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A Crazy Life


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Crazy Life

I call life crazy because it brings you the craziest experiences which you do not expect. All of the sudden life opens thousands of doors for you to choose and you get confused. Other times it is so hard on you that you start thinking of getting away from life. When I see around, I find people broken and suffered in the hands of life. I feel very pity for them, because my life experiences are not very different. When I look at my own life, I have always been touched by the realities of life and I always wished to transform myself. It is true that experiences can give you skills and abilities to overcome the existing problem. Through my experiences I learned that life is difficult but it is not constant. One day you are frustrated by the workload, the next day you feel bore because you do not have anything to do. If it is raining today, there will be a sun shine tomorrow. This is what life is, it is temporary. Similarly, the pain and hurdles are also temporary. Life is a good teacher, when you are ready to learn. This is what I have learned from my life and I also want to tell the same to the people out there, who are in pain. Self-reflection helped me to transform my life and I have a deep understanding of myself. I want to use this power to empower people who are in pain and who do not have the confidence to deal with their crazy lives. Thus, my aim of life motivated me to choose a career in Psychiatry and help everyone.

At the same time, when I look at my own community my heart aches because I find them very vulnerable, dealing with their mental health. Most of them are struggling with financials issues and they do not have the money to take some help from Psychologists. It is a dream now that one day I will become a successful Psychiatrist and provide free services to the African American community. Therefore, I always try to shape my interests and my academics in a one direction to achieve the goal of my life. Apart from my education, I also volunteer at different non-profit organizations. I love helping people and I want to experience the feeling of helping others selflessly.

Likewise, my strengths also keep me motivated throughout the student life, which is considered as one of the craziest age period. It is challenging but when I think of the changes I want to make in people’s lives, I get motivated. I work hard to achieve my academic goals. At the same time, I enhance my skills through the community work experience. I observe people and I love to learn about human behavior. I understand that psychology is not an easy subject. It is a challenging one, I would put my best efforts towards my degree and will achieve my goal. Getting into your prestigious institute would be a great opportunity for me. Under the guidance of trained instructors here, I would be able learn about conflict resolution, crisis help, behavioral study and counselling. Moreover, I also want to improve my communications skills so that I would articulate my words in a professional manner. When I am able to learn all the professional practices, I will come forward to spread awareness and advocacy to the people who are need. Moreover, my non-profit organization will assist people who are unable to afford a mental care. I will also achieve my goal of teaching people that life is not crazy, it is just us overthinking about the life.

Subject: Education

Pages: 2 Words: 600

A Critical Review Of The Guidelines Of Drug And Alcohol Treatment Within Residential Settings

The critical review of the guidelines of drug and alcohol treatment

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

The critical review of the guidelines of drug and alcohol treatment within residential settings.


Drugs and alcohol abuse had long remained an issue of concern throughout the World. It attracts much attention when it involves abuse. Decades before, it was normally considered that the drug or alcohol abuse is the ultimate path towards the end of life. Since the beginning of the treatment of patients that had been affected by drugs or alcohol in any way, it has experienced enough improvements. One of the most practiced ways of such treatment today is within the residential settings ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"oaoetu29","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Siegel et al. 2007)","plainCitation":"(Siegel et al. 2007)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":260,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/8U7NX84K"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/8U7NX84K"],"itemData":{"id":260,"type":"article-journal","title":"2007 Guideline for isolation precautions preventing transmission of infectious agents in healthcare settings","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Siegel","given":"Jane D."},{"family":"Rhinehart","given":"Emily"},{"family":"Jackson","given":"Marguerite"},{"family":"Chiarello","given":"Linda"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2007"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Siegel et al. 2007). In this form of treatments, intensive care is provided to the people who had suffered from any mental illness, or mainly have experienced any form of drug and alcohol abuse. In such an environment, non- prescribed drugs and alcohol are kept away, and an appropriate environment is delivered to solve the basic causes of dependence on ill medications. Such treatment plans are considered long lasting and aim at the re-integration of the affected people into the community again. Such residential treatment center is often referred to as Rehab ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"YPHGovks","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Siegel et al. 2007)","plainCitation":"(Siegel et al. 2007)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":260,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/8U7NX84K"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/8U7NX84K"],"itemData":{"id":260,"type":"article-journal","title":"2007 Guideline for isolation precautions preventing transmission of infectious agents in healthcare settings","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Siegel","given":"Jane D."},{"family":"Rhinehart","given":"Emily"},{"family":"Jackson","given":"Marguerite"},{"family":"Chiarello","given":"Linda"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2007"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Siegel et al. 2007). There are certain guidelines provided by the state from time to time, to these Rehab centers in order to create a common standard throughout the country.

This essay is intended to critically analyze the guidelines practiced for the drug and alcohol treatment within the residential settings. The essay mainly analyses critically the guidelines about the treatment of alcohol or drug abuse patients and evaluates them in comparison to the Agree II guidelines. The essay will be divided into three sections. The first section of the essay includes the guidelines for the treatment of patients with drug and alcohol abuse. The second section includes the critical analysis of those guidelines and the third section includes the analysis of the guidelines with the Agree II standards. The conclusion will be part of this section.

Guidelines for the treatment of drugs and alcohol abuse

The guidelines are standard forms of clinical practices. These guidelines mainly involve general recommendations for daily clinical decisions in the hospital, procedures of maintaining medical standards at hospitals or clinics, health budget allocations by state governments and by the insurance companies ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"LV9eztl4","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Gray et al. 2010)","plainCitation":"(Gray et al. 2010)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":266,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/8PP69835"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/8PP69835"],"itemData":{"id":266,"type":"article-journal","title":"Managing alcohol-related problems among Indigenous Australians: what the literature tells us","container-title":"Australian and New Zealand journal of public health","page":"S34–S35","volume":"34","source":"Google Scholar","shortTitle":"Managing alcohol-related problems among Indigenous Australians","author":[{"family":"Gray","given":"Dennis"},{"family":"Saggers","given":"Sherry"},{"family":"Wilkes","given":"Edward"},{"family":"Allsop","given":"Steve"},{"family":"Ober","given":"Coralie"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2010"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Gray et al. 2010). For patients that are the victims of drug or alcohol abuse, these guidelines are entirely different as compare to the stands guidelines practices in the world for medical treatment. The Institute of Medicine defines such clinical guidelines as “properly developed rules to help medical practitioners and patients with drug abuse to get into the community life again ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"xKY5SbWl","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Dans and Dans 2010)","plainCitation":"(Dans and Dans 2010)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":258,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/KDVJL28H"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/KDVJL28H"],"itemData":{"id":258,"type":"article-journal","title":"Appraising a tool for guideline appraisal (the AGREE II instrument)","container-title":"Journal of clinical epidemiology","page":"1281","volume":"63","issue":"12","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Dans","given":"Antonio L."},{"family":"Dans","given":"Leonila F."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2010"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Dans and Dans 2010). These guidelines offer appropriate directions about which medical tests to order at first place to detect the presence of alcohol, and how to carry on with further medical services, about the length of the stay of patients in rehabilitation centers or residential settings and many such details about medical practices ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"oWO1wReJ","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Simpson et al. 1997)","plainCitation":"(Simpson et al. 1997)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":302,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/3UGGWD4E"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/3UGGWD4E"],"itemData":{"id":302,"type":"article-journal","title":"Drug abuse treatment process components that improve retention","container-title":"Journal of substance abuse treatment","page":"565–572","volume":"14","issue":"6","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Simpson","given":"D. Dwayne"},{"family":"Joe","given":"George W."},{"family":"Rowan-Szal","given":"Grace A."},{"family":"Greener","given":"Jack M."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1997"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Simpson et al. 1997). The main reasons for the development of such guidelines are pressing issues in the treatment of drug and alcohol abuses throughout the world, the rising trends in the costs of such treatment, and the expanding demands for health care, the introduction of expensive technologies in the medical field and the presence of a much larger number of old aged peoples ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"jHBfhtKB","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Levin, Evans, and Kleber 1999)","plainCitation":"(Levin, Evans, and Kleber 1999)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":283,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/4RD6ULNV"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/4RD6ULNV"],"itemData":{"id":283,"type":"article-journal","title":"Alcohol & drug abuse: Practical guidelines for the treatment of substance abusers with adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder","container-title":"Psychiatric Services","page":"1001–1003","volume":"50","issue":"8","source":"Google Scholar","shortTitle":"Alcohol & drug abuse","author":[{"family":"Levin","given":"Frances R."},{"family":"Evans","given":"Suzette M."},{"family":"Kleber","given":"Herbert D."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1999"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Levin, Evans, and Kleber 2013). These guidelines are also important in maintaining a general standard in the medical diagnostic and treatment as today there exist wide variations from region to region. Some health care experts opine that these variations exist because of the inappropriate methodologies used in caregiving, the extra reliance over the health care systems or less reliance and mainly because of the desire of the medical specialists to offer best and desired care by the patient ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"TEV4W4Fs","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Levin, Evans, and Kleber 1999)","plainCitation":"(Levin, Evans, and Kleber 1999)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":283,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/4RD6ULNV"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/4RD6ULNV"],"itemData":{"id":283,"type":"article-journal","title":"Alcohol & drug abuse: Practical guidelines for the treatment of substance abusers with adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder","container-title":"Psychiatric Services","page":"1001–1003","volume":"50","issue":"8","source":"Google Scholar","shortTitle":"Alcohol & drug abuse","author":[{"family":"Levin","given":"Frances R."},{"family":"Evans","given":"Suzette M."},{"family":"Kleber","given":"Herbert D."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1999"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Levin, Evans, and Kleber 2011). The healthcare professionals, the caregivers working in the clinics, the policymakers in the field of medicines and the physicians use these guidelines as a standard tool of consideration in the medical field. It also helps bridge the gap between what is required specifically by the patient or which clinical methodology be used to treat that patient and what the clinician or the health expert is supposed to perform. At present these guidelines have also included the manufacturing and uses of medicine, their evaluations and how and when to use them.

Uses of Guideline: The primary use of the guidelines is to maximize the quality of the care given to drug abuse patients. It is generally believed that till date, the guidelines have resulted in improving the quality of the medical facilities being given to the patients throughout the world. The reason for this belief is the different definitions of the quality of medicine throughout the world ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"qWZGS3Cc","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Stall et al. 1986)","plainCitation":"(Stall et al. 1986)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":281,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/XQEC7WB3"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/XQEC7WB3"],"itemData":{"id":281,"type":"article-journal","title":"Alcohol and drug use during sexual activity and compliance with safe sex guidelines for AIDS: The AIDS behavioral research project","container-title":"Health Education Quarterly","page":"359–371","volume":"13","issue":"4","source":"Google Scholar","shortTitle":"Alcohol and drug use during sexual activity and compliance with safe sex guidelines for AIDS","author":[{"family":"Stall","given":"Ron"},{"family":"McKusick","given":"Leon"},{"family":"Wiley","given":"James"},{"family":"Coates","given":"Thomas J."},{"family":"Ostrow","given":"David G."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1986"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Stall et al. 1986). For medically ill persons and for the normal person, the largest outcome of these guidelines are the improvements in the health results. Guidelines also play an important part in the promotion of medical benefits and have intervened in discouraging the ineffective use of health care facilities for the patients ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"ihjeKHjX","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Regier et al. 1990)","plainCitation":"(Regier et al. 1990)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":305,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/9EHDDH8J"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/9EHDDH8J"],"itemData":{"id":305,"type":"article-journal","title":"Comorbidity of mental disorders with alcohol and other drug abuse: results from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) study","container-title":"Jama","page":"2511–2518","volume":"264","issue":"19","source":"Google Scholar","shortTitle":"Comorbidity of mental disorders with alcohol and other drug abuse","author":[{"family":"Regier","given":"Darrel A."},{"family":"Farmer","given":"Mary E."},{"family":"Rae","given":"Donald S."},{"family":"Locke","given":"Ben Z."},{"family":"Keith","given":"Samuel J."},{"family":"Judd","given":"Lewis L."},{"family":"Goodwin","given":"Frederick K."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1990"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Regier et al. 1990). These guidelines are also used to improve the care been given to the people by through health care programs and the studies carried on in many regions of the world ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"hFxfpD76","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Steenrod et al. 2002)","plainCitation":"(Steenrod et al. 2002)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":290,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/CEULHAWY"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/CEULHAWY"],"itemData":{"id":290,"type":"chapter","title":"Effects of managed care on programs and practices for the treatment of alcohol and drug dependence","container-title":"Alcoholism","publisher":"Springer","page":"51–71","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Steenrod","given":"Shelley"},{"family":"Brisson","given":"Anne"},{"family":"McCarty","given":"Dennis"},{"family":"Hodgkin","given":"Dominic"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2002"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Steenrod et al. 2012). Guidelines are also used to improve the consistency of care; studies around the world show that the frequency with which medical procedures are carried on by doctors, or medical specialists are much different throughout the world. This is how medical guidelines are important. Guidelines present a remedy, that makes it more likely that patients will be cared for in the same way irrespective of where and by whom they get treated ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"MIJoq22m","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Sadowski et al. 2009)","plainCitation":"(Sadowski et al. 2009)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":292,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/5NK8DV2N"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/5NK8DV2N"],"itemData":{"id":292,"type":"article-journal","title":"Effect of a housing and case management program on emergency department visits and hospitalizations among chronically ill homeless adults: a randomized trial","container-title":"Jama","page":"1771–1778","volume":"301","issue":"17","source":"Google Scholar","shortTitle":"Effect of a housing and case management program on emergency department visits and hospitalizations among chronically ill homeless adults","author":[{"family":"Sadowski","given":"Laura S."},{"family":"Kee","given":"Romina A."},{"family":"VanderWeele","given":"Tyler J."},{"family":"Buchanan","given":"David"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2009"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Sadowski et al. 2009).

Limitations of the guidelines: The first and foremost limitation of the guidelines is that the recommendations might get wrong. This could happen for three reasons firstly, by any scientific error, by the over the influence of clinical experiences, and thirdly patients need might not be in proper lining with the guidelines ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"TKKeUWch","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Kaufman and Kaufmann 1979)","plainCitation":"(Kaufman and Kaufmann 1979)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":303,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/Q58K4IXQ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/Q58K4IXQ"],"itemData":{"id":303,"type":"book","title":"Family therapy of drug and alcohol abuse","publisher":"Gardner Press New York","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Kaufman","given":"Edward"},{"family":"Kaufmann","given":"Pauline"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1979"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Kaufman and Kaufmann 1979). The reliance over flawed guideline by practitioners, or encouragement on part of the health care providers for adoption to a lesser known guideline in the treatment of drug abuse. Patients, healthcare experts, and the system may all get harmed ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"XgDX1bNl","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Prendergast et al. 2006)","plainCitation":"(Prendergast et al. 2006)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":276,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/4SD4ATR5"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/4SD4ATR5"],"itemData":{"id":276,"type":"article-journal","title":"Erratum to\" The effectiveness of drug abuse treatment: A meta-analysis of comparison group studies\"[Drug Alcohol Depend. 67 (2002) 53-72].","source":"Google Scholar","shortTitle":"Erratum to\" The effectiveness of drug abuse treatment","author":[{"family":"Prendergast","given":"Michael L."},{"family":"Podus","given":"Deborah"},{"family":"Chang","given":"Eunice"},{"family":"Urada","given":"Darren"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2006"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Prendergast et al. 2006).

Critical Analysis of the guidelines developed for the treatment of alcohol and drug abuse for residential settings

The guidelines developed for the treatment of patients with alcohol or drug abuse within a residential settings involve some standard operations. However, there are some medical PR actioners which opine that these medical treatments push the patients into more a kind of segregated environment. Such environments are although designed to keep patients in more a kind of medically customized place, but such an environment often results in making a patient more deprived of what exactly his or her want is.

Customized treatment: Customized treatment for every patient is beneficial but there are cases reported which claims that such medical treatments result in turning the immune system of the patient to allergic to other normal medical treatments ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"tFE5dEAy","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Moran, Enderby, and Nancarrow 2011)","plainCitation":"(Moran, Enderby, and Nancarrow 2011)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":270,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/PG3DCM97"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/PG3DCM97"],"itemData":{"id":270,"type":"article-journal","title":"Defining and identifying common elements of and contextual influences on the roles of support workers in health and social care: a thematic analysis of the literature","container-title":"Journal of evaluation in clinical practice","page":"1191–1199","volume":"17","issue":"6","source":"Google Scholar","shortTitle":"Defining and identifying common elements of and contextual influences on the roles of support workers in health and social care","author":[{"family":"Moran","given":"Anna"},{"family":"Enderby","given":"Pamela"},{"family":"Nancarrow","given":"Susan"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2011"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Moran, Enderby, and Nancarrow 2011). These patients then develop a not normal medical history. Therefore some standard practices are adapted to treat such patients anywhere.

Emergency treatments: Up till now, there have been noticed some observations that within the residential settings the guidelines lack the presence of emergency treatments of the affected patients. These patients can anytime turn themselves up which creates an environment of emergency, this, therefore, requires the development of an emergency mechanism to curtail the chances of anything serious happening to the patient ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"2PVqK3HG","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Schonberg 1993)","plainCitation":"(Schonberg 1993)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":264,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/TRI7XBSC"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/TRI7XBSC"],"itemData":{"id":264,"type":"book","title":"Guidelines for the treatment of alcohol-and other drug-abusing adolescents","publisher":"US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Substance …","volume":"4","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Schonberg","given":"S. Kenneth"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1993"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Schonberg 1993).

Cardiac issues: The alcoholic patient is every time at the risk of developing heart problems. Their heartbeat remains not standard as compared to normal people. The treatment of such cardiac issues requires the essence of emergency settings around the patient, which is however not possible within the residential settings ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"ZQxcgWt3","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Mortlock, Deane, and Crowe 2011)","plainCitation":"(Mortlock, Deane, and Crowe 2011)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":299,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/6XTD5PLV"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/6XTD5PLV"],"itemData":{"id":299,"type":"article-journal","title":"Screening for mental disorder comorbidity in Australian alcohol and other drug residential treatment settings","container-title":"Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment","page":"397–404","volume":"40","issue":"4","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Mortlock","given":"Kane Saxon"},{"family":"Deane","given":"Frank P."},{"family":"Crowe","given":"Trevor Patrick"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2011"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Mortlock, Deane, and Crowe 2011). The guidelines for this suggests that the patient is shifted to a near buy cardiac center, and considering the cardiac history that remains impossible. Therefore, the guidelines must include readiness in the availability as some patients are at risk of cardiac attacks or such other chronic illness sty.

Other medical issues: It is much possible that the patient could have developed with time other medical problems, most common remains the HIV or the Hepatitis B or C The guidelines however appears addressing the medical problems that originate from the alcoholic issues, in such conditions the medical specialists opine that this it is possible to treat such all conditions at the same time ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"W59t0cMA","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Sadowski et al. 2009)","plainCitation":"(Sadowski et al. 2009)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":292,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/5NK8DV2N"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/5NK8DV2N"],"itemData":{"id":292,"type":"article-journal","title":"Effect of a housing and case management program on emergency department visits and hospitalizations among chronically ill homeless adults: a randomized trial","container-title":"Jama","page":"1771–1778","volume":"301","issue":"17","source":"Google Scholar","shortTitle":"Effect of a housing and case management program on emergency department visits and hospitalizations among chronically ill homeless adults","author":[{"family":"Sadowski","given":"Laura S."},{"family":"Kee","given":"Romina A."},{"family":"VanderWeele","given":"Tyler J."},{"family":"Buchanan","given":"David"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2009"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Sadowski et al. 2009). The guidelines also need some adjustments in the treatment of such diseases also, which is also a standard medical practice. Therefore, treatments must be designed to address the multiple needs of the individual with such problems. That must not be limited to his or his use of drugs.

Medical Checkups: The guidelines offer various kind of medical treatments to treat patients with alcoholic or drug treatments. There is also the programs that include regular medical checkups of such patients. With regard to this, it appears that in some cases the patients get out of the track and gets detached from the medical prescriptions ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"oMGOJOtQ","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Dans and Dans 2010)","plainCitation":"(Dans and Dans 2010)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":258,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/KDVJL28H"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/KDVJL28H"],"itemData":{"id":258,"type":"article-journal","title":"Appraising a tool for guideline appraisal (the AGREE II instrument)","container-title":"Journal of clinical epidemiology","page":"1281","volume":"63","issue":"12","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Dans","given":"Antonio L."},{"family":"Dans","given":"Leonila F."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2010"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Dans and Dans 2010). The guidelines must address such problems and should induct a standardized mechanism to avoid patients from getting breaks in the treatments. The healthcare expert’s opinions remain for them of critical importance.

Specifications in the Guidelines: The standard medical guidelines of such treatments involve either being too specific or being too through. It is least possible that any such patient could be cured by such designed treatments ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Jg9igJdL","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Moran, Enderby, and Nancarrow 2011)","plainCitation":"(Moran, Enderby, and Nancarrow 2011)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":270,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/PG3DCM97"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/PG3DCM97"],"itemData":{"id":270,"type":"article-journal","title":"Defining and identifying common elements of and contextual influences on the roles of support workers in health and social care: a thematic analysis of the literature","container-title":"Journal of evaluation in clinical practice","page":"1191–1199","volume":"17","issue":"6","source":"Google Scholar","shortTitle":"Defining and identifying common elements of and contextual influences on the roles of support workers in health and social care","author":[{"family":"Moran","given":"Anna"},{"family":"Enderby","given":"Pamela"},{"family":"Nancarrow","given":"Susan"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2011"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Moran, Enderby, and Nancarrow 2011). The guidelines must include a specific set of instructions in regard to the time period in which a patient might get treated. The only reason that there must be standard time period is this that the patient’s relatives and family become sick of going in such flows with the treatments.

Counseling: Counselling that might involve individuals or groups are much important in the complete rehabilitation process ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"jiiznRTp","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Humphreys et al. 2004)","plainCitation":"(Humphreys et al. 2004)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":263,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/XUGCFAG7"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/XUGCFAG7"],"itemData":{"id":263,"type":"article-journal","title":"Self-help organizations for alcohol and drug problems: Toward evidence-based practice and policy","container-title":"Journal of substance abuse treatment","page":"151–158","volume":"26","issue":"3","source":"Google Scholar","shortTitle":"Self-help organizations for alcohol and drug problems","author":[{"family":"Humphreys","given":"Keith"},{"family":"Wing","given":"Stephen"},{"family":"McCarty","given":"Dennis"},{"family":"Chappel","given":"John"},{"family":"Gallant","given":"Lewi"},{"family":"Haberle","given":"Beverly"},{"family":"Horvath","given":"A. Thomas"},{"family":"Kaskutas","given":"Lee Ann"},{"family":"Kirk","given":"Thomas"},{"family":"Kivlahan","given":"Daniel"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2004"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Humphreys et al. 2004). There exist standard mechanisms for this but this remains unattended that what type of counseling would be suitable for any patient. As there are customized plans of medical treatments, there must also be such customized plans of counseling which can bring patients early towards life. The applications of standard counseling practices on every patient remain ineffective.

Regular Medications: Medications combined with therapy plays a pivotal role in the complete rehabilitation process. The guidelines in this regard offer segregated SOPs for both the medications and hepatic procedures ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"rv05emNq","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Moran, Enderby, and Nancarrow 2011)","plainCitation":"(Moran, Enderby, and Nancarrow 2011)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":270,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/PG3DCM97"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/PG3DCM97"],"itemData":{"id":270,"type":"article-journal","title":"Defining and identifying common elements of and contextual influences on the roles of support workers in health and social care: a thematic analysis of the literature","container-title":"Journal of evaluation in clinical practice","page":"1191–1199","volume":"17","issue":"6","source":"Google Scholar","shortTitle":"Defining and identifying common elements of and contextual influences on the roles of support workers in health and social care","author":[{"family":"Moran","given":"Anna"},{"family":"Enderby","given":"Pamela"},{"family":"Nancarrow","given":"Susan"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2011"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Moran, Enderby, and Nancarrow 2011), which becomes difficult to practice separately. Further till yet, such guidelines don’t exist which provides a combined mechanism for these two problems. Similarly, it is also not necessary that the complete rehabilitation process should involve the use of medications.

Guideline Appraisal with the Agree II Appraisal tools

Item No.

Agree II Content

Guideline Appraisal


The guideline objectives are defined specifically.

Since the guidelines under analysis are specific for the patients with drug and alcohol abuse, it clearly defines the objectives of the guidelines in the preliminary paragraphs.


Questions of health are specifically described.

Questions regarding the health and other such problems of such patients are clearly described, but they, however, need some clarifications which have been discussed in the critical analysis part.


Patient type or group of the people are described precisely.

Since the patients sought after are the ones with drug or alcohol abuse, they are clearly described.


The guideline includes medical professionals from all backgrounds.

At some parts, where the guidelines suggest the treatment of patients in line with other medical guidelines, it includes mentioning about the other medical specialists.


Views and Preferences of the target population have been sought.

Since it is an analytical study and does not involves using any quantitative date, therefore it does not involve soughing of the views of such patients.


Guidelines clearly define the target audience.

Guidelines clearly define the target patients which are the patients with drug or alcohol abuse.


Strengths and weakness have been defined properly.

The strength and weakness have been discussed, however, it needs some more clarifications.


A procedure for updating the guidelines exist.

A properly defined procedure lacks but it exists that needs some more modifications.


Primary recommendations are easily identifiable

Primary recommendations in terms of cosmetic procedures are identifiable. Neither part of the guidelines mentions an example of a specific prescription.


Are the recommendations unambiguous

The recommendations are clear and are not unambiguous. However, there are areas which are not properly defined such as for exactly what times the patient be kept under review.


Do the guidelines present any monitoring criteria?

The guidelines mention just the monitoring of the patients either by the family or the medical doctor.


Do the guidelines involve procedure of continuous review?

There are ways mentioned as to how the guidelines are kept in a mode of review.


The guidelines being practiced in Australia conforms to the internationally recognized standards of such guidelines. The guidelines are too specific as they include the guidelines just relevant to the drug or alcohol abuse. As it is generally considered that such patients with time develop other chronic illness, therefore these guidelines must be adjusted with other medical guidelines in order to result in a more thorough set of medical norms.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Dans, Antonio L., and Leonila F. Dans. 2010. “Appraising a Tool for Guideline Appraisal (the AGREE II Instrument).” Journal of clinical epidemiology 63(12): 1281.

Gray, Dennis, et al. 2010. "Managing Alcohol-Related Problems among Indigenous Australians: What the Literature Tells Us." Australian and New Zealand journal of public health 34: S34–S35.

Humphreys, Keith, et al. 2004. "Self-Help Organizations for Alcohol and Drug Problems: Toward Evidence-Based Practice and Policy." Journal of substance abuse treatment 26(3): 151–158.

Kaufman, Edward, and Pauline Kaufmann. 1979. Family Therapy of Drug and Alcohol Abuse. Gardner Press New York.

Levin, Frances R., Suzette M. Evans, and Herbert D. Kleber. 1999. “Alcohol & Drug Abuse: Practical Guidelines for the Treatment of Substance Abusers with Adult Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.” Psychiatric Services 50(8): 1001–1003.

Moran, Anna, Pamela Enderby, and Susan Nancarrow. 2011. “Defining and Identifying Common Elements of and Contextual Influences on the Roles of Support Workers in Health and Social Care: A Thematic Analysis of the Literature.” Journal of evaluation in clinical practice 17(6): 1191–1199.

Mortlock, Kane Saxon, Frank P. Deane, and Trevor Patrick Crowe. 2011. “Screening for Mental Disorder Comorbidity in Australian Alcohol and Other Drug Residential Treatment Settings.” Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 40(4): 397–404.

Prendergast, Michael L., Deborah Podus, Eunice Chang, and Darren Urada. 2006. “Erratum to" The Effectiveness of Drug Abuse Treatment: A Meta-Analysis of Comparison Group Studies"[Drug Alcohol Depend. 67 (2002) 53-72].”

Regier, Darrel A., et al. 1990. "Comorbidity of Mental Disorders with Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse: Results from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) Study." Jama 264(19): 2511–2518.

Sadowski, Laura S., Romina A. Kee, Tyler J. VanderWeele, and David Buchanan. 2009. "Effect of a Housing and Case Management Program on Emergency Department Visits and Hospitalizations Among Chronically Ill Homeless Adults: A Randomized Trial." Jama 301(17): 1771–1778.

Schonberg, S. Kenneth. 1993. 4 Guidelines for the Treatment of Alcohol and Other Drug-Abusing Adolescents. US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Substance ….

Siegel, Jane D., Emily Rhinehart, Marguerite Jackson, and Linda Chiarello. 2007. “2007 Guideline for Isolation Precautions Preventing Transmission of Infectious Agents in Healthcare Settings.”

Simpson, D. Dwayne, George W. Joe, Grace A. Rowan-Szal, and Jack M. Greener. 1997. “Drug Abuse Treatment Process Components That Improve Retention.” Journal of substance abuse treatment 14(6): 565–572.

Stall, Ron et al. 1986. “Alcohol and Drug Use during Sexual Activity and Compliance with Safe Sex Guidelines for AIDS: The AIDS Behavioral Research Project.” Health Education Quarterly 13(4): 359–371.

Steenrod, Shelley, Anne Brisson, Dennis McCarty, and Dominic Hodgkin. 2002. “Effects of Managed Care on Programs and Practices for the Treatment of Alcohol and Drug Dependence.” In Alcoholism, Springer, 51–71.

Subject: Education

Pages: 7 Words: 2100

A Grand Compromise On Immigration

Minh Tran

[Name of Instructor]


10 April 2019

A Grand Compromise on Immigration

The paper incorporates the issues of undocumented immigration and the need for border security, by an addressing solution to these issues and proposing ways to lawful citizenship in the United States of America.

The author pertains that the undocumented immigration persists and the border issues need to be resolved. However, the biggest problem is the undocumented immigrants living in America. Making amendments in law to include them lawfully as citizens against a fee can consequently also fund the border security and address other issues in home countries which lead to immigration to the United States.

The proposed solutions to the burden of immigration and border security mutually benefit both the State and illegal immigrants; lifting the stress of deportation from the immigrants and the state from raising funds for border security.

The authors seem convinced that such initiatives will emerge successfully smoothly and does not explore other reasons which might impede such as the initial costs which are high will be born by the state before any revenues show result and how the populace will react to the reforms.

The reforms proposed by the author limits his arguments by conditioning the reforms to certain categories of undocumented immigrants with a certain time limit. The arguments may also be limited due to the receptivity of the reforms amongst masses, higher fees may consequently delaying the process of border security altogether. The arguments are limited by the time and cost legislation will take to plan and execute these reforms.

The author comprehensively induces the spirit of inclusion and provides resolve for the further escalation of the immigration of undocumented five million people, through robust border security. The proposed reforms lift the burden of border security and its high costs of the state. It provides a realistic view by generating money through managing border security.

Subject: Education

Pages: 1 Words: 300

A Hidden Leader

A Hidden Leader: How Parents Affect Their Children to Become a Strategic Leader

It is known that an outstanding leader can influence followers, surroundings, even his child. Then, the question is how a strategic leader affect his children? What kinds of parents or characters of strategic leaders can influence their children? The paper is aimed at how parents influence their children, and the author will have his real cases to analyze how his mother influence him to become a strategic leader.


First of all, it is important to know the definition of "leadership" and "strategic leadership" because it can help to have real concepts when reading this paper. In Wikipedia, the leadership is described as a person who has a kind of ability to lead or guild other people to complete the common task ("Leadership", 2019). The business dictionary also mentioned that a leader can hold a dominant position and can influence others ("Leader", 2019). How about the strategic leader? A Strategic leader is a person who can think out smart ideas and bring success to the organization when it can meet the long-term goal (Nevins, 2019; "Strategic leadership", 2019). In other words, a strategic leader can jump out of the daily works to see the bigger pictures or visions of the area that he or she is working for. When we combine those two concepts, we can find that a strategic leader will have a higher vision than a common leader, which is important for the team, the person, or someone else because a long-term plan can help people establish a clear plan for themselves. For strategic leaders, it is to combine the power of leaders with the overall mobilization of internal and external resources of the organization, achieve the long-term goals of the organization, dynamically adjust the value activities of the organization, and actively compete for the future and seize the commanding heights of future business opportunities while gaining a firm foothold in the market competition.

What kind of person is a standard strategic leader? There are so many qualities a strategic leader will have, such as loyalty, responsibility, self-control, self-awareness, motivation, open-minded, and so on ("Ten Qualities of a Strategic Leader", 2016). Leitch, Lancefield & Dawson had found that a good strategic leader has ten principles to help him succeed (2016). Distribution of responsibility, honesty, and open mind, multiple solutions for different issues are the first three principles, which can help strategic leaders effectively in decision making, transparency, and innovation; create a relatively safe environment for failure, communicate with other leaders, multiple opportunities for in-service training, time-to-time transformation are four principles for strategic leaders help their followers; self-awareness, self-reflection, and be open to change are the last three principles for the leader himself to be improved (Leitch et al., 2016). In concluded, Strategic leadership is the ability of leaders to put forward and fully promote the realization of vision based on the systematic analysis of stakeholders, self, and strategic situations.

How about parents? How parents influence their children to become a leader? Can strategic leaders who are parents have strategic children? Those questions will be answered later; right now, the paper will focus on the reasons why parents are hidden leaders. Parents are under pressure from their children, giving them enough attention to meet their physiological needs, and this pressure will decrease as they grow, but it will not disappear. At the same time, parents are also under pressure from themselves to make sure their children have abilities to deal with the world in the right way. When every effort is put into this process of balance, it is easy to take shortcuts, which is the key to raising children into controlling, and this part is what we called parenting. Lukens in his article had pointed out that a good parent has an effective education which involves setting boundaries, explaining why those boundaries exist and then believing that children can react on their own when they face some exact problems (2016).

Why parents are hidden leaders?

It is no escaping the fact that parents are hidden leaders. They are the ones who are the main actors in running the family and all familial matters. Throughout history, the role and function of parents have duly been recognized by the other significant actors. Family is the crux of any civilization, and the role of parents is much significant in it. According to the famous historian and social thinker Will Durant who wrote “The Story of Civilization” opined that “the family is the nucleus of civilization”. His quote is the manifestation of the fact that family life and parental influence is much important in any human society as it prepares the strategic leaders of tomorrow. In this view, Parents are the hidden leaders as they transform the lives of their children by cultivating important virtues in their personalities.

Literature review

5 Similarities between Leadership and Parenting

This world history is replete with many effective leaders who changed the course of history with their intellect and wisdom. Some of the great strategic figures that this world has produced are George Washington, Nelson Mandela, Winston Churchill, Thomas Jefferson, Martin Luther King Jr, and et al. All these leaders and their biographical accounts were studied by the social philosophers, and they tried to divulge the secrets behind such strong talent in those individuals. As a result, they found a correlation between leadership and parenting. In this context, the science of parenting and leadership is quite similar in nature and essence. This is well-evident in the articles and researches such as in Forbes that illuminated the similar nature of parenting and leadership. This article listed in Forbes ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"5xf4vKzw","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Gleeson n.d.)","plainCitation":"(Gleeson n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":725,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ZD9MNZ2P/items/XNY8RS5U"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ZD9MNZ2P/items/XNY8RS5U"],"itemData":{"id":725,"type":"webpage","title":"5 Similarities Between Leadership And Parenting","container-title":"Forbes","abstract":"This article was co-authored with Dyan Crace. It’s no secret that parenting is difficult. As a combat veteran, I've even sometimes wondered which is harder; war or raising children? So is managing a team just as hard? Granted, children need more attention and supervision than adults (most of the time), but [...]","URL":"https://www.forbes.com/sites/brentgleeson/2014/07/23/5-similarities-between-leadership-and-parenting/","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Gleeson","given":"Brent"}],"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",7,25]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Gleeson, 2014) explored the same concept and came up with magnificent discoveries. The first and foremost, the author mentioned that both leaders and parents are similar because they are same in their disciplinary nature. It is mandatory for both parents and leaders to maintain enough discipline in their followers as no sphere is successful when there is a lack of discipline. This is the chief characteristic of both leadership and parenting as they focus on maintaining the set pattern of life among their descendants.

Secondly, parents and leaders are similar in the sense that both sections are accountable for their deeds and actions that are done with the use of their authority. Good parents and good leaders are both responsible in their conduct, and it is their similarity as well as they do not hesitate from being accountable for their actions. The third similarity between parents and leaders explored by the Forbes is the praise that they offer to those who are below them in rank and age. Subordinates and children want to hear positive feedback from their ultimate guardians, which improves their efficiency level in their fields such the appreciation from a manager. Fourthly, the respective element is also similar between parents and leaders. Both categories need to be respected as it is mentioned by the Gleeson in his article. No relationship can work when it is bereft of respect and reverence. Parents and leaders need respect and obedience in their commands, and this is mandatory for children and subordinates to follow them wholeheartedly. Lastly, restraint is the similar attribute between parents and leaders, which s much needed to maintain the functional equilibrium in the family or any social group. Being aggressive is counterproductive as it augments the negativity among people. Both leaders and parents need to master this art of restraint to manage their unruly kith and kin. Hence, these are the top five similarities between parenting and leadership, as mentioned in Forbes which are highly pivotal in cultivating strategic leadership spirit among individuals.

Why Good Parents Make Great Leaders

Good parents make good leaders beyond a shadow of a doubt. Sociologists and political thinkers have undergone various researches to find the symbiotic relationship between good parents and great leaders. Their studies illustrated numerous reasons to come up with the conclusion that good parents make good leaders. The article in the workplace therapist ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"baD5eMZe","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Why Good Parents Make Great Leaders | Brandon Smith n.d.)","plainCitation":"(Why Good Parents Make Great Leaders | Brandon Smith n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":731,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ZD9MNZ2P/items/4C4GD56V"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ZD9MNZ2P/items/4C4GD56V"],"itemData":{"id":731,"type":"post-weblog","title":"Why Good Parents Make Great Leaders | Brandon Smith: The Workplace Therapist","abstract":"I need to come clean with you. Open kimono. Full transparency. The naked truth. Here it is: I'm tired. I'm cranky. I have less patience with others. And I'm a","URL":"https://theworkplacetherapist.com/why-good-parents-make-great-leaders/","title-short":"Why Good Parents Make Great Leaders | Brandon Smith","language":"en-US","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",7,25]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Why Good Parents Make Great Leaders | Brandon Smith, 2019) explains various reasons that great leaders are produced by great parents. In this study, the author Brandon Smith opined that great parents make good leaders because they set a defined culture where what is allowed and what is prohibited is stipulated. In this way, parents set a normative pattern for their children to follow and stick fast to. This creates a feeling of a social fact in the minds of children as opined by max weber, and they do not deviate from those key values. As a result, children follow that code of conduct consistently as it is internalized by them. Furthermore, the good parents are committed to their team first, which is the manifestation of their rational thinking. Children immediately realize that they are being directed by the strong, unified team rather than any confused one. This feeling boosts the psychological health of children, and they remember this principle of teamwork all their life. Smith further mentions that good and effective parents raise their children in such a way that it augments their leadership skills. Such parents try to inculcate the right amount of confidence level in their children and the challenge seeking approach. This type of brought up is much essential when it is about producing effective leaders in the world. This is the kind of parenting that has produced powerful leaders in the annals of history. Moreover, this study depicts that good parents hear their children regularly to get their feedback about different things. They extract information from their children to assess the real perception of the different phenomenon of life. Most parents do not follow this approach, and their children feel suppressed in their personalities. With all these measures, good parents also pay keen attention to the development of their children, and they do not sacrifice this step for any other thing. Thus, all these reasons reveal the fact that good parents make good strategic leaders as both are intertwined in nature.

Rethinking Parent Involvement

The role and significance of parents cannot be underestimated by any means. This concept has researched again and again, and the finding remained the same that parents hold much importance in the wellbeing of any individual and society in general. In this way, this science of parenting needs reformation as it is pivotal in producing efficient human capital. This remodeling of parenting is most necessary where the population is at risk and most vulnerable. This state of affairs necessitates that there should be more involvement of parents in educational activities. The article in ASCD organization reveals that there are two categories of parents. One is the supportive category, and the other one is the rarer parent. This research ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"QUWgCYmc","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Broner and Ventura 2016)","plainCitation":"(Broner and Ventura 2016)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":693,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ZD9MNZ2P/items/2HWG5TE9"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ZD9MNZ2P/items/2HWG5TE9"],"itemData":{"id":693,"type":"article-journal","title":"Rethinking the effects of financial globalization","container-title":"The Quarterly Journal of Economics","page":"1497–1542","volume":"131","issue":"3","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Broner","given":"Fernando"},{"family":"Ventura","given":"Jaume"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Broner and Ventura 2016) undertook a pilot project and published its findings on different modes of parenting in society. Several primary and secondary schools were monitored and the participation of parents in their children and their learning activities. It was a selective kind of involvement, as only some of the categories were allowed to assess the role of parents. Besides, the children expressed their concerns on parental behavior as well. The findings substantiate that support parent who is active as well perform better in their roles rather than those who are unsupportive and inactive. As a natural corollary, the children of supportive parents are shining stars in the academics, and become strategic leaders in future.

Parents’ personalities affect children

Parents leave an indelible mark on their children. This remains uncontested in this world that parents are the first and the ultimate cradle for their children. Whatever parent do in their real life, gets transferred to their offspring in both intentional and unintentional ways. In this way, the personalities of parents affect children in all dimensions. A famous historian and social thinker Karl Marx said, "A man is the product of his circumstances". This is the defining line in the pages of history that a man gets shaped by what he is offered by his family and fellows. Since parents offer the first interaction to a newborn child, their values and beliefs leave an impression on their children. This widely held opinion is cemented time and again by the psychologists and philosophers such as Plato. Even the ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"qa4Mpd1i","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Khaleque 2015)","plainCitation":"(Khaleque 2015)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":737,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ZD9MNZ2P/items/VXNB4TDC"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ZD9MNZ2P/items/VXNB4TDC"],"itemData":{"id":737,"type":"article-journal","title":"Perceived parental neglect, and children’s psychological maladjustment, and negative personality dispositions: A meta-analysis of multi-cultural studies","container-title":"Journal of Child and Family Studies","page":"1419–1428","volume":"24","issue":"5","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Perceived parental neglect, and children’s psychological maladjustment, and negative personality dispositions","author":[{"family":"Khaleque","given":"Abdul"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Khaleque 2015) reveals that if parents do not focus on their children, they become unhealthy members of society. The neglected behavior of parents is not good for the young personalities of their children as they take approval and sanction from their elders in every aspect of their lives. Hence, parents and their personality’s traits are much meaningful and significant for their children as it directs the future of the children in society.

Children easily imitate parents' behaviors

Children arrive on the planet earth with too naïve minds and souls. They lack enough rationality and logic to frame their actions in the modern world. Besides, they are such young creature who cannot feed themselves, and purely depend upon their parents for food and survival needs. According to one of the most famous sociologist Horton. N. Hunt in ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"ZuIeWdRY","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Horton and Hunt 1980)","plainCitation":"(Horton and Hunt 1980)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":740,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ZD9MNZ2P/items/2YXMFVSL"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ZD9MNZ2P/items/2YXMFVSL"],"itemData":{"id":740,"type":"book","title":"Sociology","publisher":"McGraw-Hill","number-of-pages":"558","source":"Google Books","ISBN":"978-0-07-030430-7","note":"Google-Books-ID: mLFZAAAAYAAJ","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Horton","given":"Paul B."},{"family":"Hunt","given":"Chester L."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1980",1,1]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Horton and Hunt 1980), children by cultural conditioning where they learn things by imitating others. This cultural conditioning is the leaning behavior responses by repetition and imitation. In this case, they imitate their parents first and perform the same actions, which are frequently done by their parents. As a result, the behavioral traits of parents become part of the individual's personality. In this way, those parents who have negative behavioral traits and responses often shift this negativity to their next-generation knowingly or unknowingly. In short, the naïve souls and naïve minds of undeveloped personalities become susceptible to imitating parental behavior and sometimes the negative behavior of parents destroys the leadership potential in children.

The person I think should be learned is my mother (explain with true examples)

I think my mother has the complete personality which embodies all the vital ingredients of a good soul. She is the lady which is my inspiration and her life is the testimony to this fact.

Combine examples with two theories (trait theory, servant leadership theory)

It is often said that "Behind every successful person, there is a woman". It is cent percent true because individuals are not isolated souls, and they do get affected by those around them. Parents are. Undoubtedly, the first agency of learning. The social institution of the family is incomplete without the due importance of a mother. She is the woman who shapes the contours of domestic spheres and all relevant matters. This is same for my mother as well who perfectly handled every situation throughout these years. As Trait theory suggests, leaders are born with some peculiar qualities, so my mother has some individual characteristics that accentuate her leadership style. For instance, once the family was going through the financial crisis, and my mother effectively used her investment to save us from bankruptcy. Her quality if far-sightedness ameliorated the financial crunch of the family, and it was much relieving for all of us. This was the exact display of the trait theory as she possessed the inherent trait of saving and investing in the right things.

Furthermore, my mother also displayed her unique personality when she was upbringing us. A woman makes or breaks home in a way that it depends on her performance on key domestic areas. My mother is the perfect epitome of the servant-leadership theory ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"7bIYFIie","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Dennis, Kinzler-Norheim, and Bocarnea 2010)","plainCitation":"(Dennis, Kinzler-Norheim, and Bocarnea 2010)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":744,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ZD9MNZ2P/items/J7AL8DQF"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ZD9MNZ2P/items/J7AL8DQF"],"itemData":{"id":744,"type":"chapter","title":"Servant Leadership Theory","container-title":"Servant Leadership: Developments in Theory and Research","publisher":"Palgrave Macmillan UK","publisher-place":"London","page":"169-179","source":"Springer Link","event-place":"London","abstract":"Valid and reliable measurement instruments grounded in theory are essential to move the field of servant leadership forward. Since the turn of the millennium, starting with Laub’s (1999) Organizational Leadership Assessment (OLA), we have seen several instruments enter the field – for example, Page and Wong (2000; Wong and Pace, 2003), Dennis (2004), Barbuto and Wheeler (2006), Liden et al. (2008), and Sendjaya et al. (2008). This chapter describes the development and validation of a measure based on Patterson’s (2003) theory of servant leadership: the Servant Leadership Assessment Instrument (SLAI) (Dennis and Bocarnea, 2005). Through its direct link to Patterson’s theory ( including the constructs of love, humility, altruism, vision, trust, service, and empowerment), this instrument allows for a test of the proposed theoretical framework in various populations. The chapter will address in detail the development of the 42-item Likert-type Servant Leadership Assessment Instrument. Information about its reliability, validity, and availability will also be included. Furthermore, the chapter will offer a thorough review of current servant leadership literature on the usage of the SLAI in leadership research. Finally, the SLAI will be compared and contrasted with other servant leadership instruments.","URL":"https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230299184_14","ISBN":"978-0-230-29918-4","note":"DOI: 10.1057/9780230299184_14","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Dennis","given":"Robert S."},{"family":"Kinzler-Norheim","given":"Linda"},{"family":"Bocarnea","given":"Mihai"}],"editor":[{"family":"Dierendonck","given":"Dirk","non-dropping-particle":"van"},{"family":"Patterson","given":"Kathleen"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2010"]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",7,25]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Dennis, Kinzler-Norheim, and Bocarnea 2010) as she focused on inculcating the right values among all of us. She served us with a focus to develop our potential as best as possible so we can live our lives fruitfully and successfully. Once, I stole some money, and it was my mother who handled this misadventure very intelligently. She punished in a way that I learned about the nasty nature of stealing and never committed it again. This is how she managed and developed my personality in my early years. This is how the strategic leadership training starts from homes and the private sphere where primary groups play an active part.

How mother influences? Her behavior.

It is no hoodwinking that woman and her status as a mother is the most cherished one in his society. Throughout history, the role of mother is revered the most among all members of society. A mother and her personality are the most vital element in homes as it is the most active agent of change. Her behavior, perception, views, beliefs, values, past experiences impact the way her children think and behave. The significance of mother can be assessed from the statement of Adolf Hitler, "Give me educated mothers, I will give you an educated nation." This statement shows that leaders are developed when mothers are rational and pragmatic in their conduct. Conversely, no leaders appear on the surface when mothers are uneducated and irrational in their means and methods to develop offspring. My mother influenced me throughout my founding years and developed the hidden leadership potential in me. She even molded my vision when it was necessary and it is surely due to her efforts that I became a strategic leader. Hence, the role and function of a mother are significant when it is about producing a crop of leaders in the world.


Family influences belong to what kind of leadership theory? "Born to be" theory? Behaviour theory? Servant theory?

Different social theories of leadership and many biological theorists argue about the true leadership quality in individuals. For some, leadership traits can run through generations as they claim that unless the behavioural dynamics do not point toward leadership ability. The protogonists of trait theory opine such things as the presennce of some special attrbutes in an individual that make him a strategic leader. Whereas, the behavioral theroists refer to the social aspect of leadership which suggest that any individual can be influenced to become a leader. In doing so the societal atmosphere plays an important part. An everyday individual learn new thing, they get to interact with new fellows, they get the chance to display their leadership abilities and the most curious ones start adopting the traits of any leader. This is how society builds a leader. In all such happening, a family plays an important role. For example, it simultaneously provides the generic traits and helps in making the interaction of the individual with the outer world more practicable. Following are some theories which can help in analyzing that family influences belong to which kind of leadership theory.

Stogdill's theory of trait leadership theory (born to be theory) suggests that biological factors are responsible for making leaders in society. He rests his findings on each genetical facet which he believes is responsible for making of a human being. For example, the colour of hairs, eyes and hairstyle etc. he argues that such leaders already have the desire to become different from many people around them. This desire for change in them comes from observing their family hierarchy. They see that, unlike other people. Gradually they start believing that they have been bestowed with such abilities, and they are the ones who can rule a specific group of people, community or in some cases people within a country. In this hierarchy, a mother remains a central figure which with times keep on infusing change in the individual. Unlike other theories, this born to be theory suggest that achievement drive, leadership abilities, integrity, self-motivation and confidence and emotional maturity are some prerequisites of leadership abilities.

Another theory which talks about leadership abilities is Derue's Behavioural theory. He maintains the opinion that behaviour focused approach tends to create an individual a leader,. For him the behavioural raised make the one stand apart from the society. It happens when an individual is bestowed with a different thinking pattern I:e he denies the suggestive approaches and tends to create a way for his or her self. Similarly, he argues that in the case of both genders, these individuals are motivated by the role of their mother. Since they have spent a considerable time living inside the womb of her mother, therefore, naturally they have those guts. In their early childhood and up till a certain level of their adulthood, they keep on influencing from their mother. This pattern in some cases changes abruptly and after this change, normally a father takes that place. Otherwise, this place is filled by another person who is the most loved one. In such cases, it is the opposite sex.

Robert Greenleaf's theory of leadership is another theory which sheds light on the leadership pattern. He argues that a leader in a society, in a country or a clan takes the appreciation from its people. He or She tries his best to insert the best traits of his self into his community. In a very social sense, this theory means that any leader makes it easy for its people to have the pleasures of life which he or she has. He provides them with each opportunity which can uplift them and in this way he is seen as the most respected and cared leader. In a family, normally a mother plays this role, in society any notable person, in a country any social leader and the world, anyone can show these traits of being a master. It is mandatory for the leader to take this influence solely from society or its people.

Considering these theories, it is right to argue that Behavioral and Servant- leadership theories influence leadership abilities. The amlgamation of both theories actually explains the development of strategic leadership with the means of family and its ever-present influence. Since the role of mother in both these theory remain of considerable importance, therefore family influences remain pertinent to leadership abilities.

The differences parenting style in China compares to the US

The parenting style varies as per the geographical locations. This world is divided into various zones and sphere that have their way of life. In this way, it is not something strange that parenting style varies according to the continents of the world. This is well manifested when one observes the parenting style in the Communist state of china and the United States of America. It is observed that in the totalitarian state of china, parenting is taken as a strict discipline which is much regulated in every aspect ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"DDT2pQRd","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Zhang 2007)","plainCitation":"(Zhang 2007)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":745,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ZD9MNZ2P/items/BKCLXPIA"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ZD9MNZ2P/items/BKCLXPIA"],"itemData":{"id":745,"type":"article-journal","title":"Family communication patterns and conflict styles in Chinese parent-child relationships","container-title":"Communication Quarterly","page":"113–128","volume":"55","issue":"1","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Zhang","given":"Qin"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2007"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Zhang 2007). Chinese parents are too methodical and regulated in their approach and they are never approved of any deviation. Their children lack the right amount of freedom in their lives as they are living under the total surveillance of their parents. They lack leadership skills and potential. On the other side, the parenting style in The United States of America is much different than that in China. In the progressive country such as the USA where everyone is entitled to enjoy the American Dream has a different upbringing. Every child is handled logically and rationally to mold his personality ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"IL4P5uLK","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Weis and Toolis 2010)","plainCitation":"(Weis and Toolis 2010)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":747,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ZD9MNZ2P/items/BUD7K68P"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ZD9MNZ2P/items/BUD7K68P"],"itemData":{"id":747,"type":"article-journal","title":"Parenting across cultural contexts in the USA: Assessing parenting behaviour in an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample","container-title":"Early Child Development and Care","page":"849–867","volume":"180","issue":"7","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Parenting across cultural contexts in the USA","author":[{"family":"Weis","given":"Robert"},{"family":"Toolis","given":"Erin E."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2010"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Weis and Toolis 2010). There is no show of authoritarian parenting style. Instead, parents follow the Democratic style of leadership ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"CHnFfgU7","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Hakim and Mayasari 2018)","plainCitation":"(Hakim and Mayasari 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":749,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ZD9MNZ2P/items/C5MGQD8C"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ZD9MNZ2P/items/C5MGQD8C"],"itemData":{"id":749,"type":"paper-conference","title":"The Relationship Between Democratic Parenting Style and Student Achievement of Grade One Students in The Full-Day Elementary School Program","publisher":"The 2nd International Conference On Child-Friendly Education (ICCE) 2018","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Hakim","given":"Siti Nurina"},{"family":"Mayasari","given":"Ria"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Hakim and Mayasari 2018) where the focus on the wellbeing and feedback of their children as well. In this way, parenting styles vary according to geographical locations and cultural settings.


What kinds of parents are more likely to train their children to become a strategic leader?

In a nutshell, it may be concluded from the above discussion that parental role holds much significance when it comes to developing strategic leadership potential in their children. A family is the nucleus of any civilization, which is the first agency where an individual is socialized and transformed according to the dominant behavior patterns of the family. Children love to imitate their parents and even take inspiration from their parents' personalities. This is how leaders appear on the surface of the earth when they are effectively brought up by their parents with ideal values. Keeping this prime importance of parenting, there have been several voices that are calling for more parental involvement in education and learning. So, strategic leaders are born when parents plan their upbringing process strategically and pragmatically. Educated and well-informed parents are the ones who are more visionary and far-sighted in their mission. On the other side, those parents who remain aloof from their children' activities are never influential in this noble objective of producing leaders. So the kind, supportive and active parents produce strategic leaders in society. Specifically, the role of mother is even more important, and I am its actual manifestation as my mother helped me to become a better version of myself. She used various instances to mold my perception and views. I am forever indebted to her as she is the person who made me a strategic leader today.

Their behavior, the family environment, etc...

In producing effective strategic leaders, family, environment and the behavioral patterns are all very important. Several findings reveal that supportive and more active parents are the real force in cultivating leadership skills in children. If parents are not fully devoted to this noble ideal, then there is no development of leadership spirit in their family members. If there is more positivity in their behavior and the environment is conducive, only then the society will have its share of strategic leaders.


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Subject: Education

Pages: 10 Words: 3000

A Policy Analysis To Inform The Western Australian Government About The Appropriateness Of Considering The Renewable Energy Based Micro-grids For Remote Area Electrification

Policy Analysis

[Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees]

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Author Note

[Include any grant/funding information and a complete correspondence address.]

Policy Analysis


This paper attempts to apprise the government of Western Australia regarding the appropriateness of utilizing micro-grids based on renewable energy sources in the pursuit of remote areas electrification. Australia, an industrialized country, rich with the technology of renewable energy and resources, did not fully realize its potential for decarbonizing the energy mix until recently.

Since the advent of industrialization and the age of mechanization, there has been a relentless rise in production and global carbon emission, which has dangerously used the natural resources of the earth to a nearly exhaustive level. The potential dangers of environmental degradation for future generations have led researchers and social activists across the globe to lessen the adverse effects of rapid industrialization and exhaustion of the earth's natural resources.

Executive Summary

The generation of conventional power from fossil fuels and coal has largely been substituted with the growing use of renewable energy. Across the world, and in Australia, a boom in renewable energy is accelerating, and the new policies of federal governments are evident in a steady transition from the traditional sources of energy generation to clean, renewable energy sources. This research paper analyses the existing sources of generating electricity for remote areas in Western Australia and attempts to enlighten the state's government about the potential significance of micro-grids based on renewable energy sources.

A prevalent global crisis faced by millions of households across countries is energy poverty. Having considerable access to affordable energy resources is considered an essential requisite for the attainment of a decent standard of living and ultimately, economic growth. This paper attempts to provide the readers with an insight into the difficulties faced by the communities in the remote areas of Western Australia who don't have adequate energy services, and there is a huge possibility that those areas will never be connected to national grids in the foreseeable future. Simultaneously, constructive policy analysis is also delineated by this research paper, providing a framework for the installation of microgrids based on renewable energy resources.

Literature Review

Western Australia shares an extended and proud history of partnerships with various Asian economies in a quest for supplying the latter’s energy demands. The world is gradually moving towards the deployment of energy sources which are cleaner and environment-friendly. Even though Australia and its states have experienced economic booms in recent year, households falling in the low-income brackets have not benefitted much from the rise in economic growth and still have no access to a wide range of facilities and amenities which are associated with a decent living in the contemporary societies CITATION Cas14 \l 1033 (Cassells, 2014). Accounting to this fact, some households in the remote areas of Western Australia are bound to spend the lion's share of their disposable income to acquire electricity and during this action, fall below the poverty line which has its unwanted consequences CITATION Cor16 \l 1033 (Cornwell, 2016).

Two different dimensions regarding deprivation of energy faced at an individual and collective levels have been developed in the existing literature. One accounts to “fuel poverty”, which is associated with a household needing to spend more than its purchasing power in keeping the house warm for its members and the other refers to “energy poverty” which is the subject of consideration in this research paper. In the international settings of energy sector discussions, energy poverty is frequently used and alludes to a conspicuous lack of access to modernized energy services.

As depicted by multiple reports and incidents, as of 2016, electricity through renewable energy sources amounted to 13% of the total consumption in Western Australia's main grid. However, this figure is still less if the state is aiming towards a lower carbon future in its true essence CITATION And16 \l 1033 (Anda, 2016). Furthermore, the remote areas in Western Australia still lack energy supplies as a survey reported by taking into account a wide range of households CITATION Fal11 \l 1033 (Falk, 2011). According to the report, if the members of a household allocate more than 10% of their income on achieving their energy requirements, then the household is categorized as “energy poor”, CITATION Che11 \l 1033 (Chester, 2011). Given the exhaustion of natural sources and the alarming levels of environmental degradation, there is no possibility of electricity generation from conventional sources in these remote areas of Western Australia CITATION Byr16 \l 1033 (Byrnes L. B., 2016). The subsequent sections of this research paper attempt to present alternative policy options to the government of Western Australia and devise a framework for electrification through renewable energy sources in remote areas.

Evaluation Criteria

There are some indicators for evaluating proposed policy option for electrification based on micro-grids CITATION Num19 \l 1033 (Numminen, 2019), which need a multi-faceted criterion to be fulfilled. Following are some criteria mentioned which need to be evaluated for proposing a framework for microgrids based on renewable energy resources in remote areas of Western Australia:

Economic indicators

Investment cost

Operational costs

Maintenance costs

Payback period

Service life

Technical indicators

Capacity for energy production


Feasibility of the framework

Technological maturity


Environmental indicators

Emission of Carbon Dioxide and other harmful gases

Impact on air quality and ecosystem

Social indicators (corporate social responsibility)

Societal and communal benefits

Acceptability in the remote areas of Western Australia

Alternative Policy Options

The existing energy policy in Western Australia is under the fiscal and regulatory ascendancy of the federal government. Energy policies from the federal government continually advocate the functioning of coal and natural gas industries for generating electricity as these also prove to be valuable sources of foreign exchange earnings contributing to economic growth. Australia is ranked in the list of the most coal-dependent countries in the world. In spite of the harsh truth that electricity generation through coal-mining accounts to more than 35% of the greenhouse emissions, thereby damaging the ecosystem. Due to these factors, Australia faces a relatively greater threat of climate change according to recent reports.

A rise in coal and gas prices has resulted in a significant lack of generational electricity capacity in rural areas, and the public is viewing the existing energy policy with doubt and uncertainty. These problems have led social activists and the public to persuade the researchers and policymakers to look at renewable energy resources for the future production of electricity.

This paper is also a step of the ladder in this cause. Alternate policy options are presented in this section which will potentially serve two purposes at the same time.

The requirements of the contemporary world ask for a reliable grid that can provide high-quality electricity to far-flung areas and heavily populated areas like hospitals and schools. Most of the renewable energy sources are out of human control, for instance, wind and solar energy, as they are only available when nature schedules. Solar panels and grids in the recent past have been established as alternate options to conventional sources of energy, but they lack the resilience factor which prevents their functioning as these sources are largely aligned with the weather. Therefore, micro-grids based on solar energy are proposed as an alternative policy option to generate electricity in remote areas of Western Australia.

Solar Micro-grids

A micro-grid refers to a smaller version of a utility power system which is comprised of power sources and users, wires to connect the whole circuit and a control system at the base to operate it. There are no strict rules regarding the size of a micro-grid, but they are relatively cheaper in contrast to the conventional sources of electricity. Recent use of solar panels was a hassle as the arrangement could not continue the generation of electricity when the power was out or if there was bad weather. When the power goes away, people primarily want efficient and reliable sources of energy and micro-grids greatly qualify in achieving this.

Working of micro-grids using solar energy as a renewable source

All the assets portrayed in the above figure, i.e. generators, batteries stored with solar and wind energy and the control systems can be combined for electrification. The existing assets can be designed into a system, and the controllers make a micro-grid work. Four different sources, generators, utility systems, solar and wind energy and batteries, can provide continuous power to remote areas through the installation of a micro-grid. The combination of different sources is so efficient and seamless that the end-user does not know about his power source.

The components of a solar micro-grid are as follows:

A source of generation

An element of energy storage

Load control

The interface of a utility interconnection

Micro-grid control system

Many low-cost generators based on natural gas and a renewable energy source; in this case, solar energy results in the production of power. The owners of the micro-grids or the buildings where these micro-grids are installed can use these arrangements in two configurations.

Configuration 1

Owners who currently experience over-pricing from electricity generating companies can avail of the use of micro-grid arrangement as a dependable energy source. The owner of, in this case, remains connected to the primary grid of the local area and will utilize solar power as the renewable energy source in the pursuit of decreasing his consumption from the main grid. When there is a peak in demand, which is particularly the day time, natural gas generators work in alignment with the solar energy to lessen the level of consumption form the grids. As the peak hours pass and there is a decrease in utility costs of electricity, owners of the micro-grid switch their power source from solar energy to utility grids and there would not be any shortage of power.

Configuration 2

Sometimes, there are situations (socio-political, socio-economic) where the utility companies of the local communities are not in favour of renewable sources of energy because of potential loss in their profit-making abilities CITATION Byr13 \l 1033 (Byrnes L. B., 2013). In the context of such a situation, owners of the solar micro-grids can fully disengage their power connection from the main utility grid of the local area and make use of the micro-grid. This configuration gives the owner and users complete freedom and autonomy in the utilization of their electric services.

Therefore, the installation of micro-grids is strongly recommended for electrification in Western Australia.

Wind turbine emulators in micro-grids


The operation of this micro-grid will be based on the principles of aerodynamics CITATION Nee12 \l 1033 (Neely, 2012).

In the above arrangement, a wind turbine emulator attached to a micro-grid is shown which has already been tested in laboratory conditions to determine the production of electricity from wind as a renewable energy source. Real-time data about wind speed, air density, and other indicators will be collected for an improved and accurate monitoring of the system.

Bio-mass in stand-alone micro-grids


After investigating the potentials of manure and solid bio-mass for the production of electricity, it was found that solid bio-mass has the highest level of potential for this purpose CITATION Løt14 \l 1033 (Løtveit, 2014). The above configuration portrays the working of a micro-grid utilizing biomass as a renewable energy resource.

Evaluation of the Proposed Policy Options

Solar micro-grids

This alternate policy option is expected to provide the remote areas with cleaner sources of power at a much lower cost than the conventional power generating sources. The biggest advantage which the households of Western Australia will experience is the practice of complete control over their energy requirement and its fulfilment.

The potential benefits of a solar micro-grid as discerned by a cost-benefit analysis are as follows:

Net positive payback goals

A stable and reliable source of energy

Reduction in greenhouse emissions which are harmful to the environment

Access of electric utilities for a huge number of population

Lower costs of electrical utilities faced by consumer body

Wind turbine emulators in micro-grids

The provision of clean and low-cost energy is expected by installing wind turbines in micro-grids. Even though the initial infrastructure would require huge costs, but its critical nature will improve the resilience of the micro-grid. There are also potential decreases seen in line losses and fuel use.

Bio-mass in stand-alone micro-grids

The traditional usage of biomass in rural areas of developing countries for the sole purpose of cooking is seen as transitioning towards contemporary uses of this natural resource, paving the way for largely sustainable energy usage. Technical investigations regarding the potential of bio-mass have been highlighted in several published studies.

Summary of the alternative options

The installation of micro-grids using solar energy, wind energy, and biomass as renewable energy sources is suggested in this research paper, notifying the government of Western Australia about the significance and working of these micro-grids. The existing energy policy in Western Australia makes use of traditional energy sources which are posing high levels of threat for the global climate and the ecosystem in general.

Detailed workings of the micro-grids have been mentioned with the prospective merits the micro-grid owners will experience upon installation and usage of the system.

Monitoring and Evaluation

This section highlights the procedure and importance of monitoring and evaluating the social, economic and environmental impacts of micro-grids.

Published reports and evidence which is measured empirically can be rarely found in the extant literature about the use of renewable energy sources, even though these practices have widely gained recognition in many industrialized nations.

To ensure that harmonious decisions are developed and implemented by the energy policymakers, there is a need for an effective strategy of monitoring and evaluation. Improvement of existing services and achievement of maximum impact from the installation of solar micro-grids is only possible if monitoring the micro-grids and evaluating the community's perception about these changes are done at regular intervals.

There can be many approaches for M&E to assess the functioning of solar micro-grids:

Institutionalizing monitoring and evaluation within the local energy department to elevate process efficiency

Measuring levels of impact, outcome, activity, and output: These levels will entail desired changes, vital conditions to attain these developments, necessary outputs to produce direct outcomes, and all the activities that need to be commenced for these outputs

Development of performance indicators in the remote areas regarding energy production and usage

Installation and administration of efficient tools for timely collection of data: smart meters, surveys, and questionnaires addressed to the local community

Setting up initial targets and regularly measuring the performance of micro-grids in contrast to electricity production by the national grid

Focus group discussions and expert interviews

Conclusion and Recommendations

This paper attempts to illuminate the potential significance of micro-grids using solar energy, wind energy, and solid biomass as renewable energy sources. The government of Western Australia must take note of the consequential gravity of using conventional sources for electricity generation and must make use of inter-connected micro-grids for electrification in remote areas of Western Australia.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Anda, M. B. (2016). Transitions to a post-carbon society: Scenarios for Western Australia. Renewable Energy in the Service of Mankind Vol II, 147-162.

Byrnes, L. B. (2013). Australian renewable energy policy: Barriers and challenges. Renewable Energy, 711-721.

Byrnes, L. B. (2016). Reviewing the viability of renewable energy in community electrification: The case of remote Western Australian communities. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 470-481.

Cassells, R. D. (2014). Housing affordability: The real costs of housing in WA.

Chester, L. &. (2011). A new form of energy poverty is the hallmark of liberalized electricity sectors. Australian Journal of Social Issues, 435-459.

Cornwell, A. H. (2016). Energy poverty in Western Australia: A comparative analysis of drivers and effects.

Falk, J. &. (2011). Australia: Approaching an energy crossroads. Energy Policy, 6804-6813.

Løtveit, M. S. (2014). A study of biomass in a hybrid stand-alone Micro-Grid for the rural village of Wawashang, Nicaragua. Ninth International Conference on Ecological Vehicles and Renewable Energies, 1-7.

Neely, J. G. (2012). Wind turbine emulation for intelligent microgrid development. IEEE International Conference on Cyber Technology in Automation, Control, and Intelligent Systems, 28-33.

Numminen, S. &. (2019). Evaluation of the reliability of solar micro-grids in emerging markets–Issues and solutions. Energy for sustainable development, 34-42.


Figure 1. Projected large scale policies for lower carbon emissions by Western Australia

Figure 2. Projected growth

Subject: Education

Pages: 7 Words: 2100

A Raisin In The Sun


Instructors’ Name

Course Title and Code


A Raisin in the Sun

African American author, named Lorraine Hansberry, authored a lay which was entitled as “A Raisin in the Sun." the play describes the aspirations of the younger family, who want to have a better life by achieving the American dream. The family lives in the south side of Chicago and plans to move into the white neighbourhood, to fulfill their dream of owning a big house. The cat one of the play presents a clear picture of the life circumstances, as well as the hopes and dreams and each and every member of the Youngers family. The play “A Raisin in the Sun” may have been an attempt by the author to shed light on the life circumstances of the African American community in the south side of Chicago during that era; however, it also gives the hope that constant effort and hard work can make the dreams true.

The sense of the Younger family which I got from the first act of the play is that each and every member of the family has a dream, and they are also dissatisfied with their current life, in one or the other way. Their only hope at the time is the check of ten thousand dollars, which is actually the insurance money of Walter and Beneatha's father, who has died recently. Although each member of the family has its own stress, however, the common stress of the family is to become successful in life. Mama, who is the head of the family stresses over not being able to provide a good home to the family. Walter stresses over establishing his business. Beneatha stresses over finding her true self and identity and not getting lost in the prominent white culture. Ruth, who is the wife of Walter, stresses over her husband’s lack of happiness and over being pregnant again, as she thinks one new member would add to the problems of the family (Hansberry, 20).

The thing which is challenging Walter Lee's self-respect is his lack of establishing a business and supporting his family. His self-respect is particularly challenged by the fact that he lost his share from the check to his partner, who deceived him. Every member of the family has his own dream. The dream of mama is establishing her own home, which has a bigger lawn, where her grandson can play. The dream of Walter is to establish his own business, so he does not have to continue his job as a chauffeur and is able to look after the needs of his family. Ruth’s dream is to see her husband successful and happy and reignite their love, which is losing between the struggles of the family. The dream of Beneatha is to find her real identity and not get overshadowed by the white culture and become a doctor as well. She wants to be an educated, independent African American woman (Hansberry, 5).

The connection of the play to Langston Hughes' poem "A Dream Deferred" is that the name of the play has been taken from the poem which also talks about the fulfillment of dreams. In addition to it, I envision the Younger's apartment on this morning in post-World War II era Chicago's South Side as well established home, where every individual is satisfied with his life and work and working hard to keep the family connected and happy.

The play by the African American author Lorraine Hansberry is the depiction of the struggle of an African American family to achieve their American dream. The family does not want to lose its identity by accepting the prominent white culture; however, wants to make its own identity and achieve the goal of a socially and economically progressive family.

Work Cited

Hansberry, Lorraine. A Raisin in the sun. Recording for the Blind & Dyslexic, 2007.

Subject: Education

Pages: 2 Words: 600

A Raisin In The Sun Major Character


Instructors’ Name

Course Title and Code


A Raisin in the Sun

‘A Raisin in the Sun’ is a play by the African American author, named Lorraine Hansberry, which sheds light on the dreams and aspirations of an African American family, living in the south side of Chicago. Mama is the new head of the family, after the death of her husband and plays an important role in the life of her family members, which consist of her two children, a daughter-in-law and a grandson. She spent a struggling life during the era of racial discrimination and segregation and now wants her family to live happily and peacefully. The character of Mama may have been depicted as a strong and determined woman, who faced great struggles in her life; however, she is equally lovely and caring towards all the members of her family and wants to see them happy and successful.

According to my sense of character about mama, she has faced the bitter struggles of equality and prosperity in her life, and now she wants to secure a better future for her children. She does not want to see them suffering or unhappy in their lives. Therefore she stresses to use the insurance money of her deceased husband, for the purpose of buying a nice house. On the other hand, her son wants to invest the money in his business so, he does not have to work as a chauffeur anymore (Hansberry). She is willing to give him money for the sake of his business, after separating the share of his sister’s education and the payment of their new house, however, she does not want him to do the business of alcohol. When he tries to explain to her that things have changed and surviving is difficult, she tells him,

“No … something has changed. (She looks at him) You something new, boy. In my time we was worried about not being lynched and getting to the North if we could and how to stay alive and still have a pinch of dignity too … Now here come you and Beneatha— talking ’bout things we ain’t never even thought about hardly, me and your daddy (p. 73).”

Having equal opportunities of progress and owning a home, were the biggest dreams of the African American community in the segregation era. Mama's dream was also to own a house, which could secure the future of her children, as well as provide his grandson with better memories of childhood. She wanted him to play in a bigger lawn and have his own room. Act three of the play reveals the soft and loving side of mama when she has a conversation with her daughter in law, who is facing difficulties in life. Her husband has lost his share of the business, due to his deceiving partner and they are not a loving couple anymore (Hansberry). Moreover, she is thinking about abortion. Mama tells her that she should feel sorry for the suffering of her husband and not because he is unable to please his family. She says, “There is always something left to love. And if you ain’t learned that, you ain’t learned nothing (p. 144).”

After facing all the struggles in life, the main character of the play, Mama, now wants her family to live a happy life. She wants to buy a house for her family. She wants her daughter to find her passion and purpose in life and does not enforce any proposal on her. She scolds her son for not paying attention to his wife, and she guides her how she can restore her love with her husband. She deeply cares for her plants and all of this reveals her loving and kind nature.

Work Cited

Hansberry, Lorraine. A Raisin in the Sun. Samuel French, Inc., 1984: 1-156.

Subject: Education

Pages: 2 Words: 600

A Tale Of Two Validities

The purpose of the study conducted by Ciarocco, Lewandowski, and Van Volkom (2013) titled as “” is to evaluate and analyze the impact of the multifaceted approach that can be used for teaching the research methods and its further impact on the attitude of the students. The study emphasized on evaluating the multifaceted approach in reference to the five different experiment designs that are used in a specific research methodology course. The attitude of the students was also evaluated in response to this methodology. This evaluation was conducted to identify the most appropriate and befitting way of making research works easier for the students in the subjects for which the students often have a negative or dislike-ful attitude.

In order to assess the reliability and strength of the study, it is important to analyze the internal and external validity of the study. The internal validity is related to the research design, structure and variables used. In this study, seventy students participate that were enrolled in one of the experimental research methods courses. These participants were evaluated before and after the instructional changes were implemented. However, there is no control group and the participants all belong to one course only with no possibility of evaluating how different types of students (students with learning disabilities, disable students, etc.) may affect their attitudes and adoption of the multifaceted approach. This weakens the internal validity of the study.

The same structure of the study also weakness the external validity of the study. This is because the results of the study cannot be universalized i.e. they cannot be considered valid for students belonging to different courses with different research methods, may have certain learning deficiency, etc. Under such circumstances, the researchers failed to include a sufficient and appropriate sample that could produce a universalized result and conclusion. Therefore, the study has a weak external validity.


Ciarocco, N. J., Lewandowski Jr, G. W., & Van Volkom, M. (2013). The impact of a multifaceted approach to teaching research methods on students’ attitudes. Teaching of Psychology, 40(1), 20-25.

Subject: Education

Pages: 1 Words: 300

A Typical Day Of My Life

Student’s name

Course ID

Submitted to

A typical day of my life.

A typical day of my life is ordinary and non-diverse. In everyday life, I used to follow the same routine such as waking early in the morning, going to school, hanging out with friends and so one. The concept of typical day is changed during the Weekends. I used to wake up late in the morning and do different things from week days. I can't live without music, and the day is great when it starts with good songs. Music provide peace to the soul (DeNora). Well, then everything, as usual: breakfast, washing, a few minutes at the mirror and on the way out.

I spend most of my time at school. Sometime schooling is a lot of new things. I enjoy geography, PE and arts. I love you and your friends. I like watching TV I also like reading books and walking with my friends. Usually we go to the bowling club, golf club, to the skating rink. All my friends love parties. One of the things I love mostly is traveling. I have been to Turkey, Egypt, Australia, Czechoslovakia. I usually fly by plane. I think it is comfortable and fast. While the flight I admire the sky, clouds and wonderful views through the window.

The path to school is also escorted by music, by use of the phone and earphones. If I truly like the song, then from time to time I walk by a stupid grin on my look. I can hardly detain myself from not preparatory to sing along, and it appears that I even change to the beat. The presentation of the self is very difficult thing (Goffman). All this from the side, perhaps, aspects very strange, but this is what I call “getting up from that leg.” Day at school now, in the tenth grade, is frequently always fairly difficult, although I quite like Monday and Wednesday. They often go faster. Again, the music is the way home. Upon arriving home, first everything is as scheduled: make the bed, change clothes, have lunch. Then it all depends on the amount and difficulty of homework. If a lot, then I do it, and in the evening I spend time at the computer: I read news about my favorite musical group, play games and so on. If not very much, then I can relax a little at the computer first, and then proceed to homework, and watch the show before going to bed. have lunch Then it all depends on the amount and difficulty of homework (Felson).

If a lot, then I do it, and in the evening I spend time at the computer: I read news about my favorite musical group, play games and so on. If not very much, then I can relax a little at the computer first, and then proceed to homework, and watch the show before going to bed. have lunch Then it all depends on the amount and difficulty of homework. If a lot, then I do it, and in the evening I spend time at the computer: I read news about my favorite musical group, play games and so on. If not very much, then I can relax a little at the computer first, and then proceed to homework, and watch the show before going to bed. Approximately somehow so passes one weekday from my life.

Works Cited

DeNora, Tia. Music in everyday life. Cambridge University Press, (2000).

Felson, Marcus, and Rachel L. Boba, eds. Crime and everyday life. Sage, (2010).

Goffman, Erving. The presentation of self in everyday life. London: Harmondsworth, (1978).

Subject: Education

Pages: 2 Words: 600

A-B-C Analysis Of Target Behaviors

Week 3: A-B-C Analysis of Target Behaviors

AutoTextList \s NoStyle \t "Please type in your first and last name"Your Name

AutoTextList \s NoStyle \t "Type in your name name and number and then give the course title. For example, ENG 121: English Composition I"ECE201: Introduction to Early Childhood Behavior Management

AutoTextList \s NoStyle \t "Enter your instructor's first and last name here. For example, Prof. Emily Nye"Instructor's Name

AutoTextList \s NoStyle \t "Enter the date you will submit this assignment. The date should go Month Day, Year. For example: January 2, 2014"Date

A-B-C Analysis of Target Behaviors:

A-B-C Observation Form

Student: JosephDate:

Class/Teacher: Your name here

Instructional Activity:What are they doing?





9:00 AM

The teacher announced to read something in the class.

Joseph told an inappropriate joke in the class.

All the classmates laugh loudly. The class was disturbed due this joke.

Identify the target behavior:

Name and describe the behavior. (2-3 sentences)

Joseph was very sarcastic and he was making jokes in the class. Mostly he makes teasing comments to his classmates during the class.

Identify the trigger of the challenging behavior:

Name the situation.

(1-2 sentences)

The challenging behavior is caused by either biological disability, or social factors such as boredom, lack of interaction, intense environment etc.

Identify the consequences that seem to maintain the behavior:

List and explain

(2-3 sentences)

To reinforce the replacement behavior.

After doing work for few minutes the teacher has to allow Joseph to take a brief pause.

Don’t reinforce the problem behavior.The teacher will not allow Joseph to work while taking to his peers.

Identify the function this behavior serves for the child:

(2-3 sentences)

The teacher instructed the students to ignore the sarcastic, rude, or teasing comments of Joseph. None of the students will laugh or react his comments.

List the data collection methods that would offer the most information:

*Hint* These are listed in the module.

(Include as many as necessary)

The data was collected through interviewing the student and his peers. The data was also collected from observation. So for data collection the following techniques will be effective.

Interviewing the student

Interviewing his classmates

Observing the behavior of Joseph

Discuss one DIFFERENT replacement behavior for Joseph:

*hint* This must be different than what Ms. Rollison has included.

Name and discuss why you think this will work.

(2-3 sentences)

Joseph will listen others without any comments.

Joseph will be respectful and treat others with all due respect when the teacher is talking.

Identify the data collection method that will work for your replacement behavior:

Name and explain why you think this will work.

(2-3 sentences)

The data will be collected through the interviews.

Moreover the observation will be an effective way to learn the behavior of Joseph.

Explain why you think Joseph makes sarcastic, teasing comments during class (be sure to justify your response):

*Hint* Review the “Functions of Behavior” chart for Joseph (page 7 of the IRIS Module)

(2-3 sentences)

The reason of the sarcastic mood of Joseph is the attention he got from his peers. It is also influenced by the nature of the person and his brought up.

Explain whether or not you think the intervention that Ms. Rollison is using with Joseph is working:

*Hint* Review the charts on page 12 of the IRIS Module

(2-3 sentences)

Her intervention is effective because the desirable behaviors are increased and the undesirable behavior of Joseph.

Discuss what you think happened during Observation #6. Offer three possible explanations.

(3-5 sentences)

To learn about the target behavior or the problem.

To determine the possible antecedents and their consequences.

Determine the time and duration of the problem occurring.

Discuss the most important thing Ms. Rollison has done to change Joseph’s behavior:

(3-5 sentences)

Her intervention is effective, such as the desirable behaviors increased and the undesired behavior decreased.

Would you involve Joseph’s parents? Why or why not?

2-3 sentences

Yes the role of parents is essential. A child spend more time with parents so their consent and their opinion is important.

Going forward, what is the one thing Ms. Rollison should do to encourage positive behavior from Joseph?

(3-5 sentences)

He was struggling and learning new behaviors. She knew the areas where Joseph has to struggle.

She also did it by performing ABC chart.

Who could Ms. Rollison ask for support in this situation?

Name and list

(1-2 sentences)

She can get the help of the parents of Joseph.

Joseph mother

And father

Do you think you would be able to handle Joseph’s behavior? Why or why not?

(3-5 sentences)

Yes it is possible to change the behavior of a child. Children can learn new things and adopt new habits easily.


Subject: Education

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Abacus Property Group Report

Abacus Property Group report

Student’s Name


Executive summary

The purpose of the report is to illustrate the application of Australia Accounting Standard B10 by Abacus Group Company. Abacus Group is an investment company with various investments in real estate, funds management and properties. It is obtained that AASB10B is crucial for efficient management of companies and therefore, Abacus is utilizing the concept to ensure that its financial statement is without error. The accounting policies can only be changed after informing the Australia Accounting Standard department for the change of the policies. The study established that change of polices could also be done based on the financial statement information to correct errors and other accounting errors which could result to loses for the company. It is therefore, recommended to apply the AASB10 when addressing the problem related financial statement. This would ensure that the company’s transactions are up to the standard. It would also help the company to avoid making loses and making sound decision regarding to investment whether in Real Estate or management fund.


The objective of the study is to investigate the applications of Australia Accounting Standard B10 standard and law by organizations. The AASB10 is the established standards used by the companies for consolidation of financial statement and accounts it is designed to provide framework of accounting practice in the country. For the purpose of this study, Abacus Property Group is used to investigate the application of AASB10. Abacus Group is a property company with investment in office retail, self storage and industrial properties. It has interest in residential and commercial properties and funds management. Besides it provides funds such as hospital funds, and land funds which are used for the purpose of management. Abacus Group has several years experience in the field of real estate management and finance.

Abacus Group is used for this study because of it involve in a lot of financial management and real estate industrial. It is therefore, important to understand how it has been applying the Australia Accounting Standard B108 within its accounting practices to improve its performance. It is reported that the application of AASB108 by Abacus Group is evidence in the way it consolidates its Abacus Hospital Fund and Abacus Wodonga Land Fund CITATION Wol17 \l 1033 (Wolf & Thame, 2017). The use of AASB10 highlighted the role of Abacus in securing the financial investment and the role and its responsibilities in entity variable return which arise from the collected equity.

The financial reporting in Australia is an important aspect which being monitored with relevant body. Therefore, it is important to select the best criteria for changing accounting policies based on the AASB108. The best strategies for deciding change or selecting accounting policies should be based on the on certain law and principles. Accounting policies are of specific principles, conversions, bases, rules and practices which are utilized by an entity for the purpose of preparing and presenting financial statement. Therefore, a change in accounting should bear the principles and the application should also be designed based on the rules and laws. The change in accounting policies should also consider the adjustment of carrying the assets or liability or other amount of a certain period. It should also base on the result from the assessment of financial statements CITATION AAS15 \l 1033 (AASB Standard, 2015). The change of accounting principles or law can be derived from the new information based on the corrections of errors identified during the financial auditing. This means that the change of law of accounting or policies is done based on the errors or problems identified during the auditing period to ensure that the problems do not occur again. An institution will change the accounting policies only if it is required by the Australia Accounting Standard and also when the information provided in the financial statement provide a reason to change the policy.

The accounting policies are essential for efficient management of organization and therefore, their applications ensure that accounting system is maintained. Abacus Group uses the accounting policies to streamline its accounting procedures. It utilizes the policies to consolidate its Abacus Hospital Fund and Abacus Wodonga Land Fund. The use of AASB10 highlighted the role of Abacus in securing the financial investment and the role and its responsibilities in entity variable return which arise from the collected equity. The company is a financial investment company and therefore, it handles several financial transactions. Abacus Group has clear transaction roadmap which must be followed. The company is audited by qualify auditors and the auditor report analyse for efficient financial management. The Abacus Group revenue and expenses are expected to be within a certain range. It is also uses independent benchmarking information for the industry property to analyses its financial statement CITATION IAS18 \l 1033 (IAS, 2018). The audit report of the company is also made public to bring accountability in the financial management. As reported by in the Abacus Group audit report 2017, the use of external auditor helps the company to identify weakness and bring efficient management of its finances.

The accounting policies and policies which are applied in PPE have reasonable and appropriate. The policies provide a clear guideline ho income statement; cash flow and other relevant transaction should be handled. It also point that the effect of change in estimate should be recognized by including profit and loses. It is appropriate because any change of accounting estimate introduces a new way of calculations and this would affect the profit and loses as well. Therefore, the statement by the policies that any change will affect the profit and loses is appropriate. The principle stated that entry must be able to correct of the prior period error is also a good decision. It is also highlighted when the error occurs, providing techniques which can be used to correct and avoid similar errors. This is an appropriate accounting estimate and should be used by companies. Abacus Group applies the same estimates in identifying problems related to its accounting and application of the best techniques based on the estimate to solve the problem.

It is therefore, recommended to apply the AASB10 when addressing the problem related financial statement. This would ensure that the company’s transactions are up to the standard. It would also help the company to avoid making lose Abacus should have policies for cash flow, income and statement and other areas of financial transaction.

In conclusion, it provides a clear instruction on the model which is used by organizations to ensure that it abide by the Australia Accounting Standard B10 by Abacus Group Company. Abacus Group is an investment company with various investments in real estate, funds management and properties. It is obtained that AASB10B is crucial for efficient management of companies and therefore, Abacus is utilizing the concept to ensure that its financial statement is without error. The accounting policies can only be changed after informing the Australia Accounting Standard department for the change of the policies. The study established that change of polices could also be done based on the financial statement information to correct errors and other accounting errors which could result to loses for the company.


BIBLIOGRAPHY AASB Standard. 2015. Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors.

Federal Register of Legislative Instruments F2015L01565 , 2-15.

IAS. 2018. IAS 8 — Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors.

https://www.iasplus.com/en/standards/ias/ias8 , 2-15.

Wolf, F., & Thame, J. 2017. Annual Financial Report :Abacus Wodonga Land Fund.

https://www.abacusproperty.com.au/sites/default/files/FS_AWLF_FY17H2.pdf , 2-15.

Subject: Education

Pages: 4 Words: 1200


[Name of the Writer]

[Name of Instructor]





In this paper, I will be talking about abortion in light of the Catholic Church. The Catholic Church is against any kind of abortion process. Whenever there is a process in which the fetus, zygote, embryo or blastocyst gets damaged, it is opposed on a high magnitude. According to the Catholic belief, the human life is to be given respect and protection from the moment it is conceived. From the very beginning of existence, a human being is to be recognized as someone who has certain rights, one of the most pivotal right being; the right to live (Noonan, 85). Nevertheless, certain circumstances are put under consideration, for instance, if the womb is cancerous and chemotherapy is required to remove the cancer. Such acts are said to be morally legitimate.


In accordance with Code of Canon Law, automatic excommunication is imposed on Latin Catholics who acquire a complete abortion, if they are filling the condition for being a matter of such an approval. The Canon Law is said to be tied to theology. Whether, a woman gets an abortion done on her own terms, if a person participates in an abortion or if an individual holds pro-choice beliefs, it is all condemned under this law. When it comes to the Eastern Churches, they are not a subject to automatic excommunication, but in accordance to the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches, the one doing the deed is to be excommunicated by the ruling if to be found guilty for the similar act. The only way the sin will be forgiven is by the Eparchial Bishop. Additionally, the Catholic Church apart from teaching that abortion is immoral; public actions are also taken in contradiction to its validity. There are people from various western countries who are in contradiction with the authority that the Catholic Church has on certain decisions like the opposition and legality of abortion. There are certain views which range from having certain exceptions when a woman is faced by health issues to complete legality and morality of the issue (Mulligan, 739-753). A connection was seen between agreement and Mass attendance of the official teachings that are being taught by the church. Some people are regulars and pretty much agree on the church's pro-life decision. Then some people go once a while; they are supportive of the term pro-choice. Lastly, some people do not attend the Mass at all; they support a wider range of moral issues.

In accordance with respect for the human life, there was a document that was released by the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops Committee which was under the light of Pro-life activities. The claim was made that the Catholic Church has condemned abortion to be a wicked act from the very first Century. Having said that, this statement has been argued upon by many historians like Angus Mclaren, John Riddle, John Connery, Ann Hibner Koblitz and John Noonan. There were early Christian Books which rejected the concept of abortion. However, the early church legislations are not fully clear on the concept of the formed and unformed fetus, which was evident by the Greek Septuagint form of Exodus. There are two main thoughts that were seen in the early times. There were writers like Maximus and Gregory who claimed that life started when a child was first conceived. Then there was this other school of thought given by the likes of Lactantius. This concept talked about the soul being infused in an individual’s body after forty days of getting conceived. Further, in time abortion during pregnancy was still condemned and deemed a sin, but the concept of infusion of the soul was kept under consideration. Further, many churches condemned abortion and called it gravely wrong regardless of the fetus being formed or unformed. Not only did the early church saw abortion in negative sight they also would track down abortifacient herbs (Elliott, 37). They were banned from time to time on women for availing. Additionally, it was also said by some notable theologians that instead of killing a child who has been born abortion is rather less sinful, yet an act of sin.

In the olden days, there was also a few statements that were made in regards to what Aristotle had to say that abortion was indeed a sin on all stages, soul-infused or not infused, but once the soul is infused after conceiving, abortion is said to be a murder. It was stated as the killing of innocent life. However, it should also be kept in mind that the old testaments have nothing to say on abortions, it was the Hellenic Jews of Diaspora who formed an opinion on this matter. There were different types of penalties that were given to a woman based on the type of abortion that she has gotten done. The concept of delayed ensoulment was brought in the picture as well, but even the churches who believed in this concept formed various penalties for both early and late abortions. It was simple: abortion on any level was called an evil act. In the very start, the penalties were equal for both early and late abortions (Walker, 1-6). There were others who distinguished between the two, later in the future, the penalty for a late abortion was made heavier. Later abortion in the later days of pregnancy was called as a homicide, a murder. The penalty was set in regards to the magnitude of the act is similar to a murder, for an abortion in the later days the penalty set was death. Then there was a time of three years in which Pope Sixtus V passed the law; that abortion either in the early or late stage was called a murder. The church said that a person who carries out an abortion would be given the penalty of a murderer, an assassin who took the life of an innocent. Sixtus’s successor, Pope Gregory saw that the law was not giving the results that were expected, so he withdrew the similar punishment law after three years. Then the punishment of abortion was limited to the formed fetus criteria.

Later, Pope Pius IX withdrew Gregory XIV the exception of a fetus not yet animated in light of the spiritual penalty of excommunication. He declared that the individuals who carried out a complete and effective abortion sustained excommunication which is kept for ordinaries and bishops. After the Pope made this statement, the penalty was given automatically to anyone who carried out an abortion at any stage of the pregnancy (Han, Rodriguez, and Caughey, 287-288). This was always seen as a serious matter from the very start. It was also seen that the Catholic Canon law stayed in continuation even after 1869. It helped maintain a difference between the abortions of a fetus that was formed an unformed fetus. Later after many years in 1917, the Code of Canon Law took away the division. In short, it is safe to say that other than the exception of three-period time of Sixtus, early was not allowed by the Catholic Canon Law till 1869.

Back in the middle ages, the majority of the church commentators were against all kinds of abortions. After that, in the 14th century Dominican John of Maples made a statement; if for instance, the purpose of the abortion is to save the life of the mother, the aborting of the baby will be permissible, but only in the case, the ensoulment of the child had not reached. This view both got positive and negative remarks (Johnson, 383-396). Later, in the 16th century, it was made accepted by the Catholic Church that abortion was permissible at any stage unless it is the indirect result of a procedure that is being carried out to save the life of the mother. Then, in the 17th century, it was also made permissible to perform an abortion if it was aimed to save the name of a woman. It is also said that in the 18th century it was debated that there is always going to be uncertainty to when the soul enters the fetus. Abortion was generally deemed wrong but was made moral when the life of the mother was at stake. He made a clear statement that it was never right to take a medicine that was so harsh that it will result in the woman losing the fetus. It was also said that the church follows the rule of ensoulment after 40 days when making penalties. Procedures like craniotomy were also prohibited in the olden days as the pregnancy could not be managed after the procedure, and the mother will end up losing the child. Later in 1930, the Pope Pius terminated the law which was known as the direct murder of the innocent. He did this so that the life of the mother can be saved. Then there is the ectopic pregnancy; it is one of the rare occasions where the direct abortion is allowed in order to save the life of the mother as the pregnancy is directly threatening the life of the mother.


In accordance with the Canon Law, excommunication does not impose on females who get an abortion done because of inconvenience and fright. The Catholic Church has made sure of the fact that there is indeed a way of forgiveness in such circumstances. The Catholic Church still believes in the notion; that every life conceived has the right to live, but if it is endangering the mother then there are exceptions that can be made. Today in the US the Catholics are in believe of the views that are different from the actual doctrine (Francome). More than 64% of Catholics in 1995 made the statement that they condemn of the fact that abortion is a wrongful act in every scenario. Then again, the result like before also differ today based on how who goes to the church, who does not and who goes once a while. Abortion will always be deemed an act morally wrong by the Catholic Church even today, putting aside the cases of exception.

Work Cited

Noonan Jr, John T. "Abortion and the Catholic Church: A Summary History." Nat. LF 12 (1967): 85.

Mulligan, Kenneth. "Pope John Paul II and Catholic opinion toward the death penalty and abortion." Social Science Quarterly 87.3 (2006): 739-753.

Elliott, Bennett. "Verdict before Trial: The Muddled Clerical Opposition to Abortion." Conscience 37.2 (2016): 37.

Francome, Colin. Abortion in the USA and the UK. Routledge, 2017.

Han, Leo, Maria I. Rodriguez, and Aaron B. Caughey. "Blurred Lines: Disentangling the Concept of Fetal Viability from Abortion Law." Women's Health Issues 28.4 (2018): 287-288.

Johnson, Rebecca Wynne. "Divisions of Labor: Gender, Power, and Later Medieval Childbirth, c. 1200–1500." History Compass 14.9 (2016): 383-396.

Walker, Adrieme S. "Abortion as Social Policy." Global Encyclopedia of Public Administration, Public Policy, and Governance (2016): 1-6.

Subject: Education

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

Abortion Policy In Texas

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of Instructor]

Texas Government


Abortion Policy in Texas

According to the former abortion policy of Texas, individuals had right to decide whether they are ready become a parent or not. However, recently the government is thinking of revising the policy. The Republican lawmakers are going to outlaw abortion while neglecting the other severe issues. Likewise, Texas is the second most populous state of the US. At the same time, the poverty rate rates for the state are higher in comparison to other states. It has been consistent for many years whereas the government of the state is putting its efforts to help the poor through welfare programs (Ura, N.p). Unlike the other states, the Texan government is directly transferring cash to the poor instead of using the federal assistance funds to provide services to the poor people.

Moreover, about the 19 percent of the Texas population is uninsured. Most of the people from minority racial and ethnic groups are without health insurance. Likewise, Hispanics make the most of the uninsured population in Texas. Adults above 25 and below 65 age are uninsured in majority. The lack of health insurance a common problem in the State. Many poor and uneducated people are without health insurance in Texas. According to a report, about 48% of population who are without even high school diploma do not have any insurance coverage from the State Government.

Moreover, the number of uninsured Texans in the United States are more in number. Therefore, government offers free or reduce the cost of care for uninsured citizens. However, the uninsured individuals in Texas claim that they inadequate opportunities to receive the healthcare facilities. However, the State Government work in collaboration of federal government to provide financial assistance to uninsured citizen for their health care. These services vary from free medications to provide facilities to children and cancer patients. It is totally free for some patients while it covers half of the cost for other patients.

Moreover, Texan government brings new bills related to abortion laws in the house. Few days ago the Texas Senate accepted the first anti-abortion law during the session. According to this law, the state and local governments are restricted to support the agencies which perform abortions (Sundaram, N.p). At the same time, another bill is recently presented in Texas. According to this bill a woman will get death penalty for aborting her child (Ana, N.p). The State government is aiming to make the anti-abortions stronger. However, chances to pass the bill is less but it makes clear that what Texas government is up to.

Furthermore, the sonogram law in Texas is also profaning the free speech of doctors and patients both. The law has allowed to perform sonograms by restricting doctor to explain the images for patients. It only permits those women who are raped or their fetus is abnormal are allowed to know. The aim of these laws are to lower the abortion rates in the state. However, it is also a violation of medical ethics that doctors are not allowed to inform the patients about their interest.

This is not the right way to minimize the chances of a problem. A mother has the right to know about her child. At the same time, it is the duty of a doctor to inform the patient about her health conditions and risks related to her child. Therefore, government needs to revise such laws in the state. If parents know about their child, they will be ready for upcoming consequences rather than being worried due to unavailability of information. The existing law in Texas is bounding the doctors to perform their services efficiently.

Works Cited

Gentzler, Sara. "New Report: Texas Has Highest Rate of Uninsured People In The Nation - State Of Reform." State of Reform. N. p., 2018. Web. 29 Apr. 2019.

North, Anna. "A Texas Bill Would Allow The Death Penalty For Patients Who Get Abortions." Vox. N. p., 2019. Web. 29 Apr. 2019.

Sundaram , Arya. "Texas Senate Moves To Block Local Governments From Partnering With Abortion Providers." The Texas Tribune. N. p., 2019. Web. 29 Apr. 2019.

Ura, Alexa. "How Texas Curtailed Traditional Welfare Without Ending Poverty." The Texas Tribune. N. p., 2017. Web. 29 Apr. 2019.

Subject: Education

Pages: 2 Words: 600

About Friendship

Your Name

Instructor Name

Course Number


About Friendship

Friendship is an informal form of relationship between two or more people where they share a strong bond of love and interest and the definition of friendship varies from culture to culture among different countries. For example, in France, people have two types of friends “Les Copains” and “Les Amis”. Les Copains are the type of friends you get to meet in a while to have a cup of coffee or to go movies with therefore the relationship is more of a superficial kind. Les Amis are the one with whom you share a deeper relationship as they are an important part of one's life. People tend to take a longer time for this kind of relationship because it involves trust, love, reliability and support of each other. In America, there is a concept of “Friends” and “Best Friends” and the qualities of Best friends are same as the French’s Les Amis. American friendships may last for a few weeks or go a long way of lifetime.

They may be deep or superficial but French people have clear boundaries when it comes to the relationship with a specific person in a certain situation. Unlike Americans, they do not have personal space and mostly make friends in the early period of their lives like at school. In America, friends are not that close and do not share strong bound as in France because in France they have no formalities regarding meetups and outings. They can go out to have fun at any time while Americans have fixed timing for everything. Americans are very friendly, open and easy to approach which means that it is easy to build a relationship easily but in France, it is not easy to get to know one another at first as they feel barriers between the connection. American friends do involve deep into the relationship and hence are easy-going but French friendships are very strong and deep.


People should not rush the process of friendship and should take proper time in knowing each other. They must avoid feeling deep abut the relationship in the early stages. After doing friendship, one must put his/her heart into the friendship and never talk or discuss how strong your friendship is as it is considered artificial to the French.

Subject: Education

Pages: 1 Words: 300

About Our Company

Name of Student

Name of Professor

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Day Month Year

About Our Company

ALWAL TRADE is an emerging startup that sells fashion products on online platforms. Primarily, women are the dominant consumers of these products. The company is committed to going an extra mile to offer the most scintillating, comfortable and optimum platform to the consumers. Since the brand is based on the model of E-commerce, the critical aspects as price, delivery and quality are thoroughly addressed. The motto of the startup is enabling each person with access to excellent products to look beautiful. We look forward to providing 100 authentic products at the best price.

In addition, the provision of quality is the topmost priority in ALWAL TRADE. The brand constitutes not only women's collection but also kids and men's collection. In the contemporary era, selling fashion product has assumed an instrumental role in the paradigm of E-commerce. We are essentially aware and are committed to being honest. The access to beauty products ought not to be made challenging for the consumers. If a brand nurtures the values of integrity in true letter and spirits, quality is never compromised at the cost of low price. Above all, we are resolute in delivering the fashion products without delays, quality or pertinent issue faced by the consumers. Such unwavering is our commitment to observe the principles of commitment and integrity. The consumers will not only be able to utilize the product but they will be stunned by the results after using the product. ALWAL TRADE strives for becoming a potential source of inspiration for the women to evolve the style and beauty. The availability of more than hundred impressive products online gives a wide spectrum of options to the consumers. The bottom line is that ALWAL TRADE is dedicated to becoming the hub of offering amazing beauty products in best price and excellent quality.

Subject: Education

Pages: 1 Words: 300

About Smoking And Vaping

The Problems Associated with Smoking and Vaping

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

The Problems Associated with Smoking and Vaping


In accordance with a report by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS), conventional smoking has seen a great decline over the past few decades among the youth. However, there has been an increase in the use of other tobacco-based products amongst young adults according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Scientists and researchers have seen that the main product that is gaining hype among young adults is "e-cigarettes." It is what the recent youth calls vaping. Although there has been a decrease in the use of cigarettes by no means does vaping live up to the health standards, in fact, it has a whole list of health risks. At the very start of this new trend, individuals thought that vaping is a good alternative to avoid health issues associated with smoking. However, that notion has been proven wrong by recent deaths due to vaping. These e-cigarettes are usually made of flavoring, nicotine and other addictive ingredients. The youth denotes the products as e-cigarettes, e-cigs, and vape pens and so on. Many health risks are associated with the usage of these vaping devices and the general public is not even aware of the health issues that vaping can cause. Unlike smoking, vaping is a considerably newer technology. The worst part is that the youth of the country is getting affected by this new technology the most. This paper will look into the health issues associated with smoking and vaping, further, light will be shed on the interventions that are being used to prevent the issues.


There are many chain smokers out there who believe that using e-cigarette's is the best way to transition to a nicotine-free life (Chamberlain et al., 2019). While quitting smoking is a great step, however, switching from a high dose of nicotine to a lower amount is not the way to go. While vaping is far less damaging but that does not take away the fact that it is addictive and can release substantial amounts of toxins in an individual's body. The lungs are not safe one way or the other. So, individuals might as well quit smoking once and for all instead of getting hooked on another nicotine based addictive product. The worst thing about vaping is that a lot of youth are getting attracted to it because of the packaging and flavoring. Under a report by U.S. surgeon general, the habit of vaping among high school kids has increased up to 900%. The unfortunate part is that around 40% of the user have never even used any tobacco-based product before. All these children have gotten on this route because they think that e-cigarettes are not harmful like traditional cigarettes. Furthermore, vaping has become a trend and most young adults use it to be socially accepted by the “it crowd.”

Yes, smoking is far more intense and dangerous than vaping but that does not take away the fact that an e-cigarette has its dangers. To prove that fact, a whopping three dozen individuals have lost their lives because of vaping. There is a vaping-related lung illness that is taking over by storm. CDC has claimed that the new sum of deaths has increased from 26 to 33. The individuals who are falling victim to vaping range between 17-75. The average age is said to be 44. The total amount of cases that came in with health issues because of vaping raised to 1479 from 1300. The majority of the people who have been affected by the outbreak are below the age of 35 (Carey et al., 2019). This fact proves that it is the younger generation that is falling victim to vaping.

The professionals of live science have reported that the reason behind the deadly outbreak is mainly a "chemical exposure." Following the recent claims of CDC, the contents that are being used in the e-cigarettes have THC which is driven from marijuana. So the concoction that is being formed by the conjunction of all the ingredients is proving to be quite toxic and deadly in some cases. Yes, the death rate of vaping is far less than smoking but that does not mean that over the years it will not increase (Meltzer et al., 2017). Nowadays, CDC is performing biopsies on the lungs of the deceased victims so they can get to the bottom of the real problem.

As far as the interventions are concerned, e-cigarette producing company Juul has announced that they will be suspending the sales of their fruit-flavored vapers. It was around last year that the company stopped selling its e-cigarettes in retail stores. Further, Trump's administration is working around banning the flavored e-cigarettes from the market for good. When this fact came out in the open last year that is when Juul decided to discontinue their cigarettes in the market. Further, most of the interventions have been school and society based. The young adults are given awareness when it comes to the harms of vaping in school. However, unfortunately, there have not been many results seen because of these interventions. There is not even enough awareness that can make a global impact.

Everyone knows about the health dangers associated with smoking. The reason behind that is the unlimited research and awareness created through advertisement and researchers. Yes, people still smoke but they are aware of the fact that it is harmful. On the contrary, there are certain parts of the world where people are not even aware that vaping can cause life-threatening conditions. So, the awareness in regards to this issue is quite low. As far as the awareness made in schools and society are concerned, it is not working. Following CDC, there was a 50% increase in the number of students who vape from 2013-2014. Students as young as 8th graders have become a part of this vaping frenzy because of the failing interventions. The amount of the victims keeps on increasing and their age keeps on decreasing by the day. Further, Juul might have stopped regulating the product in the market but that does not mean that e-cigarettes have completely vanished from the market. Although, the Government is working on the ban policy but it is not doing any good (Rahman, et al., 2015). As research shows that most people are simply shifting back to smoking.


There is no doubt in the fact that there are many health-related issues associated with smoking and vaping, but is that all that we need to worry about? No, the above paper has proven the fact that there needs to be more awareness and research so that people know what they are getting themselves into. It is not just the fact that vaping is harmful, it is the notion that it should be used instead of smoking that is more troublesome. Switching one addictive and harmful product with another is not the answer. People need to be given the right awareness so they know that either smoking or vaping is not something to adopt as a hobby. Further, there is still awareness when it comes to smoking but people are not conscious about the fact that vaping is very harmful. One of the major reasons behind that is the lack of research when it comes to e-cigarettes. Researchers have still not gotten to the bottom of the health issues and problems that are associated with e-cigarettes. The government needs to invest in this area to bring about a difference. Lastly, regulation can only help when there is no other alternative. The alternative to vaping is cigarettes, and they pose a greater health threat.


Chamberlain, S., Grant, J., Lust, K., Fridberg, D., & King, A. (2019). E-Cigarette Use (Vaping) is Associated with Illicit Drug Use, Mental Health Problems, and Impulsivity in University Students.

Carey, F. R., Rogers, S. M., Cohn, E. A., Harrell, M. B., Wilkinson, A. V., & Perry, C. L. (2019). Understanding susceptibility to e-cigarettes: A comprehensive model of risk factors that influence the transition from non-susceptible to susceptible among e-cigarette naïve adolescents. Addictive behaviors, 91, 68-74.

Meltzer, L. R., Simmons, V. N., Sutton, S. K., Drobes, D. J., Quinn, G. P., Meade, C. D., ... & Bullen, C. R. (2017). A randomized controlled trial of a smoking cessation self-help intervention for dual users of tobacco cigarettes and e-cigarettes: Intervention development and research design. Contemporary clinical trials, 60, 56-62.

Rahman, M. A., Hann, N., Wilson, A., Mnatzaganian, G., & Worrall-Carter, L. (2015). E-cigarettes and smoking cessation: evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis. PloS one, 10(3), e0122544.

Subject: Education

Pages: 4 Words: 1200






Author Citation:

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Lemonick, M. D. (2009). When Your Brain Can’t Say No. TIME, 104–109.


The purpose of this study is to correct the myths about drinking that it’s all dependent on willpower because it isn't. It is a medical condition of the brain that can be treated with medications and therapies.


Humans will tend to do things that they like no matter the consequences. Such is the matter of addiction to drugs, humans understand how bad it is but they still do it. By the mid-50s, the American Medical Association (AMA) reported that alcoholism is a disease and not moral wrongdoing. Thus, methods for its treatment started to come in and most common was the counseling and vitamins. A support group Anonymous Alcoholics (AA) proved to be effective for a few individuals but others had no improvement at all. By the next decade, researchers proposed the same model as AA that continued meetings could have better results. Also, by the time advanced technologies like MRI and PET scans were introduced into practice. Latest studies helped scientists understand the physiology of the neurotransmitter chemicals and their mode of action.

Based on the results of the research, new drugs were introduced. Scientists started working on establishing the nature of addiction and its effects on human’s behavior. When the human brain is exposed to drugs, the memory system, impulses, conditioning and decision-making skills are affected adversely. Addiction may be genetic but sometimes epigenetics may also play its role and it may occur in nonchemical attributes like behaviors, shopping, gambling, and sex. Some issues are behavior-specific. Addictions do not mere occur due to pleasure-seeking purpose but there are more analytical variables to find the root cause. Brain-imaging has shown that patients who relapsed within the first year of the program lacked cognitive and analytical skills for decision-making activities. This relapsing of patients was detectable due to decreased levels of prefrontal cortex activation and impulsive behavior is overridden by rational thoughts. By blocking dopamine receptor D3, the excessive effect of the drug can be minimized but the natural system for damping is defective in addicts and can be boosted by the usage of vigabatrin.

Endocrinology also plays part in addiction or craving to certain drugs. For example, women crave nicotine during their menstrual cycle at the release of follicle following progesterone and estrogen release. Studies have suggested that the same amount of drink hit women intensely as compared to men because women have less amount of alcohol dehydrogenase and body water and combined with estrogen give a net concentrating reaction in the blood. The PET scans of methamphetamine abusers indicated that after more than a year of treatment, their brains started returning to their pre-drug state. The 90-days rehabilitation program has proven to very efficient as it is how long a brain takes to shake off the effects of the drug completely; sleeper effect. This research opened up more dimensions of studying cognitive responses to drugs. So, many brain systems are entangled with each other and thus trying to adjust one will influence the other. Though science has made marvelous discoveries and developed many medications and treatment therapies, the only best way to stop drinking is to stop drinking.

Strong/Weak Points:

The strong points in this study are that the author has stated all the facts with sources by mentioning the name of the researcher or the universities in which the studies were conducted. The study pattern is based on the analysis of the past researches and is in the proper timeline to follow through the development stages of the rehabilitation process. The author has also given relevance from the history and evolving pattern over the years. Sound examples have been provided with an explanation of all points. The article is well written and coherent. The visual illustrations are the strongest point of the study. The weak points of the study are that it stated some incomplete information which was not enough to convey the complete idea. Another point is that it did not address the prospects of the study.


The benefits of this study are that it gives useful ideas about several factors that influence alcoholism and its consequences. It removed any misconceptions about drug addiction that it is entirely abusers fault because so many mechanisms in the human body trigger such behavior. It stated many facts together at one point that helps make associations among different variables. It also mentioned different medications and programs suggested for the treatment of alcoholism. The studies also approved of the support group meeting program by AA and reported that it is quite efficient. Information about the basic anatomy of the human brain has also helped understand the process in a better way.


The applicability of this study is wide-scale as it opens the discussion for several possible research ideas. The studies can be applied to the analytic and observational studies plan for the better understanding and collecting evidence on our own. It can also be used as a baseline for medical practices and theoretical work. This study can be applied as an interesting activity within support groups and rehabilitation centers. It can also be compared with the real experiences of the addicts and analyze the behavioral patterns that led them to addiction. It can also be used to conduct qualitative studies on other kinds of addictions and their initiation causes and consequences. It is a diverse study and can be utilized in so many useful aspects.

Subject: Education

Pages: 3 Words: 900


Name of student

Name of institution

Name of instructor



Perspectives on Jesus

The trial and crucifixion of Jesus was not just like any other crucifixion that took place in the past. A lot of questions still continue to surround the manner in which they carried out the process. Peter and Paul the apostle were also executed though they took some time in prison before the final verdict was made. For Jesus, it was less than 24 hours and He was already on the cross. Did Jesus really complete the mission that he came to accomplish or did the people cut him short? For the author, he believes that Jesus completed every mission that He came to accomplish on earth. The author has provided different proofs to show that in deed Jesus was aware of the happenings that would take place and that He would be crucified.


To collect data for the book, the author made use of the Bible as the major source for his content. The story of Jesus is recorded in the Bible well and it is the best source that one can use in such a circumstance. At the beginning of the chapter, he quotes that anyone who manipulates the Bible for their own reason is not offering any help to the readers of writers. Such a person is just misleading people and should therefore be given the blackmail they deserve. There are different authors within the Bible that the writer references in an aim to prove the points he is making. The authors include John, Mark and Luke who recorded the manner in which the events took place on the night when Jesus was arrested. The author uses these different sources to prove that in deed Jesus was done with the work that He had come to do on earth. The references include Mark 15: 39-41, Mark 14: 32 and John 18:10-11 among others. Peter denied Jesus three times on that night as prophesized by Jesus during the last supper. He said “I do not know this man you are talking about” three times. This is in accordance with the prophecy that Jesus made, that on that night, one of the disciples shall deny Him three times.


From the book, the author proves that Jesus had already accomplished all the things that He came to do. It goes contrary to the arguments that some people have been saying that the people who crucified Jesus cut Him short. From the book, the arguments are based on the fact that during the last supper, it seemed like Jesus was already preparing to leave the earth. By stating that one person would betray Him and another would deny Him three times, it showed that He was done with what He had come to do. The manner in which the author provides his arguments to prove the statement that he made at the beginning shows that his assertions were true. He had done his in different books within the Bible to prove his statement. The arguments are convincing and one get the much needed information about the topic in question. The chapter presents Jesus as the suffering servant. In the chapter, the author shows that the suffering that Jesus underwent was to bring salvation to the whole of human kind. The behavior of Peter is also looked at within the chapter. Apart from the denial, Peter tried during the arrest to fight the arresters. When Jesus gave Himself to the arresters, it was evident that He was prepared for the passion and that all that was happening was according to the prophecy He made.


Were the persecutors of Jesus acting on their own knowledge or was it the plan of God?

Did Jesus prove to be the suffering servant of God when He died on the cross?

Works cited

Gerald O’Collins. (2008). Jesus: A portrait. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books.

Subject: Education

Pages: 2 Words: 600


Your Name

Instructor Name

Course Number


Chapter 11

The chapter 11 of the book entitled, “Jesus: A Portrait” explains that the beginnings of Christianity are not based on an exclusive system of beliefs. The Christian faith is based on God's loving response to dirty sinners like you and me. There is nothing narrow or elitist about a faith that says "come as you are!" Charles Spurgeon, a powerful teacher of Christianity, said it wonderfully: "When a man is completely lost and ruined, covered everywhere by profane sin, and without a place free of contamination, when he denies any self-justification and pleads guilty before the Lord, then it is cleansed through the blood of Jesus, and the grace of God. When sin is seen and felt, it receives a mortal blow, and the Lord looks with eyes of mercy to the soul afflicted by sin (Collins,45).

It was necessary for Jesus to die to fulfill God's purpose for humanity. Now, he would never die because of inherited sin, for he had been conceived by holy spirit and was perfect. However, he decided to give his life so that we would have the possibility to be happy and live forever, an opportunity that the disobedient Adam denied us all. The suffering of Jesus, as well as his death, occurred according to the Scripture in representation of men and for that reason it has salvation effects: "For to this you were called; because Christ also suffered for us, leaving us an example, that you should follow his footsteps; who did not sin, nor was deceit found in his mouth; who, when cursed, did not respond with a curse; when he suffered, he did not threaten, but entrusted the cause to the one who judges righteously; who himself bore our sins in his body on the tree, so that we, being dead to sins, may live to righteousness; and by whose wound you were healed (Collins,45).

2) Methodology & Perspective employed (if stated explicitly by the author).

The author didn’t mention about the methodology in this book. The author uses the primary and secondary sources for this chapter. The author uses the bible to support his point of view. The author does not have biases. Two malefactors were executed with the Lord. The cross of Jesus was in the middle. Here Isaiah 53:12 was fulfilled: the Lord was numbered with sinners. The difficult sufferings of Jesus finally led to a terrible death struggle.

The words of Jesus that he pronounced on the cross, testify to his divine greatness. Even in suffering and death, he still addresses others with words of mercy, forgiveness, intercession and sleeplessness, manifesting the love and grace of God.

3) Argument:

The Apocalypse represents a important movement in the origins of Christianity , which has its roots in the history of the People of Israel and in theprophetic- apocalyptic movement in which the movement of Jesus and the first Christian communities . The apocalyptic collects and transforms Jewish and Judeo-Christian apocalyptic traditions , and in the Church a critical function of resistance against the Hellenization of Christianity and its authoritarian and institutional institutionalization Later patriarchal. The neglect of this tradition made possible the long-term integration of the Church to the dominant imperial system and the construction of a Christianity of power.

The story of Christ's passion and death on the cross is overwhelming. Why is Jesus dead? It is an exclamation that can rise to this violent event in the facts. Several answers are possible, and actually present in Scripture.

He's dead ... because we killed him! This evidence deserves to be remembered, if only to avoid the morbid and perverse representation - which has sometimes occurred in our church! - a painful Jesus seeking suffering and death to appease divine wrath (see the horrible words of "Midnight, Christians"!) ... Jesus did not want to die and even asked his Father that " this cup moves away from him. He did not go to death with gaiety of heart. He died because he was killed.

To these conditions, were added other more strategic or political. Without even mentioning a possible disappointment on the part of Judas or other followers of the nationalist movement - who would have hoped to see Jesus take the head of an insurrection against the Romans - it is likely that the authorities in place have took the opportunity to dissuade the people from rebelling against the occupier.

Works Cited

Collins, Gerald. Jesus: A portrait. Orbis, 2008.

Subject: Education

Pages: 2 Words: 600



[Name of the Student]

[Name of the Institution]



The selected article deals with the impairments in skin health. It aims at managing the impairment of skin tissue with an increased scope of study. The article emphasizes that managing impairment of skin integrity is not the same as managing a wound. The study has been conducted with the purpose of assessing comprehensively the causes, implications, and treatment methods for skin integrity impairments. It aims at describing the anatomy of integument in sufficient detail and providing a sound basis for organizing the relevant information as well as constructing sound arguments. Simultaneously, the research objectives include identifying the factors whether internal or external that might affect skin integrity. Finally, the objective of the study is to indicate certain ways that the clinicians can use to determine appropriate methods for the treatment of alterations to skin integrity.


The study is based on secondary research by using the information available in various peer-reviewed articles, books, and patents. The study claims that discussion and treatment of skin integrity impairments can only start with a comprehensive understanding of the integumentary system that refers to the skin and its appendages. Hence, a detailed study of the skin and the related structures has been provided in the beginning. The research proceeds with the extensive analysis of the changes that occur in the integumentary system caused by the effect of aging. Different types of impairments that can possibly occur to the integumentary system have been discussed in adequate detail using sufficient resources peer-reviewed. Finally, some treatment plans have been proposed to assist the clinicians regarding skincare. The research report contains several tables and charts that depict useful data related to the topics of discussion, based on the empirical evidence taken from the resources used.


The study explains that integument and skin are interchangeably used words. The difference can be that the integumentary system consists of three layers distinctly separated from each other: epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis. The sub-layers of epidermis include stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, and stratum germinativum. Other components of the epidermis layer include melanocytes (providing skin pigmentation), nerve receptors (providing sensitivity to external stimuli), rete ridges (forming the junction of epidermis and dermis), blood vessels, and Langerhans cells (providing antigens). The layers of dermis include papillary dermis and reticular dermis. Other components include fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells, nerve cells, hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and sweat glands.

The skin is capable of maintaining homeostasis of the internal body environment. It also protects the body from the external environment. The factors that affect the integument intrinsically include diabetes, vascular diseases, and altered nutrition. The factors affecting the skin extrinsically include surgical procedures, pressures, falls, and accidents.

The impairments to skin integrity occur due to tissue destruction, infectious processes, and other processes of disease acquisition (Murphree, 2017). Commonly seen impairments in skin integrity in the elderly people include friction rubs, blisters, abrasions, skin tears, erythema, ski damage associated with moisture, injuries related to pressure, vascular impairments, cancer, etc. Other causes of skin integrity impairments may be intravenous tubes, percutaneous tubes, chest tubes, and others.

To develop the most suitable treatment of skin integrity impairment for an individual, it is essential to assess comprehensively the activity levels, comorbidities, nutrition details, and the health conditions with respect to certain diseases like diabetes. A team approach is required to get the positive results in the treatment of skin impairments in the elderly.


The quality of life in elderly people can be assured by using evidence-based resources in their treatment. The suggested treatment will also ensure improvement in patient outcomes. Many tools are available online these days that can assist the experts to devise appropriate plans for the treatment of the skin impairments.


Murphree, Rose W. 2017. “Impairments in Skin Integrity.” Nursing Clinics of North America 52(3):405–17.

Subject: Education

Pages: 2 Words: 600

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