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Mid-1970s Through the Eyes of Stan and Virgil Tibbs

Killer of Sheep analysis the black Los Angeles ghetto of Watts in the mid-1970s in the eyes of Stan, a penetrating idealist who is increasing detached and emotionless from the intellectual toll of employed at a shambles. The film deals with no solutions; it simply represents life - now and then hauntingly miserable, sometimes occupied by transcendent happiness and good humor. whereas, “In the heat of the night film” is about the story of Virgil Tibbs, a police detective in the city of Philadelphia, who unintentionally wants to get involved in a murder investigation in a small, very racist town in the fictional city of Sparta in Mississippi (Ball, John, and John Dudley Ball, 56). The film was released for a time in the United States where civil rights struggles were a crucial part after the Civil Rights Act was proclaimed in 1964.

Stan works at slaughterhouses in Los Angeles and loses morale. He frequents thugs but does not give in to the call of delinquency. From galley to galley, he leads his little life with fleeting happiness. Stan hates the work of the slaughter of animals, but refuses to change it, even for a better life. This is not so paradoxical - temptations take shape inherent in the atmosphere of the ghetto. Friends, robbers and murderers come to him. They call to participate in a serious business, where they will have to be silent (Burnett). All this is a chance for a different share. But Stan rejects everything. He cannot understand why the choice is exactly this way: either the killer of sheep, or the robber, the pimp and the lover of the hostess. The image is restrained, devoid of emotional excesses, imaginary pathos. Humor and charm, inherent in black people, ache the heart, they are woven into meaninglessness and squalor of what is happening. Small idiotic conflicts, idleness, endless chatter about anything. Stan gets stuck in trying to make at least something meaningful.

Whereas, Virgil Tibbs is the protagonist in six sequels to that novel. He went to visit his mother in Brownsvillein Mississippi and from there he went home to the north. In the middle of the night, he is waiting for his abstract railroad connection to Memphis, Tennessee, on the platform of the closed train station of a desperate building called Sparta (Mississippi). He is then noticed by a local constable investigating with a cookie-cut on a murder which has just taken place in the village. An unknown black man in a suit and tie sitting with a suitcase on the platform of a deserted train station? There is no doubt in the ideology of the corner, it is the murderer. Virgil Tibbs is being robbed, ransacked and unceremoniously taken to the Sparta police station. He does not rebel but he does not fraternize either. He responds coldly to racist disdain by class contempt. This is the beginning of his adventure in the heat of the night which will be at the same time, for him, a cava in the depths of the countryside and a sort of strange and nightmarish retreat in historical time.

Through the eyes of Stan and Virgil Tibbs, these characters shows that all these elements build a fairly clear picture of what an African American ghetto is: the low salary, the careless children that infest the streets, the brotherhood that derives from them, poverty, and insecurity, etc. All those factors that push African-Americans to look for alternative ways out of the system to have a more dignified life, without realizing that they are walking right in the direction that they are driving. All against all, and here the strongest survives.

Works Cited

Ball, John, and John Dudley Ball. In the Heat of the Night: The Original Virgil Tibbs Novel. Penguin Classics, (2015).

Burnett, Charles. Killer of sheep [videorecording]: a film. BFI, (2008).

Subject: Education

Pages: 2 Words: 600

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Case Study Analysis

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Case Study Analysis


This paper is an analysis paper that is aimed to analyze the case titled “Accounting for business combinations and the convergence of International Financial Reporting Standards with the U.S. generally accepted accounting principles”. The paper also covers and answers some of the most important and critical questions assigned in the case by covering some key concepts such as FAS 141R and FAS 160, the difference between US GAAP and IFRS, introduction of SPEs, and impacts of FAS 141R and FAS on financial ratio.

Question # 1

What key financial ratios will be affected by the adoption of FAS 141Rand FAS 160? What will be the likely effect?

Almost all of the financial ratios that had been affected by FAS 141R and FAS 160 in the year 2009 were subsidiaries' assets and liabilities of companies. However, there are not much but fewer variances that had been witnessed 10 years before today and not every concern have been covered with the implementation of the newer protocol which state that the leading business or company should consolidate subsidiaries’ financial statements with the financial statements of the leading or parent company.

The differences between the US GAAP and IFRS have been eliminated by the very recent updates by the FASB and IASB in accounting for the business combination and reporting for consolidated businesses. Hence, debt to equity of the company and the business deficit to asset ratio would be there (Beaton, 2008). And it would lead to enhancing equity through the proper classification of non-controlling business assets.

Question # 2

Could any of the recent and forthcoming changes affect the company’s acquisition strategies and potentially its growth?

Yes! The company growth and acquisition strategy would be affected because of the adaptation of FAS 141R and FAS 160 and acquisition in the future would be accounted for as on the full market value. With the valuation, the non-controlling interest would also be increased with the increase of goodwill. While on the opposing side, the under-valuation of businesses asset would lead to a raise. And it is a fact in case the assets valued at full market value and then overvalued, so it will be like assets decline at full value. Getting assets is an expense and in case of the new standard, this would count as an incurred expense which would decrease the income of the company (Spathis, & Georgakopoulou, 2007). Hence to cover the set financial target, the acquisition such as assets acquisition strategy has to be amended by the company as it affects the growth in an inverse manner.

Question # 3

What were FASB’s primary reasons for issuing FAS 141R and FAS 160?

Beyond many, the main reason behind issuing the FAS 141R and FAS 160 was the establishment of different changes between US GAAP and IFRS that would help to simplify the international convergence of accounting. The improvement of information and its relevance was the second reason behind this issuance while to assist the disclosure of business assets and debts from business combinations possibilities.

A key role of the FAS 160 was to ensure consistency when disclosing the non-controlling interest by developing accounting and reporting standards. This was aimed to be done in consolidated financial statements. While another purpose was to use it for the collection of NCI accounting and IFRS requirements that are beneficial to better comparability, and relevance of financial information.

Question # 4

What are qualifying SPEs? Do they exist under IFRS? What is the effect of FAS 166 eliminating the concept of qualifying SPE son the convergence of accounting standards?

According to (Beaton, 2008), in 2009, the FAS 160 had been issued by FASB had led to removing SPEs concept and even idea by the IFRS entities or authorities. This had put effects in a way that business assesses these entities in the current time for the consolidation that is easily possible. While the SPEs concept has been introduced for the second time in FAS 167 for the purpose to have an understanding of the benefits of SPEs that can direct operatives of SPEs.

Question # 5

If the company adopts IFRS, what changes should management be aware of?

Many changes that the management should be aware of. But, the changes that are highly important than others including controlling. This means that the management should put a huge focus on controlling entities and to enhance power that is aimed to get operational and financial roles into notice by the management (Spathis, & Georgakopoulou, 2007). Furthermore, management should also be aware of the cost of the business combination, changes with new accounting reports, and changes in income to investors, etc.

Question # 6

What are the principle differences between IFRS and U.S. GAAP?

Beyond many, the major difference between US GAAP and IFRS is that the US GAAP is a rule-based approach while IFRS is principle-based. But based on the case study at hand there are 6 principle differences between US GAAP and IFRS which are; 1) control definition, 2) shares considered in determining to control, 3) calculation of goodwill while acquiring, 4) contingencies, 5) initial or primary measurement, and 6) goodwill impairment testing (Barth, et.al, 2012).


After an in-depth analysis of the case study and questions assigned, it has come to conclude that the effect of adopting FAS 141R and FAS 160 on the financial ratio is significant while the recent changes also have enough impacts on the company’s acquisition strategy and growth. Further, there are several reasons behind the issuance of FAS 141R and FAS 160 which are enough crucial. The introduction of SPEs is to have knowledge of the benefits of it. Beyond these, it has come to know that in the case of IFRS, the crucial changes for the management are variances in operational, financial and controlling outcomes. At last, it has been found that the difference between US GAAP and IFRS is very clear that include control, shares considered in controlling, and calculation of goodwill, etc.


Barth, M. E., Landsman, W. R., Lang, M., & Williams, C. (2012). Are IFRS-Based and US GAAP-Based Accounting Amounts Comparable? Journal of Accounting and Economics, 54(1), 68-93.

Beaton, N. (2008). New FASB Rules for Acquisitions and Valuation: 141R, 160. Financial Executive, 24(2), 15-17.

Spathis, C., & Georgakopoulou, E. (2007). The Adoption of IFRS in South-Eastern Europe: The Case of Greece. International Journal of Financial Services Management, 2(1-2), 50-63.

Subject: Education

Pages: 3 Words: 900

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The procedures that identify and address the implications of staffing in a firm on its business strategies and plans are entailed by Staffing Framework. It has generally three types: Ethnocentric, Polycentric, and Geocentric. Three types determine where the staff would be employed. Paul Fierman was a fresh MBA graduate who was allocated in Vietnam by the Chicago Food and Beverage Company, but he could not perform as well as was expected by his former supervisor, Allen Roger.

Answer #1

An ethnocentric kind of Staffing Framework has been used in the provided case study. In this kind of staffing framework, a parent company employs top-level executives from its home country and allocates them into the subsidiaries. The usefulness of this kind is that the parent company keeps the command and control system of the subsidiary in its own hands and thus it attempts to maintain its product quality and way of marketing in coherence with the parent company (Bodolica, & Waxin, 2007). Paul Fierman was a fresh MBA graduate with little international experience of work and he was allocated in Haiphong, Vietnam.

Answer #2

Apparently, the proponents of this framework claim that it is an ideal framework to maintain international standard of the products and it can help the parent company to control and command the business activity in subsidiary firms using its own employees, but the conversation between Paul and his wife Arrie after six months of Paul’s job in Haiphong reveal that Paul could not perform in Haiphong as he expected because of the strange and unfamiliar environment he faced in Haiphong. The Chicago Food and Beverage Company allocated Paul in Vietnam, assuming that he would perform well at the place of Mike Shannon, but Paul expressed that he was not satisfied with the job due to unfamiliar social context, and an unsatisfactory wage. Thus, we can say that this type of staffing framework would prove counterproductive in the case of Paul.

Answer #3

The polycentric type of staffing framework can be a useful replacement of an ethnocentric type, for multinational companies. Top-level executives in the polycentric type of staffing framework are employed from the country or region where a subsidiary branch of a company works. This type is suggested to the company headquarters because the executives who would be employed from the home country of the subsidiary firm might not face such difficult circumstances that were faced by Paul. Paul was missing his home country and friends there. Moreover, he was not enjoying the luxuries which he was used to in the USA despite getting a 178,800-dollar salary there. An executive who would be employed from the home country of a subsidiary firm would be considered to have a high wage and he would also like this amount of salary being paid in his or her home country. Above all, he would know how to successfully run industry there with the help of the firsthand knowledge he or she would have about the social context.

Answer #4

Paul did not ask specifically for this job rather he just contacted his former supervisor Allan Roger expressing that he aspires to join Chicago Food and Beverage Company soon after the completion of his MBA degree. It was because he had prior experience of working for this company and he thought he could have bright future opportunities working in this company, it was Roger who encouraged him to apply for the position considering him a potential candidate for the post, but the results proved opposite. Knowing the aspirations of Paul and the ground realities of Vietnam we can say that Paul did not deserve this job for he was unaware of even what kind of people and market trends were popular in the country, he was being allocated to. Paul is used to and committed to living in a developed region of the world, therefore, was not a good candidate for this expatriate position.

Answer #5

Expatriate Management deals with issues like the transfer of technologies, the transmission of organizational culture, and the development of the international skills of employees. In simple words, expatriate management always deals with issues between different branches of multinational companies (Harvey, Speier, & Novecevic, 2001). Expatriate Recruitment Policy refers to the practice of hiring staff for multinational companies in different regions and countries. Expatriate Recruitment Policy is guided by the Staffing Framework which determines the region that the employees would be selected from.

Answer #6

Three kinds of Compensation methods are discussed in the text: international standard, home country standard, and host country standard. International compensation methods ask the companies to offer the same wages to all workers, whereas, the home country method suggests using the standards of the parent company's home country. Finally, the host country method allows the companies to follow the wage standards popular in the country where the subsidiary firm works. People who migrate from developed countries to underdeveloped countries appreciate the international wage standards feel restless with the host country methods.

Answer #7

It is suggested to the US headquarters' human resource managers to offer international standard wages to the top-level executives so the employees will work motivated. Paul was uneasy with the job because of a strange social context, but one important factor was his uneasiness while he claimed that his salary did not help him enjoy trips on weekends to freshen up his mind (Sadler, Lee, Lim, & Fullerton, 2010). The US headquarters’ HR manager should consider that had Paul have enjoyed a handsome pay package, he would have not expressed such amount of frustration before his wife.


Paul Fierman was employed using the ethnocentric type of staffing framework, but he could not perform satisfactorily because he had little experience of working as an expatriate. Had the firm's HRM in the USA used the polycentric type of framework or international compensation method, he would have received different results than he received from the performance of Paul Fierman.


Harvey, M., Speier, C., & Novecevic, M. M. (2001). A theory-based framework for strategic global human resource staffing policies and practices. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 12(6), 898-915.

Sadler, G. R., Lee, H. C., Lim, R. S. H., & Fullerton, J. (2010). Recruitment of hard‐to‐reach population subgroups via adaptations of the snowball sampling strategy. Nursing & health sciences, 12(3), 369-374.

Bodolica, V., & Waxin, M. F. (2007). Chicago food and beverage company: The challenges of managing international assignments. Journal of the International Academy for Case Studies, 13(3), 31.

Subject: Education

Pages: 3 Words: 900

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Person Focussed Pay Plan and Its Effects

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Person Focussed Pay Plan and Its Effects


In order to meet the criteria of success in the plan, all factors must be considered. HR professionals should ensure the understanding of their criteria to the employees and that can be understood by the supervisors and managers so that they can judge the performance. The performance appraisal ensures the creation based on the analysis of the job and for the review administration, supervisors and managers review the process and also review themselves. There are various incentives plans and one can choose from a variety of programs. From the various incentive programs, the person focused pay programs give compensations as the earned reward for implementing and acquiring the skills and knowledge.


There are four models of the person focused pay program:

Stair Step Model

This model has the steps that are contrasting to the actual jobs from the family of the specific jobs. There is complexity associated with the different jobs and a person can go up the stairwell by gaining the necessary knowledge and skills. These skills are also formed on the basis of hierarchy which is built on one above the other.

Skills Block Model:

In this model, the operation is based on the way that is similar to the model of stair-step approach, but on the contrary to the stair step model, the skills are not building on one top of another. The quick succession of the employees can be possible if they learn the skills that are necessary in any order. The succession of the orders is not required in this sort of setting. A level can be skipped by the employee if they have the necessary skills.

Job Point Accrual:

This sort of model encourages the learning and development of skills for the employees so that they can perform their jobs from a similar job family.

Cross-Departmental Model:

This sort of model encourages the employees within the department to learn the jobs so that they can assist the company during the downtimes of the company.

Reason for the implementation

Most of the companies that employees this model has several reasons to implement this system. It not only encourages the growth of the company but also can enhance the skill sets of the employees. The reward program that is given to the employees on their skillsets and potential make the fruitful effect in the prosperity of the organization. Also, the implementation of this plan offers the enrichment of the job and brings the variety that provides the schedule potential flexibility. The encouraging of the employees in this model helps them to learn the setup and procedures of the organization thoroughly. According to the theory of job characteristic, the motivation of the employees is done so that they can perform the jobs containing the higher core degree characteristics.

There are many advantages to the person focused pay programs not only for the employers but also for the employees. In the following paragraphs, we will highlight some of the advantages and as well as the disadvantages of the person focused pay program.


To Employees:

Potentially there are two main benefits that can be getting from the person focused pay programs to the employees. Firstly it brings the enrichment of the job because employees will learn the skills in order to move up the hierarchy. Secondly, this thing would provide them with the job security because once a person learns all the necessary skills; it would be able for them to make a valuable contribution for the company that would make them more secure. Thirdly, the design approach will bring motivation in the employees because of the interesting working environment.

To the Employers:

For employers, it can lead to betterment in job performance. Also, the staff that could be hired can be reduced in a greater amount. It can lead to developing greater flexibility in the job.


1. It can increase the cost because if the training is given to the employees, it would incur the cost. Also, hourly labor would be increased

2.It may not mesh properly with the existing programs that are providing the incentives.

3.There is struggle associated with the understanding of the companies in order to determine the skills and knowledge benefits in term of monetary values.


There are various incentives plans and one can choose from the variety of programs. From the various incentive programs, the person focused pay programs give compensations as the earned reward for implementing and acquiring the skills and knowledge. There are many advantages to the person focused pay programs not only for the employers but also for the employees. It not only encourages the growth of the company but also can enhance the skill sets of the employees.


Crigger, N., & Godfrey, N. (2014). From the inside out: A new approach to teaching professional identity formation and professional ethics. Journal of Professional Nursing, 30(5), 376-382.

Martocchio, J. J. (2011). Strategic compensation: A human resource management approach. Pearson Education India.

Shimko, D. W. (2000). Choosing a pay structure that works for your practice. Family Practice Management, 7(2), 30.

Subject: Education

Pages: 2 Words: 600

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Dreaming and the Didgeridoo – The Way of Life Among the Aborigines



Author Note

Dreaming and the Didgeridoo – The Way of Life Among the Aborigines


One of the oldest civilizations in the world can be found among the aboriginal Australians. This indigenous group has migrated to this region and developed over the Australian continent for over 50,000 years at this point. These people not only share genetic history with one another, but cultures, traditional values, and folklore as well. While these people comprise of various groups of native dwellers in the region, extensive cultural exchange has led them to share the same culture. One of the most important and unique parts of this culture is called “dreaming” ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"kqc9PI9g","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(den Boer, 2012)","plainCitation":"(den Boer, 2012)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1028,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/0omESN17/items/K2GUJH75"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/0omESN17/items/K2GUJH75"],"itemData":{"id":1028,"type":"article-journal","title":"Spirit conception: Dreams in Aboriginal Australia.","container-title":"Dreaming","page":"192","volume":"22","issue":"3","author":[{"family":"Boer","given":"Elizabeth","non-dropping-particle":"den"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2012"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (den Boer, 2012).

Dreamtime, or dreaming, according to the aboriginal population of Australia, is a means for the natives to explain how life came to be and the stories and the beliefs that make up the creation of everything. These stories lay the basis of the aboriginal lore and are often relayed through stories, music, and pictures. It explains what it means to be a part of their culture and informs them of the ways to live their lives and follow in the footsteps of their forefathers.

The didgeridoo, one of the oldest instruments known to man is often the instrument used by the men of the aboriginal community to tell the tales of the powers their ancestors inseminated into the soil. While there are other instruments brought into the mix as well, such as the gum leaves and the clapsticks, didgeridoo dominated the use and is still being used by the Australian aborigines during the dreaming ceremonies. They created songs to recount the history of their own lives, which also includes also tell them of the ways to heal the sick or arrest the flood. These songs are usually made up of short verses, which each line having a melodic form throughout the song. The melodies and the musical expression associated with such songs often changed with time and the region they are being performed in. Even though the melodies may have changed over time, the expression of singing made more and more contemporary, the message contained within the songs still remain intact, showing these people the way to live their life ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"sRHfKtpG","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Parker, 2003)","plainCitation":"(Parker, 2003)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1029,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/0omESN17/items/BE87XV4C"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/0omESN17/items/BE87XV4C"],"itemData":{"id":1029,"type":"book","title":"Didjeridu Dreaming","publisher":"J.B. Books","URL":"https://books.google.com.pk/books?id=SE11AAAACAAJ","ISBN":"978-1-876622-43-5","author":[{"family":"Parker","given":"A."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2003"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Parker, 2003).


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY den Boer, E. (2012). Spirit conception: Dreams in Aboriginal Australia. Dreaming, 22(3), 192.

Parker, A. (2003). Didjeridu Dreaming. Retrieved from https://books.google.com.pk/books?id=SE11AAAACAAJ

Subject: Education

Pages: 1 Words: 300

You Make It Up


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Urban Crimes

As we discuss above the urban crimes in Cleveland city of Ohio state. Here we will discuss the solutions and the other and recommendations for the control of the crimes ratio in the city. The history of crimes in Cleveland started from the arrival of the first settlers. The criminal record has no clear evidence that when and how the city became the safe zone for criminals. As the population of the city increased, it became more complex and became harder for the government to control the crime rate. We discussed in the first part of this document that the reasons for crimes are the unemployment and the homeless population. The possible solutions to this issue are the removal of barriers of reentry of the criminals to society and should not recommit the crimes. The state has to review the imprisonment policies. There should be more small police stations around the city. A number of police would be the best solution to ensure safety to the citizens. Crimes are countless but the causes of the crimes are few, so it is better to focus on its causes. The homeless population of the city is increasing continuously.

Moreover, the unemployment rate is also increasing constantly which compelled the youth of the city to commit crimes. So it is one of the reasons for the crime, and the government has to create more opportunities for employment. Some people commit crimes because of their mentality and finding an easy way of earnings (Spader et al., 2016). These people need psychosocial support which could change their minds.

Here we will discuss the two significant alternatives and recommendations for the peace of the city. The first alternative that I would like to suggest that the government of Cleveland is the removal of barriers of reentry. When an alleged person releases from jail after the completion of the penalty, he should be provided the opportunities for employment. The person also faces problems in a society of being avoided by people. The release people have lost their sources of incomes, and the community does not consider them as trustworthy people. Mostly they face challenges to find jobs and find their legal sources of earnings. So it is the responsibility of the state to provide them job opportunities.

Moreover, not only the state is responsible, but also the community and the family are responsible for convincing people not to recommit these crimes. There should be strict punishment for those who are addicted criminals. Besides, the police and judiciary of the state have to provide proper counseling to the minor criminals and provide the opportunity to become responsible citizens. The second alternative recommended to the state is the revise the policies of the prisons. The jail administration should focus on the mental grooming of the criminals and transform their mentality from crimes to peace and positivity. The jails should be like an institute where the criminals should be educated to become a peaceful citizen. Inside the prison, the prisoners should have opportunities for schooling and learning new skills. These skills will help them when they are released from jail.

Cleveland is considered the ghetto city of the state. Major crimes of the city are the homicides, robbery, rapes, theft, and drugs (Issa, 2017). The existing policies and regulations that the city is abiding are not effective. Its effectiveness depends on the rate of crimes, which is increasing rapidly with time. There are no such rules for the sustainability of the people. Most of the people are homeless and have no jobs. The state has to focus on the development of the people. The policy of the state should be revised as it doesn't work and its impact is adverse. The state and community should work together to resolve the deep-rooted problems. Without the support of the community it is not possible to address these issues. One of the reasons for these crimes could be the lack of basic rights of survival for most of the citizen. So the state should focus on the development of the city and create more opportunities for its citizens.

For the implementation of these recommendations to solve the problems of the Cleveland, government, community, and the families are responsible. Government institutions such as police, judiciary, local government, and intelligence agency. The government should provide proper psychosocial support to the citizen. The role of community is to support those who confess from their crimes and release from jail after completion of their penalty. The community is responsible for highlighting the key issues and coordinating with the state authorities to improve the peace of the country. The community can also ensure to support financially and mentally the people who quit the crimes.

The alternatives we discussed here would be more effective because these are based on long term results. The penalty of crimes is the short term solution which in many cases does not work. That raises the confidence of the criminals and become habitual to commit these continuously. Moreover, there was no proper sustainability plan with the government to support the citizens who want to leave crimes and become peaceful and responsible citizens. The purpose of this plan is to provide both psychological support and financial support to those who want to serve a peaceful time after the completion of their penalty. They should attend the sessions with psychologists for a specific period after the release from jail.

The advantages of our recommendations are long-lasting. It could change the mentality of the people and will move to the positive aspect of life. People will learn new skills and will realize the aim of life. The people who are released from jail will be supported to reenter society as a strong and positive person. The disadvantage of this plan is the availability of funds; it would be more costly. So the government should ensure funding for this plan to implement and get its benefits. For more alternatives and proper analysis of our recommendations the concerned authorities should use their resources and properly investigate and research this issue. For further information, the statistics available with government agencies could be utilized.


Issa, R. N. (2017). The Impact of Structural Disadvantage on Homicides in Cleveland From 1990 to 2010 (Doctoral dissertation, University of Akron).

Spader, J., Schuetz, J., & Cortes, A. (2016). Fewer vacants, fewer crimes? Impacts of neighborhood revitalization policies on crime. Regional Science and Urban Economics, 60, 73-84.

Subject: Education

Pages: 10 Words: 3000

Youth And Crime Meehan Austin Middle School

Juvenile Intervention/ diversion programs

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Juvenile intervention/ diversion programs

In every country, there are some specific laws for juvenile offenders. Mainly these programs target those who have the ability to re-establish themselves back to the normal life. This is how the legal system treats Juvenile offenders differently, compared to the adult criminals. As crime is legally acknowledged as Crime if committed by an adult offender, but it will be treated as a delinquent act if committed by a juvenile. In the United States, there are different programs for rehabilitating juveniles. They are designed considering the specific need of the juveniles. All crime prevention programs which targets juvenile involves the participation of family, friends, and society. This helps in maintaining an environment which is friendly towards the offender.

Part I

‘Adults in making’ is one of a highly rated intervention/ diversion program for juveniles. The major purpose of this program is to prevent the juveniles from going in the hands of the social evils. For example, the major aspect of this program is to prevent the participants from developing an addiction to malpractices, such as sex, drugs, alcohol, etc. The target population of this program is children aged between 12 and 18. Bishop mentions that it has been observed that the children’s between this age group normally tend to develop such habits which later becomes part of their lifestyle ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"bK8KyQVE","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Bishop, 2009)","plainCitation":"(Bishop, 2009)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":215,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/PE7SEARD"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/PE7SEARD"],"itemData":{"id":215,"type":"chapter","title":"Juvenile transfer in the United States","container-title":"Reforming juvenile justice","publisher":"Springer","page":"85–104","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Bishop","given":"Donna M."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2009"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Bishop, 2009). The program involves parental consultation at every step. Experts believe that parental consultation serves in many ways. For example, it builds in the children a sense of affection for parents, which normally takes some time. The focus of this program is on ensuring that parents have the skills and the understandings to provide support to youth. Since both parents and children live in close association, therefore this program aims at building emotional understandings between them. This program also focuses on creating anti-racism practices as norms. Experts who are associated with reading the criminal psyche opines that anti-racism practices serve much importantly throughout their lives. Since racism and social discrimination is a rising concern for the society at large, therefore such practices help in building a secure social environment. The adults in making the program use different methodologies for in building the sense of hate for malpractices in the youth. It uses the techniques of conflict resolution, development of interpersonal skills, creating leadership abilities, training parents and skills against drug and alcohol abuse. In the normal day of the program, different sessions are designed for both the parents and the children. Normally the day- to- day activities are kept separate for both the parents and the children, but there are some sessions which are attended by both parents and the children. Such sessions are designed involving collaborative activities, which are normally spending some time together. This rehabilitation program has largely remained focus over the Afro- American communities. Results show that such communities who have a tendency of developing anguish attitude towards the majority could be mainstreamed if such programs are tailored for them. The juveniles of age twelve are inducted in these programs. Although this program specifically covers the Afro- American youth, at present, there is no such segregation in the program. As parents are advised to observe thoroughly the tendencies of their children, therefore normally when the juvenile starts to develop such mal- attitude, he or she is taken fully in the custody by the instructors. The program lasts for six months and during this time duration, each and every aspect of the juvenile is studied thoroughly.

Part II

There is a wealth of literature available on the pros and cons of the intervention/ diversion concept. There are some criminologists who believe that intervention/ diversion works in cases where the juvenile commits a serious crime and is then brought back to life by using some solid social methodology. There are also criminologists who argue against the early intervention/ diversion programs. Palmer believes that in such cases where a child has been disconnected from the family, for no solid reason is serious intervention ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"EkvBYb8Y","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Palmer, 1992)","plainCitation":"(Palmer, 1992)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":"2gQkIdgp/S5V4csHd","uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/QMDDIRPB"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/QMDDIRPB"],"itemData":{"id":208,"type":"book","title":"The re-emergence of correctional intervention","publisher":"Sage","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Palmer","given":"Ted"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1992"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Palmer, 1992). Specific to the Adult in making program, one may opine that since this program involves the intervention/ diversion technique as part of the social upbringing of the families, therefore it does not conform to the intervention in the family life of any. This program is specifically aimed at developing anti-racism and anti-discriminatory thoughts among young adults. There are many studies which suggest that young adults who are trained in some way to develop bad feelings for specific things, tend to be negative toward that ill thing in life. This intervention/ diversion program is therefore designed in such a manner. The cost-benefit analysis suggest that the intervention/ diversion programs have remained impactful in preventing young adults from developing into habitual criminals. For observing more thoroughly, the cost-benefit ratio of the adults in making program, a study concluded in 2004 will be analyzed. The study on adults in Making suggests that the early therapies involving psychological observations and tailoring the needs according to its result in equitable growth of the population. There are other studies which also comes to the same conclusion. Wilson and Lipsety suggest that an evidence-based approach is applied in initiating the therapeutic procedures, this might result in better outcomes ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"F16A8yyy","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Lipsey & Wilson, 1998)","plainCitation":"(Lipsey & Wilson, 1998)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":217,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/4CQZV63R"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/4CQZV63R"],"itemData":{"id":217,"type":"book","title":"Effective intervention for serious juvenile offenders: A synthesis of research.","publisher":"Sage Publications, Inc","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Effective intervention for serious juvenile offenders","author":[{"family":"Lipsey","given":"Mark W."},{"family":"Wilson","given":"David B."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1998"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Lipsey & Wilson, 1998). The evidence-based programs also help in lowering the juvenile crime rate. In many studies that have been concluded specifically on the Adults in making program suggest that family therapy helps in building a protective wall ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"ngOKTGmC","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Lipsey & Wilson, 1998)","plainCitation":"(Lipsey & Wilson, 1998)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":217,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/4CQZV63R"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/4CQZV63R"],"itemData":{"id":217,"type":"book","title":"Effective intervention for serious juvenile offenders: A synthesis of research.","publisher":"Sage Publications, Inc","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Effective intervention for serious juvenile offenders","author":[{"family":"Lipsey","given":"Mark W."},{"family":"Wilson","given":"David B."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1998"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Lipsey & Wilson, 1998). As the families are also the part of the training sessions of this program, therefore the benefit outnumbers the cost in adults in making program.

Part III

As described before, the Meehan Austin School in Philadelphia is rated below average among the school in the same locality. There is various reason for this. For example, it has been observed that the crime detention ratio is much high compared to those who complete their grade seventh studies from this school. There is one more interesting fact associated with this school, which is the family backgrounds of the children. Around eight out of ten students hail from economically sound families. Their parents are paying regularly for hefty school funds, but still, the students have been observed involving in crimes. Since there is no comparison between the statistics when it is considered that students of low-income families tend to be harsher and leads to crime too early. The adult in making program will be helpful in sorting out the problems here. For example, the studies suggest that the students who appear to be inclined toward crimes generally have no time to spend with their parents. There are also other reasons why they are unable to spend time with their families. The separated parents remain the largest of all. By implying the adults in making program techniques, it could be sorted. The initial sessions would be designed in such a way that students will get the chances of interacting among themselves. Ample time will be given so that they might understand each other. This will help in reducing the discriminatory tendencies in the minors. Another way of doing this is by taking them somewhere on a trip or a long journey. In such cases, the minors do not get bored and enjoy the time they spent together. When seeing new things together, they develop the same thoughts about a general phenomenon. This is also a very useful technique to build a conducive environment in the classrooms. The next step will involve parental therapies. In this case, parents would be invited to spend some time together with their children. The previous studies suggest that in school or in the workplaces, the students and the parents appear to develop more cordial relations, therefore combine sessions for both the parents and the students will be arranged, so as to assure the proper upbringing of the families ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Ia7ES4qw","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Loeber & Farrington, 1999)","plainCitation":"(Loeber & Farrington, 1999)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":219,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/KENS9P78"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/KENS9P78"],"itemData":{"id":219,"type":"book","title":"Serious and violent juvenile offenders: Risk factors and successful interventions","publisher":"Sage","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Serious and violent juvenile offenders","author":[{"family":"Loeber","given":"Rolf"},{"family":"Farrington","given":"David P."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1999"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Loeber & Farrington, 1999).

Part IV

The adults in making program have remained impactful previously in many observations. There are findings which suggest that in the cases where the staff is properly trained and the instructors are well aware of the course in hand, the tale on the program very well. In the case of the Meehan Austin School, the success of the program will be measured in the following ways.

Measures of success: There are many ways however to measure whether the program is working or not. In the case of the Meehan Austin School, a proper attendance record of the students will be maintained. It will be keenly observed that whether the students are taking a full part in the sessions of the adults in making program. There will also be some activities which can help in judging the performance of the students. For example, some sessions will be arranged for the students under observation. These sessions will be designed by questioning them about what they think regarding a specific phenomenon. More broadly one can ask from them about the concept of life, and narrowly they can be questioned about the tie they have spent with their parents. In such cases, the staff also need to be well trained. If there is any ambiguity in the minds of the instructors, they will not be able to deliver more effectively. To assure that the instructors are well aware of the task, separate training sessions can be arranged for them. There can also be cases when it can appear that specific tasks are not resulting well. For example from time to time, some observations techniques are altered. As the student’s jumps to the next classes every year, therefore the close observation of such programs will be done accordingly.

Challenges Ahead: There remain some challenges which are part of such intervention/ diversion programs. For example, parents are mostly committed somewhere else when they are contacted for a session. Similarly, it becomes difficult to make the students concentrate during a session. It happens in many cases. There is also another challenge. Parents and the students do not focus much narrowly on the subject which is being taught to them. They tend to appear thinking about something else otter than focusing on the subject in the class. The primary concern, in this case, is consulting with the parents. It has been suggested in many findings that parents normally do not have a more positive view about such intervention/ diversion programs. Similarly, if it is observed that the parents might not be helpful in coming to the sessions, customized programs could be designed to manage these difficulties.


The Adults in making program has remained specifically focused over the community betterment. There are very fewer efforts that have been done in collaborating with the schools. Since schools are the primary places where an adult have a daily interaction, therefore schools offer the best environment to judge the psyche of the students, it is also the place that provides the platform to widen the team and the teachers could be incorporated as part of the intervention/ diversion team. If this plan worked, it could be expanded to other states as well.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Bishop, D. M. (2009). Juvenile transfer in the United States. In Reforming juvenile justice (pp. 85–104). Springer.

Lipsey, M. W., & Wilson, D. B. (1998). Effective intervention for serious juvenile offenders: A synthesis of research. Sage Publications, Inc.

Loeber, R., & Farrington, D. P. (1999). Serious and violent juvenile offenders: Risk factors and successful interventions. Sage.

Palmer, T. (1992). The re-emergence of correctional intervention. Sage.

Subject: Education

Pages: 6 Words: 1800

Youth Justice RNR And Case Plan Form

Client Name Christabel KnightMale/Female Female

Date of Birth 25/05/2004 Age 15

Report Completed by:

Current Order: Youth Supervision Order Expiry 14/09/2020

12 months

Current Offences:Attempted theft



Aggravated burglary x 4 counts

Theft of a motor vehicle

Special Condition/ s:

To attend Anger Management counselling as directed by supervisory officer

To attend Drug and Alcohol counselling as directed by supervisory officer

To reside as directed by her supervisory officer

Current address 16 Mac Rd, Heidelberg, 3156

Telephone 9555 0000

Ethnicity: n/a Aboriginal &Torres Strait Islander: Yes

Current Child Protection Status: Yes

Child Protection order type Expiry date 22/02/2020

1. General Risk/Need Factors - Criminal History (NO or YES responses)

1.1 One or more prior orders(including good behaviour bonds, all supervised orders)YES

1.2 Three or more prior supervised ordersYES

1.3 Current order has 3 or more proven chargesYES

1.4 Current order is custodial sentence (includes parole)YES

1.5 Previous custodial sentence YES

1.6 At first proven offence was aged 10-14 years YES

1.7 At time of current offence was aged 10-14 yearsYES

1.8 Current or previous sex offenceNO

1.9 Current or previous violent offenceYES

1.10 Breach of court order (including good behaviour bonds, parole, escape from custody, failure to appear in court)YES

Any additional information:

2. FAMILY CIRCUMSTANCES Use an X to mark items that apply to young person

2.1 Current Child Protection investigation or order X

2.2 History of abuse in family or significant family trauma/ issues X

2.3 Offending by family member/ s X

2.4 Inconsistent parenting X

2.5 Poor relationship with parent/ s or significant other

Any additional information:

Custody to secretary order 2014 which has been extended until 2020. This order is currently supervised by Protective Services.

3. EDUCATION/EMPLOYMENT Use an X to mark items that apply to young person

3.1 Disruptive classroom behaviour X

3.2 Low achievement X

3.3 Problems with peers/teachers X

3.4 Truancy X

3.5 Unemployed/not in school X

Any additional information

4. Peer Relations

4.1 Some delinquent acquaintancesX

4.2 Some delinquent friendsX

4.3 No/few positive acquaintancesX

4.4 No/few positive friendsX

Any additional information:

5. Substance Abuse:

5.1 Occasional drug useX

5.2 Chronic drug useX

5.3 Chronic alcohol use

5.4 Substance abuse interferes with lifeX

5.5 Substance abuse related to offendingX

Any additional information:

6. Leisure and Recreation

6.1 Limited organised activitiesX

6.2 Could make better use of timeX

6.3 No personal interestsX

Any additional information:


7.1 Antisocial, pro-offending attitudes X

7.2 Limited or no victim awarenessX

7.3 Physically aggressiveX

7.4 Poor history of attending programs or seeking helpX

7.5 Anti-authority attitudeX

7.6 Actively rejecting helpX

7.7 Engages in high risk behavioursX

Any additional information:

Instructions – Please complete all of the following sections:

Sum the total number of items with an X or YES response and use the table below to put in a numeric value as a total score. This score equates to the level of risk and intervention for the young person.

Risk/Need Levels

Select Low, Moderate, High or Very High

Low (0-9)

Moderate (10 -21)

High (22-31)

Very High (32 – 39)


1.Level of case management service/intervention: Very High

2.Assessment of other needs and special considerations: Please select any of the following that is relevant to Christabel and write a brief assessment on each (what is important to understand for Christabel as her YJ practitioner?)

Self-harm/suicidal ideation

Cultural/ethnic issues

Psychiatric/emotional distress

Significant family trauma

Accommodation problems

Female/Gender related considerations

Assessment of other needs and special considerations: (approx. 500 words)

Self-harm/suicidal ideation

Christabel has been displaying suicidal and self-harm abilities. She has been suffering from extreme distress and had started picking at her skin on arms and pulling out of her eyelashes. She has intentionally been involved in substance abuse and assaulting her peers. In consideration of these signs, it is imperative for the provision of proper mental health programs. The case management must include psychiatric intervention. She should also be placed in administrative isolation, such as a suicide watch ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"QQ2uUSUz","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(ASSESSMENT, n.d.)","plainCitation":"(ASSESSMENT, n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":482,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/OnfrXiA2/items/9HMTQFPD"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/OnfrXiA2/items/9HMTQFPD"],"itemData":{"id":482,"type":"article-journal","title":"Risk Assessment for Future Offending","author":[{"family":"ASSESSMENT","given":"HISTORICAL CRITICISM OF RISK"}]}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (ASSESSMENT, n.d.).

Psychiatric/emotional distress

The offender has been showing severe symptoms of distress, including decreased interest in productive leisure activities, less social, substance abuse and sadness. She had been assaulted by her uncle, who led to her extreme emotional distress along with her parent's separation. Case management plan should include the psychological counselling, medical attention and several other assessment tests of psychiatric health ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"fedRhkWM","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(H\\uc0\\u229{}kon, Palmstierna-Roger, & Thomas, n.d.)","plainCitation":"(Håkon, Palmstierna-Roger, & Thomas, n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":483,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/OnfrXiA2/items/JJZAN62F"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/OnfrXiA2/items/JJZAN62F"],"itemData":{"id":483,"type":"article-journal","title":"VIOLENCE IN CLINICAL PSYCHIATRY","author":[{"family":"Håkon","given":"Patrick Callaghan-Nico Oud-Johan"},{"family":"Palmstierna-Roger","given":"Bjørngaard Henk Nijman-Tom"},{"family":"Thomas","given":"Almvik-Bart"}]}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Håkon, Palmstierna-Roger, & Thomas, n.d.).

Significant family trauma

As Christabel’s parents got separated and she had to move at her grandmother’s and when she was killed by her uncle and moved in with her father. Extreme family trauma is suffered by children during ongoing marital conflict of the parents. However, she was placed under custody to secretary order 2014 which has been extended until 2020. This order is currently supervised by Protective Services. It is important to assess the impacts of the family break-up, crisis, and other criminal related activities in the family.

Accommodation problems

Though Christabel now seems to be stabilizing as an outcome of her new accommodation arrangements she had been facing severe problems in the past. She had suffered through dissatisfactory accommodation plans, and she also had problems with her education and employment related concerns. She has been living at her grandmother's when she was assaulted by her uncle. Her siblings were also involved in criminal activities. The management should consider programs for her that provide her a safe housing where she feels secure and lives with people who do not have criminal related activities.

3.Professional Discretion/override: (approx. 200 words)

Taking into account all the information, do you agree with the level of risk and intervention for Christabel? Why or why not?

After the elaborated assessment of all the risk factors and interventionist strategies, it is important to identify the checklist of elements that represent the static and dynamic factors. The detailed evaluation of risks and needs can guide the appointment of levels and types of interventions. It is done in order to ensure that the planned case management and its activities are in accordance with the appropriate fields of need. It also helps in the improvement of the decision making process for the juvenile systems of justice. The level of risk and case management for Christabel is very high, which in my view is appropriate considering all the information available. As the case management is developed on the basis of criminal activities that are caused by the complex network of multiple variables, including the characteristics and the circumstances of the individual. The interventionist strategies applied to young offenders with high risk can prove to be effective in the reduction of recidivism. These measures target the criminogenic needs of the young offender ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"kFxhcvbp","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Heilbrun, Fairfax-Columbo, Wagage, & Brogan, 2017)","plainCitation":"(Heilbrun, Fairfax-Columbo, Wagage, & Brogan, 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":484,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/OnfrXiA2/items/F6YCHNK8"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/OnfrXiA2/items/F6YCHNK8"],"itemData":{"id":484,"type":"article-journal","title":"Risk assessment for future offending: The value and limits of expert evidence at sentencing","container-title":"Ct. Rev.","page":"116","volume":"53","author":[{"family":"Heilbrun","given":"Kirk"},{"family":"Fairfax-Columbo","given":"Jaymes"},{"family":"Wagage","given":"Suraji"},{"family":"Brogan","given":"Leah"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Heilbrun, Fairfax-Columbo, Wagage, & Brogan, 2017). Christabel has been involved in criminal offences in the past and has been living in severe trauma and have been under distress and other psychiatric conditions.

4.Strengths/Protective Factors:

For each of the areas in the risk tool, can you identify any strengths or protective factors for the Christabel (these can be dot points – approx. 500 words)

Offending profile

Offence specific programming can be used as a practical tool for an evidence-based behaviour change program. In this program, the focus should be the offending and recidivist behaviour of the criminal.

The program should be sequential, well-structured and modular in nature.

It should focus on the skills oriented and cognitive behavioural therapy

It should also be a clear and practical directive in its applicability for the intervention strategies.

The program should be based on the active and voluntary learning methods.


Her family relationships should be improved as she already has a good bonding with her siblings. It implies that she has the ability to transform herself and adopt for improved family relations.

Her parents have divorced, but they should make some time for the kids.

Proper counselling should be provided to her regarding this issue.


Appreciation and encourage at the educational institution should be provided as per her nature

She should be involved in various activities at her school to enjoy learning.

Rewards and prizes should be offered for better performance so that she feels encouraged and driven towards performing well.

Peer relations

Remedies matching to the risk by focusing on the social services needs outside the justice system.

Social contact with the offender peers should be finished.

The contact and relations with positive peer groups should be enhanced.

Substance abuse

Substance abuse should be reduced, and she needs to find other means of reducing her pain and sorrow by having sessions.

Counselling must be provided to make her able to control and stop her substance abuse.


Outdoor activities are very important for leisure and recreation. These activities include trips, sports, and outings to give a positive and healthy impact on the mind.

She should be provided with the opportunities to spend her time in outdoor activities.

She hangs out with her siblings' friends, and it can be used in her favour if she adopts to change her company.


The program should be able to identify the components of evidence-based behaviour.

Rendering the guiding principle for the offender's criminal behaviour, and it can be made the primary focus of the protective factors.

How will you use these strengths and protective factors in your work with Christabel?

The above mentioned protective factors and strengths can be utilized in the devising the program for the juvenile justice system. The offending behaviour of Christabel is very risky, and it may lead to serious damage or destruction to her personality and mental health. She is prone to recidivism, and her conditions are serious. She needs proper medical treatment, counselling and psychiatric therapies for self-management, anger management, substance abuse control, improvement in social skills and personality development. All these factors should be considered in the risk assessment and identifying the level of case management ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"6nTz8Gsx","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Derrick-Mills et al., 2019)","plainCitation":"(Derrick-Mills et al., 2019)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":485,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/OnfrXiA2/items/UEXKSY2F"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/OnfrXiA2/items/UEXKSY2F"],"itemData":{"id":485,"type":"article-journal","title":"Bridging Research and Practice","author":[{"family":"Derrick-Mills","given":"Teresa"},{"family":"Harvell","given":"Samantha"},{"family":"Warnberg","given":"Chloe"},{"family":"Love","given":"Hanna"},{"family":"Winkler","given":"Mary K."},{"family":"Russo","given":"Megan"},{"family":"Gaddy","given":"Marcus"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Derrick-Mills et al., 2019).

5.Case Planning: These will be used to complete the Case Plan for Christabel.

In order of priority, please list the criminogenic needs for Christabel.

Antisocial personality traits

Pro-criminal attitudes

Anti-social peers

Substance abuse

Self-harm or suicidal ideation

Poor family relationships

Low engagement with employment or education

Lack of prosocial recreational activities

6.Are there any non-criminogenic needs that require attention?


Personal distress

Physical health



7.Responsivity: (approx. 500 words)

What interventions would you recommend for each of the above criminogenic needs/risks identified?

The above criminogenic needs may lead to serious mental and psychological issues as they disturb the physical, mental, social, and economic lives of people. Effective interventions for these criminogenic risks are the development of pro-social structure and regimen, adaptive skills of problem solving, addiction treatment, and addressing criminal thinking. The antisocial personality traits and poor family relationships can be treated by life skills training and improving social skills. Reduction of conflicts and building strong relationships are needed for the person suffering from this issue. The patient should be trained for anger management, self-management, problem solving, and coping skills. The anti-social peers have a negative effect on the growing personality of an individual. Association with criminals should be reduced, and the connection with pro-social should be enhanced ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"rCn5UMYI","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Loeber & Farrington, 1999)","plainCitation":"(Loeber & Farrington, 1999)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":486,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/OnfrXiA2/items/XG54SD46"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/OnfrXiA2/items/XG54SD46"],"itemData":{"id":486,"type":"book","title":"Serious and violent juvenile offenders: Risk factors and successful interventions","publisher":"Sage","ISBN":"0-7619-2040-4","author":[{"family":"Loeber","given":"Rolf"},{"family":"Farrington","given":"David P."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1999"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Loeber & Farrington, 1999). Substance abuse can be prevented by reducing the usage and enhancing alternatives for abuse. Christabel needs to develop less risky thinking. The best way to build her social skills is to enhance her outside involvement. She should be provided with proper educational counselling and behaviour therapy. New skills of manipulation need to be practised, and the offender should be involved in leisure and recreational activities. Different engaging programs such as school activity programs, family therapy programs, peer group support programs, and other community programs should be arranged for the encouragement and improvement of Christabel's personality. Social, health, and economic policies outside the criminal justice system should be made for such offenders. Christabel needs rehabilitation programs such as cognitive behavioural interventions that aim to educate her about criminogenic risks effectively. Her counselling will prove to be fruitful in making her personality stable and keeping her away from the crimes, that she, at a very young age, has got involved in. Her family relationships need to be strengthened so that her confidence is built and she does not face any emotional stress. To increase her lower education performance, rewards and appreciation are important that would encourage her and boost her confidence. Behaviour therapy can be helpful in her anger management, and offender treatment programs can be applied for the reduction of pro-criminal attitudes. Improvement in social skills and involvement in pro-social recreational activities such as sports, picnics, trips, and parties can help in the recovery of Christabel and improve her personality and health. These therapies and strategies can be helpful in reshaping the personality of Christabel and make her able to solve her problems effectively.


Client Name: Christabel Knight  

File Number: 1254896 

Order type: YSO  Expiry Date: 15/09/2020

Special conditions:

To attend Anger Management Drug Counselling as directed by supervisory officer

To attend Drug and Alcohol Counselling as directed by supervisory officer

To reside where directed by her supervisory officer

Goals/Issues in order of priority

Intervention Required

By whom

Time Frame


This assessment has been explained to me and I understand the goals of my plan. 

Client’s signature: ……………………………………………………….. Date: ………………………………….

Program Manager    Signature:

Youth Justice worker Signature:

Youth Justice UnitDate: ……………………………………


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY ASSESSMENT, H. C. O. R. (n.d.). Risk Assessment for Future Offending.

Derrick-Mills, T., Harvell, S., Warnberg, C., Love, H., Winkler, M. K., Russo, M., & Gaddy, M. (2019). Bridging Research and Practice.

Håkon, P. C.-N. O.-J., Palmstierna-Roger, B. H. N.-T., & Thomas, A.-B. (n.d.). VIOLENCE IN CLINICAL PSYCHIATRY.

Heilbrun, K., Fairfax-Columbo, J., Wagage, S., & Brogan, L. (2017). Risk assessment for future offending: The value and limits of expert evidence at sentencing. Ct. Rev., 53, 116.

Loeber, R., & Farrington, D. P. (1999). Serious and violent juvenile offenders: Risk factors and successful interventions. Sage.

Subject: Education

Pages: 6 Words: 1800

Youtubification Response

YouTube-ification Response

[Writer Name]

[Institute Name]

Social media, with all its potential of turning the world into a global village, has also unleashed a flood of information coming from the general public which is fed back to consumers with little to no regulation. This situation is of concern to all of us especially regarding the current snag the social media moguls are in. Testimonies in front of Congress and Senate as well as several high profile scandals and court cases have proven that the current political scenario has had enough of the loosely monitored content poured via social media websites. YouTube has played its part through few regulations, a faulty algorithm and constant denial. Citizens who regularly consume political and personal information being shown to them on social media platforms do not have much initiative to filter out false news or red flags if the website does not do it for them. Since we have had mass shootings apparently planned and filmed live on social media and we have had several national elections being swayed through social media, it proves that lack of supervision on social media has left the line far behind. This study does the hard part for us by pinpointing what kind of information leaves the most impact on its viewers on YouTube. CITATION Eng11 \l 1033 (English, 2011)

The results of this study are also very telling about the society we live in and the content we take in. Out of the three videos that appealed on ethos, logos and pathos each, the most number of viewers generated was the one that brought humor. Even though the funny video brought the most number of views, the one that induced the most confidence in the credibility of the information provided was the one with ethos.

Although the results of this study give a positive image about the credibility compass of social media consumers, we have to consider that it does not provide an insight into political information and how that is received by the viewers. More research and discussion around this topic is critical as election year approaches and the nation holds its breath.


BIBLIOGRAPHY English, K. S. (2011). YouTube-ification of political talk: An examination of persuasion appeals in viral video. American Behavioral Scientist, 733-748.

Subject: Education

Pages: 1 Words: 300


Name of student

Name of institution

Name of instructor


Local YWCA Struggles with Future of Its Fitness Center and Other Matters

List of the key facts that are in the case

The history of YWCA and the manner in which it has been performing over the years. The fact is that this is a non-profit organization and the CEO finds it quite difficult to come with a proper strategy to ensure that they are able to make some money in the process. Maria, the CEO, believes that there are ways that can be used to turn around the organization so that it produces the best results although it is not meant to be a profiting making organization.

Reasons for the poor performance of the organization. YWCA is an organization that is meant to provide facilities to the community so that they can exercise. In return, they should make money from the registration and monthly subscriptions that are made by people. The company is now torn between coming up with a strategy to make money or go ahead and provide services without making any profits in the process. The truth is that this is an organization that must be able to stand on its own and pay the workers who work there. The board is now worried that they cannot pay the workers because the organization does not have the ability to produce profits.

Another fact that has been addressed in the case is how the organization can be turned around to start making profits. One of the ways that has been addressed is whether the organization should be turned around to start offering other services like dancing that could be marketable within the community. Another option is to expand the facility so that more people can fit within the program so as to increase the income that the organization makes. The organization is also thinking of carrying out a campaign to be able to convince more people to join the program. The more the number of people who register, the higher the chances of the organization making profits.

Statement of the problem

The major problem within the organization is that the CEO is to find a way that they can use to make a non-profit organization to start making profits. The choice of the services that they opted to offer in the community is physical fitness for the people in the community. One of the problems is that the organization built a facility that took a lot of money meant for the organization. The Christian organization has not been able to recover the money that this is a problem that has made it impossible for them to make money that can be used to run the organization. Maria, the CEO, is confused on the steps that she needs to take so that the organization can start making the money that it is supposed to be making. There are many options that can be used but she is undecided as to whether it should be a whole new line of business or whether they can expand the existing one to accommodate other people. The other groups of people that she thinks about are the disabled and other special groups of people. Another thing that is bothering the CEO is how they can convince the people who have already registered in the fitness center to bring along their friends. The promotion that they do to the long lasting members is a factor that has made it quite hard for them to make money. The success of the fitness center depends on the number of activities that go on in the organization and the amount of money that each person pays to use the facility. The bottom line is that the organization needs to be turned around to start making profits that can be used to sustain it.

Review all the data provided in the case charts, figures and tables.

The charts in the case study present different information that needs to be discussed if a solution is to be found that can help the organization. The chart looks at the income levels of the people within the region. The major aim of this organization is to provide help to the families. By knowing the income levels of the people, it is possible to come up with a strategy on how they should be charged without running the fitness at a loss and also ensuring that the members find it affordable.

Another chart also looks at the things that people do at the fitness center. The review of this is important because it helps the organization to come up with other events that people can engage in. the fitness center has not included all the activities that people can engage in when they visit any typical fitness center. Since they target the youths mainly, it is important that they make an inclusion of activities like dancing that can make it easy for them to earn more money. Once they get an activity that can attract a larger number of people than the current one then it will be easy to turn around the company.

Another chart also looks at the closest competitors of the organization. Since the others are mainly business oriented, it is important to study how they have been running their business so that the organization can also come up with a strategy to ensure that they can also improve their performance. The different competitors have been listed together with data that relate to how they carry out their businesses.

Subject: Education

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Zimbabwean Children Rights And Moral Entrepreneurs

Zimbabwean Children rights and Moral Entrepreneurs

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Zimbabwean Children rights and Moral Entrepreneurs


Moral entrepreneur is defined as any group, a formal organization or people that are seeking to influence a particular group so that they can be made to maintain a particular norm or ideology within some particular realms (Nyandoro, et al. 2019). In a simplified form, moral entrepreneurs are the representative who takes the lead whenever there is an attempt to label some particular behavior and to spread some norm within and throughout the society (Nyandoro, et al. 2019). A general evaluation reveals that there are various social services that are performing some philanthropist and other social progressive services that aim to ensure the safety of the rights of the children and adults. Zimbabwe has a different scenario, in fact, the paradigm of social and economic progress reflect that the rights of children are the product of perpetuation of self-interest of so called Moral Entrepreneurs (Nyandoro, et al. 2019). Zimbabwe is a clear depiction of crisis that ranges from the negation of the right of life of children to the rights of sustainable economic development in future because of a casual attitude and sustenance of the self-interest of Moral Entrepreneurs. There are several justifications that promote and strengthen the idea that the rights of children in Zimbabwe are not safe, in fact, they are continuously hampered and demolished (Nyandoro, et al. 2019). It is a well-understood idea that the strength to the country lies in the hand of children and the strength of children lies in the hands of rights that are basic but when these rights are modified and replaced by some mean initiatives all a country is left with, is the threat to lives and future.


In accordance with the constitution of Zimbabwe, that was brought into practice after gaining independence in 1980, it was pointed out that the secure dealing with the rights of children is not friendly. Although this sector was modified in 2013 where the rights of children were given some relief but the underlying phenomena of inaccuracy persist. Although the current constitution is in alignment with all the facts and figures that are meant to ensure and save the rights of children, still, the role of the constitution is undermined by the perpetuation of self-interest that is advanced by Moral Entrepreneurs (Nyandoro, et al. 2019). It is a common observation that the children who are supposed to be the change causing agents have to have some traits such self-confidence and a better social and moral grooming, that can help them present themselves and their country in the long run but the case of Zimbabwe differs. According to research, Zimbabwe is one of the poorest countries in the work, where about one out of every two inhabitants are living their lives below the poverty line. There are some occasional advances in the national economy accompanied by a limited scope of the external initiatives and funding that have failed badly to reduce poverty in a significant manner. Children are one of the most significate victims of this situation because they are not having the right to get themselves educated, right to healthcare and live a guarded life that is enriched by all types of resources (Nyandoro, et al. 2019). Ultimately, they have forced into menial labor so that they can help their families by earning. This tragedy is flaunted by the fact that the report that was published by the US State Department on Human Rights Practices assert that despite legal announcements and descriptions regarding the protection of children rights, it is difficult to maintain and grant basic rights just because of lack of resources. More than one quarter of children in the country are orphans. There are very few children for whom families are trying to get their resources for education but they are failed because of absence of any examined and well-defined structure of the protection of rights. Although there is a great role of Social and moral entrepreneurship in developing countries but in Zimbabwe, there is hardly any strong and compact information or idea that can assert the significance of the positive effect of such platforms. (Musarurwa, et al. 2019)

Although there are several Moral Entrepreneurs who are trying to incorporate strategies and norms that can help to address deviant behaviors but the reality seems to leave it ends because the moral entrepreneurs are driven by their self-interest only. Despite several interventions of technological and industrial advancement in the world, Zimbabwe is completely left behind in the walk of life and the most suffering sector of its social framework is children. They are not even provided with the basic rights to health. There is a higher rate of infant mortality and the death of children, where there are thousands of cases that are not even documented (Musarurwa, et al. 2019). Every now and then, Epidemics are virulent and they are fatal enough to kill a disproportionate number of children every year. Here people try to save their children but they are not provided with the resources. In order to seek their interests regarding resources both legal and illegal actions are preformed, where illegal ones are more profitable. Although moral entrepreneurs consider illegal actions such as crimes as deviant but moralists are failed in providing a peaceful platform, where all the basic necessities of life are provided (Musarurwa, et al. 2019). Morality is directly linked with the educational resources as well as access to the type of education. About 15% of the children in Zimbabwe are not attending school and it is the reason that children will definitely opt for the deviant behaviors because they cannot afford the high tuition fee of the schools. families try to get their children educated but they are quickly abandoned so that they can play a role in earning money (Musarurwa, et al. 2019). The standards of education incorporated by the state and the moral entrepreneurs are deplorable because what matters for them is their interest. Although there are some moral entrepreneurs who actually seem to work but the credits and product of their work are guided by self-interest, leading to the death of humanity and the rights of children.

The report by United Nation highlights that Zimbabwe is at the verge of destruction because there are no major advances in the economy and there is an increased crime rate. Both the features which are actually negative aspects refer to the measure of the attention that is given by the political authorities and the moral entrepreneurs who are hardly seen interested in the regulation of misconduct. In accordance with the duties and objectives of Moral entrepreneurs, it was assumed that the children of Zimbabwe would lay the foundation of a new generation that would work to build the pillars of the country but children are found to be more depressed and denied than the adults (Musarurwa, et al. 2019). The rejection and negation of the provision of basic right accompanied by a greater stress on human trafficking of child labor is the product of perpetuation of self-interest by the moral entrepreneurs. The connotation of these issues doesn’t connect to the high ratio of these deviant actions but it points the types of sources and the initiatives that are taken by moral entrepreneur and government to ensure a positive behavior. Although recent efforts by the moral entrepreneurs appear to be efficient enough to eradicate the practices that of human trafficking and it was fruitful in the beginning but the efficiency faded with the passage of time. Today, children are obliged to work in Zimbabwe, where 13% of the total population is seen engaged in child labor (Stanhope, et al. 2017). There are two segments of this labor, one is enforced by the family so that the basic social and moral and economic needs can be fulfilled while other prefers the availability of employment in diamond mines. It is a clear depiction of the perpetuation of the self-interest by Moral Entrepreneurs (Stanhope, et al. 2017).


Social deviance addresses all those issues that are distorting the actual framework of the country by compromising the lives of people and the basic rights that are already mentioned in the constitution. Moral Entrepreneurs are assumed to be the protectors of basic rights because they tend to incorporate norms that can negate the deviant behaviors. However, the reality is found to be reverse in Zimbabwe. Research reveals a paradox that the Moral Entrepreneurs are trying their best to address the issues of social deviation, side by side, Zimbabwe is falling backward in terms of progress especially in the context of the right of children. This strange framework highlights the role that is performed by the Moral Entrepreneurs that require them to improve the conditions and quality of norms by different efforts (Stanhope, et al. 2017). However, this feature is not found to be applied in Zimbabwe because despite several years of independence, Zimbabwe is still suffering from lack of a well-defined legal and moral framework that could justify rights of citizen and ensure the success of the country (Stanhope, et al. 2017). In a nutshell, the evaluation of the rights of children in Zimbabwe highlights the deplorable condition of children which is the product of the perpetuation of the self-interest that is advanced by Moral Entrepreneurs. They are less interested in the initiatives to empower the rights of children and more interest in fulfilling their own interests whereby they can avail all economical and financial feasibilities.


Stanhope, V., & Straussner, S. L. A. (Eds.). (2017). Social work and integrated health care: From policy to practice and back. Oxford University Press.

Musarurwa, H. J., & Kaye12, S. B. (2019). Attaining Structural Transformation through Social Entrepreneurship: An Analysis of the Level of Youth Participation in Zimbabwe. Interdisciplinary Journal of Economics and Business Law, 38.

Nyandoro, M., & Hatti, N. (2019). Poverty and the Politics of Poverty in Independent Zimbabwe, 1980-2017. Social Science Spectrum, 4(2), 56-74.

Subject: Education

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

Zonk Air Accident

Zonk Air Accident

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Zonk Air Accident


Air travel industry is a vast industry. Many people make use of this industry to travel daily from one place to another. Air crafts are also largely used to carry the luggage or the cargo from one place to another. Most of the times, the option of traveling by air is opted in case of traveling internationally. Locally, people mostly prefer to travel by their own personal conveyance, via bus or by train.

Considering its heavy utility in the travel industry, there are multiple incidents of accidents and mishaps happening every now and then. Such an instance of the accident took place with an aircraft of Zonk Air after the airplane had just taken off. The air machine was carrying approximately 6 people, four passengers, and two pilots. The details and the major factors that became a cause of this accident have been explained as follows.


Whenever there is an accident or incident, regarding any modes of travel, there is somewhere any human factor also involved in it. Whether there is an accident of a small car or a big airplane, there is always a fault of some human involvement in it. Same happened in the case of Zonk Air Accident. There were multiple factors involved in the destruction of Zonk Air Aircraft as well. Some of them were mechanical but most of them were human factors. Some of them have been elaborated below:

Factor 1

The first and foremost human factor was the undertraining of the pilot. As mentioned in the investigation report, the pilot was very undertrained and inexperienced. He did not have sufficient experience to fly a commercial airplane, as he had not tried on his learning over any commercial airplane. It was found after the accident of the aircraft that the pilot had only 1 year of experience, he had almost no flying experience and mostly stayed on the ground.

Moreover, the investigation report clearly states that the pilot had only tried his flying skills over tourist airplanes. He never flew any commercial airplanes. The records and the investigation report clearly states that the pilot was not formally trained in flying a commercial aircraft CITATION SFT \l 1033 (Dillion, 2010). He had very less time in the air and was never properly trained for flying a commercial airplane, and that also for such a big company. He had got his training from a local flying club in Arizona, which was now out of business. Prior to working at Zonk Air, the unlucky pilot has worked for a solar penal company, only flying a light twin for them.

Factor 2

The second and most grave factor was the negligence from the side of the manager or the owner of the airplane. It was found that the aircraft was confiscated from the possession of a smuggler. The airplane once belonged to a smuggler and it was taken from his hanger, after a deadly encounter in which he was killed. The manager or the owner knew from the very moment that the plane has some faults, but he continued to ignore them and kept the airplane going, carrying the passengers.

The level of irresponsibility shown by the manager or the owner of the aircraft can be judged from the fact that he already knew that the plane was faulty, and was having some serious technical issues, but he still ignored it and allowed the airplane to go in the air. According to the investigation report, the pilot already knew10 days prior to the incident that the plane had some serious technical issues. The pilot had noticed that the plane had power loss issues and he also felt some leakages in the form of droplets below the right engine. He tried to explain this to the other line pilot but the information could not be duplicated. The owner was well aware of this fault but he ignored this as he thought that it is just the nature of this aircraft.

Furthermore, the records show that the airplane had undergone a repair just 15 hours before the reported unfortunate mishap. The problem was again in the right engine. It exhibited a “little” seep and the turbo waste engines were also adjusted. The pilot of the unfortunate airplane specifically called the opener or the manager to inform him that there were still small oil drips from the right engine but the owner, as usual took it very casually and told the pilot to carry on with the flight normally as it was a very normal thing with the aircrafts this old. This is not a small issue; the owner should have taken it very seriously and should have immediately grounded the airplane, but he allowed the aircraft to fly, which led to the mishap (Krause, 2003).


In a nutshell, it can be concluded that although the destruction of the Zonk Air aircraft happened due to the combination of many factors which included the technical and human factors both, the major contribution behind this unfortunate accident was of the human factors. If the company, Zonk Air, had hired a more professional and well-trained pilot, the chances of such an accident happening would have been very less. Moreover, there should have been an adequate arrangement for the training of the pilot. In addition to all this, the owner or manager should have taken the warning signs seriously, as the power loss issues and especially the leakage and spill problems, and should have grounded the air machine immediately.


BIBLIOGRAPHY \l 1033 Dillion, J. (2010). SFTY 330 – Aircraft Accident Investigation. Worldwide: College of Aeronautics.

Krause, S. S. (2003). Aircraft safety: accident investigations, analyses, and applications (p. 9). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Subject: Education

Pages: 3 Words: 900


Zoroastrianism [Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees]

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Author Note

[Include any grant/funding information and a complete correspondence address.]


In the religion of Zoroastrianism, it is generally believed that the ancient Iranian Prophet Zarathustra lived between 1500 and 1000 BC. Before Zarathustra, the Persians used to worship the gods of the old Iran-Aryan religion. But Zarathustra condemned all these practices and he said that God is alone and he is the Lord of Wisdom so he should be worshipped alone, in doing so it is generally believed that He introduced the first monotheistic religion to the world. This is not the only concept that is common between the Zoroastrianism and Abrahamic religion Islam but there are certain other concepts that are also considered to be quite effective and they include the concept of Heaven and Hell, Judgment Day and also the final revelation to the world. The concept of Satan is common between Islam and Zoroastrianism. All these concepts are common between both the Zoroastrianism and Abrahamic religion most specifically Islam.

Although in some of the texts it has been discussed that there are some very prominent similarities between these religions but according to other texts, it has been shown that the similarities or the influence of this particular religion on the Abrahamic religions is debatable. The Abrahamic religions are much older as compared to the Zoroastrianism religion. Also, the concepts of prophets and imams are very common and strong in Abrahamic religions specifically in Islam however in the Zoroastrianism there is no concept of prophets there was only this one prophet who is basically the founder of this religion. Also, the Zoroastrianism is a religion that is only present in Iran and India and the Abrahamic religions are mostly found worldwide with a large number of followers. The books of the Abrahamic religions were revealed much earlier in which the foundation of the religions were mentioned clearly and the Zoroastrianism came after these religions therefore, it is difficult to say that this religion has some impact on the Abrahamic religions.

Subject: Education

Pages: 1 Words: 300

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