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Student Journal

Student journal

Three weeks had gone but it seems like a blink of eye. However, I have learned a lot in these three weeks and this is not just learning it is the experience we have gained throughout these weeks. As it is an online class and it usually consider that conventional classes give more productive learning than online classes but my experience of taking this class is different.

It is value-based health care class and our learning is based on provided lectures. The best thing of these recorded lectures are there availability and accessibility at any time according to my schedule. Another important aspect of this course including watching videos, reading medical articles and participating in discussion board post. The units that we covered so far are value and population health, innovation and value- based health and information and VBC.

For me it is simple and effective class that we can enjoy during summer times at our own pace and place. we get enough time to read articles or watch videos to respond to discussion board and the interaction between students and our professor is really nice and strong. If I have any confusion or difficulty I can contact my professor and get best solution or honest answers. Grading criteria is good and prof. really see post in detail and in-depth feedback help us to know our weakness and give chance to overcome these shortcomings in future posts.

So far, I have learned a lot from this class specially the discussions board I found it pretty interesting and it helps me to see different points of view based on my classmate opinions. Sometimes I agreed with them and sometimes I need to check any new information coming from discussion post for my information. Concludingly, it is a very good experience and I have learned a lot from this class.

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Student Self Introduction

Student Self Introduction

Professional Background and Details

My name is Astrel Aubin. I basically belong to and living in Bridgeport, a historic city in the Connecticut state of United States. By the education, I am a student of Masters level student at the University of …. My field of study is Health Care and Nursing by major. In the present time, I am working on two different jobs at different organizations at one time. Both of the jobs if do, are related to my field of study and expertise which is Health Care and Nursing. My educational inspiration includes of acquiring a bachelor’s and master’s degree in the field of Health Care and Nursing which are the source that assists me everywhere in personal and professional life as well as it is a source behind the job I am doing. I am working at a hospital in the state/region of my living.

Personal Background and Details

In relations to my personal background and details, I have a family including my wife and a kid living together. While in terms of interest and activities, I am a soccer player and playing soccer is my most favorite hobby over all others. I have an enormous amount of competencies in playing soccer as well as I have always been found an efficient person in my professional life. I am also highly nature lover and always take my family on vacation for a gathering and tour.

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Submission To A Draft Government Policy


Disability inclusion plan

Healthcare and Nursing

“The Shire’s Disability Inclusion Plan 2018-22 aims to achieve a vision of working in partnership to achieve access and inclusion for people with a disability across the Morning ton Peninsula”.

Federal Law of December 1, 2017 No. 419-FZ “On Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of the Australian Federation on Social Protection of Disabled Persons in Connection with the Ratification of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities” defines additional requirements for organizing interaction and joint work of employment service agencies, federal government institutions of medical and social expertise and employers to improve the system of stable employment of persons with disabilities (Maufuriyah, 2018). The mechanisms of evaluation by federal institutions of medical and social assessment of restrictions on the ability of persons with disabilities to work, the issuance of recommendations on vocational rehabilitation and employment, the sending of relevant extracts to employment service agencies, as well as the analysis of information received from them on the implementation of these recommendations.

The attention of the highest executive bodies of state power of the constituent entities of the Australian Federation has repeatedly appealed to the failure of the general practice of employment assistance in relation to disabled people in employment services only after a citizen has asked for such assistance. This follows from the requirements of the legislation of the Australian Federation, obliging to provide assistance in employment and employment to all persons with disabilities, and not only to those who applied for such assistance to the bodies of the employment service.

The analysis conducted by the Ministry of Labor of Australia shows that the majority of the executive authorities of the constituent entities of the Australian Federation, including the regional employment service bodies, as well as the federal medical and social expertise institutions, did not take specific actions to implement the newly introduced legal norms and to make the established practice of promoting “employment of persons with disabilities” (Bigby and Wiesel, 2011).

The employment service authorities are still not conducting personalized, initiative-oriented work to assist in finding employment with every citizen who has become disabled and has lost in connection with this work, as well as with disabled people since childhood who have reached working age. The experience of accompanied employment assistance and mentoring, about which the regions have been repeatedly informed, is not actively enough used for this purpose (Silver, 2010).

Owing to the unsatisfactory work of the employment service agencies and their weak interaction with federal institutions of medical and social expertise, in most regions less than 30% of people with disabilities of working age are employed. Only 2.5% of such persons with disabilities receive vocational guidance services and only 1.9% of them get a job, often without the participation of employment service agencies. Information about the “employment of persons with disabilities” in the context of regions is attached (Cumming and Dickson, 2013).

The current situation in this area is unacceptable, it requires urgent action, including increasing the responsibility of officials who have not taken measures for a year and a half to implement the norms of the Federal Law of December 1, 2018 No. 419-ФЗ.In connection with the above, the Ministry of health requests to take prompt measures to remedy the current situation with the implementation of federal legislation on the promotion of “employment of persons with disabilities” includes:

Organization in the region of systematic (at least once a quarter) information exchange between employment service agencies, territorial bodies of the Pension Fund of the Australian Federation and federal institutions of medical and social expertise in order to create in the employment service agencies a personified account of the needs of all disabled people in need of employment;

The allocation in the employment service of workers and structural units, purposefully and initiatively engaged in the employment of persons with disabilities, including the organization accompanied by the promotion of their employment;

Implementation in August-September of this year. analysis of the reasons for the existing shortcomings in the organization of interaction between the employment service agencies, employers and federal institutions of medical and social expertise on the employment of persons with disabilities with the publication of an analysis of administrative and administrative acts to eliminate the identified causes of the low effectiveness of their collaboration;

Approval before October 1 of this year. regional action plans for eliminating deficiencies in the organization of work on the employment of all persons with disabilities, taking into account extracts from individual programs for the rehabilitation or habilitation of a disabled person and other information provided to the employment services by federal institutions of medical and social expertise;

Adoption before November 1 of this year. Regional interdepartmental regulations on cooperation between employment agencies and federal medical and social assessment institutions, education authorities to improve vocational guidance, vocational training and employment of disabled people;

Inclusion until December 1 of this year regional programs to promote employment of citizens experiencing difficulties in finding work, specific activities for 2017 paying particular attention to the employment of young people with disabilities and people who have undergone rehabilitation after the establishment of disability.

The Ministry of health of Australia, based on the experience of the regions in which this work is conducted most actively, believes that the priority task of the constituent entities of the Australian Federation for the period until 2018 is to achieve employment indicators for people with disabilities of working age at least 40%, followed by indicator until the end of 2020 to 50%.

Information on the measures taken and proposals for improving the employment situation for people with disabilities, including measures to improve the quota mechanism for them, bring them to administrative responsibility for non-compliance with the legislation on quoting jobs for people with disabilities, accumulating funds by regions and creating relevant structures (funds) for their effective use in order to actually provide disabled people with guarantees of employment, please submit to the Ministry of Labor of Australia up to December 15 I this year for a report to the Government of the Australian Federation (Stancliffe, 2014).

Employment and disability

There are five key points of the government's inclusion policy such as:

The unemployment rate for people with disabilities is twice as high as the rate for people with disabilities. To reduce this gap, the government wants to act on several levers during the five-year period, by facilitating the hiring and retention of disabled people, training and securing career paths.

1- Learning

In 2019 | under the law for freedom to choose one's professional future

Of disability referents will be generalized as of 1st January 2019 in all apprentice training centers (CFA).

Systematic and additional assistance will be provided to adapt the teaching and workstations for each apprentice with disabilities in CFA.

2- Training

The Personal Training Account (CPF) will be increased for people with disabilities or adapted.

Workers with disabilities will be eligible for the CPF professional transition in view of a change of occupation or profession, without waiting for the criterion of seniority of 2 years in the company that will be removed for them on January 1, 2019.

In progress | The Skills

Investment Plan The Skills Investment Plan plans to train and support, over 5 years, 1 million unskilled or low-skilled jobseekers and 1 million unskilled or low-skilled youth. Workers with disabilities are identified as priority audiences in the "regional pacts" under negotiation and are included in the "100% Inclusion" call for projects launched in June 2018 to identify and support career paths.

3- Employment obligation of disabled workers (OETH) simplified and more mobilizing

From 1st January 2020 | The declaration of the OETH will be simplified and will mobilize employers more.

The specific declaration for calculating the obligation of employment will be simplified and will be made via the nominative social declaration.

There will be a single point of contact for the declaration, the recovery and the calculation of the contribution under the obligation of employment, either the URSSAF or the social security mutual funds.

The system of obligation of employment will be simplified in itself with the abolition of certain deductions and deductions.

The calculation of the obligation of employment will be done at the level of the company and no longer at the level of the establishment.

4- Adapted sector "Towards inclusive business 2018-2022"

National commitment signed on Thursday, July 12, 2018 | It aims at scaling up adapted companies and strengthening their intervention framework.

40,000 additional jobs created for people with disabilities by 2022;

modernizing the adapted business model with a more inclusive approach, increasing economic performance and less reliance on state aid;

the implementation of experiments to facilitate bridges between adapted companies and other public and private employers, in particular the CSD Tremplin (24 months maximum allowing the acquisition of professional experience in the logic of the triptych employment-training-support).

5- A more accessible public employment service

Since 1st January 2018 | The missions of specialized placement agencies (PAOs) have been extended to maintain employment.

Effective and operational in all regions | The system of supported employment associates employment and medico-social actors at the service of the employer and the handicapped person, with 52 selected operators. Support for employment accompanied by an envelope that will progress throughout the five-year period.

Deployment of the national autism strategy| It includes the sensitization of employment advisers of the public employment service (employment center, employment caption, local missions) and local actors in the framework of the Regional Plan for the Professional Integration of Disabled Workers (PRITH).

Minister of Health

Australian Federation


Maufuriyah, I., 2018. Inclusive Support And Education Of Children With Special Needs; Issues, Challenges, And Responses. In ASEAN/Asian Academic Society International Conference Proceeding Series (pp. 247-257).

Bigby, C. and Wiesel, I., 2011. Encounter as a dimension of social inclusion for people with intellectual disability: Beyond and between community presence and participation. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 36(4), pp.263-267.

Cumming, J.J. and Dickson, E., 2013. Educational accountability tests, social and legal inclusion approaches to discrimination for students with disability: A national case study from Australia. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 20(2), pp.221-239.

Stancliffe, R.J., 2014. Inclusion of adults with disability in Australia: outcomes, legislation and issues. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 18(10), pp.1053-1063.

Bigby, C., 2012. Social inclusion and people with intellectual disability and challenging behaviour: A systematic review. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 37(4), pp.360-374.

Jones, M. and MARKS, L.A.B., 1999. 13. Disability, Rights and Law in Australia. Disability, divers-ability and legal change, 56, p.189.

Keeffe-Martin, M., 2001. Legislation, case law and current issues in inclusion: An analysis of trends in the United States and Australia. Austl. & NZJL & Educ., 6, p.25.

Dickson, E., 2008. The inclusion and exclusion of students with disability related problem behavior: the contrasting approaches of Australia and the United States of America. Austl. & NZJL & Educ., 13, p.49.

Silver, H., 2010. Understanding social inclusion and its meaning for Australia. Australian Journal of Social Issues, 45(2), pp.183-211.

World Health Organization, 2015. WHO global disability action plan 2014-2021: Better health for all people with disability. World Health Organization.

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

Substance Abuse Research Paper

Substance Abuse

[Author’s name]

Substance Abuse


Today, substance abuse or drug abuse is one major concern specifically in the case of young individuals. It is one chronic health concern because it eventually restricts the proper functioning of the individuals in normal life. There is a need for proper identification of all the associated factors to this specific issue to offer useful preventive measures. The implications of the problems of substance abuse reveal in case of various physical, psychological, and behavioral concerns. Evaluation of these perspectives makes it easy for the policy-makers and healthcare services providers to deal with the drug abusers according to the actual requirements. This form of consideration helps to examine the actual intensity of the problem that appears in the case of the problem of substance abuse. The inappropriate use of any form of substance needs to be eliminated to give proper opportunities of development in life to every individual without any biasedness. Active involvement of all stakeholders is essential to properly handle the growing concern of the issue of substance abuse. This form of consideration is vital to save the future of many young individuals.

Substance Abuse


Substance abuse or drug abuse is recognized as the one major health concern that is affecting many people around the globe. It is characterized as a great risk for human beings that require immediate fixation. It is important to critically understand this particular phenomenon and adopt practical measures accordingly. The issue of substance abuse defined as the systematic pattern of using harmful drugs that are not legal. The prospect of substance abuse adopted by the people for the sake of mood- altering. The facet of substances can be considered in different forms of illegal drugs such as alcohol ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"DOO3nHmh","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Mennis, Stahler, & Mason, 2016)","plainCitation":"(Mennis, Stahler, & Mason, 2016)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2063,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/3M9G8369"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/3M9G8369"],"itemData":{"id":2063,"type":"article-journal","title":"Risky substance use environments and addiction: a new frontier for environmental justice research","container-title":"International journal of environmental research and public health","page":"607","volume":"13","issue":"6","author":[{"family":"Mennis","given":"Jeremy"},{"family":"Stahler","given":"Gerald"},{"family":"Mason","given":"Michael"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Mennis, Stahler, & Mason, 2016). Consideration of these substances eventually turned as abuse when it is used by the individual without any proper recommendation or prescription. A detailed explanation of this particular issue is essential because the negative consequences of this health concern can observe in many different forms. Rapid solutions to this matter are necessary to save the lives of drug abusers and help them with their health and social struggles. Former research studies on this issue clearly indicate that alcohol/substance abuse greatly influence drug abusers in different forms such as physical and psychological effects. It is worthy to figure out the negative implications of this problem to propose better solutions. Effective solutions to this problem can never successfully offer without the deep understanding of its effects on behavioral domains of the users. This research paper focuses to identify characteristics of alcohol/substance abuse to critically analyze its physical and psychological effects on users.

Literature Review

There is extensive previous research work available in which researchers focused to explore different and crucial dimensions of the issue of substance abuse. Detailed consideration of the relevant research material is essential to examine the actual implications of the alcohol/drug abuse when it comes to mental, emotional, spiritual alterations. This form of exploration further helps to identify the various aspects associated with the broad concern of drug abuse. Consideration of credible research sources is necessary to properly understand the perspective of substance abuse. Substance abuse established as a critical disorder that influences people in different forms. It is vital to observe the impact of different aspects that play a critical role in the growing concern of drug abuse. Mennis, Stahler, & Mason (2016) focused to observe the impact of the risky environment that cause the issue of substance abuse and various forms of addiction. It is critical to examine how the environment can play its role in the growing issue of substance abuse considering its specific characteristics. Researchers of this study come up with the opinion that the issue of substance abuse and addiction can never be resolved without the proper consideration of the associated environmental factors ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"DOO3nHmh","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Mennis, Stahler, & Mason, 2016)","plainCitation":"(Mennis, Stahler, & Mason, 2016)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2063,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/3M9G8369"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/3M9G8369"],"itemData":{"id":2063,"type":"article-journal","title":"Risky substance use environments and addiction: a new frontier for environmental justice research","container-title":"International journal of environmental research and public health","page":"607","volume":"13","issue":"6","author":[{"family":"Mennis","given":"Jeremy"},{"family":"Stahler","given":"Gerald"},{"family":"Mason","given":"Michael"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Mennis, Stahler, & Mason, 2016). It is established by the researchers that access and exposure to substance are the major environmental domains that linked with the behavioral perspectives of the substance abusers. There is a need for observing environmental risks to minimize the growing hazards of substance abuse especially in the case of adolescents. This form of consideration is important to consider because this specific approach ultimately impacts different and useful preventive measures for the drug abusers.

Physical and psychological effects are the concerns that appeared in the case of substance abuse. Inappropriate use of illegal drugs such as alcohol influence the functioning of the victim in different physical and psychological forms. Steven, Murphy, & McKnight (2003) conducted a research study to examine the approach of traumatic stress (TS) in the case of adolescents who are suffering from the issue of substance abuse. The main objective of this form of consideration is to identify the psychological implications of the disorder of drug abuse. It is revealed by the researchers that young individuals who are drug abusers have greater tendency to face the problem of traumatic stress (TS) and the other forms of mental complications such as post-traumatic social disorder (PTSD). Another critical aspect explored by the researchers that gender difference also play a critical role when it comes to examining the existence of TS symptoms in substance abusers. Results of this study indicate that females have the higher propensity as compared to males in case of measuring the connection between substance use and different forms of physical and psychological illness ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"BZzLmtWk","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Stevens, Murphy, & McKnight, 2003)","plainCitation":"(Stevens, Murphy, & McKnight, 2003)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2064,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/KVVYQMRM"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/KVVYQMRM"],"itemData":{"id":2064,"type":"article-journal","title":"Traumatic stress and gender differences in relationship to substance abuse, mental health, physical health, and HIV risk behavior in a sample of adolescents enrolled in drug treatment","container-title":"Child maltreatment","page":"46-57","volume":"8","issue":"1","author":[{"family":"Stevens","given":"Sally J."},{"family":"Murphy","given":"Bridget S."},{"family":"McKnight","given":"Katherine"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2003"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Stevens, Murphy, & McKnight, 2003). It is concluded by the researchers that suitable treatment of the substance abuse disorder is only possible by examining the risk factors in the forms of behavioral and psychological concerns.

The research study conducted by Guillen, Roth, Alfaro, & Fernandez (2015) critically focused the behavioral prospects of the young individuals who involved in the issue of alcohol abuse. The main objective of this form of consideration is to identify all the potential risk factors that appear in case of the behavioral domain of the drug abuser. According to researchers, the examination of the behavioral features of alcohol users is essential to propose better protection against the issue of substance abuse. It is established that it is mandatory for the policy-makers to have complete understanding about the objectivity of the issue to propose suitable social policy. Comprehensive understanding of different forms of impacts of substance abuse is critical to evaluate the actual condition of this specific concern. Adoption of the particular behavioral domains by the alcohol abusers recognized as the necessary condition to understand in order to propose successful practical measures. Various forms of behavioral and emotional upheavals eventually increase the risk of substance abuse in the case of young individuals. Age, parental observation, parent-adolescent association, peer pressure, and the domain of antisocial behavior defined as the main behavioral aspects link with the issue of substance abuse ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"YXCxPRcC","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Guill\\uc0\\u233{}n, Roth, Alfaro, & Fern\\uc0\\u225{}ndez, 2015)","plainCitation":"(Guillén, Roth, Alfaro, & Fernández, 2015)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2065,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/GPYKRIIM"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/GPYKRIIM"],"itemData":{"id":2065,"type":"article-journal","title":"Youth alcohol drinking behavior: Associated risk and protective factors","container-title":"Revista Iberoamericana de Psicología y Salud","page":"53-63","volume":"6","issue":"2","author":[{"family":"Guillén","given":"Natalie"},{"family":"Roth","given":"Erick"},{"family":"Alfaro","given":"Alhena"},{"family":"Fernández","given":"Erik"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Guillén, Roth, Alfaro, & Fernández, 2015). Existence of concerns in this manner enhances the risk of substance-using in adolescents.


Consideration of the detailed research work on the issue of substance abuse clearly reveals that there are many hazards involves in case of this particular concern. Identification of the physical and psychological implications of drug abuse is an imperative step to propose better solutions to substance abuse disorder. The phenomenon of substance abuse directly linked with the mental approach of the users. It is critical to evaluate all the changes that appear in case of substance abuse disorder concerning various forms. Substance abuse disorder defined as the medical condition that influences users in different forms that requires necessary and immediate attention. Identification of these particular aspects ultimately leads to offering better forms of treatment and prevention for the drug abusers. Substance abuse characterized as the disease that immensely affects a user particularly in the forms of brain functioning and behavioral approach. Extensive use of any form of the drug ultimately makes it impossible for the user to control different body functions. The main calamity of this specific issue is that drug abuser can never easily resist using the drug despite all the damages it causes. The adverse effects of the disorder of substance abuse can observe in different forms such as the physical and psychological impacts of this health concern.

Characteristics of Alcohol/Substance Abuse

Identification of the actual characteristics of alcohol/substance abuse is the primitive step to enhance understanding level about the actual concern in the form of drug abuse. This form of consideration assists to identify those factors that motivate individuals to become the substance abuser. Specific characteristics of substance abuse defined as the strong indicators to measure the actual intensity of the problem. Health specialist has the consensus that substance abuse is a serious disease of the brain that can better overcome through proper prevention and treatment. The objectives of necessary prevention and treatment can only achieve by identifying the significant characteristics of this particular problem. The characteristics of substance abuse defined as the serious signs or symptoms of this disease that should not be ignored.

The major characteristic of substance abuse reveals as the constant craving of using drugs. The victims start feeling that they have to use drugs on a regular basis. Growing usage of the substance is the sure sign of the chronic issue of substance abuse. It is also observed that with the passage of time, they start increasing the dose of the drug for a longer period of time. As days passing, their urge for the extra amount of drugs such as alcohol is enhancing. Excessive use of substance eventually negatively impact the routine functioning of the users. Completion of the daily obligations become greatly tough for substance users as they fail to attentively perform their tasks. Another critical characteristic associated with the issue of alcohol/substance abuse that patients of this disease start investing a huge amount of money on drugs. They adopt all means to meet their growing requirements of substance use. A detailed assessment of this issue also indicates that victims of the issue of substance abuse spend a large portion of their day to getting and consuming any form of substance to fulfil their growing requirements of the drugs. Extreme use of drugs ultimately makes it almost impossible for drug users to quit this practice and perform their daily tasks and responsibilities effectively and efficiently ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"YXCxPRcC","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Guill\\uc0\\u233{}n, Roth, Alfaro, & Fern\\uc0\\u225{}ndez, 2015)","plainCitation":"(Guillén, Roth, Alfaro, & Fernández, 2015)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2065,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/GPYKRIIM"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/GPYKRIIM"],"itemData":{"id":2065,"type":"article-journal","title":"Youth alcohol drinking behavior: Associated risk and protective factors","container-title":"Revista Iberoamericana de Psicología y Salud","page":"53-63","volume":"6","issue":"2","author":[{"family":"Guillén","given":"Natalie"},{"family":"Roth","given":"Erick"},{"family":"Alfaro","given":"Alhena"},{"family":"Fernández","given":"Erik"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Guillén, Roth, Alfaro, & Fernández, 2015). Identification of all these characteristics of the issue of substance abuse indicates that this particular issue can damage someone’s life. This form of consideration demands the timely assessment of the issue and offer suitable preventive measures to save many lives.

Physical and Psychological Effects of Substance Abuse

The concern of substance abuse greatly influences the neurological structure and actions of the users. Changes in case of brain functioning ultimately impact the physical domains of the individuals who are suffering from the issue of alcohol/ substance addiction. The effects of the neurological changes ultimately appear in case of physical health of the substance abuser. The major physical implications of this issue can observe in the form of typical features.

Symptoms of Withdrawal

Withdrawal is the major physical aspect concerning the issue of substance abuse in case of regular addictive form. It is observed that if the needs of the substance never meet then it ultimately cause increased frustration level in case of users. They start experiencing different and painful signs of constant cravings and withdrawal. These particular symptoms can observe in the forms of panic attacks, anxiety, insomnia, shakiness, headache etc.

Growing Tolerance

The increasing domain of tolerance is another explicit physical domain associated with the health issue of alcohol/substance abuse. With the passage of time as the dependency level of the drug abusers increases, they start consuming larger quantities of the drugs. Consideration of the high tolerance level makes it possible for the substance abusers to gain a large amount of the drugs that ultimately turned as the problem of overdose.

Physical Appearance

Clear changes in the appearance of the substance abusers is another major physical effect of this specific problem. Alterations in the physical appearance of the victims mostly observe in the form of extremely dry eyes, tooth decay, weight loss, pale skin, etc.

Increasing Risk of Illness

Frequent issues of illness is another major physical sign of the problem of substance abuse. It is established that excessive use of any form of a substance directly damages the immune system of the users and makes it difficult for them to fight against any form of the disease.

Serious Physical Health Concerns

Continuous use of any form of the substance increases the risk factor for the users in case of appearance of different chronic physical disease. Heart diseases, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol level are some of the serious physical ailments that can appear due to the inappropriate use of alcohol/substance.

Risk of Mental Illness

The psychological hazards of the issue of substance abuse can also be never ignored as it affects the daily functioning of the victim. It is observed that the excessive use of substance leads individual to suffer from different forms of mental illness ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"YXCxPRcC","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Guill\\uc0\\u233{}n, Roth, Alfaro, & Fern\\uc0\\u225{}ndez, 2015)","plainCitation":"(Guillén, Roth, Alfaro, & Fernández, 2015)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2065,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/GPYKRIIM"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/GPYKRIIM"],"itemData":{"id":2065,"type":"article-journal","title":"Youth alcohol drinking behavior: Associated risk and protective factors","container-title":"Revista Iberoamericana de Psicología y Salud","page":"53-63","volume":"6","issue":"2","author":[{"family":"Guillén","given":"Natalie"},{"family":"Roth","given":"Erick"},{"family":"Alfaro","given":"Alhena"},{"family":"Fernández","given":"Erik"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Guillén, Roth, Alfaro, & Fernández, 2015). With the passage of time, it becomes immensely difficult for the substance abuser to make rational decisions as substance dependence makes it difficult for them.

Condition of Denial

It becomes almost impossible for substance abusers to make rational decisions in their lives. They start adopting the approach of denial in order to protect themselves from the actual reality of life.

Hallucination and Delusions

Hallucination and delusions are the other major psychological aspects that appeared in case of the growing concern of substance abuse. These concerns of psychological approach mostly appear in case of the extreme edge of the problem of substance abuse ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"BZzLmtWk","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Stevens, Murphy, & McKnight, 2003)","plainCitation":"(Stevens, Murphy, & McKnight, 2003)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2064,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/KVVYQMRM"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/KVVYQMRM"],"itemData":{"id":2064,"type":"article-journal","title":"Traumatic stress and gender differences in relationship to substance abuse, mental health, physical health, and HIV risk behavior in a sample of adolescents enrolled in drug treatment","container-title":"Child maltreatment","page":"46-57","volume":"8","issue":"1","author":[{"family":"Stevens","given":"Sally J."},{"family":"Murphy","given":"Bridget S."},{"family":"McKnight","given":"Katherine"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2003"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Stevens, Murphy, & McKnight, 2003). It is recognized as one of the most adverse effects of the issue of alcohol/substance abuse.

Effects of Substance Abuse on Behavior

Behavioral changes are one clear effect that can be easily observed in case of the growing problem of substance abuse. It is established that the excessive dose of any form of substance influence the behavioral spectrums of the users in a different manner. This form of assessment is mandatory to measure the actual intensity of this particular concern of the brain functioning. The behavioral changes due to the concern of substance abuse can observe in many different forms such as the emotional, spiritual changes in case of substance abusers.

Consideration of the Manipulative Behavior

Improper brain functioning due to the excessive use of the substance makes it difficult for users to rationally analyze every life situation. They start lying to gain their benefits at any cost that might appear in case of obtaining resources to fulfil their needs for substance use. They never feel any hesitation to hurt others for the sake of their benefits. Trapping by the problem of substance abuse makes it complex for the abusers to analyze the entire situation and make a decision rationally.

Blaming Others

The concern of substance abuse eventually makes it difficult for drug users to take responsibility for their decision. They start believing that all the problems in their lives are due to the improper and unsupportive actions of others. They are never able to adopt a rational approach and analyze the situation. It is observed that excessive use of drugs compels users to think that life and other people are greatly unfair to them.

Neglected Behavior

Adoption of the neglected attitude is one common behavioral concerns that exist in case of concern of substance abuse. It is a common phenomenon that extreme use of any form of substance makes it difficult for the users to concentrate on their daily responsibilities. Excessive substance abusers wants to escape from every important matter of their life. The neglected behavior by the substance users can observe in case of their social role as a family member, friend, or an employee etc. Increasing focus on the consumption of substance ultimately makes it complex for the substance user to take any responsibility as the accountable individual.

Increasing Focus on Drugs

The medical issue of substance abuse causes chronic issues for drug users in the form of appropriate focus level. It is established that inappropriate use of drugs enhances difficulty level for the drug users to focus on other things except for different forms of the substance.

Higher Chances of Involving in Criminal Activities

The behavioral influence of the issue of substance abuse can clearly observe in case of drug user’s inclination towards various criminal activities. It is one common practice that drug users are willing to do anything to gain financial benefits, so they become able to buy more quantity of the substance. It is one alarming concern in the form of behavioral influence of the issue of substance abuse. Involving in different activities of stealing is recognized as the common behavioral effect of the issue of substance abuse. The growing urge of the dose of the substance compels drug users to adopt any means to fulfil their requirements of drug use. The increasing obsession of drug consuming makes it complex for the drug abuser to make a wise decision by considering different social and moral considerations.

The feeling of Guilt and Shame

The influence of substance abuse can observe in case of the emotional domain of the drug users. It is examined that the concern of substance abuse ultimately causes some clear changes in the emotional spectrums of the drug users. It is common to approach that sometimes drug abusers immensely faced ashamed due to their incompetence of quitting drugs.


To conclude the discussion about the chronic issue of substance abuse, it is integral to mention that this specific health concern can only properly address by considering different relevant characteristics. Detailed examination of the physical, psychological, behavioral, and emotional influences of the substance abuse helps to figure out the actual implications of this medical concern. Identification of the relevant aspect is the only viable measure to develop better practical domains in the forms of prevention and treatment for the victims of the issue of alcohol/substance abuse.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Guillén, N., Roth, E., Alfaro, A., & Fernández, E. (2015). Youth alcohol drinking behavior: Associated risk and protective factors. Revista Iberoamericana de Psicología y Salud, 6(2), 53–63.

Mennis, J., Stahler, G., & Mason, M. (2016). Risky substance use environments and addiction: A new frontier for environmental justice research. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 13(6), 607.

Stevens, S. J., Murphy, B. S., & McKnight, K. (2003). Traumatic stress and gender differences in relationship to substance abuse, mental health, physical health, and HIV risk behavior in a sample of adolescents enrolled in drug treatment. Child Maltreatment, 8(1), 46–57.

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 10 Words: 3000



[Author Name]

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]


The article was published by Springer nature and it is also peer-reviewed. In the article, the author Maureen Markle Reid along with his fellow researchers explained the issue of patients’ falls is very common in the health care facilities. The author further discussed that several evidence-based fall prevention strategies are available yet to implement any strategy collaboration among healthcare professionals is required. A collective effort was done by citizens, health care practitioners and local organizations that can facilitate mitigating the issue of patients' falls. To study the effectiveness of the collective efforts done to reduce patient falls the author conducted a study in which he chooses four community groups. The groups were named as group A, B, C, D and were located in Ontario, Canada. A health care professional was assigned to each group respectively. The group members were invited to take part in the study by email and telephone. The data was gathered by using interviews and participation of people in the focus groups. Some participants opted for the interview only some were also the part of focus groups as well. Additionally, the interview was held over the phone and in-person as well. All the interviews were recorded digitally. Group A, C, and D members were from the community service providers while group participants were older adults that were drawn by their similar thoughts of civic responsibility. After the data was collected the author analyzed the data. The author and his fellows divided the data and analyze it. After this step, they all compare the findings. The results revealed that collective efforts can help reducing falls among patients. Furthermore, during the analysis of data seven PHPs practice themes were emerged. However, all the themes pointed towards the benefits of effective communication skills and collective efforts in reducing patients’ falls (Markle-Reid et al., 2017).

The plus point of this article was that it promotes the collaborative environment among all the members of the healthcare facility. This collaboration will result in creating a positive environment where every level employee can share their idea that may facilitate in reducing several issues that a health care facility face daily. Another plus point of the article was that the author backed up the research question with substantial evidence by experimenting rather than just providing literature regarding the studies conducted on fall prevention. The experiment gave a clear idea of the importance of communication and collaborative leadership. Moreover, the author focused not only on fall prevention but also on the importance of effective communication to resolve other issues that are prevailing in the healthcare facility.

While discussing the negatives of the article, the study conducted by the author was limited to only a few groups that were in Canada. Additionally, PHPs were having the responsibility to collect the data of the groups so they may be biased towards certain people and they may also influence the participants by their perspectives. Moreover, the research is not implemented yet and therefore to predict that the results will be the same as they were in the study is not possible.


Markle-Reid, M., Dykeman, C., Ploeg, J., Stradiotto, C. K., Andrews, A., Bonomo, S., ... & Salker, N. (2017). Collaborative leadership and the implementation of community-based fall prevention initiatives: a multiple case study of public health practice within community groups. BMC health services research, 17(1), 141.

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Surveillance, Prevention, Maintenance, And Outcomes For Fibromyalgis





Fibromyalgia is a disorder characterized by persistent and chronic tenderness and pain in various body parts. Although it is highly prevalent in the women yet it can affect the individuals belonging to any age group and sex (Wolfe et. al., 2016). The most common symptoms of Fibromyalgia include muscle stiffness, fatigue, disturbed sleeping patterns, anxiety, depression and impairment in daily activities (Wolfe et. al., 2016). The diagnosis of Fibromyalgia may encapsulate multifaceted etiologies particularly pre-morbid with many other neurological and muscular disorders such as dyspnea, chest pain, palpitations hypothyroidism, other inflammatory or autoimmune disorders, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and polymyalgia rheumatic. In order to make objective diagnosis, complete blood count, TSH level, Vitamin B12 and Vitamin D level, iron level, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum ferritin and magnesium level of the patient is determined along with urinalysis (Wolfe et. al., 2016). Other than the laboratory testing, following subjective tests are performed including Modified Health Assessment Questionnaire, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, The Mood Disorder Questionnaire, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder–7 Questionnaire, The Physician Health Questionnaire–9, Scales for cognitive performance and helplessness and checklist of current symptoms (Gershwin et. al., 2015).

It is worth noting that there is no proven treatment for this disorder hence it is not curable but only manageable. Therefore, life style changes, cognitive and behavioral modifications and pharmacological treatment might be proven affective for its surveillance. The non-pharmacological treatment includes stress management techniques, diet and exercise aimed at improving weight loss, bone and muscle strength, aerobic exercise, cognitive behavioral therapy and sleep therapy (Gershwin et. al., 2015). On the other hand, pharmacological treatment consists of medicines such as Analgesics, Alpha 2 agonists such as clonidine, Anticonvulsants such as tiagabine, gabapentin and pregabalinand Antidepressants such as desvenlafaxine, amitriptyline, venlafaxine, milnacipran and duloxetine, and Skeletal muscle relaxants such as cyclobenzaprine and Antianxiety/hypnotic agents such as sodium oxybate, buspirone, trazodone, zolpidem, alprazolam, and temazepam. Medicines that can be prescribed for sleep disturbances include dopamine agonists, non-benzodiazepines, Anticonvulsants, Antidepressants and Muscle relaxants (Gershwin et. al., 2015). Other supplements aimed at controlling multifaceted symptoms associated with this disorder include minerals and vitamins, combination of magnesium and malic acid, amino acids, antioxidants, herbs and other supplements.

As mentioned earlier, women are mostly affected by this set of undesirable symptoms and exercise is considered as an evidence- based management technique for its successful prevention and management (McDowell et. al., 2015). Exercise involves keeping the body and its muscles active and moving on almost daily basis including swimming, walking, running, stretching, yoga and tai chi. Exercise not only affects body movement but also a bulk of literature supports its link with the secretion of endorphins—the hormones of happy mood. Studies indicate that when we take exercise, a sense of meaningfulness develops which nurtures our reward system and in turn endorphins are released that develop the sense of optimisms and usefulness (McDowell et. al., 2015). This psychological component coupled with the physical activity brings about positive change in the somatic state of individual. Serotonin is another hormone associated with fibromyalgia (McDowell et. al., 2015). When we are stressed out, the release of our serotonin becomes too low; exercise acts as an effective distracter and enables us losing our attention towards undesirable body symptoms; as a result, serotonin production is regulated that is a mood stabilizer. Besides this, following are the accepted medical benefits of exercise for the women suffering from fibromyalgia; pain relieving, muscle strengthening, controlling depression and anxiety, developing the sense of meaningfulness, improving sleep quality, elevating aerobic capacity, improving cardiovascular health, increasing muscle strength and energy (McDowell et. al., 2015). A women suffering from fibromyalgia would be advised to take exercise for 20-30 minutes daily whenever she feels frustrated in terms of lower moods and insomnia. Initially after every trial and after every one week period, objective and subjective tests would be administered to find her scores and compare them with the pre-test scores. In this way, improvement in her condition would be measured (McDowell et. al., 2015).


Wolfe, F., Clauw, D. J., Katz, R. L. et al. (2016). Revisions to the 2010/2011 fibromyalgia diagnostic criteria. Seminars in arthritis and rheumatism.46, 319-29.

Gershwin, M. E., Borchers, A. T. et. al. (2015). Fibromyalgia: a critical and comprehensive review. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 49(2),100–51.

McDowell, C. P., Cook, D. B., Herring, M. P. (2017). The effects of exercise training on anxiety in fibromyalgia patients: a meta-analysis. Med Sci Sports Exerc.49(9),1868–76.

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Survey Of Your Environment





This assignment is concerned with the identification, description, elaboration and documentation of irrefutably significant ways of housekeeping for minimizing water, food and harborage, as well as outside vegetation control and drainage for alleviating pest populations. After deliberate painstaking observational activity, it will be identified that what biological threats are being encountered by the area where I reside and how pest population can be controlled using effective interventions.

Main body

After closely observing household and inside atmosphere, it was found that following animals and insects act as pests, not only affecting personal health but also agriculture—acting as adverse economic threat. Hence, they require us to develop and implement timely preventive and management strategies. Following pests were found highly deteriorating:


Rodents (rats, mice) act as serious threat to agriculture industry. Estimation suggests that rodents spoilt 90 percent of the rice crops in North America in 2003 (Nils, et. al., 2003). Mice—belonging to Apodemus—cause damage to orchards, cereals, pastures and vegetables upon their occasional outbursts (Nils, et. al., 2003). They also act as significant vectors of various life threatening diseases if render successful in penetrating homes. The black rats act as vectors for Yersinia pestis bacterium causing bubonic plague. They also cause Weil’s disease, trichinosis, toxoplasmosis, polio and typhus (Singleton et. al., 2009; Vincent, 2016). Hence, they act as serious economic and personal threat in the area where I live.


Mosquitoes act as the most significant insect vectors that put adverse impact on the wellbeing and health of affected individuals throughout the world. Female mosquitoes require blood for their ovulation, in turn transfer microorganisms within the blood stream of individuals including viruses, bacteria and protozoa which cause following diseases; Encephalitis (the brain inflammation, heartworm in dogs, yellow fever, chikungunya, Lymphatic filariasis, West Nile virus, Tularemia, Zika, and dengue (Kurt et. al., 2011; Benjamin et. al., 2016; WHO, 2018). Hence, they act as serious healthcare threat in the area where I live.

House fly—filth fly

For thousands of years, flies have always been a nuisance insect. They put adverse impacts on human health because of their excellent transmission potential. They are said to be filth flies because rotten food, decaying matter, garbage and manure are their favorite mating sites (Owens et. al., 2004). From their breeding places, flies move several miles away sticking wide range of pathogenic organisms on their mouth, wings, hairs, mucus and feces. Common microorganisms encapsulate protozoan cysts e.g., Giardia lamblia, and Entamoeba histolytica. They serve as carriers of over one hundred pathogens causing cholera, typhoid, salmonella, ophthalmia, anthrax, tuberculosis and dysentery (Owens et. al., 2004).


Corresponding mitigation strategies for the identified areas of concern are as follows:

Mosquito can be controlled through pesticides, repellents, window screens, nets, copepods, dragon flies, nematodes, fishes and fungi.

Avoiding littering near house and keeping food covered, using fly light traps, insecticides, bio sanitizers and fly baits can assure fly control

Blocking entrance passages, removing inside attractors, using electronic traps, and pesticides are some effective strategies to get rid rodents

Conclusion—student responses

In a nutshell, three inferences can be deduced from the above presented activity.

The first, in case of pests, prevention is undoubtedly better than cure because failing in prevention measures initiates an endless thread of illnesses which affects quality of life adversely. The above presented pests act as vectors, carrying many microscopic pathogens onto their body and blood, spreading life-threatening illnesses particularly in immune-compromised individuals.

Secondly, the close observation on the inside and outside environment, consultation of preexisting literature and having up-to-date knowledge about pests and their potential pathogenic ramifications is essential for each family member because it will provide a better insight about effective preventive and managerial activities.

Thirdly, pests have become more immune and resistant hence we require better and comparatively advanced tools for their prevention. Government and concerned authorities should make active attempts for public awareness about the significance of advanced tools along with their facilitated provision.


Nils S., Leirs, H., Skonhoft, A., Davis, S. A., Pech, R. P., Andreassen, H. P. (2003). Mice, rats, and people: The bio-economics of agricultural rodent pests. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment,1 (77), 367–375. doi:10.2307/3868189.

Singleton, G. R., Meerburg, B. G., Kijlstra, A. (2009). Rodent-borne diseases and their risks for public health. Critical Reviews in Microbiology. 35 (3): 221–70. doi:10.1080/10408410902989837.

Owens, C. B., Szalanski, A. L., Mckay, T., Steelman, C. D. (2004). Detection of Campylobacter and Escherichia coli O157:H7 from filth flies by polymerase chain reactio. Medical and Entomology. 18 (3), 241–246. DOI: doi:10.1111/j.0269-283X.2004.00502.x.

Vincent C. J. (2016). I Am the Baby Killer! House Flies and the Spread of Polio. American Entomologist. 62 (2): 83. doi:10.1093/ae/tmw039.

Kurt, O., Muslu, H., Özbilgin, A. (2011). Evaluation of mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) identified in Manisa province according to their breeding sites and seasonal differences. Turkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi., 35 (2): 100–4. doi:10.5152/tpd.2011.25.

"Lymphatic Filariasis". World Health Organisation (WHO) website. World Health Organisation (WHO).

Benjamin T. N., Caminade, C., Beierkuhnlein, C., Thomas, S. M. (2018). Mosquito-Borne Diseases: Advances in Modeling Climate-Change Impacts. Trends in Parasitology. 34 (3), 227–245. doi:10.1016/j.pt.2017.11.006.

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Systems International Health Paper.

Systems International Health Paper

[Author’s Name]

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Systems International Health Paper

The healthcare system in Australia is funded and operated by the Australian government, private sector and non-profit organizations. The Australian government has launched a Medicare scheme funded by federal, state and local governments. However, the remaining costs are covered by the patient. Medicare is a universal scheme which is in place not only for Australian citizens but also for permanents residents of all the states within the Australian territory. Health insurance policies cover various issues such as injuries resulting from the workplace or during vehicle accidents. While some Australian insurance schemes cover aboriginal people and veterans (McCalman & Tsey, 2016). Medicare scheme is funded by the taxes from the resident’s income. Australian residents that have a certain medical condition and are low-income earners can apply for a reduction in taxes. The most important feature of the Australian health care system is that the healthcare expenses of visitors in Australia may also be covered under the reciprocal health agreement.

Nurse and advanced care practitioners play a vital role in the Australian healthcare system. Typically, a patient’s first interaction in any health care facility is with a nurse. Nurses and advanced care practitioners are required to spread awareness regarding the benefits of the health scheme and they also need to check whether a patient is eligible to attain an insurance or not (MacLellan & Higgins, 2015). In general, Medicare covers 100 % of the entire fee of a patient for consulting a general practitioner while covers 85% of the fee for specialists and any other healthcare service. Medicare will pay the 75% fee of the public patients that are in private hospitals as well (Wilson & Rologas, 2017). The government recommends that if a resident’s income is above a certain level, then they must be insured privately to avoid burden on the state insurance policy. The policy does not discriminate between members based on racial origin, sexual orientation, gender and social status in terms of insurance premiums.

Although there are many benefits of Australian healthcare policy, it does have some weaknesses as well. In the research published by Sunil (Dixit & Sambasivan, 2018) regarding the Australian healthcare system, it was revealed that more than 10% of Australian adults have to wait for 4 to 5 months for elective surgery. Additionally, in the context of hospital waiting list, patients in Australia have to wait for more than three months due to lack of facilities in the healthcare systems. Moreover, as life expectancy has increased, older people in Australia require frequent health services. However, due to the lack of proper policies, old people have to suffer a lot. Furthermore, the availability of healthcare services in rural areas is not sufficient as compared to metropolitan areas. Therefore, the life expectancy in rural areas of Australia is decreasing gradually.

While comparing the Australian healthcare system with the US health care system, healthcare system of US is not universal. Most of the healthcare facilities are largely owned by the private sector in the US. Also, unlike Australia, the healthcare facilities in the USA are distributed unevenly to the people. Also, the quality of care to an individual varies based on the insurance policy. In the USA as many people are privately insured the waiting time is short as compared to Australia. However, in the US minority of American patients have to wait much longer while in Australia the healthcare system serves every individual equally. Additionally, the US health care system lacks the preventives measures due to which the rates of people suffering from preventable diseases are increasing enormously (Batalden & Hartung, 2016). In contrast, the Australian healthcare system has developed various programs and taken several initiatives to spread awareness regarding the diseases due to which the rates of people suffering from preventable illnesses are very low. There is a huge difference between the health care systems of both countries yet still, there is a need that both countries must revise their healthcare policies to ensure that people are getting quality care.


Batalden, M., Batalden, P., Margolis, P., Seid, M., Armstrong, G., Opipari-Arrigan, L., & Hartung, H. (2016). Coproduction of healthcare service. BMJ Qual Saf, 25(7), 509-517.

Dixit, S. K., & Sambasivan, M. (2018). A review of the Australian healthcare system: A policy perspective. SAGE open medicine, 6, 2050312118769211.

MacLellan, L., Levett‐Jones, T., & Higgins, I. (2015). Nurse practitioner role transition: A concept analysis. Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners, 27(7), 389-397.

McCalman, J., Bainbridge, R., Percival, N., & Tsey, K. (2016). The effectiveness of implementation in Indigenous Australian healthcare: an overview of literature reviews. International Journal for Equity in Health, 15(1), 47.

Wilson, R., Zhu, C., & Rologas, K. (2017). The Australian healthcare context. In Clinical Nursing Skills: An Australian Perspective (pp. 3-24). Cambridge University Press.

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Systems Theory Application To Increased Nurse Patient Ratio In Hospital

Systems Theory Application to Increased Nurse Patient Ratio in Hospital

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Systems Theory Application to Increased Nurse Patient Ratio in Hospital


The Texas Health Resources Hospital, Dallas requires an intensive checkup in its systems theory application for an increase in the nurse-patient ratio. As all healthcare organizations practice and deliver the best nursing services to their patients, they also tend to follow different theories. One theory which mainly exists and is the center of this essay is the System Theory Application (Williams, 2017). This theory focuses on the social systems which are divided into units and subsections in a healthcare organization. One of the departments of the identified healthcare organization is known as the Emergency Department, and it has all kinds of inputs, outputs, througputs, negative feedbacks, and the cycle of events. The hospital provides different levels of care to the patients, and the ED unit has its factors. Thus, the purpose of this essay is to provide an analysis of the ED unit and the way it uses the systems theory application to achieve the organization’s desired goals and outcomes.



The ED unit is mostly occupied and conjusted with people which is a big problem which affects day to day healthcare activities. Such a problem can be rectified through using an open systems approach that co-exists of the systems theory model. The model accumulates inputs, cycles of events, outputs, negative feedbacks, and throughputs (Andrews et al. 2016). The problem which is mainly identified using the systems theory model is that more staff is required to manage the congestion and workflow in the ED of the hospital. It would allow more effective flow of staffing levels amongst the department and help provide necessary supply functioning equipment for patients. These factors can be used to analyze the systematic disregard which can cause patient and nurse safety outcomes. If more nurses are hired, it will boost staffing ratios and the buffer staff ratios can also be analyzed. Moreover, necessary patient equipment is not present so the systems theory application would help fulfill the lack in fiscal policy to overcome this issue.

Solutions for improving the ED and its consequent issues require the healthcare organization to improve its staffing standards and establish more such units in the hospital to distribute the patient flow, along with providing quality standard patient care. The healthcare organization would have to overview their goals and objectives to achieve the desired outcome. These goals accumulate changing cultural standards of the workplace, diversity amongst health providers, providing national standards of healthcare, and accommodating customer at every step necessary. Moreover, a strategic fiscal overview is to be determined or conducted to resolve such issues arising in the ED unit of the hospital (Geller et al. 2015). With accompanying a strategic implementation process, it would require the clinical staff and the leaders to engage in a holistic approach that can deal with all the issues confronting the ED unit.

Using systems theory application to resolve the issues in the ED unit would require the organization to develop some policies and procedures such as hiring competent staff that can manage the patients adequately and promptly. Moreover, they should focus on procedures that extend guide practice amongst the health providers and providing a disciplinary safe and healthy environment. The organization should also go towards effective communication with the patient so that all the fundamental components of the organization are met to resolve the critical problems facing in the unit. The emergency department would have to focus on providing quality outcomes and interdisciplinary health promotions significantly. Despite that, they should offer multidisciplinary evidence-based practice to improve management and collaboration. Patient involvement in the care plan and self-competency can both hand in hand towards meeting the organization's desired goals and objectives. Lastly, providing a safe environment of care with systems thinking behavior would help achieve the desired goals.

Relevant professional standards require the hospital to invest more towards its ED’s while using its strategic capacity and capability which reflects on increasing bed capacity within the rooms. Moreover, building resilience amongst the patients and nurses altogether. Also, integrating an emergency floor which can equally help in improving patient outcomes and achieving organizations goals and objectives. Improving the operational process of the ED would require having an initial assessment of the patients and discharging any ‘home for lunch' exercises. Similarly, the culture of the ED is also necessary for implementing such professional standards that can suggest building a new clinical ED which provides quality patient care and evidence-based practice (Fisher, 2017). Moreover, It would also involve committing internal professional standards towards the unit's procedures. All of these steps are equally important to uphold the organization's mission and values and improve their culture and climate altogether.


The aforementioned analysis of the research essay based on the implementation of systems theory application would ensure an increase in the nurse-patient ratio. It would analyze the hospital's goals and objectives while creating relevant practices to facilitate outcomes. The policies and procedures developed for the identifying unit would propose a resolution for the problems identified and upholds the organization's mission and values. The culture and climate of the organization are equally important, even so, the unit that is focused and that is why the systems theory model tends to focus on its aspects while identifying the specific problems. These factors are analyzed and identified as input, output, cycles, throughput, and negative feedbacks. All of these factors would be implemented in the organization's systems approach which would help the unit prepare or come up with the desired outcomes.


Andrews, S. S., Peria, W. J., Richard, C. Y., Colman-Lerner, A., & Brent, R. (2016). Push-pull and feedback mechanisms can align signaling system outputs with inputs. Cell systems, 3(5), 444-455.

Fisher, M. (2017). Professional standards for nursing practice: How do they shape contemporary rehabilitation nursing practice?. Journal of the Australasian Rehabilitation Nurses Association, 20(1), 4.

Geller, A. I., Shehab, N., Weidle, N. J., Lovegrove, M. C., Wolpert, B. J., Timbo, B. B., ... & Budnitz, D. S. (2015). Emergency department visits for adverse events related to dietary supplements. New England Journal of Medicine, 373(16), 1531-1540.

Williams, L. A. (2017). Imogene King’s interacting systems theory: Application in emergency and rural nursing. Online Journal of Rural Nursing and Health Care, 2(1), 40-50.

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Taking A Stand

Taking a stand

Student’s Name



Taking a stand

Ethics is defined as a system of moral principles, which provide guidance on how people behaviors. It is regarded as the discipline that deals with what is bad and good based on moral duty and obligation. It can also define as a standard system, which that alter previous action, thoughts and decision people CITATION Abu11 \l 1033 (Abuhassim, Kajewski, & Trigunarsyah, 2015). Abuhassim, Kajewski, and Trigunarsyah (2015) pointed out that is an important measure to protect the society and also provide guidance to people’s actions regarding what is viewed as right or wrong on issues affecting the society. In order to make an ethical decision well, it is important for an individual to understand the ethical standard and frameworks. An individual should be able to conduct him or herself with a style of leadership which includes trial and error, while at the same time emphasizing model based on proper decision making. However, this paper is meant to introduce the cenceptual framework of the ethical construct of ethics, legal standard, moral and other dilemmas in the work environment. The paper also analyzes the implication being utilized and considered on the leadership style and identified by the self –assessment tool to find out whether the leadership style act as a barrier during a dilemma situation.

Conceptual Framework

A different dilemma is faced in healthcare sectors and these dilemmas require a unique style of leadership and skills to address them. As a nurse, it is expected that we come face to face with different dilemmas throughout our careers. Studies have established that usually nurses are faced by several dilemmas than they could imagine or admit CITATION Ulr10 \l 1033 (Ulrich, Taylor, & Soeken, 2017). However, this usually leads the nurse to make decisions which are usually difficult. This is indicated in the outcomes of the people nurses interact with. Research indicates that some of the difficult ethical decision being made by nurses is issues which are related to mental healthcare CITATION Deb14 \l 1033 (Wood, 2014). These issues also include patient autonomy, the moral dimension of addiction, privacy and confidentiality of the information of patients.

The definition of mental illness is also very wide and confusing and therefore, it also one of the ethical decisions, which nurses have to make daily at their work environment. Ethical issues provide guidance to an individual in solving several ethical dilemmas. It also offers necessary assistance requires by managers to clarify personal values and beliefs in addressing problems related to ethical issues. Wood (2014) stated that most popular frameworks that are used are utilitarianism, right based reasoning, and duty based reasoning, which are essential in solving problems affecting the healthcare practitioners.

The ethical, moral and legal implication which is utilized utilitarianism. It is important in solving some of the critical ethical issues related to nursing practice CITATION Kad17 \l 1033 (Kadivar, Manookian, Asghari, Niknafs, Okazi, & Zarvani, 2017). Nurses are required to work based on the standard set and therefore, this ensures that proper practice is maintained. However, the role of a moral agent or advocacy is every elaborate since they monitor and conduct an evaluation as well. The moral agents are persons with the responsibility to decide on what is wrong or right to ensure that people are held accountable for their actions. The moral agents have a wider responsibility not to cause unnecessary harm to anybody including patients. The advocacy of moral issues plays a critical role in formulating policies and ensuring that the moral and ethical standard is adhered to without any failure. According

Leadership style

The leadership style identifies through the assessment conducted is transformational leadership. The transformation leadership according to Sfantou, Laliotis, Patelarou, Matalliotakis, & Patelarou (2017), involve transformation and inspire for follows to give good result at work. The transformational leadership provides offer a vision of the future to employees through the provision of motivation. However, in nursing practice, it would be essential to ensure that intelligence is applied to handle issues affecting patients. Nurses are expected to handle and treat patients equally without any kind of discrimination. Evidence-based practice in nursing is credited for playing a critical role in expanding the provision of healthcare in society. And therefore, leadership is a core factor and transformation leadership is the best leadership style for nursing practice. It involves the creation of a relationship with colleagues at work to ensure that the provision of healthcare is efficient. It inspires staffs through motivation. It ensures that nurses work together as a team to address challenges and offer a solution to various healthcare issues. It also inspires confidence and communicates loyalty through a shared vision hence increase the productivity of employees, and therefore, with transformation leadership, nurses are a more efficient and limited number of unethical issues could be identified.

There are other leadership style identified during the assessment but cannot be used in healthcare settings. Authoritarian and democratic are not the viable style of leadership which can help in addressing issues related to ethical, moral and legal standard in healthcare settings. However, transformation leadership does not act as a barrier to the provision of services CITATION Nil14 \l 1033 (Shariff, 2014). It helps in eliminating the unethical practice by nurses. With transformational leadership moral, the ethical and legal standard is maintained and therefore, it is the best leadership style which could be used to solve problems with the healthcare settings. It is, therefore, important to state that moral agents and advocacy play an important role in the successful achievement of the moral, ethical and legal standard within the healthcare settings.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Abuhassim, A., Kajewski, S., & Trigunarsyah, B. (2015). A Conceptual Framework for Ethical Decision

Making in Project Procurement. International Journal of nursing and medicine, 2-38.

Kadivar, M., Manookian, A., Asghari, F., Niknafs, N., Okazi, A., & Zarvani, A. (2017). Ethical and legal

aspects of patient’s safety: a clinical case report. J Med Ethics Hist Med, 2-35.

Sfantou, D. F., Laliotis, A., Patelarou, A., Matalliotakis, M., & Patelarou, E. (2017). Importance of

Leadership Style towards Quality of Care Measures in Healthcare Settings: A Systematic Review. Healthcare (Basel), 2-18.

Shariff, N. (2014). Factors that act as facilitators and barriers to nurse leaders' participation in health

policy development. BMC Nursing, 2-18.

Ulrich, C. M., Taylor, C., & Soeken, K. (2017). Everyday Ethics: Ethical Issues and Stress in Nursing

Practice. Journal of Nursing and med - PubMed, 2-35.

Wood, D. (2014). Common Nursing Ethics Dilemmas. https://www.nursechoice.com/traveler-

resources/4-common-nursing-ethics-dilemmas/ , 2-34.

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Task 3 Reflection Paper


[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Healthcare and nursing are the tools to establish efficient healthcare institutions that are highly productive regarding leadership and quality of services. Communication and leadership in healthcare is crucial to strengthen the quality and integration of care.

This course has been stressful but exploring and planning the tasks that are assigned, executing those tasks and finally the evaluation on the performance made this course a great source of learning ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"GSZWsyrm","properties":{"formattedCitation":"\\super 1\\nosupersub{}","plainCitation":"1","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/DgvO6oqL/items/FQ4KF33A"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/DgvO6oqL/items/FQ4KF33A"],"itemData":{"id":2,"type":"book","title":"Professional Issues in Nursing: Challenges and Opportunities","publisher":"Wolters Kluwer Health","URL":"https://books.google.com.pk/books?id=TBXlEgpF6_QC","ISBN":"978-1-4511-2833-8","author":[{"family":"Huston","given":"C. J."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2013"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} 1.

Strengths and Challenges

Time Management

There are times while working in the nurse filed when we just feel overwhelmed with the amount of work that comes our way. Mostly because the healthcare organizations are understaffed. By working under such circumstances we learn to manage our time accordingly.

Empathy and Compassion

Working in healthcare, it is one of the most important traits that a person needs to adapt to be successful. We come across patients dealing with a number of physical or psychological issues. In order to interact with them effectively, we need to feel compassion and empathy towards them.

Limited Budget

Budgetary constraints are one of the biggest challenges faced in nursing organizations. It is difficult to meet high expectations of productivity with such limitations.

Adapting Change

Keeping the information current and adapting to the change in healthcare is a huge challenge. It is important to follow the latest nursing trends in order to cope with the changes and development in healthcare industry

Strategies for being a good nursing student

Study Smart

Avoiding distractions, practice, revision and focus are the factors that can prove to be very effective in being a good and successful nursing student.

Be Realistic

Being realistic in setting your professional goals helps being successful in reaching those goals.

Academic activities and personal life

Leadership and communication course provides a great sense of understanding in both academics and personal life. This course teaches time management, communication skills, empathy, compassion, honesty and trustworthiness.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Huston CJ. Professional Issues in Nursing: Challenges and Opportunities. Wolters Kluwer Health; 2013. https://books.google.com.pk/books?id=TBXlEgpF6_QC.

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Teaching Plan

Diabetes Teaching Plan



Background and Purpose

Sociocultural studies indicate that culture has long lasting and somewhat genetic effects on the individuals for understanding and embracing meaning to the worldly phenomenon (Bandura, 2002). Individuals belonging to different cultural backgrounds possess varying outlooks, attitudes, orientations, perceptions and preferences towards life due to which their definition of even trivial entities follows holistically unique patterns; achievement of universality is something next to impossible.

Moving towards second factor; a bulk of literature suggests that precipitating causes behind diabetes type 2 onset fall under lifestyle factors in most of the cases. Diabetes is a condition in which our body either does not develop enough insulin (a hormone that converts blood glucose into glycogen in the liver) or it develops insulin with impaired functionality (Menke et. al., 2015). Sedentary lifestyle is the most striking reason behind diabetes type 2. Type 1, on the other hand is genetic in nature and only medical treatment proves to be effective.

Combining the cultural diversity and diabetes, it can be deduced that applying effective teaching strategies to develop universal definitions of diabetes and its management techniques in culturally diverse individuals is irrefutably significant and acts as a prerequisite to the maintenance of healthcare quality for minorities (Weitzman et. al., 2013). This is because culturally different individuals possess deviating schemas about the definition of diabetes, its underlying causes and management techniques that is quite important to be synchronized with the universally accepted medical terms.

The awareness about the requirement of cultural sensitivity is undoubtedly the first step towards providing competent and sensitive diabetes education. Cultural sensitivity is much more than limited comprehension about cultural values, actions, thoughts, customs, languages and beliefs (Horvat et. al., 2014).

Development of positive and mutually respectful relationship among healthcare providers and diabetics is the end product of effective educational plans of concerning diabetes. Increased understanding of the patients will lead to their enhanced engagement and participation in the healthcare activities and achievement of desired healthcare goals for improving quality of life.

Goals and Objectives

Education plan will be aimed at following objectives and its associated outcomes:

Acknowledgement about the unique healthcare perceptions for the individual belonging to varying cultural background

Consideration of the learning background of patient about diabetes i.e., what was the source of information for him up till now

Identification of potential barriers in diabetes management activities through collaborative efforts of healthcare providers and patients

Conveying accurate, authentic and universally acceptable knowledge to the patient that is highly understandable for him.

Addressing the limitations of self management techniques proactively in terms of patient’s will to adhere to them with reference to their cultural appropriateness.

Identification and utilization of educational resources and materials that are purely synchronizing with the literacy level, age and culture of the patient.

Identification and referral of patients to the diabetes care centers for fulfilling their needs in case of limited allocation of healthcare resources to them

Education of patient about the milieu in which healthcare prevention and management plans are being executed

Incorporate and dignify sensitivity while introducing patients to the instructional process regardless of their cultural back ground.


Based on the above mentioned objectives and goals, the outcome of healthcare educational plan would be; fostering interaction between patients and care providers, enabling patients to understand the causes, symptoms and treatment options of diabetes and enhancing their quality of care.

Methods of instructions

The method of instructions that I chose to convey diabetes education is “audio visual aids.” Although language acts as a barrier between healthcare providers and culturally diverse patients yet the other form of communication i.e., non- verbal or gestural might be used to convey necessary education about the basic etiological and preventive components of diabetes (Kutob et. al., 2013).

For that matter, diabetes patients will be enrolled in an illustrative classroom in which they will be taught simple biological mechanisms behind diabetes, incorporation of physical, psychological, environmental, genetic and social factors in diabetes onset, and universally acceptable intervention techniques to overcome this disorder.


Example of the illustration for making the patient understand their symptoms

Illustration of the molecular mechanisms (for instance, the involvement of beta cells of pancreas in the production of insulin and metabolism of glucose and relationship between insulin and glucose levels), the potential link between physical, psychological, environmental, genetic and social factors and diabetes (for example, stress is a psychological phenomenon in which cortisol hormone is released; this hormone reduces the functioning of body organs, leaving the body to function at same pace as far as patient feels stressed. This hormone also affects the functioning of beta cells that produce insulin for glucose metabolism) and appropriate interventions (i.e., medical treatment and the mechanism of action of medicine, exercise, diet, mindfulness and stress management techniques) through video and picture presentation. After demonstrating the pictures and informational videos, questions of the patients would be addressed through hiring multilingual professional for translation purpose. In this way, instructional process is expected to yield fruitful results.


This program may require professional assistance and substantial fiscal resources however it will definitely ensure the education of culturally diverse individuals about diabetes and eventually their enhanced quality of living when they would start understating the phenomenon completely and participate in the healthcare operations actively.

Evaluation of the effectiveness

Effectiveness of this plan would be evaluated using survey or interviews. Survey might include simple questions i.e., did you benefit from the illustrative process? Answer would be simple yes or no. Survey might also consist of the variety of questions in which all the aspects of this education plan would be covered. Interviews are also effective tools in exploring the effectiveness of this program profoundly. Evaluations will identify significant areas of improvement and will offer feedbacks for further implications. These feedbacks can be used not only for evaluating the effectiveness of current plan but also opens up many ways to improvise and harmonize the plan with patient’s needs.


Menke, A., Casagrande, S., Geiss, L., Cowie, C. C. (2015). Prevalence of and trends in diabetes among adults in the United States, 1988–2012. JAMA, 314(10),1021–9.

Bandura, A. (2002). Social Cognitive Theory in Cultural Context. Applied Psychology, 51(2), 269-290.

Weitzman, P. F., Caballero, A. E., Ferro, A., Becker, A. E. (2013). Bodily aesthetic ideals in minorities in type 2 diabetes: implications for treatment adherence, access and outcomes. Diabetes Educ., 39(6), 856–63

Horvat, L., Horey, D., Romios, P., Kis-Rigo, J. (2014). Cultural competence education for health professionals. Cochrane Database Syst., 5 (5). doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD009405

Kutob, R. M., Bormanis, J., Crago, M., Harris, J. (2013). Cultural competence education for practicing physicians: lessons in cultural humility, nonjudgmental behaviors, and health beliefs elicitation. J Contin Educ Health Prof., 33(3),164–73.

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 3 Words: 900



Bill Davenhall in a TED talk on this issue wonders how it is possible that in our medical records does not appear the geographical history. The presenter makes an analogy between a train crash accident and the impact on his body of having a heart attack. In other words, where we have lived and worked during our life (Goldstone, 2018). I believe Bill Davenhall explains the fundamental issues which are important in the field of medical field.

In short, the fact that we live in one place or another, without a doubt, conditions our present and future health. Infant mortality is a demographic indicator that explains the figure of deaths of children in a population of all thousand listed live births, during the first year of their life (Rutstein, 1984). Without a doubt, it is one of the fundamental indicators of the health of the population (Davenhall, 2019). Health must be an issue of interest to all, and Bill Davenhall reviews the reasons for " Your health depends on where you live. “Like many other indicators, such as, for example, life expectancy, infant mortality is distributed unequally at different geographical scales, from the global to the regional (McMichael, & Beaglehole, 2000).

To conclude, we can find health inequalities between and within continents, countries, regions, cities and neighbourhoods. Therefore, it is very important to emphasize a concept, that "your health depends on where you live". In particular, infant mortality is a multifaceted and complex issue. It is related to a variety of issues from quality, maternal health and access to medicinal care, socioeconomic circumstances or also prevention and community health practices. Teach doctors the value of geographic information and the branch of research that is emerging: aeromedicine. It is proposed to make a record of places in the medical record, since by having this information, one can decide to change their lifestyle and avoid diseases or heart disease.


Davenhall, b. (2019). your health depends on where you live?language=en#t-63238 [video]. Tedtalk. Retrieved from: https://www.ted.com/talks/-

Goldstone, J. A. (2018). Demography, environment, and security. In Environmental conflict (pp. 84-108). Routledge.

McMichael, A. J., & Beaglehole, R. (2000). The changing global context of public health. The Lancet, 356(9228), 495-499.

Rutstein, S. O. (1984). Infant and child mortality: levels trends and demographic differentials.

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Tehcnology Of Healthy 2030

Medical Technology In Future

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Medical Technology In Future

With the advent of the medical technology, the possibilities are endless and one decade from now, it is going to go a long way towards making sure that ground-breaking healthcare technologies that are being worked out now are going to be fully functional to say the least. There is another technology that is being worked upon at the moment and that is Google Brain. This technology is going to allow the user to make sure that they are able to create digital selves based on the neurological information. This is going to go a long way towards resolution of the long-standing mental ailments. All these technologies are going to pale if one compares them to the Medical 3D printing. The technology is in the advancement stages and there is a likelihood that in the future, even cells can be created using 3D printers at the given point of time. In terms of the medical communication, renewed technologies are going to exist that would make sure that the real time diagnostics are going to be there. That would save the lead time that goes towards making sure that the blood loss and other such transfusions are being managed at the given point of time. One of the biggest changes that is going to happen in the medical technology is the usage of the augmented reality. The augmented reality is going to go a long way towards making sure that much more remote healthcare controls are going to be provided to the patients. For instance, this technology is going to allow the measurement of the diabetes level of the patient just with their tears. It would also allow the surgeons to make sure that they are able to take note of the anomalies that are witness autonomy of the patient and suggest or even carry out the procedures.


Albani, S., & Prakken, B. (2018). The advancement of translational medicine—from regional challenges to global solutions. Nature medicine, 15(9), 1006.

Gellert, G. A., Ramirez, R., & Webster, S. L. (2019). The rise of the medical scribe industry: implications for the advancement of electronic health records. Jama, 313(13), 1315-1316.

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Telehealth WK 6

Telehealth and Obesity Management


Batsis, Pletcher & Stahl (2017), in their study titled “Telemedicine and primary care obesity management in rural areas – innovative approach for older adults?” emphasized on the importance of using telehealth technology for fighting against obesity in older adults who have been suffering from other issues such as diabetes as well. Specifically focusing on lack of staff, and accessibility issues for obese and diabetic patients living in remote areas, the authors explained how telemedicine can promote developed of a structured, customize program for the patients as well as promoting primary care that enhances the intensive behavior therapy for improved intervention efficiency as well (Batsis et al. 2017). Giving the examples of various other case studies and scenarios, the authors also explained that the use of telemedicine has been successful in other healthcare contexts as well such as in sanitation and awareness domain (Batsis et al. 2017). However, based on the findings and results derived by the authors, it can be stated that the effectiveness and efficiency of telehealth can be ensured in domain of managing patients having diabetes and chronic obesity. Furthermore, the authors also recommendations for the purpose of extending the benefit’s coverage for the older obese patients to be more inclusive of non-physician team members is needed but also for improvement in reimbursement for telemedicine services for older adults with obesity (Batsis et al. 2017); in this way, the patients will be able to focus on their treatment in a better and optimized manner with out the hassle of travelling long distances to get appointment from the doctor.

Mind Map


The as of late actualized telehealth program for nutrition for Medicaid recipients with obesity can possibly help two hundred thousand individualsto maintain a strategic distance from constant ailment by engaging them to receive more advantageous ways of life. The program is a piece of the Obesity Action Plan, made to address the obesity emergency, where two out of three grown-ups and one out of three kids are overweight or obese.

The program advances joint effort among doctors and dietitians by concealing to six doctor visits and six dietitian visits every year. Doctors can allude grown-up and pediatric Medicaid patients determined to have obesity for healthful advising with dietitians enrolled in the program. This is the first run through nourishment directing for obesity has been secured through Medicaid.

Another prevention is that the Nutrition Counseling Program just covers face to face visits. For patients, especially those in rustic regions, the bother of going long separations to get protection treatment likely demoralizes finish. Telenutrition could evacuate this weight and encourage consistency in follow-up visits.

Research demonstrates that obesity-related therapeutic expenses are ascending alongside the quantity of individuals influenced by obesity. Human services spending on obesity expanded by 29 percent somewhere in the range of 2001 and 2015 (Fleischmn et al. 2016). That number is relied upon to ascend as more individuals are determined to have related ailments. While emergency clinics and insurance agencies need to lessen costs no matter how you look at it, numerous obese patients are likewise searching for effectively available medicinal services treatment that spares them cash (Fleischmn et al. 2016). It's nothing unexpected that many are keen on customized medicinal consideration apps offering weight loss programming (Bala et al. 2019).

Telemedicine for Weight Loss Studies Show Positive Results as the above study has shown that In an investigation utilizing telemedicine for weight loss, members experienced a multi week contemplate where they utilized the technology to follow their sustenance admission and exercise and remote weight loss checking gadgets (Bala et al. 2019). Members were additionally given week after week instructive materials. A few members were given week by week on-on-one instructing telemedicine sessions with an enlisted dietitian. As indicated by the examination, members who were given week by week telehealth for weight loss sessions lost weight (Bala et al. 2019). The control bunch just few pounds by and large. The individuals who got telemedicine sessions additionally lost right around twenty percent of their muscle to fat ratio, while the control bunch just lost around three percent (Bala et al. 2019).


Batsis, J. A., Pletcher, S. N., & Stahl, J. E. (2017). Telemedicine and primary care obesity management in rural areas–innovative approach for older adults?. BMC geriatrics, 17(1), 6.

Fleischman, A., Hourigan, S. E., Lyon, H. N., Landry, M. G., Reynolds, J., Steltz, S. K., ... & Ludwig, D. S. (2016). Creating an integrated care model for childhood obesity: a randomized pilot study utilizing telehealth in a community primary care setting. Clinical obesity, 6(6), 380-388.

Bala, N., Price, S. N., Horan, C. M., Gerber, M. W., & Taveras, E. M. (2019). Use of Telehealth to Enhance Care in a Family-Centered Childhood Obesity Intervention. Clinical pediatrics, 0009922819837371.

Shaikh, U., Nettiksimmons, J., Joseph, J. G., Tancredi, D., & Romano, P. S. (2014). Collaborative practice improvement for childhood obesity in rural clinics: the Healthy Eating Active Living Telehealth Community of Practice (HEALTH COP). American Journal of Medical Quality, 29(6), 467-475.

Pulgaron, E. R., & Delamater, A. M. (2014). Obesity and type 2 diabetes in children: epidemiology and treatment. Current diabetes reports, 14(8), 508.

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 3 Words: 900

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