to pay for the lost keys. I feel it was wrong for the customer to be forced to pay for the lost key since this could happen to any other person. The hotel management ought to have just given him another key and advised him not to carry it out next time. In this case, it shows rudeness and how the hotel does not care about its customers. It shows that the items or the products come before customers and this usually does not make customers happy. It could lead to loss of customer and I am very sure such customer would not use the same hotel in the future.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Michiels, I. (2019). Sorting Out Key Concepts in Customer Experience Management. Customer Think, 2-31.

Rouse, M. (2017). customer experience management (CEM or CXM). International Journal of Customer Management and Relationship , 2-18.

Subject: Education

Pages: 2 Words: 600

A Challenges Facing A Public Policy Issue.

Challenges Facing a Public Policy Issue

Your Name (First M. Last)

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)


Challenges Facing a Public Policy Issue


One of the most significant public policy issues is considered to be the current mismatch between resources and needs. Needs are increasing on the daily basis as a result of which poverty in its all kinds such as subjective, objective, temporary, lasting, partial, total, relative, and absolute has been increasing throughout the region due to the mass unemployment result. Some other factors of poverty include a requirement for paying prices of the world for the consumer's goods, the enhancing gap between domestic and foreign levels of wage, enhancing inequalities in wealth and income, and deteriorating services of health. This report describes the challenges facing one of the most common public policy issues, how one can address these challenges with the help of his degree, and reason for joining the MCNY college.


Several states have fewer resources due to overall decline in the GDP and production, privatization of profitable organizations, the declining state capacity for collecting contributions and taxes, frequent deductions in taxes for not discouraging capital, black economy growth, incestuous relations between political and economic elites, and also the fact that people are less willing to making contribution and paying taxes for deteriorating services. The potential challenges of this gap between resources and needs are still considered to be varied and unclear. It looks almost impossible for devising social assistance system which will be both effective and efficient. It is because there is inadequate money for funding a decent net of safety and inadequate capacity of administration for targeting the truly needy. Such an issue is so challenging that it merits a more discussion of the system. The average wage is so low which recipients barely manage for staying above even a line of modest poverty (Davies, & Challis, 2018). If the line of poverty is established at a decent level then there will be substantial disincentives for working. Another significant challenge is considered to find the neediest person due to black economy prevalence. Incomes and production from plots of household are problematic for calculating. Poors use the black market for surviving by accepting low-paid, unprotected, dangerous, and risky jobs. These are the most significant challenges facing the current mismatch between resources and needs.

My degree can help me in understanding the challenges related to the mismatch between resources and goals. With the help of my education, I can reduce poverty with the new entrepreneurship ideas and then giving to deserving people. My degree can help me in teaching several skills on leadership and teamwork that can help me in running a successful business with highly paid jobs. It can help me in teaching some practical skills which can be helpful in running a business (Roosevelt, 2015). This degree can help me in achieving my career goals which are to eradicate poverty from the societies by reducing the challenging that is facing for the mismatch between resources and needs.

Graduate school is considered to be a significant step in their career development process and if wants to pursue the graduate studies, MCNY college will be the best choice for him. Their mission is to provide an experientially-based superior education which fosters professional and personal development, encourages positive transformation in communities or workplace, and promotes social justice. They have the values of maintaining and establishing the greatest standards, implementing and identifying creative opportunities for providing quality services and programs, helping others and ourselves for becoming more productive and effective, and actively supporting and promoting a community of different ideas and people. So, with such a broad mission and vision, MCNY can be the best choice for any student who wants to complete his graduation. They have one of the most experienced and skilled faculty who can help their students in providing quality education which can help them in achieving their career goals (Ross, 2018).


So, it is concluded that mismatch between resources and needs are considered to be one of the most significant public policy issues which can be eradicated with the help of quality education through perusing graduates' studies at MCNY college.


Davies, B., & Challis, D. (2018). Matching resources to needs in community care: An evaluated demonstration of a long-term care model. Routledge.

Roosevelt, G. G. (2015). Creating a College that Works: Audrey Cohen and Metropolitan College of New York. SUNY Press.

Ross, C. M. (2018). The Necessary for More Activities Resources Suited to Meeting the Needs of a Culturally Diverse Population in Long-Term Care: A Look at Language. BAOJ Neurol, 4, 57.

Subject: Education

Pages: 2 Words: 600

A Community Reinforcement Approach

A Community Reinforcement Approach

Your Name (First M. Last)

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)

A Community Reinforcement Approach

Why is positive reinforcement more effective than punishment in changing addictive behavior?

Reinforcements are simple psychological processes that cause the repetition of a certain type of behavior. To help the patient deal with substance abuse, both negative and positive reinforcements are used. In general, positive reinforcements are the positive motivating factor of our lives that help the individuals o repeat the desired behavior.

The substance can be enforced. Drugs and alcohol availability to make a person feel less anxious, encourage social interactions and provide theme energy to service through the day. Many take the drugs to solve their problems in a very negative destructive way. Research proposes that people who abuse drugs and alcohol to evade the negative emotions are more likely to have issues with substance abuse then the ones who consume drugs for satisfying feelings. Positive reinforcements encourage the abusers to leave or reduce their drugs intakes through encouragement and support. This helps a person to feel the positive energy while abstaining from the drugs. On the other hand, if an abuser is treated poorly or is punished poorly, more likely he will engage in negative feelings and will keep engaging in the habit of drug abuse. Negative reinforcements can cause a person to stay stuck in a bad situation even if punishment consequences are not likely to not take place. Patients keep taking the medications just to avoid feeling bad.

Thus, in the situation of substance abuse, the beneficial technique is positive reinforcement. This allows patients to avoid negative emotions. It helps patients to feel motivated regarding changing their habits with a positive incentive. Both of these techniques work in different situations but its clinician’s duty to figure out which technique is more suitable for which of the patient(“Both Positive and Negative Reinforcements Can Create Behavior Changes,” 2010).


Both Positive and Negative Reinforcements Can Create Behavior Changes. (2010, June 18). Retrieved April 22, 2019, from Addiction Intervention website: https://www.addiction-intervention.com/current-events/addiction-news/both-positive-and-negative-reinforcements-can-create-behavior-changes/

Subject: Education

Pages: 1 Words: 300

A Contemporary Photographer And Their Place In Photographic History.

A contemporary photographer and their place in photographic history


[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Author Note

A contemporary photographer and their place in photographic history Sally man

Sally Mann, an American photographer, was born in Lexington, Virginia, 1951. She is considered amongst the top and well-known photographers in the history of America. She is doing photography in the South America since 1970s, creating sequence on landscape, portraiture, still life and architecture. Perhaps in South America she has been considered best for her reminiscent and vibrant landscape work.

Moreover, she has presented with innumerable awards, comprising NEA, Guggenheim Foundation grants and NEH. Her amazing work is carried out internationally by significant institutions. Her numerous publications including At Twelve (1988), Immediate Family (1992), Still Time (1994), What Remains (2003), Deep South (2005), Proud Flesh (2009), The Flesh and the Spirit (2010), Remembered Light (2016) and Sally Mann: A Thousand Crossings (2018). Time magazine granted her the title of “America’s Best Photographer” in year 2001.With regard to her work, one of her 1994 documentary, Blood Ties, was considered for nomination for an Academy Award. What Remains, A theatrical film was nominated for 2008 Emmy Award. Her greatest hit biography, Hold Still (Little, Brown, 2015), is greatly lauded, and was eligible for National Book Award finalist. The Andrew Carnegie Medal for Excellence in Nonfiction was won by hold still in 2016. In 2018 Sally Mann: A Thousand Crossings, was presented in national council of arts and received great appreciations. “Few photographers of any time or place have matched Sally Mann’s steadiness of simple eyesight, her serene technical brilliance, and the clearly communicated eloquence she derives from her subjects, human and otherwise – subjects observed with an ardor that is all but indistinguishable from love.”— Reynolds Price, TIME

Subject: Education

Pages: 1 Words: 300

A Cover Letter Addressing Capabilities Framework

Subject: Education

Pages: 3 Words: 900

A Cover Letter Addressing Essentail Criteria, Desireable Criteria And Personal Attributes

Sajal Roy, Curriculum Vitae

6/8 Priddle Street, Westmead, 2145, Sydney, NSW, Australia

M: +61(0)426467996, Email: s.roy@westernsydney.edu.au, roysajal.wgs@gmail.com, Skype: sajal.roy71

September 16, 2019

[Add name of the Official Here]

[Add Designation Here]

[Add Institution name here]

[Add City name here]

[Add State Name here]

Dear Mr. /Ms. /Mrs. XYZ,

The intention behind writing this letter to you is quite obvious; to be an integral part of your faculty family. After going through the most awaited job opening, I decided to knot some words and come up with an appealing explanation of myself so that I could make it easier for you to select a professionally competent and an insightful lecturer not only for the subject-specific obligations but also for the holistic psychosocial development of your students. After reading this job description thoroughly, I found that following are the main points that you would like to find in the prospective teacher:

General requirements for this position included recruiting a lecturer that maintains and established internationally recognized research on international development and social anthropology. In this fixed three years nine month job, I will be responsible for contributing to the established reputation both in the regular school activities and research. Besides these duties, teaching some additional subjects such as media and international development, human geography, politics and international development and development practice was also required. Moreover, you would also like to recruit teachers with skeptical approach and a research-based objective overview towards sensitive issues and topics within the field such as excellent skills to execute qualitative research using appropriate context specific techniques like ethnography, systematic observation, archival research and detailed structured and semi- structured interviews.

As far as specific requirements of the job position are concerned, the desired lecturer will be responsible for contributing to the research and general teaching outcomes, research- funding bids, attracting external financial remittances from the well- heeled members of the society and concerned authorities at both national and international level, nurturing the students with the core international development modules using effective teaching methodologies at undergraduate and post graduate level, undergoing training sessions in order to foster her professional competence and polish her skills more dexterously, executing advanced planning and preparation for the schedules including teaching and non-teaching periods, preparing examination questions, marking, and providing psychological, emotional and social support to the students so that they could perform even better, ensuring that the course content purely harmonizes with the international standards and undertaking extra- curricular activities hand in hand with the instructional obligations as specified by the school management.

The professional characteristics required for this job position included Philosophy of doctorate (PhD) in anthropology, development studies and relevant social science disciplines, internationally recognized research publication relevant to above mentioned disciplines, and relevant social science disciplines, research expertise in qualitative research method with specialized emphasis on the ethnographic research, consultancy funding commensurate with experience and career stage, experience of teaching under graduate and graduate students to above mentioned disciplines along with proven dissertation supervision experience. Besides this, special circumstances included willingness of the teacher to be the important part of International development so that she could give one third of her time to externally funded research projects, training and consultancy even abroad.

As far as personal characteristic of the desired lecturer are concerned, excellent interpersonal skills fell at the top of the list because they ensure our ability to work with the students and colleagues effectively after developing appropriate self- control abilities and emotional intelligence. A sense of commitment is another top priority because it helps them transforming their self interests and linking it with the goals and objectives of institution. Flexibility both in the personality and in schedule were some other desired characteristics that acted as the prominent hallmark of a desired teacher.

Now that I have explained what I read in the job description, I would hereby relate these “desired” general, personal and professional attributes with my own personality and work-life. I am currently in a way to complete my PhD degree in Global Studies, International Development, Gender and Cultural Studies and Environmental Social Sciences from the Institute of Culture and Society, Western Sydney University with the thesis title of “Extreme weather, livelihoods, and gender relations: the experiences of Indigenous and Muslim Sundarbans forest communities in Bangladesh” which is due for submission on 21 November 2019. I vow to publish this research article with the esteemed collaboration of International Centre for Climate Change and Development.

Other qualifications include Master of Philosophy (MPhil) in Gender and Development Studies, University of Bergen, Norway (2011 – 2013) in Critical Perspectives on Development Processes: From Economic Growth to Human Development, Gender Analysis: Critical Cross-Cultural Approaches, Critical Perspectives on Environment and Development, Research Methodologies and Research Proposal, Master of Social Sciences (MSS) (2009-2010) in Women and Gender Studies, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh and Bachelor of Social Sciences (BSS, Honors) (2006-2009) in Women and Gender Studies, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Besides this, I have received six professional certificates in the relevant disciples from various international universities such as Lund University, Sweden, United Nations Department of Safety and Security, Bangladesh, University of Lausanne, Switzerland and University of Padova, Italy during 2012-2015. I have also experienced writing my personal piece of literature in the concerned field and named this book as Climate Change Impacts, on Gender Relations in Bangladesh: Socio-environmental struggles of the Shora forest community in the Sundarbans Mangrove Forest encapsulating seven chapters. It was published by Springer publications in 2018. Likewise, reading is my hobby and after executing a lot of reading, I have written many book reviews such as “Women and Girls: Vulnerable or Resilient?” and many others. I also produced a short documentary titled “Livelihood Diversities at Sundarbans Forest” and screening of the film took place at the Department of Development Studies, Lund University, Sweden.

Currently, one of my book proposal, three book chapters and two journal articles are under review. I have received various grants and funding from renowned academic institutions as well. As an ethnographer, I am interested to understand ways in which rural transformation has been occurring across South Asia and Southeast Asia. My principal research interests lie in the field of boarder interdisciplinary studies, specifically transformation of the rural and urban livelihoods in terms of climate change-related extreme weather events (tropical cyclones, floods and draught) and their intersectional consequences in reconfiguring gendered relations and sustainable development processes in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa.

My primary teaching philosophy is to inspire my students to develop their own learning interests and critical thinking and establishing a learner-centered environment flipped learning model in the classroom. Moreover, I prepare lesson plans and tutorial notes considering the interconnection between student’s own knowledge, culture, learning abilities, interactive classroom discussion and current debates on the study field. I prefer choosing content and activities that are both significant and challenging for the students so that they might be stimulated to think ‘‘beyond’’ their comfortable zone and feel involved in their own learning process.

Besides professional skills, Positive outlook, excellent decision making skills, appropriate problem solving abilities, emotion and problem focused coping, pro-social insight, openness to experience, internal element of respect for the religious and ethnic minorities and special persons, creativity, intelligence, a predisposed urge to learn more and use time productively and commendable rapport building skills are some building blocks of my personality. Hence, I understand that my personal and professional skills and attributes synchronize best with your job criteria.

Thank you for your precious time and for considering me for this position. I have included my resume and will follow up with an email to see if I can offer any more information. I am looking forward to meeting with you very soon.


Sajal Roy

Subject: Education

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

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