4) Examine The Social Philosophy Of Karl Marx. What Does Marx Say About How Social And Political Theories Are Determined By Forms Of Production? In Your Paper Explain, In Own Words, How The Marxist Theory Interprets Traditional Political Philosophy And Th
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Change is the only constant of the world and this philosophy could be witnessed everywhere world at present time as this world is changing rapidly. Both types of changes are being witnessed i.e. social and political and both these change are inculcating changes in the shape of world. By looking at present, this fact cannot be denied that this world has entered into a new phase where, there could be seen a clear implementation of ideas that are presented by of one of the most important philosophers, whose work brought revolution in the world. Philosophy is the main thing on which a society base. By spinning the wheel of history, it could be witnessed that social and political philosophy is the main element that makes structure of a society and way of production determines the social political theories that operates in a society.
According to Karl Marx, categorization of the society into class is important for studying the structure of a society. Class struggle is one of the main things that have been promoted by Karl Marx. Humans are competing with each other and are constantly valuing them in the hierarchy structure. Upper class is being placed at top and is served by lower class. Karl Marx is the philosopher who has given most value to the class categorization by saying that there is an unjust distribution of facilities, wealth and resources among people. (Qu, et, al. 2015)
Marx divided people in two classes, “haves and have not’s”. Class with have, represents people of upper class, who used to have all the facilities while on the hand, there comes other class that even don’t have basic necessities. People who are categorized as “haves” are known as bourgeoisie and people who are categorized as “have not’s” are called proletariat. Mostly debates are related to the sociological basis. In today's society, economy of world is based on capitalism. Capitalism is increasing gap between the haves and have not’s as it is making rich, richer and poor, poorer. Class conflict is the main thing that is inculcating in people a feeling so that they are the salve and going to be the slave forever. (Qu, et, al. 2015)
In his writings, Karl Marx through his theory of historical materialism that spots a light on the mode of production in this society argues that there is a specific combination of productive force that runs society. Forms of production include various figures such as labor power and the way products are being ma. Marx has categorized classes of society in two, lower class and the upper class. The upper class takes the position of the head in the society while on the other hand; the lower class is treated and declared as the hands. (Boix, et, al. 2019).
Forms of productions are the main things that make the social and political theories in a society. There are basically two forms of production that are productive forces and relation between the social and technical ways of production. It is important to note that production forces are the tools that are used for producing something, such as buildings, tools, human labor, and other infrastructure. By relation of production (social and technical), means that power and control relation is determined mainly by the productive assets and in simple words, it could be said that it is also about the relationships that exist there between people belonging to different social classes.
Marx claims that social and political theories that are made by the society looks at the above-mentioned points and by keeping these points in mind successful theories for making a society economically stable. it is important to keep this thing in mind that Marx claimed that for studying any society first of all the economic system and structure of that society must be considered. The form of the production is going to help the society in making of social-political theories that are going to run a society. It has been seen that societies consider kind of relationships exists there between different classes that are living together. (Boix, et, al. 2019).
Social and political theories are made by society by keeping all the facts in consideration that how people of different classes are cooperation with each other. Social theories are the theories that make distinctions and specification among different types of societies that are used for analyzing the modernity that is seen to emerge for the past the few decades. Political theories also determine what sort of political implements are going to be introduced in society. Political framework is one of the main things for running the political as well as the social system of a society. Way things are being produced and what kind of items or machinery is going to be used for making production is going to shape up the political theories of society. Social theories are based on the way how people treat each other. Social and political theories design the overall framework of the society and this fact cannot be denied that society is based mainly on two things one is social values and the other is exercising of the authorities. (Boix, et, al. 2019).
As far as, traditional political theory is considered it won’t be wrong to say that political institutions are the main figures that define and reflects few of the basic concepts that help in organizing the political life in a society. In a political framework that could be seen that justice, equality, liberty and protection of the rights of the citizens who makes a society. it has been seen that social sciences, economic, political and all other ideologies aim at the making of communist society where the system would be based on the socioeconomic structure of a society. This thing could be seen in action at the present time, as it has been seen that in today’s world communist and capitalist is in practice everywhere. (Peng, et, al. 2018) Marxism believes that political philosophy is going to make distinctions between the classless societies and considers that class struggle is essential for making political changes as the bourgeoisie class is going to make and implement only those rules and laws that are going to be beneficial for them only. Class conflict is the main things that spotlight on the notion that traditional political theory also favors the upper class who are contributing the most in increasing the gap between the upper and lower classes.
So as a whole, it could be argued that Marxism is very important at present as it is quite obvious that Marxism appealed to the world because it pointed towards the evolution of societies. Capitalism that is ruling the world today and it won’t be wrong to say that capitalism is not only applied but is also the most important working theory that is secular, democratic and equally promoting the human liberation. Capitalism is giving the entire individual an opportunity to earn as much as they can. By taking at the present situation, it could be witnessed that capitalism is giving providing chances to earn according to one’s own capacity. It is justified argument that there is a negative side of the capitalism as well and that is, only upper class is taking over all the fields such as education, technology as they are making more and more investments but still the lower class is being hired to work hard and earn for giving benefits to the owners ultimately. His ideas are still applicable in today’s world and his analysis is being used for interpreting the present world and situations for bringing a positive change in the world
Boix, Carles. Democratic Capitalism at the Crossroads. Princeton University Press, 2019.
Peng, Gao. "A New Thinking on the Driving Force of Social Development." International Conference on Contemporary Education, Social Sciences and Ecological Studies (CESSES 2018). Atlantis Press, 2018.
Qu, Zhaoxia, and Jing Song. "Analysis of Human Needs under Basic Principles of Marxism." 2015 International Conference on Education Reform and Modern Management. Atlantis Press, 2015.
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