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Essay: Is education primarily the result of influences other than school?

Education is the knowledge and awareness which integrates into a man, activates its neurons associated with intelligence and assists in developing the thought process. Certainly, the primary source of education is the school which helps a man in exploring his abilities, developing a certain routine in his life and transforming him into a sensible being. But education is not only what is taught in school but gained through all the platforms of interaction which man come across in his lifetime. School and certain institutions have been designed which cater to the needs of an individual, explore his interests and develop those skills in him. The process of seeking education initiates with the cradle and ends till grave (Questions to be asked 2013).

Education is basically not just an outcome of all the influences rather a formulation of the combinatorial interactive network of influences and experiences. Many great people lives are evidence of it. William Shakespeare who is considered as the greatest writer in English and the world's greatest dramatist unbelievably dropped out of school at the age of 13 and there is no record of him attending the university. Greatness comes education which one can get from out of school as well. Thomas Edison who only went school for a few months and had a hearing problem is now regarded as a great inventor and businessman. Several other great thinkers of well-known in history dropped out of schools at early ages due to financial constraints or any other difficulties (Internet Shakespeare Editions 2011).

There are various kinds of the medium of seeking education other than schools. Internet nowadays has created huge ease in terms of gaining information. Knowledge is just a click away these days. A library is another great channel of knowledge seeking. It indicates that school is not a primary source of education rather what is obtained from schools is basically a derivation from these mentioned sources. The reality is that knowledge obtained from school is basic, lesser and screened one, while the bulk is in books and the internet. School education is much simplified, easy to comprehend and translate (Lippincott 2019).

Therefore education and awareness primarily come from real-life experiences. Schools these days have been focusing much on the extra and co-curricular activities for the sake of exploring the child's hidden potentials and talents. This is putting an effort for filling the gigantic gap in education but time is limited at schools and it cannot fully help children in seeking all the education. Therefore, it can be said that education at school is the secondary source of education, whereas, influences make up an individual's personality and experiences bring awareness of the real life, spending life, making decisions etc. An individual who has learnt mapping and GIS is of no use or cannot be ensured that he learnt it unless and until he utilizes that knowledge and practically implements it. This sort of opportunity is only provided in the real world and it is the correct way of seeking knowledge. Therefore, till the time he is lost or needs reaching to a new place, he will not bring GIS or map usage in his real life. Similarly, reading the book is a preliminary step of education and perceiving the writer's thoughts, comparing it with one's own thoughts and creating a new ideology is a whole actual and beneficial process in seeking education (The National Academies Press 2000).

Education is a continuous process of learning which person seeks from other people, their behaviours, through series of interactions throughout life, ups and downs in life, critical or emergency situations, hardships, blissful moments, mistakes, regrets and hopes. All of these elements are the steps towards creating a mature, intelligent and stable being. Few of the individuals even after seeking all these experiences still are uneducated. The reason of which is their unwillingness to learn and to explore. Thus, it can be deduced that influences in life makes an individual well-aware and educated.


"Is education primarily the result of influences other than school. Questions to be asked, 19 September 2013, http://questionstobeasked.blogspot.com/2013/09/is-education-primarily-result-of.html. Accessed 28 March 2019.

"Shakespeare at grammar school". Internet Shakespeare Editions, 01 April 2011, http://internetshakespeare.uvic.ca/Library/SLT/life/school/grammarschool.html. Accessed 28 March 2019.

Lippincott. "Net Generation Students and Libraries". EDUCAUSE, March 2019, https://www.educause.edu/research-and-publications/books/educating-net-generation/net-generation-students-and-libraries. Accessed 28 March 2019.

"How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition". The National Academies Press, 2000, https://doi.org/10.17226/9853. Accessed 28 March 2019.

Subject: Education

Pages: 2 Words: 600


Wegman’s Food Market

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Wegman’s Food Market


Servant Leadership is defined as a practice of leadership in which something designated as good or appropriate is more emphasized over the self-interest of the leader. It highlights the value and development of the people within the organization. It is a shared power approach that is led through practicing authenticity and building a community. As for this particular organization named Wegman’s Food Market, it is a privately held American supermarket which has several headquarters and was found in 1916. This organization implements the principles of servant leadership by providing adequate and reasonable services to its customers (Hoch et al. 2018). It manages its models of operations and policies very carefully so that no mistake is intended from the business end which can leave the consumer unsatisfied. It also structures the employee management process through carefully following these four crucial steps, which are displaying authenticity, valuing people, developing them, building a community, providing and sharing leadership.



Stakeholder commitment is an essential factor to retain to increase sales for both the short and long term for the business. Using the servant leadership, the company has become widely known for carefully considering customers values over their own. These certain qualities of the business are what makes them unique amongst other competitive or similar organizations serving the same items. These specific commitments can be identified as providing the most quality products to its consumers, providing those products right on time without any delay or errors, helping customers determine the right product to select reflecting on their needs, and making sure the customer always comes back through providing them with value-added services. Most organizations that are similar to this one may not function in the same way through providing services that are uniquely suitable for customers preferences, which is why most organizations choose to not operate within the servant leadership.

The reason why these organizations do not function within the principles of servant leadership can be because of the conflict it may create along with the operational challenges (Sánchez, & de la Mota, 2016). The problems which are associated with this model can be identified as working against the traditional authority, making employees less motivated, not fitting the business, and decreasing managerial authority. Organization's leaders can address these challenges by developing the strengths of his team and keep them motivated. It would require the leader to emphasize self-belief, tenacity, and self-direction amongst employees. It requires the leader to be extremely firm with employees so that they can arrive at the same level of understanding. Organizations who often go for adopting this approach end up with having diversity amongst their workplace. It helps manage and retain loyal employees who are always involved in the collective decision-making process. Lastly, productivity is at its extreme when leaders respect and trust their employees.


The aforementioned research based on servant leadership organizational model helps to understand the principles that are required to achieve global yet diversified excellence. This approach helps the organization develop a particular relationship with its employees, one that would help the organization grow, increase profits, and attract more customers with a higher spending power than usual. The most significant benefits of adopting these principles of servant leadership, the ones that are listed in the discussion above can help create policies that may not create a conflict with employees in any way. This organizational model is successful for most companies and is what makes them the best or fit company to work for in the long run (Shek, Chung, & Leung, 2015). As for Wangamese itself, the company has been chosen as one of the best companies to work for due to its operational model and diversifying methods.


Hoch, J. E., Bommer, W. H., Dulebohn, J. H., & Wu, D. (2018). Do ethical, authentic, and servant leadership explain variance above and beyond transformational leadership? A meta-analysis. Journal of Management, 44(2), 501-529.

Sánchez, O. S., & de la Mota, I. F. (2016). Risks and Operational Research. The new challenges based on the approaches used. International Journal of Combinatorial Optimization Problems and Informatics, 7(3), 54-61.

Shek, D. T., Chung, P. P., & Leung, H. (2015). How unique is the service leadership model? A comparison with contemporary leadership approaches. International Journal on Disability and Human Development, 14(3), 217-231.

Subject: Education

Pages: 2 Words: 600


Professional Development Plan

Leadership as a vocation requires a commitment to professional excellence and integrity, which can be achieved through establishing habits of self-reflection, life-long learning, and professional development. The purpose of this assignment is for you to reflect on where you currently are in your leadership capabilities; define where you want to go; and specify goals, plans, and a timeframe for achieving your professional objectives. Your professional development plan will be composed of three parts: Vision, Goals/Objectives, and Plans.


The ability to create, communicate, and compel vision is critical to inspiring and effective leadership. While ultimately many leaders are responsible for developing visions to guide complex organizations, effective leadership begins on a much more personal levela vision of yourself as a leader. Who are you and who do you want to become in your field or sphere of influence? Once you are clear about that, you can then confidently establish how you will help others and your organization achieve their visions.

Your leadership vision is based on a number of factors including your attitude, values, personal beliefs, guiding principles, and how you behave. It may also be influenced by theoretical, philosophical, or religious frameworks and the leadership traits, values, and behaviors of others. A leadership vision is also dynamic. No great leader ever "arrived." Those who have adopted leadership as their vocation can spend a lifetime in self-reflection in order to continue to learn and more effectively motivate and inspire others.

Spend some time reflecting below on where you currently are in your leadership capabilities, what you have learned about leadership in the course, and how you want to develop and improve as you continue your leadership studies and move forward in your field. Review the document Essential Leadership Competencies for an overview of the scope of effective leadership capabilities.


Leadership is characterized as an integral part to ensure the successful prospect of organization management. The role of leadership is crucial because it provides direction to achieve necessary tasks appropriately. It is worthy to articulate that the facet of leadership can only better achieve through the consideration of essential and aligned professional features ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"nQk0aX9B","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Yukl, 2013)","plainCitation":"(Yukl, 2013)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":568,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/7Hi3kAOD/items/GF3XWYRS"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/7Hi3kAOD/items/GF3XWYRS"],"itemData":{"id":568,"type":"book","title":"Leadership in organizations","publisher":"Pearson Education India","ISBN":"81-317-6108-8","author":[{"family":"Yukl","given":"Gary A."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2013"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Yukl, 2013). The domain of leadership recognized as a vocation that only reflects in the forms of proper commitment to professional excellence and integrity. Effective establishment of self-reflection, life-long learning, and professional development are identified as the prerequisite factors to ensure the significant approach of leadership. A timely exploration of leadership capabilities is necessary to evaluate existing leadership perspective and what needs to be done in the coming years. This form of assessment also assists in finding the specific tools and skills that can be valuable to achieve potential leadership goals and objectives in the short run and long run.

A professional development plan is important as it enhances the chances to become an influential and successful leader in the future. The idea of a professional development plan provides path that leads to the attainment of the necessary leadership competencies and skills. A professional development plan consists of different essential features that ensure the feasible domain of the plan ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Vp9y8QzH","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Croft, Coggshall, Dolan, & Powers, 2010)","plainCitation":"(Croft, Coggshall, Dolan, & Powers, 2010)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":569,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/7Hi3kAOD/items/4I3LKFSN"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/7Hi3kAOD/items/4I3LKFSN"],"itemData":{"id":569,"type":"article-journal","title":"Job-Embedded Professional Development: What It Is, Who Is Responsible, and How to Get It Done Well. Issue Brief.","container-title":"National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality","author":[{"family":"Croft","given":"Andrew"},{"family":"Coggshall","given":"Jane G."},{"family":"Dolan","given":"Megan"},{"family":"Powers","given":"Elizabeth"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2010"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Croft, Coggshall, Dolan, & Powers, 2010). These crucial factors recognized as the consideration of vision, goals/objectives and plan to accurately execute all the professional activities in a suitable time frame. The component of vision refers as the substantial aspect which defines the broad leadership strategy for the leader. It represents a leader’s approach with the objective of proper alignment with the professional and organizational goals. Various personal deliberations such as attitude, values, guiding principles, philosophies play critical role to determine leadership vision that provides a roadmap about the leadership role in future. The practice of self-reflection ultimately helps leaders to develop particular features that can be helpful to achieve leadership targets.


Then, in 300-500 words, briefly articulate your vision for yourself as a leader 3-5 years from now. Where do you want to be? What kind of leader do you want to become?

Proper and timely construction of vision is the ultimate approach of success for me as the leader. It is important for me to develop vision that completely aligns with my leadership approach and the completion of the leadership tasks for the organization. Comprehensive expression as the vision makes it easy for me to picture myself as the leader for the next three to five years. It provides me better understanding that what I want to be as a leader and what skills can be helpful for me to achieve my professional tasks. As a leader, my major vision for the future years is to provide conducive working environment to all the employees. It is my focus to develop the organizational setting that provides an opportunity for every individual to achieve their career goals by transforming their competencies most suitably ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"2PCgBx6k","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Griffin, Parker, & Mason, 2010)","plainCitation":"(Griffin, Parker, & Mason, 2010)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":570,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/7Hi3kAOD/items/U5YMJSPA"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/7Hi3kAOD/items/U5YMJSPA"],"itemData":{"id":570,"type":"article-journal","title":"Leader vision and the development of adaptive and proactive performance: A longitudinal study.","container-title":"Journal of Applied Psychology","page":"174","volume":"95","issue":"1","author":[{"family":"Griffin","given":"Mark A."},{"family":"Parker","given":"Sharon K."},{"family":"Mason","given":"Claire M."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2010"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Griffin, Parker, & Mason, 2010). I want to be leader who is inspiring and motivating for others. Motivation and collaboration are the two major elements of success that are compulsory to develop a better paradigm of leadership.

Referring to my leadership competencies and skills, I want to be the inspirational leader that must have something like the example for the subordinate to follow. As an effective and influential leader, it is important for me to become the role model for the workers concerning the aspects of honesty, integrity, proper working attitude, professionalism, and work ethic. Adoption of the desired level of the flexible working environment is my vision of leadership to motivate workers towards the completion of the organizational goals and standards ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"RAMJNZlK","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Battilana, Gilmartin, Sengul, Pache, & Alexander, 2010)","plainCitation":"(Battilana, Gilmartin, Sengul, Pache, & Alexander, 2010)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":571,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/7Hi3kAOD/items/L66XGU26"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/7Hi3kAOD/items/L66XGU26"],"itemData":{"id":571,"type":"article-journal","title":"Leadership competencies for implementing planned organizational change","container-title":"The Leadership Quarterly","page":"422-438","volume":"21","issue":"3","author":[{"family":"Battilana","given":"Julie"},{"family":"Gilmartin","given":"Mattia"},{"family":"Sengul","given":"Metin"},{"family":"Pache","given":"Anne-Claire"},{"family":"Alexander","given":"Jeffrey A."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2010"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Battilana, Gilmartin, Sengul, Pache, & Alexander, 2010). Transformation of my leadership qualities to the others through the approaches of proper coaching and guidance is one my ultimate leadership vision for the next three to five years from now. My leadership vision for the future is to strive myself towards the attainment of the better forms and skills to become great professional leader.


Development of the leadership vision further helps to determine certain goals and objectives completely align with the major leadership competencies defined as essential leadership competencies. Following are the desired leadership goals and objectives referring to the idea of four major leadership competencies.

Goals/Objectives for Self-Leadership

Emotional Intelligence: Self-leadership play a vital role in delivering the most suitable and required approach of leadership to meet work standards. Achieving the objective of effective form of emotional intelligence is necessary. Realization of emotional skills and transmit them at the time of need ultimately ensures the better idea of self-leadership ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"TD44hEkA","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(C\\uc0\\u244{}t\\uc0\\u233{}, Lopes, Salovey, & Miners, 2010)","plainCitation":"(Côté, Lopes, Salovey, & Miners, 2010)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":572,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/7Hi3kAOD/items/EEMT2LNF"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/7Hi3kAOD/items/EEMT2LNF"],"itemData":{"id":572,"type":"article-journal","title":"Emotional intelligence and leadership emergence in small groups","container-title":"The Leadership Quarterly","page":"496-508","volume":"21","issue":"3","author":[{"family":"Côté","given":"Stéphane"},{"family":"Lopes","given":"Paulo N."},{"family":"Salovey","given":"Peter"},{"family":"Miners","given":"Christopher TH"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2010"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Côté, Lopes, Salovey, & Miners, 2010). Utilization of the emotional intelligence attributes make it easy for the leader to deliver leadership skills and competencies effectively and efficiently

Change Management: Proactive response to the change is also one necessary form of consideration or objective to achieve the desired form of self-leadership. It guides the leaders to develop skills that help them to align their leading paradigm with the changing needs.


After you have stated your vision, create five to eight leadership goals/objectives you will strive to meet in the next 3-5 years. Try to formulate at least one goal/objective related to the four major leadership competencies included in "Essential Leadership Competencies": self-leadership, leading others, leading an organization, and leadership as a vocation. Include a brief justification for each goal/objective to explain how it will help you achieve the qualities of professional excellence and integrity required of excellent leaders.

Goals/Objectives for Leading Others

Take responsibility: It is essential for the leader to take the responsibility and adopt measures which enhance the performance of all the workers. It is one major goal or task of the leader to motivate others by setting an influential example for them. Proper goal setting should be one major objective of the leader when it comes to the phenomenon of leading others. Transfer of the requires task is only possible through the implication of the idea of effective communication between the leader and the followers.

Proactive Response to Organizational Change: It is momentous for the leader to consider the importance of different innovative and technological advancements ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"mlaA9KQt","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Choi & Ruona, 2011)","plainCitation":"(Choi & Ruona, 2011)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":574,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/7Hi3kAOD/items/PY5ZZ4JQ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/7Hi3kAOD/items/PY5ZZ4JQ"],"itemData":{"id":574,"type":"article-journal","title":"Individual readiness for organizational change and its implications for human resource and organization development","container-title":"Human Resource Development Review","page":"46-73","volume":"10","issue":"1","author":[{"family":"Choi","given":"Myungweon"},{"family":"Ruona","given":"Wendy EA"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2011"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Choi & Ruona, 2011). Realization of the innovative idea determine the better opportunities for success for the organization.

Goals/Objectives for Leadership as a Vocation

Development of Sense of Service: Considering the idea of leadership as the feature of service is one major goal linked with the overall model of the leadership as a vacation. It is essential for the leader to adopt the strategies that better help to promote the idea of leadership and provide assistance to others as much as possible.


Specify activities you will engage in to achieve your goals/objectives. You may find it helpful to research professional development activities in your field or organization to determine what resources are available to you. Be specific about projects you will engage in either as student or as a professional and identify people in your life who can help you achieve your goals. Be sure to include a timeline of events.

Finally, include a method for evaluating your professional development plan at regular intervals. What milestones will you include in your plan to help ensure its success? How will you use methods of self-reflection to assess your progress as you move towards your goals?


Establishment of the proper development plan is indispensable to maintain the proper balance between goals set as a leader and professional development activities. The criteria of the plan provide better exploration about the importance of the activities ultimately helps to meet goals of leadership. Planning is the initial activity to attain the better prospect of the potential goals and objectives of leadership. Communication is another significant activity that helps the leader to understand that what is actual requirements of performance and the selection of the processes to achieve necessary goals. It is vital for the leader to set a comprehensive timeline referring to the idea of required goals and objectives.

Time Frame


Leading Others

Leading an organization

Leadership as Vocation

Next 12 months

The focus on emotion intelligence

Development of communication skills

Alignment of personal and organizational goals

The sense of service and collaboration

Next three years

Play role as mentor

Coach and guide others

Proper planning and decision-making

Management of power and authority effectively

Evaluation of Professional Development Plan

Follow up of the professional development plan and all the activities is important to achieve better outcomes from the perspective of the leadership plan. It is viable for the leader to attain feedback from the other stakeholders to evaluate whether the desired outcomes are achieving or not.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Battilana, J., Gilmartin, M., Sengul, M., Pache, A.-C., & Alexander, J. A. (2010). Leadership competencies for implementing planned organizational change. The Leadership Quarterly, 21(3), 422–438.

Choi, M., & Ruona, W. E. (2011). Individual readiness for organizational change and its implications for human resource and organization development. Human Resource Development Review, 10(1), 46–73.

Côté, S., Lopes, P. N., Salovey, P., & Miners, C. T. (2010). Emotional intelligence and leadership emergence in small groups. The Leadership Quarterly, 21(3), 496–508.

Croft, A., Coggshall, J. G., Dolan, M., & Powers, E. (2010). Job-Embedded Professional Development: What It Is, Who Is Responsible, and How to Get It Done Well. Issue Brief. National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality.

Griffin, M. A., Parker, S. K., & Mason, C. M. (2010). Leader vision and the development of adaptive and proactive performance: A longitudinal study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(1), 174.

Yukl, G. A. (2013). Leadership in organizations. Pearson Education India.

Subject: Education

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

.Chapter 7 Review

Chapter 7 Review

Ashley Lopez (First M. Last)

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)

Chapter 7 Review

This chapter gives an overview of the goals and motives in life and different types of motives. The first level of personality is made up by the dispositional traits, motives and goals are important for the second level. A deeper understanding is developed about human behavior being directed by the goals and motivations. Sigmund Freud gave the concept of psychoanalytic view of human motives about 100 years ago. According to him, human behavior is determined by the aggressive desires and intrapsychic conflicts that arise in daily life. Freud's model divides human psyche into id, ego, and superego. The id follows the pleasure principle, the ego follows the reality principle, and the superego follows the moral voice. Ego serves to solve the conflicts the motivational conflicts, and it is caught between id and superego CITATION Law14 \l 1033 (Lawrence, 2014). As a result, it serves to reduce the anxiety as the result of repression. These defense mechanisms differ from children to adults. It is the humanistic view of motivation which prioritizes the self-actualizing tendency and conscious behavior. The humanistic theory of personality developed by Carl Rogers urges the psychologists to study the person’s field of conscious experiences. In the same way, the famous theory of Abraham Maslow argued that self-actualization is determined by human needs. The

In humanistic psychology, intrinsic motivations are valued for one's own self. Material rewards diminish the person's interest in something in which they are rewarded. The self-determination theory developed by Deci and Ryan argues that human beings have an innate quality to take the challenges. The basic human needs such as autonomy and competence motivate an individual intrinsicallyCITATION Law14 \l 1033 (Lawrence, 2014). There is also research going on the ways self-determined behavior results in the well-being of an individual and the ways external rewards reduce motivation and morale. Not only this, but several environmental factors also play a key role in the development of certain goals and motives which is studied by Murray. He developed a device that could measure the individual differences in the motives and desires which is referred to as Picture Story Exercise.

Success is determined by the achievement motive which inspires an individual to do well and achieve something. If measured on Murray's device, people with high PSE have more achievement motive, and they are very well directed in their goal-oriented activities. Such people have high gratitude and self-control. In addition, they show the characteristics of entrepreneurship. This developed an understanding that the society which encourages achievement motivation in their people by telling success stories and other means enjoy growth in the long-run. David McClelland also claims that the achievement motivation of society is directly linked with the economic growth of that society.

People who are high in the power motive have characteristics of leadership and aggression. Such people tend to be more active in their groups and direct other behaviors. In addition, individuals having high power motivation may face mental illness due to work stress. Another motive which results in the warm and close relationship with others is intimacy motive. Such people are very loving and take care of their relationships. People who have high intimacy motivation enjoy good mental health. Women are generally high in intimacy motive as compared to the men CITATION Law14 \l 1033 (Lawrence, 2014). Other lessons learned from the chapter include that studies reveal that the implicit motive for power, intimacy, and achievement is linked with the personal goals. Fulfillment of these goals results in satisfaction and goal conflict results in decreased satisfaction from life. Therefore meaningful goals must be developed that are easy to manage rather than developing goals which are difficult to attain.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Lawrence, A. T. (2014). Motives and Golas: What do we want in life? In A. T. Lawrence, Business and society: Stakeholders, ethics, public policy (pp. 255-300). Tata McGraw-Hill Education.

Subject: Education

Pages: 2 Words: 600


The Legislation


[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Author Note

[Include any grant/funding information and a complete correspondence address.]

The Legislation

Throughout American history, a number of legislations have been changed and they have enacted between the period of 1970 and 2000. The Laissez-fair was one of the policies that were intended to minimize the role of government in the economic activities of the whole society and individuals. This resulted in the gendering of addiction among a number of youth in the United States.

During the 19th century, this was considered to be a popular opinion and belief systems in American society. Some of the proponents believed that this will result in the unregulated activities by the individuals. The main source to bring and introduce this concept is considered to be John Stuart Mill. He was one of the popular economists and his philosophy was used in the Principles of Political Economy. This initiates a debate over the supporting and contradictory views about the government activities in the state economic affairs. The functionalities of the state according to this philosophy were limited to only security and order in the state ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"otiPSsYi","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Keire, 1998)","plainCitation":"(Keire, 1998)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":664,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/smYQhi21/items/8ZVYIG2Y"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/smYQhi21/items/8ZVYIG2Y"],"itemData":{"id":664,"type":"article-journal","abstract":"The typical addict of the late nineteenth century was a middle-class woman who was a medical addict, while the typical twentieth-century addict was a young man of the urban lower classes who had experimented with drugs recreationally. Despite this dramatic demographic shift an important cultural continuity remained. The perceived femininity of addiction connected the middle-class medical addicts of the 1880s and 1890s to the street users of the 1910s and 1920s. By focusing on drug use by prostitutes, pimps, and the gay men known as fairies, this article argues that the long-standing association of addiction with femininity shaped society's perception of addiction, affected narcotics policy, and influenced the decision of men to incorporate drug use into their rejection of conventional masculinity.","archive":"JSTOR","container-title":"Journal of Social History","ISSN":"0022-4529","issue":"4","page":"809-822","source":"JSTOR","title":"Dope Fiends and Degenerates: The Gendering of Addiction in the Early Twentieth Century","title-short":"Dope Fiends and Degenerates","volume":"31","author":[{"family":"Keire","given":"Mara L."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1998"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Keire, 1998). It was believed that any kind of interference in the economic affairs may have resulted in hindrances regarding the development of individuals and their choices. The Laissez-Faire emphasized the government’s role in the endurance of the law and order in the United States.

This resulted in the acute changes in the industrial growth and this guiding principle was considered to be and insufficient in the development of the nation, this yielded to the Keynesian economics in the early 20th century. Before this, the unemployment ration increased, and it was not possible to decrease this ratio for the government without any interference of the state. This unemployment resulted in a higher intake of substance abuse and opioid among the youth. However, the interference by the government became mandatory to overcome the unemployment, and substance abuse.


Keire, M. L. (1998). Dope fiends and degenerates: The gendering of addiction in the early twentieth century. Journal of Social History, 809-822.

Subject: Education

Pages: 1 Words: 300

02.03 The Anit-Federalists: Assessment

Name of Student

Name of Professor

Name of Class

Day Month Year

02.03 The Anti-Federalists: Assessment

Anti-Federalist launched a movement in the late 18th century to confront the creation of a potential federal government in the United States of America (USA). They were afraid that the presidential state system might evolve into a monarchy after the ratification of the constitution of 1787. In addition, they perceived the Constitution is a mean to make the president powerful immensely and abrogate the authority of the states. However, the Constitution was ratified. The Anti-Federalist still managed to cultivate objectives as a manifestation of the Bill of Rights ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"TfZjAYhL","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}Anti-Federalists | NCpedia})","plainCitation":"(Anti-Federalists | NCpedia)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":6,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/yvjivw9i/items/8EL3U29A"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/yvjivw9i/items/8EL3U29A"],"itemData":{"id":6,"type":"webpage","title":"Anti-Federalists | NCpedia","URL":"https://www.ncpedia.org/anti-federalists","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",4,22]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Anti-Federalists | NCpedia). Ten amendments were essentially ratified in the Constitution which supplemented the political ideology of the Anti-Federalist.

"An entire and perfect union will be the solid foundation of lasting peace: It will secure your religion, liberty, and property; remove the animosities amongst yourselves, and the jealousies and differences betwixt our two kingdoms” (Federalist) ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"U8BAIk8A","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}The Federalist Papers})","plainCitation":"(The Federalist Papers)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":4,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/yvjivw9i/items/2SL4WT8B"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/yvjivw9i/items/2SL4WT8B"],"itemData":{"id":4,"type":"webpage","title":"The Federalist Papers","URL":"http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/FEDERAL/frame.html","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",4,22]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (The Federalist Papers). Nothing need be said to illustrate the importance of the prohibition of titles of nobility. “This may truly be denominated the corner-stone of republican government; for so long as they are excluded, there can never be serious danger that the government will be any other than that of the people” (Federalist). “I had rather be a free citizen of the small republic of Massachusetts, than an oppressed subject of the great American empire” (Anti-Federalist) ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"V1yjqWup","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}Home - Teaching American History})","plainCitation":"(Home - Teaching American History)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":10,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/yvjivw9i/items/IDV5U6V2"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/yvjivw9i/items/IDV5U6V2"],"itemData":{"id":10,"type":"webpage","title":"Home - Teaching American History","URL":"https://teachingamericanhistory.org/","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",4,22]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Home - Teaching American History). “The new constitution in its present form is calculated to produce despotism, thraldom and confusion, and if the United States do swallow it, they will find it a bolus, that will create convulsions to their utmost extremities” (Anti-Federalist). These arguments of both sides explicitly reveal the opposition and advocacy of the promulgation of Constitution.

Irrefutably, the Anti-Federalist primarily advocated for the distribution of power systematically. The Federalist ought to be opposed as they sanctioned the prerogative of state affairs to a single authority.

Works Cited

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Anti-Federalists | NCpedia. https://www.ncpedia.org/anti-federalists. Accessed 22 Apr. 2019.

Home - Teaching American History. https://teachingamericanhistory.org/. Accessed 22 Apr. 2019.

The Federalist Papers. http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/FEDERAL/frame.html. Accessed 22 Apr. 2019.

Subject: Education

Pages: 1 Words: 300

1. 1. The Pathway Of Air Flow: Nose To Alveoli; And Relate The Function Of Any Portion Of The Respiratory Tract To Its Gross And Microscopic Anatomy.


The airways or respiratory tract comprise the organs that allow the passage of air to the lungs. These organs include nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea and bronchi. Nasal Cavity is the inner area of ​​the nose. Its main function is to heat, moisten and filter the air when breathing. Also in the nasal cavity is the sense of smell, which allows us to distinguish the smells that surround us.

Pharynx is the connection between the nasal cavity and the oral cavity. It is located behind the mouth and conducts the air to the larynx. In the part that connects to the nose, it is called the nasopharynx; where it connects with the mouth, it is called oropharynx. From Pharynx, it goes to Larynx. It is located between the pharynx and the trachea. The main function of the larynx is to prevent the entry of food or liquids into the trachea. It is also important in the production of sounds: that is where the vocal cords are located (Martini, et.al. 2015). Windpipe is located in front of the esophagus and is a rigid cylinder that lets air pass from the larynx to the bronchi.

Bronchi trachea is divided into two tubes that each go to a lung: these are the bronchi, which, in turn, continue to divide like the branches of a tree inside the lungs, forming the bronchioles. Lungs are the two largest organs inside the rib cage, one on each side of the heart. They are different, the right lung separates in three lobes by two fissures and the left in two lobes. They have a spongy and elastic appearance, so they can vary their volume during the processes of inspiration and expiration.

The alveoli are the functional units of the respiratory system. They are small bubble-like bags that are found at the end of all the bifurcations of the bronchioles. These sacs have the thickness of just one cell, and are bordered by capillaries, allowing direct contact with the blood.


Martini, F., Nath, J. L., & Bartholomew, E. F. (2015). Fundamentals of anatomy & physiology. Pearson,.

Subject: Education

Pages: 1 Words: 300

1.2 Vocabulary



Venus of Willendorf: it is a female small scale statue that was found in 1908 by a paleologist named Joseph Szombathy in an Aurignacian loess store close to the town of Willendorf in Austria. It is presently in the Naturhistorisches Museum in Vienna.

Mesopotamia: Mesopotamia is an authentic area of Western Asia arranged inside the Tigris–Euphrates stream framework, in the northern piece of the Fertile Crescent. The Sumerians and Akkadians commanded Mesopotamia from the earliest starting point of recorded history to the fall of Babylon in 539 BC, when it was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire. It tumbled to Alexander the Great in 332 BC, and after his passing, it turned out to be a piece of the Greek Seleucid Empire.

Sargon: Sargon the Great, was the principal leader of the Akkadian Empire, known for his victories of the Sumerian city-states in the 24th to 23rd hundreds of years BC.

Akhenaton: He was a pharaoh of Egypt of the eighteenth Dynasty. He is otherwise called 'Akhenaton' or 'Ikhnaton' and furthermore 'Khuenaten', which are all meant signify 'effective for' or 'of extraordinary use to' the god Aten. Akhenaten picked this name for himself after his transformation to the religion of Aten.

Assyrians: The Assyrians are a people who have lived in the Middle East since old occasions and today can be discovered everywhere throughout the world. In old occasions their progress was centered at the city of Assur, the remnants of which are situated in what is presently northern Iraq

Sparta: Sparta was a noticeable city-state in old Greece. In olden times the city-state was known as Lacedaemon, while the name Sparta referred to its primary settlement on the banks of the Eurotas River in Laconia, in south-eastern Peloponnese.

Muse: Hesiod uncovers that they were called Muses or Mouses in Greek, as the Greek word "mosis" alludes to the craving and wish. The word exhibition hall likewise originates from the Greek Muses. The Nine Muses were: Clio, Euterpe, Thalia, Melpomeni, Terpsichore, Erato, Polymnia, Ourania and Calliope.

Homer: Homer is the unbelievable creator of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic ballads that are the focal works of old Greek writing. The Iliad is set during the Trojan War, the ten-year attack of the city of Troy by an alliance of Greek kingdoms.

Dionysus: He is the lord of the grape-gather, winemaking and wine, of richness, custom frenzy, religious rapture, and theater in old Greek religion and legend.

Thales: Thales of Miletus was a pre-Socratic scholar, mathematician and space expert from Miletus in Ionia, Asia Minor.

Subject: Education

Pages: 1 Words: 300

1.Conservatism Liberalism/Capitalism

Conservatism, liberalism, and Socialism

Jamie Rivera

[Name of the Institution]


The western world has been shaped by a number of competing political ideologies. Even if one ideology has dominated the other, the former still managed to leave a considerable influence behind. Certain restrictive ideologies such as Communism and Fascism were predominantly rejected by western societies, yet socialism has remained relevant in American politics to this day. Liberalism, conservatism, and socialism are ideologies that understand liberty, rights, and freedoms in different ways, and while each have been subject to criticism, modern western societies have more or less preferred variations of reform liberalism to govern themselves. The paper will explore these three major ideologies, their major tenets, influence, and history, and examine their relevance to western civilization. Although, it is difficult to come to a certain conclusion on what ideology would specifically work under contemporary circumstances, however, classical liberalism has left a major impact on the West's ideological leanings, historical narrative, and political thought.


Conservatism is a major political philosophy that values the maintenance and stability of societies that is based on upholding societal institutions and traditional values, such as religion or government, which are both valued and respected. One of the defining traits of conservatism is its suspicion of change and a strong discouragement of a revolutionary approach towards change in favor of a more evolutionary approach if change is absolutely required. Conservative values stem from the premise that a transcendent moral order exists to which the society must try to confirm with, yet the emphasis is not as much on divine law as it is on natural law. It contrasts with the utilitarian view of the liberals, as espoused by Bentham, as well as deviates from theocratic views. For conservatives, the most important principles to be upheld include social continuity, freedom, justice, and order, which they view as a product of a collective social experience developed over the course of centuries through human reflection, or trial and error. The collective human experience has incorporated certain customs, habits, and conventions that serve as precedents to regulate behavior and are integral to keeping the social fabric intact. Thus, any political decision has to be taken by examining not just its popularity or temporary advantage but long-term consequences. A slow move towards devising complex remedies to a problem is preferred after sufficient reflection has taken place to avoid any moral hazards or unintended social consequences.

The conservative distrust of radical change can be seen in various historical documents such as the Carlsbad Decrees of 1819, where one of the conservative rules asserted by political leaders in public universities, against growing nationalism or liberalism, or revolutionary plots was that the “confederated governments (of Austria and Prussia) mutually pledge themselves to remove from the universities or other public educational institutions all teachers who, by obvious deviation from their duty or by exceeding the limits of their functions, or by abuse of their legitimate influence over the youthful minds, or by propagating harmful doctrines hostile to public order or subversive of existing governmental institutions, shall have unmistakably provide their unfitness for the important office entrusted to them"5. The change through of nationalism and liberalism emerging from the French revolution was perceived by The Congress of Vienna as a threat. Their conservative position can be seen through the way they see uncertainty. "Kings have to calculate the chances of their very existence in the immediate feature; passions are let loose, and league together to overthrow everything which society respects as the basis of its existence religion, public morality, laws, customs, rights, and duties, all are attacked, confounded, overthrown, or called in question”. The changes were attributed to liberalism and individualism which could threaten order due to “Religion, morality, legislation, economy politics, administration, all have become common and accessible to everyone”2. These views accurately reflect the conservative position that man individually is unable to fathom how individually inherited characteristics may have influenced their thinking, thus explaining the movement’s suspicion of change. For conservatives, the notion of change itself is only necessary to avoid the greater evil.

Conservatism has left a profound influence on modern western civilization, influencing what came to be defined as right-wing politics that advocates private ownership and preservation of personal wealth, while emphasizing individualism and self-reliance. In general, conservative thought has influenced political opinion that prefers harsher punishment towards criminals, hostility towards homosexuality, adherence to orthodox religious ideas and a general dislike of immigration and multi-culturalism. The modern conservative movement also defines itself through its strong opposition to liberalism, emphasizing aspects such as free market economics, free trade, disapproval of countercultures and approval of interventionist foreign policies. Today, it is a major political ideology commonly associated with the Republican Party and became a distinctive political identity during the 1950s, polarizing American politics since then.

Liberalism & Capitalism

The political ideology of liberalism was a product of the age of enlightenment. Liberalism as an idea values equal rights and the individual’s power of choice by means of positive law and one’s state of nature. The natural state of man is one that values goodwill, peace, mutual assistance, civility, and preservation. The freedom of the individual became a core and distinct political issue that has to be enhanced, preserved and protected. Generally, liberals hold that the role of the government is to protect individuals from harming each other, yet the government itself can threaten liberty. As time progressed, liberalism became divided into distinct strands, classical and reform/modern liberalism. Classical liberalism is heavily based on the laissez-faire principles espoused by Adam Smith in his The Wealth of Nations. The government has no role in bringing about a specific economic outcome and should let the ‘invisible hand' guide a free market, in which individuals freely pursue their economic self-interest which will eventually lead them to collective prosperity. According to Smith, "By pursuing his own interest he frequently promotes that of the society more effectually than when he really intends to promote it"4. An executive decree cannot create social or economic order. The only sustainable and successful economic order would be one that arises spontaneously from forces acting on the free market. Thus, instead of collective actions intended to achieve potential outcomes, the natural human interest towards avoiding harm by controlling their actions would lead them to security. A liberal political order can thus reap the benefits of a free market economy and individual liberty without neglecting basic human needs or social cohesion.

Eventually, with time, the idea that the powers of the government itself can protect the individual's freedom began to take root. A new form of liberalism emerged that built upon classical liberalism, which saw the government's role expand to protect individuals from obstacles that prevent them from realizing their potential or living freely. These obstacles can include discrimination, poverty, ignorance, or disease. A clear difference from early thought could be seen when the role of the government changed from merely protecting individual freedom to promoting it, which in turn led to significant consequences. The New (modern/reform) liberalism became associated with welfare-policies that were first widely seen during the Roosevelt administration in the U.S. It was a social form of liberalism which was influenced by the utilitarian thought of philosophers such as Jeremy Bentham. “The principle of utility is the foundation of the present work”1. For the social liberal, protecting liberties entailed ensuring positive rights because of the idea that "a thing is said to promote the interest, or to be for the interest of an individual when it tends to add to the sum total of his pleasures"1.As a result, schools, healthcare, museums, or even libraries started to be publicly funded along with certain economic regulations in place, ranging from minimum wage laws to anti-trust measures. The government was now expected to generate tax revenue to spend on public welfare and the common good to justify its legitimacy.

Classical liberalism profoundly shaped the institutions and culture of nearly all modern democratic governments. Even conservative and socialist parties visibly accept the notion of individual rights, that are now protected by courts of law. The notion of legal and political equality became central to all mature democratic governments, with the idea of democracy itself emerging from this principle. These ideas further manifested themselves in the adoption of federalism, checks and balances, and the separation of powers that went to define the predominant system of contemporary governance among western societies. Although some of the values central to classical liberalism might be abstract in nature, however in the U.S., it carried immense significance owing to its influence on America's political institutions and in the characteristics and development of American political culture. Subsequently, reform liberalism integrated certain socialist values with individual freedom, contrasting the original idea that a government's expanding role is inherently evil.

Socialism & Marxism

Socialism is another social and economic ideology and system, which in sharp contrast form classical liberalism, insists that the distribution of wealth and control of production belongs to the society as a whole. Moreover, it denies private property ownership to be an absolute individual right. The theory was devised in response to capitalist industrialism that dominated 18th and 19th century America and Europe. Although, there was considerable variation within different strands of socialism regarding the extent of free trade and ownership of private property, yet a social regulation of behavior and state management of economy were common aspects. Both liberalism and socialism commonly aimed towards human evolution yet liberalism espoused a hierarchical view of society entitling individuals to the profits of their work, while socialism advocated abolishing social classes, favoring overall state developing and recognition of community, preferring the collective over the individual. Socialism is generally associated with the working class and its interest, due to its emphasis on preventing industrial workers from being exploited. The individual contribution of workers determines the distribution of profits among workers while developing a cooperative system to meet the needs of other members of the society, especially those who cannot work. Thereby equal education and health care access are preferred with no discrimination among socio-economic classes.

Socialist philosopher Robert Owen believed that the entire economic and social order must be substituted with one that emphasizes harmonious, collective living instead of competition. In this social order "The poor and the unemployed working class cannot, must not, be abandoned to their fate, lest the consequences entail misfortune on us all…they should, on the contrary, be afforded the means of procuring a certain and comfortable subsistence by their labour, under a system which will not only direct that labour and its earnings to the best advantage, but, at the same time, place them under circumstances the most favorable to the growth of morals and of happiness"3. The key premise behind the idea was that people will be more creative, happy, kind and work harder if their basic necessities are met through social cooperation. Owen also criticized the welfare system and proposed an alternate socialist system in which a "plan for the amelioration of the poor should combine means to prevent their children from acquiring bad habits, and to give them good one – to provide useful training and instruction to them – to provide proper labour for the adults – to direct their labour and expenditure so as to produce the greatest benefit to themselves and to society"3. This viewpoint was based on the idea that human beings were a reflection of their environment, therefore the progress of humanity requires creating new socialist relations among them.

Like capitalism, socialism too has left its impact on western civilization. The idea initiated during the time when industrial capitalism created the wealth and class inequalities, seeing itself as part of the evolution of an urban industrial society. It morally protested the idea of the bourgeoisie and saw capitalism has a failing system that had to be replaced with the more superior socialist system of ‘communism'. The latter was developed by Friedrick Engels and Karl Marx and presented in the 1848 book, ‘the Communist Manifesto'. The book provided an idea of how a classless society could be created by applying communist principles. Although, communism was rejected by the West, yet events such as the Great Depression led to the adoption and integration of several socialist policies in western liberal economics. As a result, a soft form of socialism was developed in America wherein a part socialist, part administrative and a democratic welfare state began to be advocated. However, as the Soviet Union disintegrated, it fortified the belief that capitalism was the only workable and practical ideology. Yet, the success of certain socialist democratic models in western Europe, combined with the recent successes gained by socialist parties in South America and Europe calls into question the viability of a pure unregulated capitalist system.

Preferred Ideology

An examination of various prominent ideologies that have shaped western societies reveal that fascist and communist regimes were predominantly rejected in favor of ideologies that do not find value in controlling and regulating human beings and action. Instead, individualist ideologies that encourage every person to lead their own destiny were immensely favored over the former. Conservatism and liberalism promised that freedom to the individual and limited the role of the government in their normal everyday lives. This suggests that human progress and learning correlated with a limited government which controls only a few vital aspects of their lives.

In my view, socialism, despite intending well, has certain drawbacks that tie to its assumptions about the cooperative nature of individuals when it comes to working. The idea fails to appreciate that there are many elements within society that are nearly always in competition with one another instead of being cooperative. This competition may lead certain segments of society to disrupt, overthrow, or bother another part for their own self-interest. This sense of competition is harnessed by classical liberalism and capitalism for the public good, while Socialism tends to pretend that this competition does not exist. Moreover, this thought leads socialist societies towards underappreciating entrepreneurism and individual achievement, thereby reducing the incentive for innovation, which otherwise exists in a liberal society.

Another reason why I do not prefer socialism is because of an expanded role of government. The government is assumed to be always representing its citizen's best wishes, whereas it is known that governments tend to abuse their powers often disregarding its citizen's rights arising from the personal greed of its constituents. Classical liberalism, on the other hand, upholds the idea that individuals are free to forge their own destiny, deciding themselves what they wish to produce, what they want to do in life, or who they wish to see as their leader. An individual is held responsible for his or her choices, while the exercise of choice based on their rational self-interest is not viewed to be wrong. A common notion is that classical liberalism makes people selfish, however, the idea fails to take into account that human beings to look after their own self-interest at a lesser or greater extent. A classical liberal pursues his or her own goals while exercising his liberty to decide what is best for him in life. When individuals follow their own rational self-interest in a free market and a free society, the entire society eventually becomes better off due to the invisible-hand at play, which explains why I would prefer classical liberalism over other ideologies.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Bentham, J. (2011). English Liberalism. In J. J. Spielvogel (Ed.), Western Civilization: Reaction, Reform, Revolution, and Romanticism: 1815-1848 (8th ed., pp. 224-227). Boston, MA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Metternich, P. K. (2011). Secret Memorandum to Tasr Alexander I, 1820: Conservative Principles. In J. J. Spielvogel (Ed.), Reaction, Reform, Revolution, and Romanticism: 1815-1848 (8th ed., pp. 221-223). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Owen, R. (1813). A New View of Society. In Modern Europe (pp. 144-155).

Smith, A. (1813). The Wealth of Nations. In Modern Europe: The New Science of Political Economy (pp. 138-139).

The Carlsbad Decrees, 1819: Conservative Repression. (2011). In J. J. Spielvogel (Ed.), Reaction, Reform, Revolution, and Romanticism 181:1848: Western civilization (8th ed., pp. 223-224). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Subject: Education

Pages: 8 Words: 2400

10 Nielsen Norman Report


Website Evaluation Based on 10 Heuristics


[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Website Evaluation Based on 10 Heuristics

Executive Summary

The selected website has been analyzed based on the 10 heuristics that have been proposed by Nielsen. The evaluation is based on the overall functionality of the interface and the design of the website. The website contains a simplistic design and functionality and lacks in many of the areas that a user may find important. As a result, the website fails to achieve the level of sophistication that is demanded in the present world. Its competitors are doing great when it comes to the overall design and it is fairly simple to implement these design changes for the betterment of the website.


The website that has been selected for the assignment is www.roverp6cars.com. The website is based on a car parts selling company, MGBD Parts and Services that particularly specializes in the parts of Rover P6. The business model of the company revolves around the transactions of parts of antique cars especially those of the Rover P6 model. The main target of the company are owners of the same antique cars. Anyone who has a Rover P6 or is interested in one, is targeted by the company.

Tasks for Evaluation

The tasks that are the basis of the evaluation include:

Navigation of the website: How easily and efficiently a user may be able to make way through the website. Every user wants that the site should be self-explanatory and there is comfort when navigating it ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"y3Qep2KE","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Hsiao et al., 2017)","plainCitation":"(Hsiao et al., 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":31,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WKtM8IGm/items/68LNCPRZ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WKtM8IGm/items/68LNCPRZ"],"itemData":{"id":31,"type":"article-journal","title":"User interface based on natural interaction design for seniors","container-title":"Computers in Human Behavior","page":"147-159","volume":"75","source":"DOI.org (Crossref)","DOI":"10.1016/j.chb.2017.05.011","ISSN":"07475632","journalAbbreviation":"Computers in Human Behavior","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Hsiao","given":"Shih-Wen"},{"family":"Lee","given":"Chu-Hsuan"},{"family":"Yang","given":"Meng-Hua"},{"family":"Chen","given":"Rong-Qi"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017",10]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Hsiao et al., 2017).

Finding information: The efficiency with which the desired information can be retrieved

Portal usage: Since the website is dedicated to the buying and selling of Rover P6 parts, so portal functioning is of paramount importance. The portal should be easy to use and user friendly so that there is least chance of errors that a user may commit ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"3z3mxOmK","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Marcus and Gould, 2000)","plainCitation":"(Marcus and Gould, 2000)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":28,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WKtM8IGm/items/PBV47C7Q"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WKtM8IGm/items/PBV47C7Q"],"itemData":{"id":28,"type":"article-journal","title":"Cultural Dimensions and Global Web User-Interface Design","page":"15","source":"Zotero","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Marcus","given":"Aaron"},{"family":"Gould","given":"Emilie West"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2000"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Marcus and Gould, 2000).

Design Perspective

Since the website mainly focusses on the buying and selling of Rover P6 parts, hence it has been designed to highlight that. The whole website has elements of the car model in every aspect of it. The website is trying to promote its vision through graphical representation. The website is following the latest trend of displaying information and navigation through the use of images. A lot of the latest websites have abandoned the use of text and instead, pictures are used. The same vision is followed by the MGBD Company on its website. The website also contains a portal for e-commerce related to the buying and selling of car parts. This is one of the major ways that the companies in today’s world make a profit. People these days are more interested in what they may get from the comfort of their homes. For a visual representation of the website, please see Appendix A.

10 Heuristics

The evaluation of the website based on the 10 heuristics is as follows:

Heuristic 1

Heuristic one focuses on the fact that the system should display the state that it is in e.g. the option or menu item that has been selected on the website should convey to the user that it has been highlighted ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"lGO4kL9c","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Martinez et al., 2017)","plainCitation":"(Martinez et al., 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":32,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WKtM8IGm/items/V4QD8M9M"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WKtM8IGm/items/V4QD8M9M"],"itemData":{"id":32,"type":"chapter","title":"Variability Management and Assessment for User Interface Design","container-title":"Human Centered Software Product Lines","publisher":"Springer International Publishing","publisher-place":"Cham","page":"81-106","source":"DOI.org (Crossref)","event-place":"Cham","URL":"http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-319-60947-8_3","ISBN":"978-3-319-60945-4","note":"DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-60947-8_3","language":"en","editor":[{"family":"Sottet","given":"Jean-Sébastien"},{"family":"García Frey","given":"Alfonso"},{"family":"Vanderdonckt","given":"Jean"}],"author":[{"family":"Martinez","given":"Jabier"},{"family":"Sottet","given":"Jean-Sébastien"},{"family":"Frey","given":"Alfonso García"},{"family":"Ziadi","given":"Tewfik"},{"family":"Bissyandé","given":"Tegawendé"},{"family":"Vanderdonckt","given":"Jean"},{"family":"Klein","given":"Jacques"},{"family":"Le Traon","given":"Yves"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2020",1,13]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Martinez et al., 2017). This can be done through a tick mark or a change of color. The website in question has no proper means of showing the state the system is in. The website continuously shows a single state and there is no way of identifying what the action of the user was that led to a particular state.

Heuristic 2

The 2nd heuristic states that the information should be presented to the people in such a way that it is easily understandable for them. The information displayed on the website is easy to understand but still, there are some elements that need to be properly elaborated e.g. the name of parts of the cars should be properly identified. If the user wants to order something, the menu to reach the portal is not easily identifiable. This would cause inconvenience for the user since it would be difficult for them to find it.

Heuristic 3

The user should be able to undo/redo their actions easily according to the 3rd heuristic. The user may make a mistake in the selection that they did not intent. In such a case, it should be easy to navigate to the initial state ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"AbR4Cqi9","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Reeves et al., 2004)","plainCitation":"(Reeves et al., 2004)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":26,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WKtM8IGm/items/G2ZBD6SX"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WKtM8IGm/items/G2ZBD6SX"],"itemData":{"id":26,"type":"article-journal","title":"Guidelines for multimodal user interface design","container-title":"Communications of the ACM","page":"57","volume":"47","issue":"1","source":"DOI.org (Crossref)","DOI":"10.1145/962081.962106","ISSN":"00010782","journalAbbreviation":"Commun. ACM","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Reeves","given":"Leah M."},{"family":"Martin","given":"Jean-Claude"},{"family":"McTear","given":"Michael"},{"family":"Raman","given":"Tv"},{"family":"Stanney","given":"Kay M."},{"family":"Su","given":"Hui"},{"family":"Wang","given":"Qian Ying"},{"family":"Lai","given":"Jennifer"},{"family":"Larson","given":"James A."},{"family":"Oviatt","given":"Sharon"},{"family":"Balaji","given":"T. S."},{"family":"Buisine","given":"Stéphanie"},{"family":"Collings","given":"Penny"},{"family":"Cohen","given":"Phil"},{"family":"Kraal","given":"Ben"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2004",1,1]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Reeves et al., 2004). The website is very simple and thus much effort is not required to undo the action made by mistake. The main interaction occurs through the opening of new pages which can easily be navigated back to. One of the things that might trouble the user is navigating the portal. It is not as straightforward as it should be and may cause confusion for the user.

Heuristic 4

This heuristic is based on consistency. Every element of the UI has to have a defined function and should not be mixed with the other functions. The navigation on the website is complex because of the use of a similar outlook given to different levels of the menu. This may make the users wonder about the outcome of their actions. Each element of the website should be clearly defined and be such that it is set apart from the other functionality. The website lacks heavily in the design area. There is a great chance of error in the judgment of the website users.

Heuristic 5

Heuristic 5 is based on error prevention and how the user might be able to handle the mistakes. Since the website under evaluation is very plain, without any room for dangerous errors, so it is not a big issue to have error handling elements in place. The portal for the transaction has warnings available for the user but the warnings are not very prominent and are old fashioned so there might be a chance that the user might overlook these when using the website.

Heuristic 6

This heuristic highlights the importance of recognition in websites. A good website design should be optimized such that the user does not have to spend much time to find the right information. The main thing is that the user should be able to recognize rather than recall. The MGBD website has a very single dimensional UI. The user could get easily confused as many a time, it is not clear which menu option leads to which page. That is why the website negates heuristic 6. As mentioned above, the main component of the website is the portal and it should be easily accessible by the user but in the case of this website, it is not.

Heuristic 7

Heuristic 7 throws light on the significance of efficiency and flexibility. A website may be home to lots of users. Some of these might be new and some old and seasoned. The website should allow easy access to all its features to every level of the user. There should not be any difficulty for any class of user. The subject website does not define any proper means of navigating through the menus. This makes it difficult to understand for novice users. Beginners tend to find it easy if information is strategically displayed. An expert user might navigate based on their experience but a new user would definitely find it difficult to access the desired parts.

Heuristic 8

Aesthetics is a major feature of any website, and this aired with the minimalistic design, is an ultimate combination. The latest trends have the websites follow a design where minimal information is sufficient to make sense. The MGBD website has a lot of jumbled information on every page making it difficult to recognize what is important and what is not in the eyes of a particular user. The portal is developed in a very conventional way which shows minimum instructiveness. The portal should be such that it attracts the eye of the user and makes them want to search the website for more. This element is missing in this case.

Heuristic 9

Error handling is a major component of any website. Any inconvenience for the user may be avoided. The website under discussion has no major errors that might occur and disrupt major activities. That is why there is no sign of error prevention methods. The portal section, on the other hand, is primitive looking and the error information that is displayed, is not proper. A user may get stuck at a stage with no means of getting away. The errors are not properly highlighted which could lead to frustration by the user.

Heuristic 10

The last heuristic is linked to documentation and assistance. The website does little to highlight the ways through which information can be gained. Since the website is mostly static information, there is basically not much need for any documentation to help with the navigation.


There are many similar websites performing similar functions. One of the better examples is www.carparts.com. The website is dedicated to online buying of automobile parts. As soon as the website is displayed, there is a clear difference between the design methods used. The design that is used is the latest and much more user-friendly as compared to the other website’s. Information is clearly displayed and a portal for ordering of the parts is available on the main page which makes it easier to find. Every section of the website is clearly defined and there is no confusion that might be created for the user. The website is easy to navigate and user-friendly from the perspectives of both the beginner and the experts. The clarity in the way that the website handles the error is also an essential part which makes it more efficient. See Appendix B for carparts.com website design.


The website in question has much potential to be modified for the betterment. Some of the key changes that could make the website a much better experience for the users are:

The outlook of the website should be changed and proper sections should be formed.

Since the website is supposed to be a portal that is designed to perform transactions related to parts, it should be highlighted properly. The portal should be one of the things that are displayed on the main page of the website rather than at the backend ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"XMM4Svic","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Stone et al., 2005)","plainCitation":"(Stone et al., 2005)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":29,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WKtM8IGm/items/UNWI6669"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WKtM8IGm/items/UNWI6669"],"itemData":{"id":29,"type":"book","title":"User Interface Design and Evaluation","publisher":"Elsevier","number-of-pages":"699","source":"Google Books","abstract":"User Interface Design and Evaluation provides an overview of the user-centered design field. It illustrates the benefits of a user-centered approach to the design of software, computer systems, and websites. The book provides clear and practical discussions of requirements gathering, developing interaction design from user requirements, and user interface evaluation. The book's coverage includes established HCI topics—for example, visibility, affordance, feedback, metaphors, mental models, and the like—combined with practical guidelines for contemporary designs and current trends, which makes for a winning combination. It provides a clear presentation of ideas, illustrations of concepts, using real-world applications. This book will help readers develop all the skills necessary for iterative user-centered design, and provides a firm foundation for user interface design and evaluation on which to build. It is ideal for seasoned professionals in user interface design and usability engineering (looking for new tools with which to expand their knowledge); new people who enter the HCI field with no prior educational experience; and software developers, web application developers, and information appliance designers who need to know more about interaction design and evaluation.Co-published by the Open University, UK.Covers the design of graphical user interfaces, web sites, and interfaces for embedded systems.Full color production, with activities, projects, hundreds of illustrations, and industrial applications.","ISBN":"978-0-08-052032-2","note":"Google-Books-ID: VvSoyqPBPbMC","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Stone","given":"Debbie"},{"family":"Jarrett","given":"Caroline"},{"family":"Woodroffe","given":"Mark"},{"family":"Minocha","given":"Shailey"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2005",4,29]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Stone et al., 2005).

Less textual data and more visual data should be added to give the website a feel of the modern paradigms.

The major trouble lies in the aesthetics of the website. The website is very one dimensional and it is really difficult to navigate the right parts. Even the portal used old fashioned design schemes which may disappoint the user.


The whole website is based on a very primitive model with the least user-friendliness. These days, the main thing that the user requires is efficiency and clarity by which they may perform different functions using the website or a portal. The information should be clear and concise with less textual data and more visual data ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"kZvpO8ur","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Hawlitschek et al., 2016)","plainCitation":"(Hawlitschek et al., 2016)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":33,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WKtM8IGm/items/EUQCJWXH"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WKtM8IGm/items/EUQCJWXH"],"itemData":{"id":33,"type":"paper-conference","title":"Colors and trust: the influence of user interface design on trust and reciprocity","container-title":"2016 49th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS)","publisher":"IEEE","page":"590-599","ISBN":"0-7695-5670-1","author":[{"family":"Hawlitschek","given":"Florian"},{"family":"Jansen","given":"Lars-Erik"},{"family":"Lux","given":"Ewa"},{"family":"Teubner","given":"Timm"},{"family":"Weinhardt","given":"Christof"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Hawlitschek et al., 2016). The website needs to compare itself to other much better websites with similar functionalities. Changing the outlook is not a major task and can easily be done with the help of a few changes. The main information is present; it just needs to be displayed in a proper way to increase the efficiency of the user and avoid any inconvenience on their part.

Appendix A

ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"250xF5I1","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Rover P6 Parts supplied by Mark & Angie Gray,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“Rover P6 Parts supplied by Mark & Angie Gray,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":34,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WKtM8IGm/items/CU8TWTBF"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WKtM8IGm/items/CU8TWTBF"],"itemData":{"id":34,"type":"webpage","title":"Rover P6 Parts supplied by Mark & Angie Gray","abstract":"Web site","URL":"http://shop.roverp6cars.com/","language":"en","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2020",1,13]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Rover P6 Parts supplied by Mark & Angie Gray,” n.d.)

ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"R9Q6mrz8","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}MGBD Parts,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“MGBD Parts,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":36,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WKtM8IGm/items/HE857KWI"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WKtM8IGm/items/HE857KWI"],"itemData":{"id":36,"type":"webpage","title":"MGBD Parts","URL":"http://www.roverp6cars.com/?LMCL=o0Pa12","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2020",1,13]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“MGBD Parts,” n.d.)

Appendix B

ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"kn6hfSPv","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}CarParts.com \\uc0\\u8211{} The Right Auto Parts for the Right Price,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“CarParts.com – The Right Auto Parts for the Right Price,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":38,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WKtM8IGm/items/7JZFIBRQ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/WKtM8IGm/items/7JZFIBRQ"],"itemData":{"id":38,"type":"webpage","title":"CarParts.com – The Right Auto Parts for the Right Price","URL":"https://www.carparts.com/","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2020",1,13]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“CarParts.com – The Right Auto Parts for the Right Price,” n.d.)


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY CarParts.com – The Right Auto Parts for the Right Price [WWW Document], n.d. URL https://www.carparts.com/ (accessed 1.13.20).

Hawlitschek, F., Jansen, L.-E., Lux, E., Teubner, T., Weinhardt, C., 2016. Colors and trust: the influence of user interface design on trust and reciprocity, in: 2016 49th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS). IEEE, pp. 590–599.

Hsiao, S.-W., Lee, C.-H., Yang, M.-H., Chen, R.-Q., 2017. User interface based on natural interaction design for seniors. Comput. Hum. Behav. 75, 147–159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.05.011

Marcus, A., Gould, E.W., 2000. Cultural Dimensions and Global Web User-Interface Design 15.

Martinez, J., Sottet, J.-S., Frey, A.G., Ziadi, T., Bissyandé, T., Vanderdonckt, J., Klein, J., Le Traon, Y., 2017. Variability Management and Assessment for User Interface Design, in: Sottet, J.-S., García Frey, A., Vanderdonckt, J. (Eds.), Human Centered Software Product Lines. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 81–106. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-60947-8_3

MGBD Parts [WWW Document], n.d. URL http://www.roverp6cars.com/?LMCL=o0Pa12 (accessed 1.13.20).

Reeves, L.M., Martin, J.-C., McTear, M., Raman, T., Stanney, K.M., Su, H., Wang, Q.Y., Lai, J., Larson, J.A., Oviatt, S., Balaji, T.S., Buisine, S., Collings, P., Cohen, P., Kraal, B., 2004. Guidelines for multimodal user interface design. Commun. ACM 47, 57. https://doi.org/10.1145/962081.962106

Rover P6 Parts supplied by Mark & Angie Gray [WWW Document], n.d. URL http://shop.roverp6cars.com/ (accessed 1.13.20).

Stone, D., Jarrett, C., Woodroffe, M., Minocha, S., 2005. User Interface Design and Evaluation. Elsevier.

Subject: Education

Pages: 6 Words: 1800

10 Questions

10 Questions

Student Name

Course Number: Course Name

Due Date

10 Questions

1. Can a child be a prophet of God?

In 1 Samuel 3:1-10 and the child Samuel ministered about God to Eli. Samuel continued to serve the Lord as a child until his old age.

2. Does God speak to men?

God does speak to men. God spoke to various people in the bible including Samuel. He provided them with information to deliver to the rest of the people. Some of the people obeyed him while others like Jonah refused to obey and were punished from their mistakes.

3. Is the word of God Precious

From Moses to Samuel there were absent of regular appointment of prophets especially the revelations that were made to the individuals. The word of God is precious because it is meant to direct us on the right path.

4. What are the various voices of God?

There are different voices of God because he speaks in different ways. There is the voice of material nature, the voice of consciousness and the voice of reason.

5. What is the character of Eli

Eli was doom. Eli had two sides of character one being he was devoid of envy. Eli contributed on his own detriment, by God sending a message to Samuel, he is disgraced and superseded.

6. How do we respond to Gods Call?

When Samuel was called by God he responded that speak, God, your servants is here. It was in childlike simplicity, submissiveness, and faith. Samuel did not remonstrate or demur which is also demonstrated by Moses when he was sent to Egypt to meet Pharaoh. Humility is viewed as the acceptance of the mission and absence of excuse of not accepting it.

7. What was the circumstance of Samuels calling?

The prophecy using Samuels’s time was very precious. A prophet was very rare and few of them or none had an open vision by their name though mentions. During that time the Lord had sent a man of God with a sad message to Eli and the following day he calls and sends Samuel with the similar message.

8. How God does answers cries?

God answers cries and prayers in an unexpected manner. People settle for modes, times, places and persons for God to speak. The cry by Samuel was the outcome of the Lords' voice to him first. God talked to Samuel when he was a child showing that even children have the right to hear from God.

9. How does God call us?

There are different methods of God awakening us and it could be a gentle tap or a loud knock. God also uses his word to talks to us.

10. Why God used night time to talk to people?

There is a various reason as to why the night was used to provide visions and it includes being silent and calm. It is most unusual to hear voice during the night and total attention is attained during the night

Works Cited

Chryssides, George D., and Ron Geaves. The study of religion: An introduction to key ideas and methods. A&C Black, 2013.

Subject: Education

Pages: 1 Words: 300

10 Strategic Points Quantitative Study


Young, W. T. (2016). The role of musical aptitude, intelligence, and academic achievement in predicting the musical attainment of elementary instrumental music students. Journal of Research in Music Education, 19(4), 385-398.

Asmus, E. P., & Harrison, C. S. (2018). Characteristics of motivation for music and musical aptitude of undergraduate nonmusic majors. Journal of Research in Music Education, 38(4), 258-268.

Harrison, C. S., Asmus, E. P., & Serpe, R. T. (2016). Effects of musical aptitude, academic ability, music experience, and motivation on aural skills. Journal of Research in Music Education, 42(2), 131-144.




(Page #)

Broad Topic Area

Relationship between Musical aptitude and academic achievement

The main premise of this study is to determine the relation between the musical aptitude that is being showed by the person and how the intermediate measure of the music audiation is needed to be worked out. The study also looks at the musical aptitude and the performance level of the person.

Lit Review

The core purpose of this study was to make sure that how musical aptitude and the reading and the mathematical comprehension ability of the person is related. The literature review talks about how the review of the empirical studies that are carried out in this regard. Specifically, it was discussed that how the tests are designed that tend to measure the musical constructs at the particular point of time. There was enough empirical evidence to support this notion that how the musical aptitude and the academic learning ability of the person are closely related to one another. The other thing that is needed to be done is to ensure that there has to be some sense of perspective with regards to how it can be made sure that all the corresponding elements of the academic skills are added into the fold. Not only that, there is a need to have better understanding with regards to be more specific about how academic skills are going to bring an enhancement into the learning process specially when one talks about learning music.

Problem Statement

The key problem that is going to be talked about during the course of this study is that how important it is for the person to make sure that they develop insight about the other aspects of the academics in order go gain proficiency in the musical ability. It is also needed to be seen that how the musical ability of the person is related to their processing skills.

Research Questions

Whether gaining ability and insight about the fields of the musical expertise are going to have profound ability of the person and how these things add up in the broader scheme of things in term of how musical science as a discipline is needed to be talked about.


The sample population in this instance is going to be around 20 elementary and secondary visual arts teachers. Not only that, there were 26 elementary or secondary music teachers are going to be there to ensure better perspective is achieved in this regard. The student sampling rationale is also needed to be provided in this case as how the enrollment of the beginning of the band course is going to be about 65 people who are going to be the part of the population. These 65 students are the ones that are going to be taking care of the way musical aptitude assessment is carried out. Even though the sample size would be expanded, it has not been done due to the resource constraints that are being faced during the course of the study and how it would have increased the timeline.

Describe Phenomena (qualitative) or Define Variables/ Hypotheses (quantitative)

The quantitative research is going to be carried out that would define the relationship that exists among the variables. It has to be noted that the quantitative methodology is the one that is going to be most appropriate in the given case as it involves statistical analysis of how the quantitative data is going to be carried out. It has to be noted is that as it is the study of the variables that are quite manipulated, the effect of the manipulation is going to be measured in the cases of the dependent variable.

Methodology & Design

The core purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to make sure that the examination is carried out that how the musical aptitude of the person and the reading and mathematical scores that are gained by them are correlated. To make sure that these questions are being answered in an appropriate manner, a quantitative methodology was created that determined how the band students scores fluctuated with respect to their performance. There were quantitative studies carried out and the idea behind them was to determine the representation of the relevant theoretical concepts are being carried out so that they can be revealed at the particular point of time.

Purpose Statement

During the course of this study, there were two sources of data that were predominantly used. Both these sources of data were being integrated successfully during the course of the whole process to make sure that the academic achievement and aptitude can be factored in for the students.

Data Collection Approach

The core premises of the study were based on the rationale that how the archival data is needed to be used so that IMMA assessment and some of the other results and their prevailing effect can be identified at the given point of time. To further strengthen the statistical process. The analysis was also carried out that suggested that how the sample size was needed to be augmented to make sure that the better assessment of the results of the research could be made possible. Furthermore, post hoc power for all the tests was being used and then it was recalculated to make sure that the significance analysis can be carried out.

Data Analysis Approach

To make sure that the data can be comprehended and organized in the right manner, the raw data was provided along with the descriptive analysis to make sure that many methods for the whole thing can be used. The data that was accumulated from the IMMA and STAAR was provided within the data spreadsheet. Not only that, to ensure that the more rounded approach was adopted towards the data analysis, the descriptive data statistics included the first statistics that were gained during the course of the first testing and it allowed the examination of the modes, means and the medians of the whole analysis.


Evaluation (Maximum 250-500 words)

The core purpose of this study was to highlight and show the correlation that exists among the study variables and how they are determined at the given point of time. This is not the first time that the study of such nature has been carried out as there exists considerable empirical studies that tend to show the same thing. Even though some relationship is seen, the problem is that there is not much of a causal relationship that tends to exist among different variables at the moment. With one set of skill learned, the student might be in the position to have hold of some other set of skill but the fact remains that how the musical aptitude and the academic achievement of the person plays an important role with regards to this whole thing is going to be managed at the particular point of time. There were some underlying limitations as well with the study for instance the sample size and the way it was being determined was far from ideal. Not only that, there were some major issue with regards to the way data extension was carried out during the study.

Subject: Education

Pages: 9 Words: 2700

12 Angry Men

A. Dan

[Name of Instructor]


25 April 2019

12 Angry Men


Twelve angry men is a cinematic masterpiece directed by Sidney Lumet adapted by a play written by Reginald Rose in 1957. The storyline revolves the twelve jurymen who are deliberating on a case set in a single location throughout the film. The film revolves around the commotion that ‘life is in their hand and death is on their minds.” Suggesting that the ultimate outcomes of the decision of the Jurors are biased and prejudiced although they hold the power to serve justice. The case revolves around a young boy who is convicted of killing his father, while he claims his innocence, the boy is held convicted by most jurors on account of the two witnesses an old boy and women. Throughout the film, ‘Juror 8' is persistent to hold his views of not finding the boy guilty and tries to convince the other jurors to explore and develop their decisions beyond the facts that were presented before them. No names are used for the characters in the film. The film has depths in the ability to create change and not submitting to the will of others. The film is an ensemble of self-reflection, societal norms, the observations of personalities through reflections from the behaviors of the characters. Finally, with considerable arguments and dismay between the jury members, it is concluded that they may change their verdict. The film is known for its historical, cultural and aesthetic significance in the realm of cinematography CITATION Dav09 \l 1033 (Velázquez-Quesada).

Thesis Statement

The essay tends to explore the cultural and historical significance of the film through a comprehensive analysis of the themes implored by the film and the cinematography of the film at the time.


Cultural Analysis

The film depicts a stronghold of cultural stereotypes in 1950 in the United States of America. The characters take influence from the adaption of morals and norms through these. A vivid demonstration of American culture is observed throughout the film from the way the characters dress and behave.The composition of characters shows that the jurors who are to serve justice are all white and the convict in question for killing his father isfrom a colored race most probably Italian. The Jurors show prejudice and unjust conviction of the boy who was poor and belonged to a colored race CITATION BAB07 \l 1033 (BA Babcock). Theycontinuously imply that the film holds a strong cultural influence in its characters, The jurors are thought to be strongly under the influence of discrimination and stereotype. They state that by implying that, ‘they know what they're like' and ‘they'r all liar's'. Themes of prejudice and distinctions of class in American culture were also displayed amongst the interactions of the 4th Juror who was a stockbroker and the 5thJuror who lived in the slums all his life. The interactions revolve around the socio-economic statuses of both of them. The display of American culture was also demonstrated through the deliberations made by 8thJuror who’s views cite that poor upbringing was one of the reasons for his prior criminal record. The fact that eleven jurors were persistent to infer that theaccused of killing his father with fluid proof to prove it, shows that the majority in the jury had decided to convict on the basis of their prejudice against his background and ethnicity holding a firm belief in white supremacy at the time. Lastly, the composition of the jury is not a representative of the whole society as majority of the members are white, mirrors that the people of color were subject to crimes and blue-collar occupations while the white held reputable white collar jobs such as providing services for justice.

Historical analysis

The film is based in the 1950s and holds features which produce considerable evidence that the film was significant. The film is placed in a time in history when the United of America was going through the initial phases of the cold war and internal struggles of the Civil rights Movement for rights for those who belonged to race respect and equality. The glimpses of the class and racial discrimination are very evident in the film. Philosophical challenges to the economic status of individuals are also witnessed in the film. The film Twelve Angry Men is said to have been part of the era of cinematic awakening to the social consciousness and the realism through films on social issues in urban settings and awareness of morals that were declining CITATION Fil19 \l 1033 (Studies). Sidney Lumet seems to have been inspired by the French cinematography of the time, by incorporating techniques like shot-reverse- shot and zoomed intakes of the actors. The film was shot in black and white and was hence initially a failure as it was released, due to the advent of colored scope in the industry.Moreover, the audience of the time were not receptive of reflective cinema they were more interested in action and romantic films. The aesthetics of the film continuously represent the feeling of tension through the unique style of cinematography simply changing the focus of thelenses and manipulating the frame into closeness.


The film has captured the essence of American culture and legal system, through the deep understanding of culture and expanding justice to society in the 1950s. The film comprehends the sense of the complexity of emotions and the consensus of the jurors from their perspectives dominated by prejudice and stereotypes. It can hence be concluded that the entirety of the subject matter is fluent recognition of the art of cinematography through the precision of the detail in the use of techniques and depth of feeling in the movie.

Works Cited

BIBLIOGRAPHY BA Babcock, TM Sassoubre - Chi.-Kent L. Rev. "Deliberation In 12 Angry Men." HeinOnline (2007).

Studies, Film. 12 Angry Men. 2019. <https://film-studies.net/publications/12-angry-men>.

Velázquez-Quesada, Davide GrossiFernando R. "Twelve Angry Men: A Study on the Fine-Grain of Announcements." International Workshop on Logic, Rationality and Interaction- Springer (2009): 147-160.

Subject: Education

Pages: 3 Words: 900

12$ Summaries Discussion Board Week 5

Summaries Discussion board week 5

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Summaries Discussion board week 5

Response 1: Geography and history are linked forever as a geography of the land where all the events occur are considered as a part of history. Therefore historical geography contributes a lot in understanding the scripture. After reading the Old Testament geography, it is evident that the land of Israel which is situated at the intersection of three continents that is Asia, Africa, and Europe, serves as a canvas on which the messages of the Bible can be painted. Thus to understand the Bible it is important to understand the Biblical geography because the events mentioned in the Bible are related specifically to the geographical location and time where they have occurred (Gutierrez, Hulshof, & Cartwright, 2016).

Response 2: To understand the bible it is important to understand the history behind all the events mentioned in it. Historical context helps us in understanding what motivated people to act in a certain way as they did. Similarly, each word of the bible has a history behind it that refers to the circumstances prevailing in that era. The knowledge of historical context helps in creating a scene that will help the reader to interpret the meaning of God’s word as words will start becoming meaningful when one knows the circumstances behind it (Gutierrez, Hulshof, & Cartwright, 2016).

Response 3: Bible contains several types of genres these are narrative, law poetry, history, wisdom, and prophecy. It is important to understand the genre one is reading because of the way one perceives this genre helps him or her in interpreting different passages of the scripture. It is, therefore necessary to understand the literary context of the verse that one is reading as it provides an insight into the background and idea of an event to the reader that helps in interpreting the literature thus preventing the misinterpretations ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"KRJfmBHg","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Gutierrez, Hulshof, & Cartwright, 2016)","plainCitation":"(Gutierrez, Hulshof, & Cartwright, 2016)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":16,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/sbFMNDWM/items/C6VPP9RB"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/sbFMNDWM/items/C6VPP9RB"],"itemData":{"id":16,"type":"book","title":"Everyday Bible Study","publisher":"Lifeway Church Resources","number-of-pages":"Dimensions 15.2x22.9x1.5 cm, book","source":"Google Books","ISBN":"978-1-4336-5064-2","note":"Google-Books-ID: cRVYDQEACAAJ","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Gutierrez","given":"Ben"},{"family":"Hulshof","given":"Chris"},{"family":"Cartwright","given":"Professor John"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016",6,15]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Gutierrez, Hulshof, & Cartwright, 2016).

Response 4: Although a single word coveys very little information it is therefore important to do a word study to understand the concept effectively. While discussing the Bible as the time changes most of the words have vanished so it is difficult to interpret each word to understand God’s word (Hulshof & Cartwright, pg. 135). To do the word study some steps need to be followed to grasp the meaning behind the word. These steps are: Choosing the word that one needs to study, assemble information about the location of the word in a text that one is studying, examine the word, and use a dictionary.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Gutierrez, B., Hulshof, C., & Cartwright, P. J. (2016). Everyday Bible Study. Lifeway Church Resources.

Subject: Education

Pages: 1 Words: 300

16: BBB: Explain The Significance Of The Brain Barrier System.

Significance of the brain barrier system

Author name


The brain is precious and needs significant protection. It is protected and encased in the skull. The skull protects it from traumatic injury. Moreover, with this protection, it also requires nutrients and oxygen, which are supplied by the blood. However, it can get damaged as a result of toxins and infections that might get into the brain via blood ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"aL8WCUM9","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Serlin, Shelef, Knyazer, & Friedman, 2015)","plainCitation":"(Serlin, Shelef, Knyazer, & Friedman, 2015)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2408,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/YU7QKYJ5"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/YU7QKYJ5"],"itemData":{"id":2408,"type":"paper-conference","title":"Anatomy and physiology of the blood–brain barrier","container-title":"Seminars in cell & developmental biology","publisher":"Elsevier","page":"2-6","volume":"38","ISBN":"1084-9521","author":[{"family":"Serlin","given":"Yonatan"},{"family":"Shelef","given":"Ilan"},{"family":"Knyazer","given":"Boris"},{"family":"Friedman","given":"Alon"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Serlin, Shelef, Knyazer, & Friedman, 2015). Therefore, it is further protected with a layer of specialized membranes and cell processes that make the blood-brain barrier. In addition, the brain needs to have a stable internal environment; ionic composition, in order to perform its functions. Furthermore, it must also have the correct supply of different nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, monocarboxylates, and vitamins ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Z1mugE82","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Serlin et al., 2015)","plainCitation":"(Serlin et al., 2015)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2408,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/YU7QKYJ5"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/YU7QKYJ5"],"itemData":{"id":2408,"type":"paper-conference","title":"Anatomy and physiology of the blood–brain barrier","container-title":"Seminars in cell & developmental biology","publisher":"Elsevier","page":"2-6","volume":"38","ISBN":"1084-9521","author":[{"family":"Serlin","given":"Yonatan"},{"family":"Shelef","given":"Ilan"},{"family":"Knyazer","given":"Boris"},{"family":"Friedman","given":"Alon"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Serlin et al., 2015). This blood-brain barrier (BBB) is made by brain endothelial cells that line the cerebral microvasculature. It is important for the normal functioning and development of the brain. This barrier is an important mechanism for protecting the brain as it does not allow undesirable substances to get into the tissues of the brain.

The blood-brain barrier is actually blood vessels that vascularize the central nervous system (CNS). These vessels have a function to regulate the movement of ions and molecules between the blood and the brain. The key structure of the blood-brain barrier is the "endothelial tight junction" which is formed as a result of extremely close packing of endothelial cells. This tight gap does not allow specific molecules such as fat-soluble molecules, and some gases to get into brain tissue. Additionally, this CNS homeostasis thus does not allow toxins and pathogens to enter the brain.

However, in case of any damage to this blood-brain barrier, the normal neuronal activity of the brain is damaged. For example, in the case of multiple sclerosis, there is a defective blood-brain barrier. Therefore, white blood cells penetrate the brain resulting in disturbance in brain functions.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Serlin, Y., Shelef, I., Knyazer, B., & Friedman, A. (2015). Anatomy and physiology of the blood-brain barrier. Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology, 38, 2–6. Elsevier.

Subject: Education

Pages: 1 Words: 300

1929 Stock Market Crash

Stock Market Crash of 1929


16 March 2019


Stock Markets are considered as a strong indicator of the economic activity of a country. The index of the stock market precisely describes the confidence level of investors over the current economic conditions. Stock markets are also considered as the opinion-makers for businessmen as decisions about investments are made on the bases of conditions in the stock market. Investment plans are based upon the historical trends and future expectations of stock markets. Stock markets are crucial for the expansion of existing businesses as it provides necessary capital for future investment plans. Thus, it can play a very constructive role in the economic development of a country. The importance of stock markets is not limited to the domestic aspects of an economy, but provides a picture of the overall business conditions in an economy. Any stock market has to face many ups and downs, over time. The situation where stock prices tend to decline, significantly, is called a stock market crash. This dramatic and sudden decline in the stock prices can be a result of overall bad economic conditions and can also give birth to many economic miseries.

The stock market of the US has had to face the most severe crash in 1929, when the market collapsed and had continued for four consecutive days. This was considered the worst crash as the Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by 25% and this loss was estimated to be as huge as 30 billion dollars. The US economy had to bear an estimated loss of over 396 billion dollars. This huge loss amounted to more than the total cost of World War One. This stock market crash started on October 29, 1929, and the New York Stock Exchange was the first victim of this crash. Later on, the stock markets of other industrial economies also started to crash and converted this disaster into a global phenomenon.

The business cycle is one of the most fundamental concepts of economic theory as it studies the fluctuations in different segments of an economy. The Great Depression of the 1930s was an event that entirely changed the outlook of all the major economies of the world. This event became a historical reference point in the economic theory. Many of the basic concepts and principles of economics needed to be revised. It provided basics for the establishments of new theories and models that could better elaborate on the functioning of an economy and its components. The Great Depression raised many questions about the popular Classical framework of the economy that was greatly praised and practiced before the Great Depression. The Classical theories failed to justify the reasons behind this unexpected depression that affected all the major economies of that time. This event of history became a rising point for the Keynesian economic theory. In 1936, John Maynard Keynes published his famous book “The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money” that empirically tried to explain the events of the Great Depression.

This essay will present the economic background before and after the stock market crash of 1929. This study will also explore the linkages between different segments of an economy. The impacts of the stock crash will also be analyzed. We will also try to figure out the key factors behind this stock market crash and its relation to the Great Depression.

The Great Crash and the Great Depression

The stock market crash of 1929 was the most severe economic downfall in the history of mankind. It lost its value by more than 90% and could not fully recover, for the next 25 years. This gave birth to many other economic crises and was the major reason behind the Great Depression of 1930s. The effects of this crash of the stock market, resulted in global economic crises lasting for more than one decade. Most of the European economies tended to recover from these crises after 1933. But it took a lot more time to fully recover from these shocks. The economy of the US managed to fully recover from this depression in 1939. The following, are some of the effects of this Great Crash of stock markets:

The stock market of any country is the front face of its economic wellbeing. The crises of 1929 were so severe that the stock market lost its more than 90% of value in 1929 to 1930. All the major economies were affected by this shock. The effect of this stock market crash was more prominent in the industrialized and developed economies. But it was the economy of the US that faced the most severe conditions.

This stock market crash became a major source of economic crises that affected all major economies. Almost every sector of the economy had to face this crisis.

More than 11,000 financial institutions went bankrupt as a result of these crises. The public trust in financial institutions was shaken at that time.

Unemployment rates increased dramatically during the Great Crash. Initially, the unemployment rate of the US was just 3 % at the beginning of 1929. This rate of unemployment rate rose to 30% within the next four years.

People had to face many economic crises as a result of this financial and economic crisis. The average income of American families dropped by 40%. This drop in income decreased the purchasing power of the citizens and lower demand for goods and services became a source of further economic destruction.

More than 300,000 companies had to close their businesses due to lower demands. This was the key reason behind the high rates of unemployment.

Thousands of families could not pay their loans and mortgages due to lower levels of income and high rates of unemployment.

The industrial production drastically decreased, as alone, the American economy had to face a 47% drop in its industrial sector. Prices also tended to decrease due to lower levels of demand. The overall GDP was badly affected by this depression as the GDP of the American economy decreased by 6.4% in 1931. This contraction continued for the next three years and the GDP of the US was 57 billion USD in 1933 which was half of the GDP of 1929.

Deflation was another severe result of these crises. The Consumer Price index fell by 27% during the first four years of the Great Depression.

Agricultural production also decreased due to the lack of availability of finances. Low prices of agricultural goods also become a source for further contraction.

Factors behind the Great stock Market Crash

The stock market of the US enjoyed great expansion during the 1920s. The prices of stocks seemed to be increasing, smoothly. The banking sector also contributed a lot to the boom of the 1920s. The availability of easy loans made the stock market a favorite place for investors. Investors got a loan from the banking sector and invested in the stock market. This increase in the prices of stock created future expectations for higher profits. The business of most of the companies was also performing well and it was on expansionary trajectories. This gave birth to higher levels of production and even overproduction. The demand for products was not as high as the supply. As a result, the prices for the stock tended to drop in early October of 1929. The speculation and forecasts of investors were very difficult to bring down. The investors were still overconfident about the market.

Just two weeks before the Great Crash, the government of the US increased the interest rate by one percentage point from 5% to 6%. This increased the cost of borrowing for the investors. Most of the investment in the stock market was borrowed from the commercial banks. The decrease in the stock prices and an increase in the interest rate urged people to trade more to earn more profits, which gave birth to the early crash of the market. Panic media reports about the stock market increased the magnitude of this shock by creating a sense of no-confidence. Most of the investors wanted to sell their stock shares to avoid any future miss-happening. As a result, there were a lot more sellers in the market as compared to the buyers. Higher supply of shared and lower demands became a source of further decline in the stock prices. The continuation of this panic behavior on the behalf of media and investors burst the confidence of the entire market.

Economic Lessons from the Great Crash

The economic theory as highly influenced by the ideas of classical economists at the time of the Great Crash and its resultant, the Great Depression. Many prominent theories of classical economists were widely questioned at the time of Great Crash. Classical economists believed that there was no possibility of overproduction as "Supply creates its demand". It was also believed that unemployment could not exist in a free and competitive economy. But practically, overproduction was observed during the early boom of the 1920s. The deflation during the time of recession was also associated with this overproduction. This also becomes a source of higher unemployment rates. Classical economists also believed that money was neutral as it had no real effect on the economy. Money was considered as a nominal variable and could not affect any real variable like GDP. But it was observed that the changes in the money supply were also contributed to increasing the magnitude of the crises. The money supply was kept low just before the crash of the stock market. An increase in the money supply could change the conditions as the general price level could be increased by increasing the money supply. Moreover, the sudden increase in the interest rate also became a source of a decrease in the money supply. These deficiencies in the theories of classical economists gave space to the Keynesian economists. John Maynard Keynes published his famous book "The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money" in 1936. He tried to explain the reasons behind this Great Depression. He suggested the active role of government in economic decision making.


The sudden and dramatic crash of stock markets in 1929 was one of the most studied events of economics. This was the event that changed the course of theoretical economics. Many researchers tried to explain the key factors behind this unusual behavior of key economic indicators. Some common findings of these researchers described this event as a result of inefficient monetary policies by the government. The monetary policy of that time was not according to the economic conditions. This event increased the importance of monetary regularizations in the economy. Investors’ future expectations about the economic conditions also play a crucial role in the working of the stock market. There were unrealistic expectations among the investors at that time. Overconfidence of investors was also among the key reasons for the Great Crash.


Bernanke, Ben S. "Non-monetary effects of the financial crisis in the propagation of the Great Depression." (1983).

Calomiris, Charles W., and Joseph R. Mason. "Consequences of bank distress during the Great Depression." American Economic Review 93, no. 3 (2003): 937-947.

Hamilton, James D. "Monetary factors in the Great Depression." Journal of Monetary Economics 19, no. 2 (1987): 145-169.

Romer, Christina D. "The great crash and the onset of the great depression." The Quarterly Journal of Economics 105, no. 3 (1990): 597-624.

Subject: Education

Pages: 6 Words: 1800

1991 Nobel Peace Prize Winners

1991 Nobel Peace Prize Winners


Institutional Affiliation(s)

Author Note

1991 Nobel Peace Prize Winners

Richard R. Ernst won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his contributions in the development of Fourier transform Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). He developed this technology while working as a Varian associate. In addition to this his contributions to the field of chemistry were enormous and he also stood as one of the decorated Professors in Chemistry.

Bert Sakmann won the Nobel Prize for his contributions to Physiology and Medicines. The time he has conferred the award, he was associated with Maxx Plank Institute for Medicines in Germany. His motivation to get the prize was the discovery that was related to the single ion channel in the human cell.

The Nobel Prize for Physics was conferred to Pierre-Gilles de Gennes, for his contributions in discovering the methods for studying the phenomenon in a simple manner. His award was particularly credited to his efforts related to discovering new aspects of studying liquid crystals and polymers.

The Nobel Prize for a peaceful struggle for democracy and human rights was awarded to Aung San Suu Kyi of Myanmar. Her efforts helped in spreading the message of hope and courage to millions of people in Myanmar.

Nadine Gordimer won the Nobel Prize for her contributions to literature and writings. She was conferred the Nobel Prize for the magnificent epic writings, which she believed provide a sense of smoothness and relief. Her writings and contribution to the field of literature had been of very great benefit to humanity.

Ronald Coase won the Nobel Prize for his contributions to Economics. His contributions to economics helped to broaden the scope of the legal aspect of studying economics. The Nobel Prize is credited to his efforts about broadening legal theory, which takes into account the dismal science aspect as well.

Another Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine was awarded to Erwin Neher. He was awarded the prize for his contributions in studying the function of the single ion channel.

Subject: Education

Pages: 1 Words: 300

1st Short Paper

1st Short Paper

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

1st Short Paper


The world has seen many civilizations, and various nations have treaded the lands in multiple areas. There have been many great nations who had great warriors and were champions in the fields of war, whereas other nations excelled in the sector of agriculture; they ploughed the lands skillfully and were great at farming and grazing cattle. Some civilizations were great in academic perspectives and did great calculations. All the nations had certain highs as well as some lows. History has witnessed many nations rise to heights due to their positive qualities, and many nations saw their doom due to not eliminating their bad qualities.

Some of the most famous and prominent civilizations that have walked the planet Earth were Egyptians, Greek, Persians, Chinese, and Germans. All these civilizations were huge; they had massive populations and a great number of people who felt proud and being associated with their nation . All these civilizations had rich cultures and certain unique traditions that became a trademark or symbol for them and are still associated with those nations. Those nations are still remembered by their certain qualities or traditions. The following piece of writing will look into the accounts of those unique traditions and qualities and how they differed from the civilizations of the other parts of the world; how did the outsiders or a third person took those certain traits and how these nations out and created history.



Regarding the concept of God, Persians did not have any religion, nor they used to follow any god. They did not offer any kind of sacrifices, and neither built any altars or worship places. The only religious practices they used to carry on was to climb to high mountains and offer their humbleness to the Great Zeus, whom they considered the greatest of all. The Persians only celebrated one event with full enthusiasm, and that was their birthday. On their birthdays, the Persians made great meals and ate extra courses more than main meals. Along with that, persons were a great fan of wine and consumed huge quantities of wine.

The Persians loved their land very much, and their level of respect varied as the distance of any individual increased from their land. The Persians also gave great importance to the social and financial status of other individuals and met each person accordingly.


No civilization has been richer in culture and traditions than the Egyptians. From household matters to business deals, from clothing to food, Egyptians have outshined any nation that has ever existed. Egyptians were a very active civilization, and they preferred to do business. Unlike other nations, their women used to work n the market and deal business matters whereas the men used to stay at home and work on looms, weaving clothes . Egyptians preferred to eat out in the open and had the views that it is nothing wrong to eat out in public.

Egyptians loved to keep animals with them. The sons of Egyptians families were not bound to earn and take care of their parents, but it was a duty of a daughter that she must take care of her parents, whether she likes it or not.

Egyptians were very particular about their cleanliness; they preferred being clean as compared to being attractive. One of the very unique features of the Egyptian nation was that they practiced circumcision. This tradition was not common in any other nation, and they considered it as a part of their cleanliness process.


Germans were the nation who migrated from far off lands like Asia, Africa, and Italy to Germany and settled permanently there. The Germans were all almost alike, blue-eyed, with red hair and huge frames . Despite their big and broad body structures, the Germans were very sensitive and could not bear physical exertion.

The chiefs or the kings in the German nation were selected by birth as per their families, but the generals were selected as per their skills and merit. The main role of the generals was to fight for and defend the chief; the general who fought more bravely was considered the most loyal. In short, the duty of the generals was to fight for the chief and the duty of the chief was to fight for the land.


The Chinese nations descended down from the Han Dynasty and the Xia Dynasty. They used to graze cattle and had no certain or limited lands for themselves as they kept roaming around in search of water and resources. The Chinese were very good in the use of arms or weapons, s they started teaching their kids from the very beginning about hunting. The main weapons that they were mostly used by the Chinese civilizations were bow and arrows for long range and swords and spears for the short range encounters.

The people of Chinese civilizations, including their chiefs, used to eat the meat of their domesticated animals and wear their hide as well. They preferred to feed care for the young people in the tribe and gave less importance to the weak and old.


In a nutshell, it can be seen that every ancient civilization, had its own set of uniques features that made it prominent and stand out among the other nations. Out of all these, Egyptians stood most prominent owing to their high qualities of bravery and sophistication whereas other nations also excelled on the basis of multiple traits.

End Notes

Adams, Richard EW. Ancient civilizations of the New World. Routledge, 2018.

Fagan, Brian M., and Chris Scarre. Ancient Civilizations. Routledge, 2016.

Strayer, Robert W., and Eric W. Nelson. Ways of the World: A Brief Global History with Sources (Volume 2, Since the Fifteenth. Bedford/St. Martins, 2016.

Subject: Education

Pages: 3 Words: 900

2 Blog Seperate


Two Separate Blogs


[Name of the Institution]

Management Is the Pursuit of Flexibility

Blog 1

Academic Article: Organisational flexibility and HRM in the hotel industry: evidence from Australia.

Journal: Human Resource Management Journal

Author/s: Knox, A. and Walsh, J.

The hospitality industry is known for poor human resource management practices and inadequate conditions for the employees. However, according to ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"rlp7IsWp","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Knox and Walsh, 2005)","plainCitation":"(Knox and Walsh, 2005)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":171,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/2y0xTiQs/items/PHX7KLMK"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/2y0xTiQs/items/PHX7KLMK"],"itemData":{"id":171,"type":"article-journal","abstract":"The hotel industry is renowned for its poor pay and employment conditions and a low take-up of HR practices. It is generally believed that the industry has relied on a lowcost, numerically flexible and disposable workforce. Recently, however, there has been debate concerning the extent to which managers in the hotel industry are embracing high commitment HRM and functionally flexible work practices. This study seeks to shed light on this question by analysing large-scale survey and interview data on the hotel industry in Australia. While hotel workplaces in general continue to be associated with high levels of numerical and temporal flexibility and greater informality of HR policies, it was apparent that larger luxury hotels were adopting more systematic employee management techniques and strengthening their internal labour markets through functional flexibility initiatives. Such firms were also pursuing numerical and temporal flexibility strategies, although in rather different ways.","container-title":"Human Resource Management Journal","DOI":"10.1111/j.1748-8583.2005.tb00140.x","ISSN":"1748-8583","issue":"1","language":"en","page":"57-75","source":"Wiley Online Library","title":"Organisational flexibility and HRM in the hotel industry: evidence from Australia","title-short":"Organisational flexibility and HRM in the hotel industry","volume":"15","author":[{"family":"Knox","given":"Angela"},{"family":"Walsh","given":"Janet"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2005"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Knox and Walsh, 2005), the hotel management is fulfilling commitment towards HRM practices and applying employment flexibility within the organizations in recent years. Generally, the hotels are embracing flexibility in their policies, whereas, the larger luxurious hotels are taking effective initiatives such as reinforcing their workforce and implementing employee management procedures to make their practices flexible towards their workforce.

In recent times, flexibility has become a key focus of management. According to Quinn et al. (2015), organizational productivity has increased due to managerial flexibility specifically in the hospitality industry. However, less commitment has been shown towards strategic targets by the hotel management working in developing countries where flexibility is difficult to achieve ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"xKfer7ne","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Majid et al., 2019)","plainCitation":"(Majid et al., 2019)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":167,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/2y0xTiQs/items/N82BVERX"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/2y0xTiQs/items/N82BVERX"],"itemData":{"id":167,"type":"article-journal","abstract":"Purpose This study aims to present an empirical model related to strategic performance (SP) of the hospitality industry. It focuses on the role of network capability (NC) in defining SP through the mediating role of structural flexibility (SF). Furthermore, the interaction effect of NC and top management commitment to strategic performance (MCSP) on SP is also tested. Design/methodology/approach A sample of 279 managerial-level employees of four-star and five-star hotels has been used to confirm the proposed hypotheses by using the technique of structural equation modeling. Findings The results reveal that NC positively affects SP. Moreover, the mediating role of SF in defining the nexus of NC and SP has also been confirmed. Results of moderation analysis reveal that MCSP strengthens the relationship between NC and SP. Research limitations/implications This study used a cross-sectional design for data collection, which prevents strong causal inferences. The authors recommend scholars to explicitly test for causal effect. This study used a cross-sectional design for data collection, which prevents strong causal inferences. The authors recommend scholars to explicitly test for causal effect among all these variables by using a longitudinal study in the future. Practical implications In developing countries, it has been observed that the hospitality industry pays less attention to its strategic targets. Operating in a network or adapting flexible structures is also not on their priority list. This study presents a pragmatic approach based on strong theoretical grounds to attain the goals of SP in the hospitality industry through NC and SF. Therefore, this study suggests that organization operating in the tourism and hospitality industry should pay greater attention toward synergies and business networks to achieve SP. Originality/value This research enriches the prevailing knowledge by testing a mediating role of SF between NC-SP link and, therefore, makes an important addition to the existing knowledge on tourism and hospitality industry by concentrating on the relationship between NC, SF, MCSP and SP.","container-title":"International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management","DOI":"10.1108/IJCHM-04-2018-0277","ISSN":"0959-6119","issue":"8","page":"3077-3096","source":"Emerald Insight","title":"Role of network capability, structural flexibility and management commitment in defining strategic performance in hospitality industry","volume":"31","author":[{"family":"Majid","given":"Abdul"},{"family":"Yasir","given":"Muhammad"},{"family":"Yousaf","given":"Zahid"},{"family":"Qudratullah","given":"Hassan"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019",1,1]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Majid et al., 2019). Flexibility in management facilitates organizations to adapt to the changes such as socio-economic, technological and legal developments, uncertainties and risks involved, increased market competition, and diverse workforce settings. Managerial flexibility demands adaptability and responsiveness towards market ambiguities and innovations along with the workforce commitment for effective management ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Rlgt0ktZ","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Quinn et al., 2015)","plainCitation":"(Quinn et al., 2015)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":175,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/2y0xTiQs/items/QL58UDGK"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/2y0xTiQs/items/QL58UDGK"],"itemData":{"id":175,"type":"book","abstract":"Becoming a Master Manager is appropriate for management and organizational behavior courses that emphasize critical management skills that yield sound organizational results. Developed from both theory and empirical evidence, the text provides a compelling case for why managerial and leadership competencies are essential for employee engagement, effective communication, and sustainable organizational success. The competing values framework offers future managers a foundation for analyzing, understanding and executing the behavior that will achieve positive performance, productivity and profitability.","ISBN":"978-1-118-58258-9","language":"en","note":"Google-Books-ID: T7vlBQAAQBAJ","number-of-pages":"352","publisher":"John Wiley & Sons","source":"Google Books","title":"Becoming a Master Manager: A Competing Values Approach","title-short":"Becoming a Master Manager","author":[{"family":"Quinn","given":"Robert E."},{"family":"Bright","given":"David"},{"family":"Faerman","given":"Sue R."},{"family":"Thompson","given":"Michael P."},{"family":"McGrath","given":"Michael R."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015",1,12]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Quinn et al., 2015). Conversely, if organizational policies are not in favour of such approaches, it will resist the implementation of flexibility. For instance, the majority of luxurious hotels have formal policies to implement flexibility initiatives for their employees such as training, health, and safety as compared to other Australian workplaces. Discussion with MTLs:

I participated in an informal discussion with a group of management team learners (MTL) and shared my knowledge regarding the topic, “Management is the pursuit of flexibility”. According to my understanding, the present revolutionary era in the world of business pays more attention to the flexibility of management practices in their organizations as compared to the previous studies. Moreover, if the organizations allow more flexibility in applications, they become more adaptable to the market innovation. As explained by ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"YICWWeJA","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Quinn et al., 2015)","plainCitation":"(Quinn et al., 2015)","dontUpdate":true,"noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":175,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/2y0xTiQs/items/QL58UDGK"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/2y0xTiQs/items/QL58UDGK"],"itemData":{"id":175,"type":"book","abstract":"Becoming a Master Manager is appropriate for management and organizational behavior courses that emphasize critical management skills that yield sound organizational results. Developed from both theory and empirical evidence, the text provides a compelling case for why managerial and leadership competencies are essential for employee engagement, effective communication, and sustainable organizational success. The competing values framework offers future managers a foundation for analyzing, understanding and executing the behavior that will achieve positive performance, productivity and profitability.","ISBN":"978-1-118-58258-9","language":"en","note":"Google-Books-ID: T7vlBQAAQBAJ","number-of-pages":"352","publisher":"John Wiley & Sons","source":"Google Books","title":"Becoming a Master Manager: A Competing Values Approach","title-short":"Becoming a Master Manager","author":[{"family":"Quinn","given":"Robert E."},{"family":"Bright","given":"David"},{"family":"Faerman","given":"Sue R."},{"family":"Thompson","given":"Michael P."},{"family":"McGrath","given":"Michael R."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015",1,12]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} Quinn et al. (2015), the pursuit of flexibility will lead to effective management and will increase organizational performance in the hospitality industry.

Blog 2

Industry Article: Labour flexibility in the hospitality industry: questioning the relevance of deregulation.

Journal: International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management

Author/s: Buultjens, J. and Howard, D.

According to this article, flexibility among labour advocates free competition which is continually increasing in the Australian labour market. In the hotel industry, the representatives highlight that a high level of flexibility towards labour is imperative to achieve market stability and competitiveness. The exclusion of resistance towards the implications of flexibility has lessened the unemployment and escalated the competition in the market. However, previously, the regularized system repressed the flexibility and resultantly, the competitiveness among the labour markets in Australia. The initiatives such as labour costs, education, and training and working patterns determine worker flexibility in an organization ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"wDxOcaOg","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Buultjens and Howard, 2001)","plainCitation":"(Buultjens and Howard, 2001)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":161,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/2y0xTiQs/items/CSC4J47M"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/2y0xTiQs/items/CSC4J47M"],"itemData":{"id":161,"type":"article-journal","abstract":"The search for labour flexibility has assumed great importance in most developed countries and has been the catalyst for the deregulation which has occurred, and continues to occur, in the Australian labour market. However, despite this, the question remains whether deregulation of the labour market in Australia is necessary for the attainment of flexibility since the empirical evidence is inconclusive. Industry representatives from the hospitality sector argue that a high degree of labour flexibility is a vital component in being able to meet market demands and achieve a competitive environment. Using data from a study of 435 registered clubs in the Australian state of NSW, areas of labour flexibility which these hospitality enterprises value are examined. Managers’ perceptions of the impact of awards and trade unions on the ability of the enterprises to achieve labour flexibility in a variety of areas are also examined. It was found that while there was a perception by managers that awards and trade unions did have a moderate to low impact or restriction on labour flexibility, the impact was not perceived to be as great as the proponents of deregulation would suggest. It is argued that registered clubs are choosing not to enter into formal enterprise bargaining because of this perceived low/moderate level of award and trade union impact on labour flexibility.","container-title":"International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management","DOI":"10.1108/09596110110381834","ISSN":"0959-6119","issue":"2","page":"60-70","source":"Emerald Insight","title":"Labour flexibility in the hospitality industry: questioning the relevance of deregulation","title-short":"Labour flexibility in the hospitality industry","volume":"13","author":[{"family":"Buultjens","given":"Jeremy"},{"family":"Howard","given":"Dennis"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2001",1,1]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Buultjens and Howard, 2001).

As Quinn indicated that in the hospitality industrial sector, human resource practices play a vital role in creating value. In an organization, a more flexible approach is adopted externally to adapt to market changes and internally with the help of labour commitment and engagement to produce valuable outputs ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"bD19x6lW","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Quinn et al., 2015)","plainCitation":"(Quinn et al., 2015)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":175,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/2y0xTiQs/items/QL58UDGK"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/2y0xTiQs/items/QL58UDGK"],"itemData":{"id":175,"type":"book","abstract":"Becoming a Master Manager is appropriate for management and organizational behavior courses that emphasize critical management skills that yield sound organizational results. Developed from both theory and empirical evidence, the text provides a compelling case for why managerial and leadership competencies are essential for employee engagement, effective communication, and sustainable organizational success. The competing values framework offers future managers a foundation for analyzing, understanding and executing the behavior that will achieve positive performance, productivity and profitability.","ISBN":"978-1-118-58258-9","language":"en","note":"Google-Books-ID: T7vlBQAAQBAJ","number-of-pages":"352","publisher":"John Wiley & Sons","source":"Google Books","title":"Becoming a Master Manager: A Competing Values Approach","title-short":"Becoming a Master Manager","author":[{"family":"Quinn","given":"Robert E."},{"family":"Bright","given":"David"},{"family":"Faerman","given":"Sue R."},{"family":"Thompson","given":"Michael P."},{"family":"McGrath","given":"Michael R."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015",1,12]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Quinn et al., 2015). It is depicted that the management's flexibility and commitment impact positively on the workers and their performance ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Ync61u20","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Dimmock et al., 2003)","plainCitation":"(Dimmock et al., 2003)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":179,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/2y0xTiQs/items/NFKWQ84E"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/2y0xTiQs/items/NFKWQ84E"],"itemData":{"id":179,"type":"article-journal","abstract":"Management education has the responsibility to provide industry with graduates equipped with relevant management competencies (Christou 2002). This paper agrees with this view and reports on the first and second stages of a longitudinal study that explores tourism and hospitality students' perceptions of their competency development in the first and final year of the Bachelor of Business in Tourism program. A self-assessment instrument that measures perceived competence in management competencies and roles within the Competing Values Framework (CVF) (Quinn, Thompson, Faerman & McGrath 1996) was used. Results from this investigation indicate that since the outset of their tertiary studies, students perceive they have begun to develop a majority of the competencies and roles tested. Students' perception of improving skills and competencies in these roles indicates they are taking steps towards mastery of management (Quinn et al. 1996), and thereby acquiring competence in areas important to their careers in industry. The outcomes of this research contribute to development of appropriate educational experiences, which in turn assist competency development that enhances student career opportunities and experiences.","container-title":"Journal of Management & Organization","DOI":"10.1017/S1833367200004892","ISSN":"1833-3672, 1839-3527","issue":"1","language":"en","page":"12-26","source":"Cambridge Core","title":"Management Competencies: An Australian Assessment of Tourism and Hospitality Students","title-short":"Management Competencies","volume":"9","author":[{"family":"Dimmock","given":"Kay"},{"family":"Breen","given":"Helen"},{"family":"Walo","given":"Maree"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2003",1]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Dimmock et al., 2003). The quest of flexibility in management help workers to enhance their competencies through education and training to achieve managerial goals. The direct association between employees and employers help organizations to achieve labour flexibility ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"KxRwnPwz","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Sheridan and Conway, 2001)","plainCitation":"(Sheridan and Conway, 2001)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":181,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/2y0xTiQs/items/XEE4W9TL"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/2y0xTiQs/items/XEE4W9TL"],"itemData":{"id":181,"type":"article-journal","abstract":"The rapid expansion in part-time employment in Australia over the past two decades has largely been driven by organisations’ desire to achieve numerical and functional flexibility (the business case for flexibility) rather than a desire to assist employees balance work and family responsibilities (the equal opportunities case for flexibility). Argues that the differences between the business and equal opportunities discourses surrounding flexibility result in significant problems for both employees and organisations – problems that limit the growth of the individual and the organisation. For part-time employment to be an effective organisational strategy, it is critical that the human resource management (HRM) role actively negotiate between the different needs of employers and employees. This will entail making both parties’ needs explicit, acknowledging the differences between their needs and directing efforts towards constructing outcomes that are mutually satisfying.","container-title":"Women in Management Review","DOI":"10.1108/09649420110380238","journalAbbreviation":"Women in Management Review","page":"5-11","source":"ResearchGate","title":"Workplace flexibility: Reconciling the needs of employers and employees","title-short":"Workplace flexibility","volume":"16","author":[{"family":"Sheridan","given":"Alison"},{"family":"Conway","given":"Mary-Louise"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2001",2,1]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Sheridan and Conway, 2001). For instance, during the period of low profits, management that has high flexibility can reduce wages and increase the working hours of workforce required to improve the production.

Discussion with MTLs:

In an MTL discussion, according to my perspective, flexibility is characterized as an ability to adapt to or to conform to the changing environment. Flexibility practices for labour force can lead organizations to become more stable and competitive in the market. The Management flexibility initiatives positively impact the performance and commitment of the workers towards achieving their organizational goals. Moreover, the management values those employees or workers who perform their jobs with a flexible frame of mind. That is why being flexible towards your workforce can lead organizations to success.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Buultjens, J., Howard, D., 2001. Labour flexibility in the hospitality industry: questioning the relevance of deregulation. Int. J. Contemp. Hosp. Manag. 13, 60–70. https://doi.org/10.1108/09596110110381834

Dimmock, K., Breen, H., Walo, M., 2003. Management Competencies: An Australian Assessment of Tourism and Hospitality Students. J. Manag. Organ. 9, 12–26. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1833367200004892

Knox, A., Walsh, J., 2005. Organisational flexibility and HRM in the hotel industry: evidence from Australia. Hum. Resour. Manag. J. 15, 57–75. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-8583.2005.tb00140.x

Majid, A., Yasir, M., Yousaf, Z., Qudratullah, H., 2019. Role of network capability, structural flexibility and management commitment in defining strategic performance in the hospitality industry. Int. J. Contemp. Hosp. Manag. 31, 3077–3096. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-04-2018-0277

Quinn, R.E., Bright, D., Faerman, S.R., Thompson, M.P., McGrath, M.R., 2015. Becoming a Master Manager: A Competing Values Approach. John Wiley & Sons.

Sheridan, A., Conway, M.-L., 2001. Workplace flexibility: Reconciling the needs of employers and employees. Women Manag. Rev. 16, 5–11. https://doi.org/10.1108/09649420110380238

Subject: Education

Pages: 2 Words: 600

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