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Sao Paulo

Sao Paulo history and problems

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Sao Paulo is now the economic hub of Brazil but in 1554 catholic missionaries with the help of indigenous workers build a just 750 meters above and 70 kilometers from the Atlantic coast. It soon becomes a jumping-off point for slave traders and gold hunters. Due to its location, it was an ideal junction for shipment of agricultural goods. However, the economic revolution came later in the year 1988 when emperor Dom Pedro the second convinced his people to abolish slavery. When the captive labors got free, industrialists and farmers look for options abroad. Which resulted in the immigration of skilled labors from European and Asian countries. As a result, Sao Paulo has more Italian descendant population than that of Rome and also the highest number of Japanese living outside Japan. Many of these immigrants were skilled workers and because of their skills, Sao Paulo emerged as a manufacturing capital in the industrial revolution.

Sao Paulo most important problem right now is the issue of storage of water. Water is the basic necessity of human life. All forms of life depend on it without water there will be no agricultural products to eat as well. Although as important as they are other problems like population and traffic issues can be tolerated for a bit. But the water crises are serious and immense. The government should plan on the storage of water. More reservoirs should be built and if possible water should be provided from other cities as well. Proper waste recycling plants should be used to avoid polluting the rivers in the city so that they can even be used for a different purpose in the days of draught. The river water cannot only be used for agricultural purposes but with proper cleaning and desalination plants can be used for drinking as well. To avoid any further management issues in the city, its expansion should be immediately stopped.

Subject: Geography

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Sex Trafficking In India

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Sex Trafficking in India


Today, the world is facing different chronic issues that require immediate attention to offering better living conditions to all individuals without any discrimination. It is noteworthy to mention that the violation of human rights can be observed in many diverse forms and sex trafficking is one of them. There are millions of people around the globe who are suffering from this specific issue in various forms. The region of India is identified as the one where the issue of sex trafficking is tragically growing with each day. The volume of sex trafficking is high that influence the number of stakeholders in various forms. The practice of sex trafficking is defined as the form of human trafficking with the objective of sexual exploitation such as sexual slavery. The process of sexual trafficking forced victims to provide sexual services to clients as traffickers’ instructions due to their situation of dependency. This paper focuses to critically analyze the process of trade and global economics considering the issue of sex trafficking in the region of India.  


The phenomenon of sex trafficking is used as the mode of business or trade in the form of illegal and forceful sexual activities. A comprehensive examination of the economics of sex trafficking at both national and international levels is an essential condition to recognize diverse aspects of this issue. It is observed that the growing trend of sex trafficking in India greatly linked with the economic prospect of the country. Due to the high level of poverty in this region, the risk of sex trafficking as trade is getting immense with each day. Unstable economic conditions for the masses of India is one major indicator of an increasing form of sex trafficking in the country. 

Description of the Process

A detailed understanding of the process of trade and global economics is a requirement to make better inferences about the intensity of sex trafficking as an issue in India. It is vital to examine the historical background of trade and international economics in the context of sex trafficking specifically for the region of India. This form of consideration is mandatory to determine how the approach of economics changed dimensions of sex trafficking in India. The area of India has a long history of sex trafficking with the influence of trade and global economics. From many years, financial conditions of Indian people are recognized as the basic stimulating factor of sex trafficking ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"v0hdTuan","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Jennings and Nikoli\\uc0\\u263{}-Ristanovi\\uc0\\u263{})","plainCitation":"(Jennings and Nikolić-Ristanović)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":324,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/qLzeF6Hj/items/DAX6MQDQ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/qLzeF6Hj/items/DAX6MQDQ"],"itemData":{"id":324,"type":"article-journal","container-title":"International Perspective in Victimology","page":"36-45","title":"Political economics of peacekeeping, local gender relations and sex trafficking victimization: Peacekeepers as patrons","volume":"7","author":[{"family":"Jennings","given":"Kathleen M."},{"family":"Nikolić-Ristanović","given":"V."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2013"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Jennings and Nikolić-Ristanović). The concept of the sex slave trade or trafficking is centuries old as it is used as one great economic medium by people. It is critical to indicate that the phase of British ruling in this region have great importance when it comes to exploring the modern manifestation of sex trafficking in India. It was the time when the government developed regulated areas for the approach of commercialized sex for British militaries in India. Many Indian women delivered their services in these camps as this prospect is eventually characterized as one chronic form of slavery. This historical phase has great importance when it comes to exploring the scenario of sex trafficking in India considering the approach of trade and global economics. Undoubtedly, it was the start of forced sexual activities as an economic practice to gain trade benefits. 

The unstable economic conditions of Indian natives compelled them to use women and children as financial tools to make their financial position strong. With time, this issue is getting worse as it reflects various dimensions associated with the phenomenon of sex trafficking. It is important to evaluate the existing position of this issue considering the spectrum of trade and global economics. It is imperative to find out how sex trafficking in India is used as an economic practice to enhance domains of trade and global economics. The existing positioning of this issue in India explicitly indicates that the prevalence of sex trafficking in case of poor areas is high. This form of the assessment revealed the existing relationship between poverty and the trend of sex trafficking. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, West Bengal, and Karnataka are recognized as the most targeted poor areas who have a high range of sex trafficking. Proper identification and offering suitable solutions to the growing issue of sex trafficking in India is necessary for the condition because it influences Indian society in different forms ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"TfdiHsXU","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Sarkar et al.)","plainCitation":"(Sarkar et al.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":326,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/qLzeF6Hj/items/N55VVLLN"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/qLzeF6Hj/items/N55VVLLN"],"itemData":{"id":326,"type":"article-journal","container-title":"Journal of health, population, and nutrition","issue":"2","page":"223","title":"Sex-trafficking, violence, negotiating skill, and HIV infection in brothel-based sex workers of eastern India, adjoining Nepal, Bhutan, and Bangladesh","volume":"26","author":[{"family":"Sarkar","given":"Kamalesh"},{"family":"Bal","given":"Baishali"},{"family":"Mukherjee","given":"Rita"},{"family":"Chakraborty","given":"Sekhar"},{"family":"Saha","given":"Suman"},{"family":"Ghosh","given":"Arundhuti"},{"family":"Parsons","given":"Scott"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2008"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Sarkar et al.). The active role of government at local and national levels is mandatory to provide better economic conditions to minimize the risk of considering sex trafficking as the trade option. 

Identification of Process at Different Scales

A comprehensive understanding of the issue of sex trafficking in India under the process of trade and global economics is possible by examining this at different scales. This form of assessment can be helpful to characterize the influence of economic domains on this issue at local, state, national, and international levels. The existence of sex trafficking as the form of trade can be observed at different scales that eventually illustrated the intensity of this problem in the country. The influence of sex trafficking in India can be observed at the local, state, and national level. The prevalence of this issue is getting high as Indian women are illegally transferring to other countries in the form of sex trafficking ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"zvOVWYQY","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Shelley and Bain)","plainCitation":"(Shelley and Bain)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":325,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/qLzeF6Hj/items/3QT7YQ6U"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/qLzeF6Hj/items/3QT7YQ6U"],"itemData":{"id":325,"type":"article-journal","container-title":"Social Inclusion","issue":"1","page":"140-144","title":"Human trafficking: Fighting the illicit economy with the legitimate economy","volume":"3","author":[{"family":"Shelley","given":"Louise"},{"family":"Bain","given":"Christina"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Shelley and Bain). The effects of sex trafficking as an immense issue are getting high at the scale of the international level of trade and global economics. There are several stakeholders involves the activities of sex trafficking as the popular trading trend to earn money at the global economic level.  

The economics of sex trafficking playing a critical role in the overall establishment of this problem especially for the highly poor regions of the country. The practice of forced sexual activities is recognized as a popular illegal approach to attain better economic domains. The growing range of poverty at regional levels categorized as one major driving force of the growing trend of sex trafficking. It is used as useful mediums by many men and women to attain a better economic position in their lives. The emergence of the process of trade and global economics in case of sex trafficking can be apprehended at both national and internal scales. The economic activities in the form of sex trafficking are established as suitable actions due to the higher chances of economic gain with minimal risk of failure ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"HEhhlyRA","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Jakobsson and Kotsadam)","plainCitation":"(Jakobsson and Kotsadam)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":323,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/qLzeF6Hj/items/YWSP6B7V"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/qLzeF6Hj/items/YWSP6B7V"],"itemData":{"id":323,"type":"article-journal","container-title":"European journal of law and economics","issue":"1","page":"87-107","title":"The law and economics of international sex slavery: prostitution laws and trafficking for sexual exploitation","volume":"35","author":[{"family":"Jakobsson","given":"Niklas"},{"family":"Kotsadam","given":"Andreas"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2013"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Jakobsson and Kotsadam). People operating in this business gained an immense form of economic benefits as profit maximization and the enhancement of global economics. Sex trafficking established its business position as one of the most successful illegal business at all the stages of this process development. It is illustrated as an easy way to earn money with a low risk of any form of loss. It is crucial to indicate that the process of trade and global economics in case of sex trafficking gained immense importance at both national and international levels. The improper legal implications at local and national phases made it easy for the sex traffickers to forcefully hire, move, and exploit vulnerable population against the issue of sex trafficking. Low-cost labor force as sex entities is using at both the scales of national and international levels that eventually defines the main reason for this growing concern for the country. It can be rightly said that money is one major driving force in the entire scenario of sex trafficking in India. Furthermore, the facet of active globalization also opens new economic and trade ways for shareholders to enhance the practice of sex trafficking. 

Consideration of Specific Geographical Concepts

           A thorough examination of different aspects of sex trafficking in India as a major economic issue helps to define its active relevance with different geographical ideas. The central consideration of these domains is a necessary condition to make better inferences about the issue in case of the process of trade and global economics. The central effects of trade and global economics in the scenario of sex trafficking in India closely related to diverse geographical ideas. This form of association further helps to examine the issue of different and important geographical grounds. Gender roles/perceptions are important geographical facet when it comes to examining the issue of sex trafficking. Women in the country defined as the sex symbol and characterized as a vulnerable population. Indeed, women are not the only target when it comes to sex trafficking as children are also reported as tools of sex trafficking. Women in the society perceived as a weak entity who are not able to independently make their decision. Geopolitics is another major geographical aspect in the scenario of trade and global economics referring to the issue of sex trafficking in the country. International relations in the form of politics and economics are closely linked with the growing issue of sex trafficking in India. 


           To conclude the discussion on the issue of sex trafficking in India with the context of trade and global economics, it is noticeable to apprehend those various aspects of consideration plying their role as driving forces. The economic factor of poverty in the country is identified as one of the main reasons for forcing people for sexual activities without their consent. This specific scenario demands the country’s government at both local and national levels to create better chances of employment for many individuals. 

Works Cited:

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Jakobsson, Niklas, and Andreas Kotsadam. “The Law and Economics of International Sex Slavery: Prostitution Laws and Trafficking for Sexual Exploitation.” European Journal of Law and Economics, vol. 35, no. 1, 2013, pp. 87–107.

Jennings, Kathleen M., and V. Nikolić-Ristanović. “Political Economics of Peacekeeping, Local Gender Relations and Sex Trafficking Victimization: Peacekeepers as Patrons.” International Perspective in Victimology, vol. 7, 2013, pp. 36–45.

Sarkar, Kamalesh, et al. “Sex-Trafficking, Violence, Negotiating Skill, and HIV Infection in Brothel-Based Sex Workers of Eastern India, Adjoining Nepal, Bhutan, and Bangladesh.” Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition, vol. 26, no. 2, 2008, p. 223.

Shelley, Louise, and Christina Bain. “Human Trafficking: Fighting the Illicit Economy with the Legitimate Economy.” Social Inclusion, vol. 3, no. 1, 2015, pp. 140–44.

Subject: Geography

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

Short Essay

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Mauritania is a poor country like most of the African countries. Just about 0.2% of the land of Mauritania is suitable for farming. The rest of the area is desert. Draughts in 70s and 80s have forced many of these people into urban areas. However, Mauritania is rich in natural resources. The railway was built for the sole purpose of transporting its iron ores. Families that live along the railway line mostly depends on merchants for their basic survival. Most people depends upon this railway line as they buy fishes in Nouadhibou. This is because the Sahara deserts is one of the driest places in the entire world but Mauritania coastal waters are filled with fishes and sell it 650 km away at Zouerat. It is their only connection to the outside world. Merchants usually travel 30 hrs. to sell fishes and other items of daily life usage. Usually after two days of rest many merchants starts their journey again. The temperature at day time can even exceed 40C and also death from falling from the rooftops are common

The Railway line which was opened in 1963, consists of a single 704km railway line linking the mountainous region of Zouerat with the port of Nouadhibou. The country contains abundance of Iron ores which is the country half of exports. Each train contains approximately 17,000 tons of iron ore which is sufficient enough to build an Eifel tower. However, iron isn’t the only subject of transport. This beast of a train typically carries Passenger cars which are sometimes attached to the train but most often merchants who travel through these trains will ride atop of hopper cars. Since, Iron ores are the main export of the country and half of the country’s economy depends upon this railway line, the dependence of peoples survival on the train is even more important. Since it is a single line railway so if anything happened to it the whole country will suffer huge losses.

Subject: Geography

Pages: 1 Words: 300

The Russian Domain

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According to the video and the book, Russia is immense geographically. It spans 5000 miles across and 2000 miles vertically. The country crosses 11 time zones and borders ranging from Norway to North Korea. This huge size of Russia also brings some problems with it. 110 million Russians live in Europe, which is about ¾ of Russia’s entire population. This centralized power system means that the majority of decisions are made to protect the core of the country which is the area around the capital Moscow.

Historically the case of defending a country was different and Russia mainly relied on pure manpower. In the next few centuries, the Grand Duchy of Moscow quickly expanded and at the time of Ivan the terrible the Kingdom was spread in the east to the Urals, south to the Caucasus mountains, and the Carpathians in the west. Eventually, the independent Khanate of Siberia was also conquered. This means the core of Russia was seriously protected. Siberia itself is large enough that with the current technology almost no army can invade through it. The supply lines will have to be thousands of miles long through extreme conditions. Similarly, the other sides are also protected by water and mountains.

On average Russian living in the same latitude as Finland, Sweden, Norway, and Canada makes only $7,500 US a year. This is also due to the geographical location of Russia. Despite the 23 thousand miles of coastline, the country has no significant warm water ice-free ports to give them access to an ocean. This limitation in Maritime power means that it has no easy way to access the world's ocean all year. The freezing of the ports is also an issue but the other major issue is that the supply line is through major choke points controlled by NATO countries or their allies. For example, to pass from the port of St. Petersburg access through the straits of Denmark which is a NATO country.

Even after the separation of all its states after the division of the USSR. Russia holds strong political ties with the. However, in the past decades, Ukraine moved from an ally of Russia towards the central European powers. This means to have access to a warm water port of Sevastopol Russia has to invade Crimea. Apart from that recently Russia has overcome its economic challenges due to Oil and Natural gas as well. Russia provides about 40% of natural gas to all of Europe. This has helped them in making allies and solving some of its geographical problems.

Subject: Geography

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Title Is Up To The Writer

India Geographic Research Report


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Geographic Analysis of the USA

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India Geographic Research Report


What are Demographics?

Demographics is the analysis and study of a region’s populations which is based mainly on factors like gender, race, and age, etc. This study is socio-economic details that are presented statistically that include different details and information. Demographics or demographic information is used by different entities such as governments and organizations etc. for different purposes such as analyzing the characteristics of people or population for research, development (policy development) and decision making.

India: An Introduction

India is one of the top countries in terms of its population and economic condition such as GDP etc. India can be found as a highly well-performing company in some aspects. India is located in Southern Asia bordered with the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. The close countries of India are Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, China, Nepal, and Pakistan. The geology of the country is diverse as it is plain in the south, flat to rolling plain, having deserts, and the Himalayas. While the government in India is a republic where the prime minister performs as the government head. The economy of India is a market economy (Singh, 2009). This is so because the economy is shaped by the free price system of products and services. Furthermore, the country is a member of the Asia Pacific Trade Agreement, and SAARC.

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Political Demographics


As India is the second-largest country of the world on the basis of its population or number of people. The country’s population estimates for 1.37 billion as per the data of the United Nations. In addition to this, India is on the seventh number in the world based on its area while (as mentioned) is the second-largest or most populous country of the world that has higher/more than 1.3 billion residents as per the results and statistics of recent reports in 2019.

Political Parties and System

The political system of India can be found enough fine and stable up to an extent. Two parties that work as leading parties in India while other small scale or level of parties also exist. The two main parties in India are Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and Indian National Congress also known as Congress and INC (Singh, 2009). BJP is the leading right-wing party of the country while INC is the leading center-left leaning party.

Economic Demographics

GDP and Economic Growth

India is a well-performing country and nation when one looks at its GDP rate and growth. The GDP of India has accounted for 7 percent in the last financial year (2018-2019). During the second and third quarters of 2019, the economy of the country has been seen to grow by 4.8 percent as compared to the very last quarter and year(s) (Singh, 2009).

The GDP of the country also shows the growth of 6 percent as per the results of the FICCI survey. The country is also expected to be growing economically in the coming quarters as the economy grows finely in the last periods such as 8.2 percent from April 2018 to June 2019.

Available Workforce

As India has a huge number of citizens or as India is the second-largest country in the world, the country has a huge amount of available workforce. According to the report findings of the World Bank, India has a total amount of workforce of 503.8 million which can be increased in the coming years. The country had been found added 6.6 million people to the workforce each year (Joseph, 2017).

Cultural Demographics


There are many languages that Indians speak in their daily lives. Currently, there are 14 regional official languages that are spoken in India while these languages have increased to 18 as per the inclusion of Sindh, Konkani, Meitei, and Nepal. But the mostly spoken language in the country is Hindi. Hindi is also the official language of India (Taubenbock, 2019). In the current times, Hindi is being spoken by more than 150 million people in India.

Diverse Ethnic Groups

In the current time, the country has almost 2100 ethnic groups as well as every major is represented where accepted and followed. There are four families of languages (Indo-European, Dravidian, Austroasiatic and Sino-Tibetan languages) as well as two language separates (Nihali and Burushaski) (Taubenbock, 2019).

Major Events Influencing Demographics

There are several events that influence demographics but the most common and highly crucial and major ones are as follows.

Political Events

Political Events influence demographics in many ways but the aspects of political events that puts such influences mainly include;

Type and stability of political bodies and government.

Press freedom, corruption level, and rule of law, etc. in India.

The trends and regulation and de-regulation and legislation in the country.

Changes in the political system and events like elections in each region.

Cultural Events

The Cultural Events that have influences on the Demographics in or of India are listed below.

Growth of the population of the country and the age profile of the people and communities.

The health, educational level, and social mobility of the population of the country.

The patterns such as employment and job market etc. (Julie Davanzo, 2011).

Public opinion, cultural attitudes, lifestyle, and changes in the socio-culture and its aspects.

Economical Events

The economic events in/of India also have a huge influence on the demographics of the country. The economic events that put the influences are;

Stages of business cycles in the country.

Existing and projected economic, interest, and inflation rate, etc.

Labor costs, unemployment rate, and supply of the labor force.

Disposable income level and income distribution

Changes in technologies and other economic aspects (Julie Davanzo, 2011).

The influences of globalization and possible changes in the economic environment.

India in 2050: Future Demographics

According to (PTI, 2019), India would be having 1.73 billion population by 2050. Beyond this, India has projected to surpass the strongly competing country “China” as the most populous country of the world near to 2027-28 as per the present situation and projection. The country is also projected to be adding around 273 million individuals/people from 2019 to 2050 where the population of Nigeria would be around 200 million (Union Budget, 2019). In short, India is projecting to become the world's most populous country by 2050 and overtake China as it will lead to generating an Indian economy of 85 trillion Dollars.

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After an in-depth analysis and geographical research about India, it has been found to conclude that India is one of the growing countries of the world. The country is so because it is the second-largest country of the world by population while 7th largest by area. Furthermore, India is also a diverse region that is a benefit as well while the economic growth, GDP, and labor force have found efficient enough. Apart from this, the political system is also fine as the country is led by a well-organized political system while the future of the country and nation can be reflected as successful and healthy in almost every aspect.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Joseph Chamie, B. M. (2017). India is unprepared for the near future when it will be the world's most populous country. Quartz India. Retrieved from https://qz.com/india/1051533/india-is-unprepared-for-a-near-future-when-it-will-be-the-worlds-most-populous-country/

Julie Davanzo, H. D. (2011). Demographic Trends, Policy Influences, and Economic Effects in China and India Through 2025. RAND Corporation. Retrieved from https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/working_papers/2011/RAND_WR849.pdf

PTI. (2019). India likely to add 273 Million People between 2019 and 2050: UN Report. The Economic Times. Retrieved from https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/india-likely-to-add-273-million-people-between-2019-and-2050-un-report/articleshow/69830509.cms?from=mdr

Review, W. P. (2019). India. Retrieved from http://worldpopulationreview.com/countries/india-population/ Review, W. P. (2019)

Singh, S. (2009). Geography in India: Some Reflections. Trans. Inst. Indian Geographers, 31(2).

Union Budget. (2019). India's Demography at 2040: Planning Public Good Provision for the 21st Century. Government of India. Retrieved from https://www.indiabudget.gov.in/economicsurvey/doc/vol1chapter/echap07_vol1.pdf

Taubenbock, H., Wegmann, M., Roth, A., Mehl, H., & Dech, S. (2019). Urbanization in India–Spatiotemporal Analysis using Remote Sensing Data. Computers, environment and urban systems, 33(3), 179-188.

Subject: Geography

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

United States Writing Activity

United States Writing Activity

Vanessa Cozamanis

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)

United States Writing Activity

The rust belt is a term that served the areas in the United States of America observing the industrial revolution. The roots of the rust belt areas are embedded in the industrial revolution of the 19th century. The mid-Atlantic region of the United States is rich in coal and iron reservoirs. The areas covered by the American Midwest are also known as the industrial heartland of America. Nowadays the areas are surrounded by post-industrial towns and buildings. The ignorance towards those areas in the United States is turning dangerous. During 1960 to 1970 the increased competition in global markets and advancements made by the global factories in this region dissolved the industrial significance of the area ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a2hvm7mk3cg","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Karam, 2017)","plainCitation":"(Karam, 2017)"},"citationItems":[{"id":1761,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/gITejLE9/items/8P3LV9ZW"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/gITejLE9/items/8P3LV9ZW"],"itemData":{"id":1761,"type":"article-journal","title":"Rust Belt Revitalization, Immigration, and Islam: Toward a Better Understanding of Mosques in Declining Urban Neighborhoods","container-title":"City & Community","page":"257-262","volume":"16","issue":"3","author":[{"family":"Karam","given":"Rebecca A."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Karam, 2017). Rustbelt cities are not what they were during the industrial revolution, but they are still serving as the commercial hub for the United States of America. The cities turned into revitalized business districts, and property values are skyrocketed due to the immigrants from various parts of the world.

In the last couple of decades booming large cities has forced people to relocate to smaller cities. Such relocation efforts have revitalized the rust belt areas in the United States. Worcester is one of the areas that has mainly been developed as a result of the rust belt revitalization. The dramatic increase in the stock prices in the Worcester may soon be part of some case studies for urban growth because the growth is outpacing all the other similar cities. The growth and trends for the cities in the area same as Worcester are termed as megalopolis and Worcester is outpacing them all in terms of the growth ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a192nfnc7te","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Pallagst, Wiechmann, & Martinez-Fernandez, 2013)","plainCitation":"(Pallagst, Wiechmann, & Martinez-Fernandez, 2013)"},"citationItems":[{"id":1762,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/gITejLE9/items/DA38BR6I"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/gITejLE9/items/DA38BR6I"],"itemData":{"id":1762,"type":"book","title":"Shrinking cities: international perspectives and policy implications","publisher":"Routledge","ISBN":"1-135-07222-1","author":[{"family":"Pallagst","given":"Karina"},{"family":"Wiechmann","given":"Thorsten"},{"family":"Martinez-Fernandez","given":"Cristina"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2013"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Pallagst, Wiechmann, & Martinez-Fernandez, 2013). However, the increased pressure of the revitalization efforts and industrial zones may become harmful in the long run. It may be a similar effect that has happened to the industrial age rust belt from 1960 to 1970.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Karam, R. A. (2017). Rust Belt Revitalization, Immigration, and Islam: Toward a Better Understanding of Mosques in Declining Urban Neighborhoods. City & Community, 16(3), 257–262.

Pallagst, K., Wiechmann, T., & Martinez-Fernandez, C. (2013). Shrinking cities: international perspectives and policy implications. Routledge.

Subject: Geography

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Wasteland Documentary

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Wasteland is a documentary that has been produced to signify an important aspect of societies, that is, removal of wastes from the environment. Workers who play an important role in cleaning a society’s wastes must get due recognition of their work. The sites where people dump waste materials in the suburban areas of cities cast a specific impression on the mind of a sensitive person. The documentary presents the view of a dumpsite that is located outside the city of Rio de Janeiro. It is named Jardim Gramacho, and it is considered as the world's largest dumpsite. Many people working there have been photographed in the documentary to show what happens on that site and how it is important to consider the issue of waste removal. Those workers, referred to as catadores, are engaged in picking the recyclable materials from the dumpsite. Catadores filmed on the dumpsite show that they are engaged in a worthwhile job. However, their living condition does not suggest that they enjoy the desirable standard of life. Lucy Walker has done an admirable job by bringing these facts to light in a thought-provoking way. The documentary is vivid, original, and interactive.

The documentary has a lot of visual appeal in the sense that it allows the viewer’s imagination to go beyond the content that has been provided in the documentary. The protagonist, Vik Muniz, goes to the suburban dumpsite, Jardim Gramacho, where he meets a number of catadores collecting recyclable materials from the heaps of refuse. The film serves multiple purposes including providing visual quality, creating awareness on the issue, and making people closer to one another.

The cause of making the documentary seems to create an awareness and movement to make people understand their responsibility toward the dumpsites that exist outside their residential areas. It can be considered as an initiative to promote awareness regarding the environmental safety. Portraying people working in heaps of garbage to remove elements of environmental pollution is admirable because the viewer will have a positive impression of this type of social responsibility.

The documentary provides a serious outlook on the lives of people working on the site. Certain viewers may find no value in doing such things and living this kind of life. Nevertheless, people filmed in this documentary exhibit a calm attitude and sense of satisfaction. They cook food, have gatherings, and enjoy their lives while working on the site. The spark in their eyes can be seen vividly, showing that they are well contented with the type of work and life they have.

The documentary is a piece of strong evidence to the fact that people can live with self-esteem even in the most unworthy places of a society. This is a very fascinating reality about human nature as it kindles the hope that humans are the most flexible creatures in the universe. They can live in harmony and peace all over the world. It is pointless to be disappointed about the future of the human race. They can derive happiness and dignity from the most unexpected places.

People living and working in dumpsites have their problems and difficulties in life. They are the same humans like all others. They have their particular social issues that must be brought into consideration the country's legislation and welfare organizations so that they can avoid any exploitation or violence. However, their efforts to survive and thrive in these circumstances are admirable. They cannot be blamed fully for any evils or crimes that exist in their social setup. The government and welfare organizations have an important role to play for their collective wellbeing.

Subject: Geography

Pages: 2 Words: 600

What Is The Importance Of The Panama Canal To The World Economy?

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Importance of the Panama Canal to the world economy

Panama is a country endowed with incredible natural resources. It occupies the 19th place worldwide for the variety of species inhabiting its territory. Two hundred twenty-five mammal species, 226 reptile species, 170 amphibian animal species, and 929 bird species share life with more than 9,000 plant varieties, 1,500 of which are native to the country. But that's not why the narrowest part of the American continent became famous, but for a book considered by many as the 8th wonder of the modern world: the Panama Canal. The Canal is the primary reference of Panama since this country became independent in November 1903. Since then, the evolution of its history focuses on the hope of taking advantage of the interoceanic route.

Panama City is one of the most vibrant economic and financial centers of Latin America. In the business district of Panama City, the numerous skyscrapers bear witness to the wealth of the Central American metropolis. Panama City has the highest number of buildings in Latin America. The municipality owes its wealth to the adjoining Panama Canal, the world's most crucial channel link connecting the Atlantic with the Pacific. In 1914, the first ship crossed the canal. Since 2007, the Panama Canal has been expanded to increase the capacity of mega-ships. Through loans and increased channel taxes, the investment volume for the expansion of the Panama Canal is estimated to be refinanced at an estimated $ 5 billion. By the year 2025, the investments should be paid off. Then sea giants such as the cruise ship Queen Mary 2 can sail the canal. Again and again, in countries such as Mexico, Costa Rica and Colombia, new canal projects are being discussed to create an alternative water connection between the Atlantic and the Pacific. The advantage lay mainly in the low altitude levels, which required no or few locks for the channel. If one of the projects were realized, the construction took up to ten years and would cost billions of dollars. For the largest cruise ships and container ships, the passage of the Panama Canal is an expensive affair. Over $ 310,000 will be due for the mega freighters and cruise ships today.

The shipping traffic through the Panama Canal is not the only source of income for Panama and Panama City. The Panama Canal is also particularly famous for international communication. Fiber optic cables for intercontinental telecommunications run here. The fiber optic cables are to become the gold donkey of Panama in the future. Above all, the US has a considerable interest in protecting the wires from international terrorism. A central pillar of the economy of Panama City is the offshore banking industry. Panama City has the highest Latin American density of foreign banks. Over a hundred banks are located in Panama City. To date (St 2010), Panama has no double taxation treaty with any country and is on the blacklist of international economic institutions as a tax haven. The OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) has put increasing pressure on Panama to organize such tax treaties in recent years. It is estimated that Panama will have to conclude double taxation agreements with many countries in the future to appease the international pressure of the economic and financial institutions. The service sector is particularly crucial for Panama and the city. The service sector is also the most critical employer market in Panama. Around 68 percent of the population in Panama work in this sector. Industry and agriculture are subordinate economic sectors. Despite the vibrant metropolis of Panama City, there is a high poverty rate in the heartland. The municipality still sees potential in international tourism and the acquisition of financially strong pensioners, who want to spend their twilight years in a pleasant climate here.

The Panama Canal, on August 26, 2016, made an extension, adding a third lane that allows transit to larger ships, positioning it as the most massive project of the Interoceanic highway since its opening in 1914, providing the shipping companies with producers and consumers:

The growth of maritime trade.

Larger cargo transport options.

Logistics improvement

According to information from the Panama Canal Authority, the expansion project has:

New Locks, which are 70 feet wider and 18 feet deeper than the current ones.

Water saving because of water re-use tanks which allow 60% of the water to be recycled which is used in each lock.

The existing ships which pass through the current locks can transport up to 5,000 TEUs, but after the expansion, that capacity can increase up to a maximum of 13,000 / 14,000 TEUs.

This expansion project has doubled Canal capacity and directly impacted economies and international maritime trade, which has helped to maintain the competitiveness and value of the sea route through Panama. For 2016, the Panama Canal and the Ports were affected by the conditions presented by the world economy, which expanded by 2.2%, the lowest rate of growth since the global financial crisis of 2009, according to the United Nations. Factors such as the weak pace of investment, the decline in international trade growth, the slow increase in productivity, the high levels of debt in some countries and the low prices of raw materials resulted in the lowest rate of economic growth.

However, the international organization estimates the expansion of the economy of 2.7% in 2017, and for the current year 2018, it has a projection of 2.9%, representing an economic stabilization that will allow increasing traffic through the Panama Canal, its revenue, as well as the movement of containers in the national port system.

Panamanian Economic Growth: With 6.1% in 2014, falling significantly to 4.8% in 2015, rising to 5.8% in 2016, then 5.4% in 2017 and 5.4% in 2018, it is the highest economic growth in Latin America over the last five years. Trade flows directly related to the Panama Canal, such as Port Activity, Transport, and Logistics Services, is emerging as the most dynamic sectors for the year 2019. With 5.9% in perspective, the growth rate for 2019 will continue to be the highest in Latin America.

The growth of Panama this year (2019), as far as the economy is concerned, will be one of the factors that will allow the country to remain, at the top of the rankings of Latin America. According to the reports presented by the World Bank during the last decade, Panama has been, is and certainly will be the Economy of more significant growth in the World. From 2001 to 2018: The annual average of Panamanian Economic Growth was 8%.

Since its construction in 1914, beginning of operations and shortly after completing the work of expanding one of the main waterways for world trade. The Panama Canal is a cause of pride for the whole nation, as it has contributed to the dynamism of the world trade by reducing distances and shipping times for maritime transport; the reason why strong investments are maintained in port infrastructures, in the Atlantic and the Pacific. The Canal's contribution to the economy can be measured from two perspectives: macroeconomic and sectoral.

In the first, the impact can be measured by exports, contribution to GDP, resources available for consumption and investment, among others. While, from the sectoral perspective, the benefits are perceived by the growth of activities such as agriculture, commerce, tourism, financial business, logistics, to name a few. This contribution is the result of the economic activity carried out by companies and individuals daily and directly or indirectly related to the operation of the Canal. Currently, it is recorded that approximately 80% of national production originates in this area where about 60% of the total population is also concentrated. It is estimated that ¾ parts of the national economy are services and that even in a higher proportion total exports are also services. This, due to the use of the strategic geographical position of Panama in the continent and in the world, which has allowed the country to be an essential piece for world trade, mainly the activity that requires or uses maritime transport that benefits from minors. Costs by traveling shorter distances and shorter times between places of origin and destination by the use of the Panama Canal. At the same time, the country benefits from this transit by generating jobs and attractive investment and production opportunities.

In turn, the rest of the country also benefits from the canal activity, due to the internal demand for goods and services produced in the provinces that are required directly or indirectly by the companies and people located around the Interoceanic Region. Transit (RIT). Also, the expenditure of public income generated by the activity of the RIT and the direct contributions made annually by the ACP to the state, as a result of surplus operations, are benefits that translate into schools, roads, hospitals, etc. Throughout the national territory.


In summary, it can be said that the Panama Canal has a significant impact on the economy through three leading roles, namely: 1) as a source of services exports, where the income received comes from Canal users, for this reason, they form part of the total exports of the economy and constitute a fundamental source of essential resources for economic growth, the generation of jobs, the flow of investments, the acquisition and adaptation of new technologies and the training of human resources; 2) it facilitates a variety of additional economic activities and 3) it serves as support for other export activities of services located in the transit zone.


Huebner, G. G. "Economic aspects of the Panama Canal." The American Economic Review 5.4 (1915): 816-829.

McCullough, David G., and Edward Herrmann. The path between the seas: the creation of the Panama Canal, 1870-1914. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1977.

Pagano, Anthony M., et al. "Impact of the Panama Canal expansion on the Panamanian economy." Maritime Policy & Management 39.7 (2012): 705-722.

Rodrigue, Jean-Paul. Factors impacting North American freight distribution given the Panama Canal expansion. Van Horne Institute, 2011.

Subject: Geography

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

Why All Maps Are Wrong

Why All Maps are Wrong

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Why All Maps are Wrong

The majority of the maps we see today are designed based on a more than 500 years old design. Most of us might be thinking that it is where the problem lies with the maps today. No, it is not where the problem exists. For understanding this problem, consider flattening a 3D object on to a 2D surface. Surely, achieving this task would mean that there would be some sort of distortion in the area and size of the final product, as revealed by Carl Friedrich Gauss a long time ago. Mathematicians have tried to solve the flattening of 3D objects on to 2D surfaces using something known as projection. A handful of popular flat rectangular maps employ cylindrical projection. In this projection, a flat paper is placed on to the globe and each point is projected accordingly. However, it is worth noting that the final product varies according to the surface of the object, which the globe is being projected on to.

Over the years, cartographers have come forward with different maps, with each suggesting their version as the best one. One such cartographer was Gerardus Mercator. He came forward with the best possible projection in 1569 known as Mercator Projection. It is considered the best projection because it preserves the shapes of many countries. The Mercator projector is famous for providing accurate navigation information. However, the drawback of Mercator projection is that it misrepresents size to preserve shape and angle. Greenland and Africa are of the same size on Mercator projection, despite having a significant difference between them when viewed on the globe. To witness an accurately displayed size of the countries, one can see Gall-Peters Projection. This projection shows Africa much larger than Greenland, as it is. However, the shape of countries is distorted.

With the development of GPS navigation, Mercator projection was abandoned by cartographers. Most of the cartographers have agreed upon Winkel Tripel Projection that preserves shape and size somewhat accurately. However, there is no right projection.

The best method to see the earth would be to see the globe entirely, as Google have abandoned Mercator Projection in 2018 and now one can see the entire globe.

Subject: Geography

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Why Israel Should Get The Land

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Israel should get the land

There is instability in Jerusalem due to the conflict between Israel and Palestine. Two communities are fighting for land and want others to leave the place. They both have their reasons and evidence based on which they claim for the land. The main purpose of the essay is to develop an argument between Palestinians and Israelis to identify who deserves the land most. It is crucial to understand because long term war and conflicts are going on between two communities, and it is causing killing and violence in the region.

Israel has the right to their land due to various reasons, and Palestine should allow living on the land, but they do not acquire the right to call that land belonged to them. The land belongs to Israel; it can be proved through history. This is because, before the Roman Empire, there was a hold of Israel on the land. Jews were present on the land, and they were allowed to live freely. However, Israel had no homeland. Later on, Turks and then the British own the land. British send troops and airplanes to damage the holy place after World War I. In fact, holy places or archeology is another source that proves that land is the right of Israel ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"l9qpRigC","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}Jewish Claim To The Land Of Israel})","plainCitation":"(Jewish Claim To The Land Of Israel)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1615,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/J8WXITLN"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/J8WXITLN"],"itemData":{"id":1615,"type":"webpage","title":"Jewish Claim To The Land Of Israel","URL":"https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jewish-claim-to-the-land-of-israel","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",11,6]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Jewish Claim To The Land Of Israel).

Archeological evidence indicates that the presence of Israelis is about three thousand years old. Items like coins, pottery, buildings, cities, and cultures all indicate that Israelis are descended from the original Israelites. There is the war for the holy place on the land. Both Israelis and Palestinians take Judaism as their holy place. The major conflict between the two communities is for this place. They both have historical and religious evidence, which indicates that Jerusalem belongs to them ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"kXoqUrcM","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}Land and Settlement Issues})","plainCitation":"(Land and Settlement Issues)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1617,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/IGTFLS92"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/IGTFLS92"],"itemData":{"id":1617,"type":"webpage","title":"Land and Settlement Issues","URL":"https://www.globalpolicy.org/security-council/index-of-countries-on-the-security-council-agenda/israel-palestine-and-the-occupied-territories/land-and-settlement-issues.html","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",11,6]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Land and Settlement Issues). Therefore, both communities are not ready to leave Jerusalem. It is not easy to conclude one community, but during 1517 and 1917, Muslims had power over the land through the Ottoman Empire. However, as discussed earlier, the presence of Jews is also proved on the land.

A prominent element that proves Israelis and their rights on land is agriculture. In contemporary times, Israel is the marvel of agriculture, and they can produce much more food items in such a deserted area than any other Arab nation. Other Arab nations are increasing their trade relationship with Israel, not for agriculture but also for the technology import related to the industry. It indicates that Israel is working in the past to achieve this success. In addition, through theology, it can be observed that Islam is the religion that is considered as the continuation of Christianity and Judaism ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"v6KrjtPC","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}The Israel-Palestinian Conflict: Each Side\\uc0\\u8217{}s Contrasting Narratives \\uc0\\u8211{} Ethical Culture Society of Bergen County NJ})","plainCitation":"(The Israel-Palestinian Conflict: Each Side’s Contrasting Narratives – Ethical Culture Society of Bergen County NJ)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1619,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/SSVZ3AGD"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/SSVZ3AGD"],"itemData":{"id":1619,"type":"webpage","title":"The Israel-Palestinian Conflict: Each Side’s Contrasting Narratives – Ethical Culture Society of Bergen County NJ","URL":"https://ethicalfocus.org/the-israel-palestinian-conflict-each-sides-contrasting-narratives/","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",11,6]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (The Israel-Palestinian Conflict: Each Side’s Contrasting Narratives – Ethical Culture Society of Bergen County NJ). However, Israel can claim for the land-based on various premises which include, religious belief that land was for their prophet Abraham. Israelis were the people who developed the land and got political sovereignty granted by the international community. Lastly, evidence shows that land was captured by Israelis in defensive wars. Though it is not easy to say to which religion Jerusalem belongs, we cannot ignore the presence of both religions in the region.

Through comparison, it can be concluded that land is important for both Israelis and Palestinians more because of their religious beliefs than other economic or social needs. History, archeology, development struggle, and religious facts indicate that Israelis acquire more rights on land than Palestinians. However, Palestinians should also allow living on the land as it is a holy place for them as well.

Work Cited

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Jewish Claim To The Land Of Israel. https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jewish-claim-to-the-land-of-israel. Accessed 6 Nov. 2019.

Land and Settlement Issues. https://www.globalpolicy.org/security-council/index-of-countries-on-the-security-council-agenda/israel-palestine-and-the-occupied-territories/land-and-settlement-issues.html. Accessed 6 Nov. 2019.

The Israel-Palestinian Conflict: Each Side’s Contrasting Narratives – Ethical Culture Society of Bergen County NJ. https://ethicalfocus.org/the-israel-palestinian-conflict-each-sides-contrasting-narratives/. Accessed 6 Nov. 2019.

Subject: Geography

Pages: 2 Words: 600

World Fresh Water Supply

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Geography: World Fresh Water Supply

The naturally occurring water is regarded as the freshwater, which does not include brackish and seawater. Water acquired through icebergs, ponds, glaciers, streams, rivers, and lakes are freshwater. Though the freshwater easily becomes polluted through human activities because of some naturally occurring processes such as erosions. Freshwater is the major source for the survival of all the living beings, although some of the organisms can thrive on the saltwater, although majority mammals and plants require fresh water to survive.


Recently the most sensitive subject which is discussed commonly is the dwindling water supply of the world but it is not completely accurate. The water amount is not reducing but the demand for water is constantly increasing. As it is estimated that the population of the world is currently almost 6 million which is going to double in 2050 ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Jy860YhO","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}Water: Lots More Information | HowStuffWorks})","plainCitation":"(Water: Lots More Information | HowStuffWorks)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":498,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/vDOrLj7p/items/6RPQL9UA"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/vDOrLj7p/items/6RPQL9UA"],"itemData":{"id":498,"type":"webpage","title":"Water: Lots More Information | HowStuffWorks","URL":"https://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/earth/geophysics/h2o8.htm#Cossi","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",12,2]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Water: Lots More Information | HowStuffWorks). Furthermore, drinkable and clean water is continuously decreasing due to pollution. Acquiring fresh and drinkable water in industrialized countries is much easier and it is inexpensive as well. But freshwater is not distributed evenly all over the world. It is reported by the World Business Council for Sustainable Development that almost half of the water supply of the world is based on only nine countries, which include Brazil, Columbia, United States, India, Canada, Russia, Congo, Indonesia, and China. The urban areas require more water beyond their fundamental requirements, which is sanitation and drinking. But in the undeveloped countries, due to overpopulation, several people even do not have access to the basic requirements.

Figure 1. Major Water Supply Countries

Issue of Water Distribution

The issue of water distribution is based on economic development, wealth and political boundaries. For example, in Mexico City, almost 9% of the total population utilizes 75% of the water and because of the crumbling infrastructure means that over half of the water during supply lost through evaporation and leakages ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"FpS9ju6W","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}Water: Lots More Information | HowStuffWorks})","plainCitation":"(Water: Lots More Information | HowStuffWorks)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":498,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/vDOrLj7p/items/6RPQL9UA"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/vDOrLj7p/items/6RPQL9UA"],"itemData":{"id":498,"type":"webpage","title":"Water: Lots More Information | HowStuffWorks","URL":"https://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/earth/geophysics/h2o8.htm#Cossi","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",12,2]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Water: Lots More Information | HowStuffWorks). Another reason is the rapid increase in population, in most of the developing countries, clean water is not enough to fulfill their basic requirements as well as they cannot afford the necessary supply infrastructure ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"TW9yC6qm","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}How Water Works\\uc0\\u8221{})","plainCitation":"(“How Water Works”)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":500,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/vDOrLj7p/items/HIETGT7W"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/vDOrLj7p/items/HIETGT7W"],"itemData":{"id":500,"type":"webpage","title":"How Water Works","container-title":"HowStuffWorks","abstract":"The world's water supply is mainly contained in underground aquifiers, which hold most of the fresh water. Learn about the world's water supply.","URL":"https://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/earth/geophysics/h2o.htm","language":"en","issued":{"date-parts":[["2007",10,18]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",12,2]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“How Water Works”). For instance, it is reported by WHO that most of the people in China suffer from freshwater shortage as well as most of the underground rivers and lakes are polluted ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"uTefjHPw","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}How the World Health Organization Works | HowStuffWorks})","plainCitation":"(How the World Health Organization Works | HowStuffWorks)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":502,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/vDOrLj7p/items/UNKNFSU4"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/vDOrLj7p/items/UNKNFSU4"],"itemData":{"id":502,"type":"webpage","title":"How the World Health Organization Works | HowStuffWorks","URL":"https://health.howstuffworks.com/medicine/healthcare/who.htm","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",12,2]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (How the World Health Organization Works | HowStuffWorks). Almost 700 million Chinese have access to water that does not fulfill the standards set by WHO. The Middle Eastern countries utilized the least amount of water each person as there are very few freshwater natural resources. In comparison to the Middle East, the United States utilizes a higher amount of water. It is reported that in 2002, per person in the U.S. used almost 60,000 cubic feet water ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"ToTxLTtQ","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}How Water Works\\uc0\\u8221{})","plainCitation":"(“How Water Works”)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":500,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/vDOrLj7p/items/HIETGT7W"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/vDOrLj7p/items/HIETGT7W"],"itemData":{"id":500,"type":"webpage","title":"How Water Works","container-title":"HowStuffWorks","abstract":"The world's water supply is mainly contained in underground aquifiers, which hold most of the fresh water. Learn about the world's water supply.","URL":"https://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/earth/geophysics/h2o.htm","language":"en","issued":{"date-parts":[["2007",10,18]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",12,2]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“How Water Works”). Although even in the United States, there are regions and states which does not contain enough water supply according to their population. The Florida coastal region has saltwater in a huge amount that the freshwater pipes are entered through the land area that resulted in political disputes on the water supply control.

About 97% of the earth is covered by saline, while only 3% is based on freshwater; it implies that freshwater has a low concentration of dissolved solids and salts. Almost 69% is based on icecaps and glaciers, while the other 30% is the groundwater, which is held at underground rock crevices and soil and the remaining 1% is based on the other sources and surface water. The 87% of the surface water consists of lakes, 11% in swamps and only 2% rivers ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"0kkWP8z9","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}The World\\uc0\\u8217{}s Fresh Water Sources\\uc0\\u8221{})","plainCitation":"(“The World’s Fresh Water Sources”)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":504,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/vDOrLj7p/items/3NACGICE"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/vDOrLj7p/items/3NACGICE"],"itemData":{"id":504,"type":"webpage","title":"The World's Fresh Water Sources","container-title":"The 71 Percent","abstract":"The water we use each day in homes and businesses is fresh water, meaning it doesn’t come from an ocean.","URL":"https://www.the71percent.org/the-worlds-fresh-water-sources/","language":"en-US","issued":{"date-parts":[["2017",7,23]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",12,2]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“The World’s Fresh Water Sources”).

Figure 2. Water Scarcity Representation of Countries

The water is supplied to the commercial organization, public utilities, and through individuals by the system of pipes and pumps. According to UNICEF, it is reported that in 2010, almost 56% population of the world have access to the piped supply of water by house connections. Although 13% do not have access to these sources as they mostly utilize unprotected springs, wells, canals, rivers, and lakes to fulfill their water requirements. Particularly, clean water is the one which is not polluted from fecal matters which is the most important requirement for public health. The destruction of sanitation infrastructure and water supply happened due to the major floods, war and earthquakes posed the major threats which produce severe diseases that are even life-threatening. Water can be acquired through various locations after proper treatment which includes surface water, groundwater, and seawater after the treatment of desalination. The steps for the water treatment consist of purification, fluoridation, and chlorination. This treated water then flowed through gravity and pumped towards the reservoir. The sewage water after treatment can be used for industrial purposes and irrigation.

Geographical Coverage

Various water utilities gave services in the single city, municipality, and town. Although, in various countries, municipalities are further associated with regional, multi-jurisdictional and inter-municipal utilities that benefit through the scale of economies. In the U.S. it has taken the special purpose districts forms that might have individual taxing authority. The example of it is WASA, the Washington D.C. utility services as well as Maryland State various localities. In Wales and England, the sewage and water supply is supplied through almost ten companies of the region. Few of the smaller countries such as the developed one have service providers who provide services in the whole country or major towns and cities. Most of the national service providers are located in Central America and West Africa but also present in Jordan, Tunisia, and Uruguay. In the rural areas, water is not usually provided through utilities but from the organizations based on the community that mostly covers various villages. The 90% of the urban sanitation services and water supply are handled through the public sector which is owned by the local authorities and state. In low and middle-income countries, such publicly managed and owned water providers might be inefficient because of political interference which leads to low productivity of labor and over-staffing. The reason that we are still facing issues in acquiring clean water, as well as sanitation, represents that the authorities of public water were not working well. Although some model the best public management form. According to the former PM of Japan, "Public water services currently provide more than 90 percent of water supply in the world. Modest improvement in public water operators will have an immense impact on the global provision of services."

The government must make arrangements for both the private and public utilities which could take various forms. The governance should define relationships among service providers, regulatory entities and customers. The financial autonomy of the service providers must also be determined for maintaining assets and for providing high-quality services. The system of water supply must be covered through ICS (International Classification of Standards) ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"NURnaWt9","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Kurian and McCarney)","plainCitation":"(Kurian and McCarney)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":506,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/vDOrLj7p/items/9U5R3SUK"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/vDOrLj7p/items/9U5R3SUK"],"itemData":{"id":506,"type":"book","title":"Peri-urban Water and Sanitation Services: Policy, Planning and Method","publisher":"Springer Netherlands","source":"www.springer.com","abstract":"More than 2.6 billion people in the developing world lack access to safe water and sanitation services. The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target is to halve the number of people without access to improved services such as a sustainable source of water supply and connection to a sewer network by 2015. That target is unlikely to be met. If there is anything that can be learnt from European development experience it is that institutional reform occurs incrementally when politically enfranchised urban populations perceive a threat to their material well-being due to contamination of water sources. Peri-urban Water and Sanitation Services, a collection of papers initially developed to support a distance-learning course at UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft, The Netherlands, challenges professionals to pursue water services dilemmas within a broader developmental framework that addresses issues of autonomy and accountability intrinsic to intergovernmental relations. This book draws on literature at the interface of common pool resources, co-production, new public management and political ecology to discuss important policy concerns that relate to rural-urban transformation, budget support, wastewater reuse and performance benchmarking. ‘This collection of work by some of the most important researchers on socio-ecological aspects of water and sanitation is timely. By highlighting the importance of behaviour, society and ecology on the management of water and sanitation, the editors are highlighting an area of work that has largely been neglected. For instance, why is it that so many technical fixes exist, and yet in practice, few successful projects are ever brought to scale?’ Mark Redwood, Program Leader, Urban Poverty and Environment Program, International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Ottawa, Canada ‘With global urban population now larger than rural, opening of public-private relationships and opportunities, and the globalisation of technology and capital, can needs of citizens for clean and affordable water and sanitation services be met? This book argues that the terrain is rapidly changing and provides an evidence-based approach not only to technology but also to governance systems that mediate access to public services.’ Gita Sen, Professor, Centre for Public Policy, Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore, India","URL":"https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9789048194247","ISBN":"978-90-481-9424-7","note":"DOI: 10.1007/978-90-481-9425-4","title-short":"Peri-urban Water and Sanitation Services","language":"en","editor":[{"family":"Kurian","given":"Mathew"},{"family":"McCarney","given":"Patricia"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2010"]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",12,2]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Kurian and McCarney).


The water resources are irregularly distributed in time and space due to under pressure political interference and changes in major population’s results in the increased demand for water. The access towards reliable data on the quantity, quality, and variability of water considered as the necessary foundation of the water resources sound management. Also, it is noticed that the freshwater resources distribution required political commitment. It is also required to make better decisions based on the management of water resources.

Work Cited

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY How the World Health Organization Works | HowStuffWorks. https://health.howstuffworks.com/medicine/healthcare/who.htm. Accessed 2 Dec. 2019.

“How Water Works.” HowStuffWorks, 18 Oct. 2007, https://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/earth/geophysics/h2o.htm.

Kurian, Mathew, and Patricia McCarney, editors. Peri-Urban Water and Sanitation Services: Policy, Planning, and Method. Springer Netherlands, 2010. www.springer.com, doi:10.1007/978-90-481-9425-4.

“The World’s Fresh Water Sources.” The 71 Percent, 23 July 2017, https://www.the71percent.org/the-worlds-fresh-water-sources/.

Water: Lots More Information | HowStuffWorks. https://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/earth/geophysics/h2o8.htm#Cossi. Accessed 2 Dec. 2019.

Subject: Geography

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