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Azore Islands

Azore Islands

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Azores Islands

The Azores islands are located in the Portuguese archipelago in the North Atlantic Ocean. Its official name is Autonomous Region of the Azores. It is autonomous of Portugal and lies in the ultra-peripheral location of the European Union. It does not have independent status in the law except for the electoral law. The capital city of the Azores is Ponta Delgada. It is approximately 900 miles distant from Lisbon and 2400 miles distant from the East Coast of North America. It has nine major islands and eight small Formigas. All of the Azores islands are originated by volcanoes; however, Santa Maria is originated by some of the reef contributions. The Azores are categorized into three different groups, namely the eastern, central, and western groups. The eastern group comprises of two islands; Sao Miguel and Santa Maria. The central group consists of Terceira, Graciosa, Sao Jorge, Pico, and Faial islands. While the western group contains Flores and Corvo islands. These islands have lakes, prairies, volcanic peaks and craters, churches, hydrangeas, and azaleas ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"8T7bX0FZ","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}About Azores,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“About Azores,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":"oMwAejmn/yFUKpMYw","uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/9QGDHWMR"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/9QGDHWMR"],"itemData":{"id":551,"type":"webpage","title":"About Azores","container-title":"Azores.com","URL":"https://azores.com/azores/general-information","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",12,3]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“About Azores,” n.d.). The temperature there remains mild between 57F to 71F. The general map of the Azores Islands and the distribution of nine islands can be seen in the figures below;

Figure 1: Map of the Azores Islands ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"FA6tnBbe","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}About Azores,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“About Azores,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":"oMwAejmn/yFUKpMYw","uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/9QGDHWMR"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/9QGDHWMR"],"itemData":{"id":551,"type":"webpage","title":"About Azores","container-title":"Azores.com","URL":"https://azores.com/azores/general-information","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",12,3]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“About Azores,” n.d.)

Figure 2: Location of Nine Islands of the Azores ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"g4qu1MNS","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Azevedo, 2017)","plainCitation":"(Azevedo, 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":"oMwAejmn/Jm3nUY91","uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/MGM6MWEH"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/MGM6MWEH"],"itemData":{"id":553,"type":"article-journal","title":"Research for REGI Committee: The economic, social, and territorial situation of the Azores (Portugal)","container-title":"European Parliament, PE","page":"12","volume":"601","author":[{"family":"Azevedo","given":"F."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Azevedo, 2017)

The total population of the Azores as of 2018 records was 243,862 and the population growth was -0.39% per year. The total area is 2322 km square and the density of the region is 105.02 inhabitants per km square. The GDP of the region as of 2015 was $ 4.220 billion USD and GDP per capita was $17,398 USD. The GDP growth rate per year is 2%. As of survey of 2017, the average life expectancy of the region was 77.45 years. The birth rate as of 2014 was 9.40%; however, the death rate was 9.40%. The fertility rate in the region, according to the 2017 reports, was 1.25 children per woman and the infant mortality rate as of 2014 was 3.50%. The literacy rate of the region as per 2015 reports was 95.68%. It is one of the largest tourist attractions as, according to the report of 2016, 1,487,428 people had visited the Azores in a year. The employment rate as of 2016 statistics was 59.7%. The marine surface area of the Azores is 954,596 km square and it earns it the title of the biggest Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) within the European Unions ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"xdqMjcRn","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Azores,\\uc0\\u8221{} 2019)","plainCitation":"(“Azores,” 2019)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":"oMwAejmn/7ggT6FcY","uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/SXFYE7NM"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/SXFYE7NM"],"itemData":{"id":554,"type":"webpage","title":"Azores","container-title":"en.populationdata.net","URL":"https://en.populationdata.net/countries/azores/","issued":{"date-parts":[["2019",4]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",12,3]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Azores,” 2019). The geographical location of the Azores archipelagos is tepid and with oceanic, subtropical and mild annual checks of the temperature.

The Azores Islands have enjoyed the status of an autonomous region since 1976. It has its own political and administrative governments and all the institutions are self-governing such as the regional government and the legislative assembly. As the Azores is an autonomous region, it carries its own powers for tax-raising and designing its own regional economic as well as social development plans. It also looks after its regional budget and is involved in the negotiations of international accords and agreements concerning the region. It also has the autonomy of regulating the agricultural policies, fisheries, ocean resources, trade, economics, industry, tourism, infrastructure, environmental concerns and urban and regional planning. The economy and labor market of the region are dependent on the services that it provides. The employment is the matter of public administration, wholesales, transportation, accommodation and eateries. Agriculture and fisheries contribute significantly to the overall economy of the region. Agricultural employment does not require any specific qualifications, reduced transportation cost and these factors make it a less competitive domain among its competitors. Dairy farming has become very common. The production department consists of cereals, horticultural items, wine, fruits, and plants.

The industry is primarily dependent on the agricultural food type, namely cheese, milk, butter and other forestry processing. The amazing landscapes, ecosystems and the variations in biodiversity have contributed a lot in gaining the tourists. These activities imply the benefits of the tourism industry along with the personal broader range of activities. However, in past few years, the region has gone through a huge amount of effort and attention in order to attract innovative technologies. The modernizing and restructuring in the production sector can bring about significant changes in the utilization of new technology as per the requirement. Albeit the current production growth, the structural economic, as well as social flaws, still pose serious challenges for the region that is still in the developing condition ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"ewwE5MMC","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Azevedo, 2017)","plainCitation":"(Azevedo, 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":"oMwAejmn/Jm3nUY91","uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/MGM6MWEH"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/9Hfkg8Y0/items/MGM6MWEH"],"itemData":{"id":553,"type":"article-journal","title":"Research for REGI Committee: The economic, social, and territorial situation of the Azores (Portugal)","container-title":"European Parliament, PE","page":"12","volume":"601","author":[{"family":"Azevedo","given":"F."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Azevedo, 2017). According to the regional statistics of the year 2014, the regional GDP of the Azores’ nine islands can be seen in the graphs below;

Figure 3: Graph Representing the Distribution of Regional GDP in Different Islands – 2014

The Azores islands were created by volcanic and seismic activity in the Neogene period and the first nascent surfaces started to emerge in the waters of the Santa Maria in the Miocene epoch. Due to the geodynamic environment, the Azore region has remained the center of severe seismic activities, mainly along with the tectonic plates on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the Terceira Rift. The Azores have been receiving aid from the European Nations when Portugal joined it in 1986. The archipelago was recognized as a territory on the basis of Article 349 in the Treaty on functioning of the European Union. They stated that it is remote, small in size, promotes topography and insularity over certain climate change and various other products. Its union with the EU has a positive influence on the regional growth of the GDP. The natural landscapes of the Azores Islands depict a significant geodiversity linked with productive biodiversity. It has, without a doubt, the most beautiful and fascinating sceneries. It is considered as a beginning point for the progress of geotourism. It offers a variety of experiences and emotions associated with values, history, and cultural heritage. It promotes geotourism by the production of quality goods and services as well as traditional activities such as crafts and regional resources ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"mzWznRUa","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Lima, Machado, & Nunes, 2013)","plainCitation":"(Lima, Machado, & Nunes, 2013)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":799,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/OnfrXiA2/items/FP2UJPYB"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/OnfrXiA2/items/FP2UJPYB"],"itemData":{"id":799,"type":"article-journal","container-title":"Czech Journal of Tourism","issue":"2","page":"126-142","title":"Geotourism development in the Azores archipelago (Portugal) as an environmental awareness tool","volume":"2","author":[{"family":"Lima","given":"Eva Almeida"},{"family":"Machado","given":"Marisa"},{"family":"Nunes","given":"João Carlos"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2013"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Lima, Machado, & Nunes, 2013).

The economy and industry of the Azores Islands are quite vulnerable in case of any crises such as small economies and outer most regions. Some geographical priorities must be fulfilled to get through. There are several development challenges that invoke an individual’s economic, financial and scientific problems. The geographical location of the archipelago's is challenging, such that it adds to the costs of goods and services. Thus, in order to compete in the multi-diverse environment, it is important to keep balance along with the traditional production process sample. They also need to improve the production, costs and consequences based on the environmental changes and the whole ecosystem so as to increase the local economy. It is important to maintain a position and attract the businessmen and stakeholders to work through right in the globalized world. The archipelago's provides several opportunities based on its geostrategic location and biodiversity. The natural and cultural heritage of the islands has improved the tourism potential and can help in shaping the regional economy. Climate change also has severe implications on the geography of the Azores. However, these challenges can be regarded as opportunities for the development of pilot projects in order to mitigate the negative aspects and providing adaptation measures.

References

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY About Azores. (n.d.). Retrieved December 3, 2019, from Azores.com website: https://azores.com/azores/general-information

Azevedo, F. (2017). Research for REGI Committee: The economic, social, and territorial situation of the Azores (Portugal). European Parliament, PE, 601, 12.

Azores. (2019, April). Retrieved December 3, 2019, from En.populationdata.net website: https://en.populationdata.net/countries/azores/

Lima, E. A., Machado, M., & Nunes, J. C. (2013). Geotourism development in the Azores archipelago (Portugal) as an environmental awareness tool. Czech Journal of Tourism, 2(2), 126–142.

Subject: Geography

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

Book Reaction Paper

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Book Reaction Paper

Introduction

Isaac’s Storm: A Man, a Time, and The Deadliest Hurricane in History by Eric Larson is a story of a prominent Galveston Hurricane, that occurred in the year 1900 on the island of Galveston, Texas. The book gives an account of the town’s meteorologist Isaac Cline, who is the head of the Weather Bureau and fails to predict that dangerous hurricane.  In the Weather Bureau, Cline understood more than every other person about the nature of tropical storms, still, he was unable to forecast the hurricane's magnitude and suggest rescue operations beforehand. Isaac Cline learns a tough truth that nature is very volatile, particularly regarding the extent of the catastrophic actions of nature. This paper will give a reflection of the book based on my thoughts and opinions.

Summary

On the evening of September 1900, Isaac peacefully lays in his bed after assuring the town’s people that no extreme hurricane will hit the town after collecting all the facts that proved the utter absence of any tragedy in the near future. Cuba’s meteorologists who known as the best scientists of their era to accurately predict weather were put down by the Weather Bureau. Cuba meteorologist identified all the facts related to the prediction and notified the authorities that the hurricane would hit South Texas destroying everything in its way. Weather Bureau refused to believe Cuba meteorologist and assured its residents that the hurricane would lose its momentum on its way to Florida where it would most likely curve away to another dimension. When a storm hits the town, it initially floods the streets, followed by the rain and wind which eventually increased in the magnitude by midnight. The storm caused the power outage in the town which led to the disruption of the telegram signals. It was the time when residents realized that perhaps they are going to see the worst storm of the century. The storm destroyed the city by drowning half of the island and killing almost everything in its way. One-third of the total population was wiped away from the Earth as a result of this hurricane killing almost 12,000 residents while leaving thousands of them, homeless. Cline survives with the guilt of killing most of the town including his wife.

Thoughts and Opinions

Considering the geographical aspect of the book, I believe Larson has done a great job of depicting the disaster. The way he tracked the Cline's refusal to believe the fact that a deadly storm could be a fate of the town by depicting the storm and its impact itself is appreciating. Initially, the book begins at a chronicle preface which later swings in the methodical antiquity of hurricane expectation and the scientific explanation for its phenomena. It also gives the possible environmental factors and perfect conditions that might have contributed to the cause of a deadly hurricane. Moreover, by combining the distinct sources of biography and science, Larson tries to construct the events in the sequence of their occurrence. By analyzing the narrative content of the book, it is evident, that the events of the disaster are illustrative or hypothetical. This makes the book one of the fascinating and comprehensive pieces of study in the scientific meteorology, considering how it comes from the one’s prediction than experience and how it influences the community planning. Isaac Cline outlines his individual experiences throughout this highly destructive storm's emergence. The tale is an outstanding artwork that reveals a human-versus-nature concept; the writer achieves the aim very well indeed. He includes the various accounts of victims without the storm itself being overlooked. The story demonstrates to the whole humankind that it is naive to assume, that they will surpass nature. Erik Larson also uses an oblique reference in Isaac's Storm to evoke the forces of nature. While the writer states that Galveston has become Atlantis, he refers to the renowned tale of Lost City of Atlantis. According to the book, the entire city of Galveston sinks at the bottom of the sea. This makes the audience realize, that the day of the storm poured a large amount of water into Galveston. The reader understands the magnitude and effect, the catastrophe had on Galveston by this oblique reference. Furthermore, it depicts the forces of nature and conditions to transform Galveston, which is counted among the top functional cities, into Atlantis.

Conclusion

Isaac’s Storm: A Man, a Time, and The Deadliest Hurricane in History is an incredibly detailed book of geography. It might apply not just to storms, but to natural catastrophes of all types. It is especially helpful due to the insights it elucidates regarding an individual’s preparation for imminent tragedies. The book further reinforces the notion of the complex and random nature, to humankind. It supplies practical advice for the current fast-growing meteorological era in the pursuit to tackle hazards on time defending human lives and property against nature's wrath. Larson mourns the reality that one person's over-confidence in a scientific intimate situation will result in the casualties of too many helpless individuals. The disaster established a precedent that shaped the coming years of weather forecasting research and reinforced government assistance for effective climate and weather monitoring. Nonetheless, Larson finishes Isaac's Storm, acknowledging that Galveston has managed to raise its basic altitude and restored almost all of its prior state. Even though it was finally succeeded as the main commercial coastal city of Texas by Houston, the revival tale has always been an omnipresent sign of National strength.

Subject: Geography

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Book Reflection On “Downwardly Global: Women, Work, And Citizenship In The Pakistani Diaspora

Book Reflection on “Downwardly Global: Women, Work, and Citizenship in the Pakistani Diaspora

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Lalaie Ameeriar in Downwardly Global scrutinizes the intercontinental migration of the labor of Pakistani Women to Canada, Toronto. My reflection paper will start with summarizing the main findings and arguments of the research; it will describe what this book is arguing. Then, it will cover how the research of the author helped me understand ethnography as a research method. I will enlighten what the researcher did, what were the ethnographic methods how did she build relationships, how did she get information and how long it took for the researcher to conduct this research. It will furthermore illuminate how ethnographic methods lead to a greater understanding of the issues she is studying, and her relationship with the group being studied. I will discuss what I learn about the personality of the researcher and how she described herself. At the end, I will discuss the greatest strengths of this ethnographic research project and its limitations. This book illuminates that despite being expert professionals in various fields including medicine, law, education, and engineering, they face high levels of poverty and unemployment. It juxtaposes experiences of the Pakistani immigrant women in state-funded redundancy workshops, where these women are ordered not to dress ethnic outfits or not to smell like traditional Indian food, with the experiences of them at cultural festivals, where they are heartened to promote these similar differences. This kind of multiculturalism, Lalaie Ameeriar divulges whiteness of privileges while using gender, cultural difference, and race as an accused of the catastrophes of the Canadian neoliberal policies. The book Downwardly Global compellingly explains how these immigrants are coached for citizenship by their ability to labor. The author argues that yearning for paid-work is essential to her conversers’ identities, a desire Ameeriar describes as the “post-Fordist effect.” It explains how discourses of the culture enlighten identities of immigrants as laborers; excesses of their smell and dress must be disciplined and made pleasant to the work environment. However, there are few systemic blockades averting them from inflowing into the proficient work force that can even not be upgraded by cultural training. Therefore, many interlocutors of author turn to the survival-jobs with not as much of cultural capital and mounting economic kinesis, than those they apprehended or coached for in Pakistan (end of page 157). Ammeriar’s arguments are persuasive and are backed up with nice and subtle descriptions and statistics. She has poured her experiences compellingly in this book which delivers the sense of hopelessness and humiliation experienced by the Pakistani women, as the realization originates that chances of their searching jobs that are suitable to their qualification and expertise move far into the distance. Ameeriar’s ethnographic descriptions of training and resettlement centers show how comportment is regulated bodily, how bodies of immigrants are instructed to not give masala smell, rehearse new accents, no wearing of hijabs, make eye contact and have strong handshakes. By addressing this recalibration of bodies of immigrants “sanitized sensorium,” Lalaie Ameeriar emphases her examination on olfactory and visual regulations that are dictated in training, although as we hear regarding to showers, grip, accent, flavors and sweat, other senses are invoked. Author’s analysis places white and masculine codes simply that govern the “professionalism” hegemonies as well as the sexism and racism in a diversity of industries of Canada. While discussing sanitized sensorium, Lalaie Ameeriar regards the choosy nature of the regulation of culture. For instance, in the expedient appeal of the clothing of South Asia and exhibition of food at the city and state-sponsored heritage festivals, but rejecting this on South Asian bodies in the work environment. This shows the two-faced and hypocrite policies that are imposed on the immigrants. Sanitized sensorium also explains how immigrant labors are categorized into affective systems. In chapter 2, the author focuses on the nurses training program and explains how immigrant women are coached by the instructor to interact with the clients in the hospital. If the nurse gets frustrated or angry with a client in hospital, she should avoid becoming confrontational, take a deep breath and relax ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a252v6cfvkp","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf (\\uc0\\u8220{}DOWNWARDLY GLOBAL: Women, Work, and Citizenship in the Pakistani Diaspora | By Lalaie Ameeriar | Pacific Affairs,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)}","plainCitation":"(“DOWNWARDLY GLOBAL: Women, Work, and Citizenship in the Pakistani Diaspora | By Lalaie Ameeriar | Pacific Affairs,” n.d.)"},"citationItems":[{"id":490,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/2RJg7y7G/items/RUBW7UCQ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/2RJg7y7G/items/RUBW7UCQ"],"itemData":{"id":490,"type":"webpage","title":"DOWNWARDLY GLOBAL: Women, Work, and Citizenship in the Pakistani Diaspora | By Lalaie Ameeriar | Pacific Affairs","URL":"https://pacificaffairs.ubc.ca/book-reviews/downwardly-global-women-work-and-citizenship-in-the-pakistani-diaspora-by-lalaie-ameeriar/","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",1,18]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“DOWNWARDLY GLOBAL: Women, Work, and Citizenship in the Pakistani Diaspora | By Lalaie Ameeriar | Pacific Affairs,” n.d.). The author argues in a shrewd analysis of this management of emotions that such training antedate racism in the workplace against the minority women, but place regulation on these immigrant women to manage and comply racist harassment ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"RLhkIHE2","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf (\\uc0\\u8220{}DOWNWARDLY GLOBAL: Women, Work, and Citizenship in the Pakistani Diaspora | By Lalaie Ameeriar | Pacific Affairs,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)}","plainCitation":"(“DOWNWARDLY GLOBAL: Women, Work, and Citizenship in the Pakistani Diaspora | By Lalaie Ameeriar | Pacific Affairs,” n.d.)"},"citationItems":[{"id":490,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/2RJg7y7G/items/RUBW7UCQ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/2RJg7y7G/items/RUBW7UCQ"],"itemData":{"id":490,"type":"webpage","title":"DOWNWARDLY GLOBAL: Women, Work, and Citizenship in the Pakistani Diaspora | By Lalaie Ameeriar | Pacific Affairs","URL":"https://pacificaffairs.ubc.ca/book-reviews/downwardly-global-women-work-and-citizenship-in-the-pakistani-diaspora-by-lalaie-ameeriar/","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",1,18]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“DOWNWARDLY GLOBAL: Women, Work, and Citizenship in the Pakistani Diaspora | By Lalaie Ameeriar | Pacific Affairs,” n.d.).

Moreover, these sessions assume that there is an essentialist division between immigrant and Western emotional registers ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"MURsw3hZ","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf (\\uc0\\u8220{}\\uc0\\u8216{}Downwardly Global\\uc0\\u8217{} | The UCSB Current,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)}","plainCitation":"(“‘Downwardly Global’ | The UCSB Current,” n.d.)"},"citationItems":[{"id":528,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/2RJg7y7G/items/6JG6MV6A"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/2RJg7y7G/items/6JG6MV6A"],"itemData":{"id":528,"type":"webpage","title":"‘Downwardly Global’ | The UCSB Current","URL":"http://www.news.ucsb.edu/2017/017816/downwardly-global","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",1,18]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“‘Downwardly Global’ | The UCSB Current,” n.d.). Authors enlighten that when she was discussing restraining processes, the instructor was invoking conventions of cruel non-Western people when they thought that Pakistani women have experienced and perceived more tough handlings “at home.” Research of the author shows clear results that the nursing programs have higher success in employing Pakistani immigrant women workers than any other career training organization for immigrant labors. The author argues that nursing is gendered already, therefore somewhat cooperating of their identity. Hurdles to the placement of the jobs emerge from the licensing bureaucracy that condenses the expert migrants uncertified in regulated professions like law, social work, and education, amongst the others ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a2hogd0fn5s","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Chaudhary, 2018)","plainCitation":"(Chaudhary, 2018)"},"citationItems":[{"id":495,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/2RJg7y7G/items/JDZNIJKF"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/2RJg7y7G/items/JDZNIJKF"],"itemData":{"id":495,"type":"article-journal","title":"Downwardly Global: Women, Work, and Citizenship in the Pakistani Diaspora","container-title":"Contemporary Sociology","page":"429-431","volume":"47","issue":"4","source":"SAGE Journals","DOI":"10.1177/0094306118779814","ISSN":"0094-3061","shortTitle":"Downwardly Global","journalAbbreviation":"Contemp Sociol","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Chaudhary","given":"Ali R."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018",7,1]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Chaudhary, 2018). In addition, some of the certifications charge a lot of money and many years of reeducation which leads migrants to pick survival jobs temporarily, but they end up sticking to these jobs which are not appropriate according to their expertise. Moreover, those who successfully acquire the certification, they continuously and repeatedly face the solid barriers on their entry new work environments ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"qt5cA8N4","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Ameeriar, 2017)","plainCitation":"(Ameeriar, 2017)"},"citationItems":[{"id":500,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/2RJg7y7G/items/93GHVR2M"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/2RJg7y7G/items/93GHVR2M"],"itemData":{"id":500,"type":"book","title":"Downwardly Global : Women, Work, and Citizenship in the Pakistani Diaspora","publisher":"Duke University Press","source":"www.oapen.org","URL":"http://www.oapen.org/search?identifier=625273","ISBN":"978-0-8223-7340-7","shortTitle":"Downwardly Global","language":"eng","author":[{"family":"Ameeriar","given":"Lalaie"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Ameeriar, 2017). Lalaie Ameeriar’s analysis grasps the Canadian settler state responsible for not only recognizing gatekeeping bureaucracies but also for presenting how its celebrated-multiculturalism support racial difference to unclear white privilege. Ameeriar details in chapter 4, the congratulatory and flattening rationalities of multiculturalism, involving the use of the category of “South Asian” uncritically, obscure the religion, faith, and class struggle that Pakistani immigrant women are facing ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a2d0knbipvb","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Khubchandani, 2018)","plainCitation":"(Khubchandani, 2018)"},"citationItems":[{"id":496,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/2RJg7y7G/items/V9CQX4MV"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/2RJg7y7G/items/V9CQX4MV"],"itemData":{"id":496,"type":"article-journal","title":"Downwardly Global: Women, Work, and Citizenship in the Pakistani Diaspora by Lalaie Ameeriar (review)","container-title":"Journal of Asian American Studies","page":"157-159","volume":"21","issue":"1","source":"Project MUSE","DOI":"10.1353/jaas.2018.0006","ISSN":"1096-8598","shortTitle":"Downwardly Global","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Khubchandani","given":"Kareem"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018",2,9]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Khubchandani, 2018). Ameeriar spent more than a year in interviewing several policy makers and activists and in attending courses. She herself is a daughter of a skilled mother, and she understands the struggles and efforts Pakistani immigrant women are having in Toronto. In her book she offers many close encounters with all her interlocutors individually, reading her book one can clearly feel their struggles for the striving of justice, dignity, and legibility in their interviews. It reminds of “diva citizenship” of Lauren Berlant ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a28odgd8r3j","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Ameeriar, 2017)","plainCitation":"(Ameeriar, 2017)"},"citationItems":[{"id":500,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/2RJg7y7G/items/93GHVR2M"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/2RJg7y7G/items/93GHVR2M"],"itemData":{"id":500,"type":"book","title":"Downwardly Global : Women, Work, and Citizenship in the Pakistani Diaspora","publisher":"Duke University Press","source":"www.oapen.org","URL":"http://www.oapen.org/search?identifier=625273","ISBN":"978-0-8223-7340-7","shortTitle":"Downwardly Global","language":"eng","author":[{"family":"Ameeriar","given":"Lalaie"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Ameeriar, 2017). Lalaie Ameeriar’s explanations of the living conditions and biographies of these Pakistani immigrant women clear the dangerous situations these women are facing, from post-partition disarticulation to workplace and local abuse and harassment, and the deskilling of the workers that entire book documents. However, the testimonials of Pakistani immigrant women, their evaluation of training programs, other forms of racism, descriptions of elderly and artist collectives, book of Ameeriar echoes a significantly important exhortation from feminist scholars, claiming that in spite of the several measures at which violence and disenfranchisement function, migrant women of Pakistan ingeniously find ways to stand, survive and continue.

References

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Ameeriar, L. (2017). Downwardly Global : Women, Work, and Citizenship in the Pakistani Diaspora. Duke University Press. Retrieved from http://www.oapen.org/search?identifier=625273

Chaudhary, A. R. (2018). Downwardly Global: Women, Work, and Citizenship in the Pakistani Diaspora. Contemporary Sociology, 47(4), 429–431. https://doi.org/10.1177/0094306118779814

‘Downwardly Global’ | The UCSB Current. (n.d.). Retrieved January 18, 2019, from http://www.news.ucsb.edu/2017/017816/downwardly-global

DOWNWARDLY GLOBAL: Women, Work, and Citizenship in the Pakistani Diaspora | By Lalaie Ameeriar | Pacific Affairs. (n.d.). Retrieved January 18, 2019, from https://pacificaffairs.ubc.ca/book-reviews/downwardly-global-women-work-and-citizenship-in-the-pakistani-diaspora-by-lalaie-ameeriar/

Khubchandani, K. (2018). Downwardly Global: Women, Work, and Citizenship in the Pakistani Diaspora by Lalaie Ameeriar (review). Journal of Asian American Studies, 21(1), 157–159. https://doi.org/10.1353/jaas.2018.0006

‘Downwardly Global’ | The UCSB Current. (n.d.). Retrieved January 18, 2019, from http://www.news.ucsb.edu/2017/017816/downwardly-global

Subject: Geography

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

Canada Warming At Twice The Global Rate

Canada Warming at Twice the Global Rate

[Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees]

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Canada’s temperature is increasing a lot faster than the rest of the world. This was revealed in “Canada’s Changing Global Climate Report”. The report was specially made by Canadian Government website that deals with Environment and climate change. The report mentioned that Canada’s climate is changing and will continue to change at a double rate as compared to global warming ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"zUZ42de8","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Canada\\uc0\\u8217{}s Changing Climate Report,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“Canada’s Changing Climate Report,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":137,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/cYhHNKoU/items/LBHU86V5"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/cYhHNKoU/items/LBHU86V5"],"itemData":{"id":137,"type":"post-weblog","title":"Canada’s Changing Climate Report","URL":"https://changingclimate.ca/CCCR2019/","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",11,6]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Canada’s Changing Climate Report,” n.d.). The report also covered some of the key points that were resulting in the increase of Canada’s temperature. The report highlighted that the rise in Canada’s temperature is due to “human influence”. The report also stated that there were more rains in Canada than snow since 1948 and this trend is likely to continue in the 21st century. The temperature ranges have also changed which means that the extreme value of hot temperature is increasing so is the value of extreme cold temperature CITATION Mck15 \l 1033 (Mckinney, et al., 2015). The extreme hot temperature is likely to become hotter and intense. The percentage of land that was covered by snow has decreased over the past 30 years. The sea level is increasing which means that the chance of flooding has also increased. The report also stated that there will also be a shortage of freshwater because of the warmer summers as more water will evaporate and less water will be available for drinking and usage purpose CITATION Sea16 \l 1033 (Searle & Chen, 2016).

The report however, didn’t included any new thing as all of this was predominantly visible to many researchers. The temperature of the north American continent is specially affected by the changes in the environment. However, Canada as whole is even warming twice as much as any other country CITATION Tak18 \l 1033 (Takhsha, et al., 2018). In the northern Canada, the annual temperature has increased by almost 2.3 C ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"yJCbLwhY","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Apr 01 & April 5, 2019)","plainCitation":"(Apr 01 & April 5, 2019)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":139,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/cYhHNKoU/items/TNB4UST7"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/cYhHNKoU/items/TNB4UST7"],"itemData":{"id":139,"type":"webpage","title":"Canada warming at twice the global rate, leaked report finds | CBC News","container-title":"CBC","abstract":"A leaked copy of a government report on climate change says that since 1948, Canada's annual average temperature over land has warmed 1.7 C, with higher rates seen in the North, the Prairies and northern British Columbia.","URL":"https://www.cbc.ca/news/technology/canada-warming-at-twice-the-global-rate-leaked-report-finds-1.5079765","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Apr 01","given":"CBC News · Posted:"},{"family":"April 5","given":"2019 3:17 PM ET | Last Updated:"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019",4,1]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",11,6]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Apr 01 & April 5, 2019). The effects of rise in temperature will be even more evident as it is dangerous to the very existence of the country. Canada is all about glaciers and beautiful coastlines, however, the rise of temperature is shortening the well-known winters of the country by converting snows into rain falls CITATION LiG18 \l 1033 (Li, et al., 2018). One of the major reasons of this rise in temperature is the global increase in the emission of carbon dioxide and if serious steps are not taken against it, the situation will only get worse. The rise in global temperature is much higher than anything that the world has ever experienced and it is affecting the country specifically and the world as a whole CITATION Dav16 \l 1033 (Davenport, Hossack, & Fishback, 2016).

Hotter temperature in the country means that the risks of heatwaves and wildfires as well as draughts can increase exponentially in the coming decades. The oceans are expected to be more polluted with increase in acidity and reduction in oxygen level. This is not only affecting human life but also will affect hugely on marine life CITATION Gon17 \l 1033 (Gonsamo, Chen, Colombo, Ter-Mikaelian, & Chen, 2017). On the land, the famous polar bears will find it difficult without extensive snows. In few decades, parts of the Canada’s Arctic ocean will face ice free periods. Not only the rise in sea level will cause more flooding but the increased rain fall will also amplify the risks of flooding CITATION Zho17 \l 1033 (Zhou, Huang, Baetz, Wang, & Cheng, 2017).

The government of Canada is taking extensive steps at federal level and have also warned the provinces two years ago and told them to contribute towards the reduction targets of the country. The federal government have accused Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan and New Brunswick of failing to reach their target of reduction CITATION San15 \l 1033 (Sand, et al., 2015). The government is also planning to add a carbon tax to the fuel i.e. is equal to 4.4 Canadian cents per liter which will almost double by that of 2022. The Government is also planning to introduce “Climate Action Incentives” to compensate households CITATION Zho18 \l 1033 (Zhou, Huang, Wang, & Cheng, 2018).

References

BIBLIOGRAPHY Davenport, J. M., Hossack, B. R., & Fishback, L. (2016). Additive impacts of experimental climate change increase risk to an ectotherm at the Arctic's edge. Global Change Biology, 23(6). Retrieved from https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/gcb.13543

Gonsamo, A., Chen, J. M., Colombo, S. J., Ter-Mikaelian, M. T., & Chen, J. (2017). Global change induced biomass growth offsets carbon released via increased forest fire and respiration of the central Canadian boreal forest. Advancing Earth and Space Science, 122(5). Retrieved from https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/2016JG003627

Hori, Y., Gough, W. A., Butler, K., & Tsuji, L. J. (2017). Trends in the seasonal length and opening dates of a winter road in the western James Bay region, Ontario, Canada. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 129(3-4), 1309-1320. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00704-016-1855-1

Li, G., Zhang, X., Cannon, A. J., Murdock, T., Sobie, S., & Zwiers, F. (2018). Indices of Canada’s future climate for general and agricultural adaptation applications. Climate Change, 148(1-2), 249-263. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10584-018-2199-x

Mckinney, M. A., Pedro, S., Dietz, R., Sonne, C., Fisk, A. T., Roy, D., . . . Letcher, R. J. (2015). A review of ecological impacts of global climate change on persistent organic pollutant and mercury pathways and exposures in arctic marine ecosystems. Current Zoology, 61(4), 617-628. Retrieved from https://academic.oup.com/cz/article/61/4/617/1803137

Qinghua Ding, A. S.-C.-W. (2017). Influence of high-latitude atmospheric circulation changes on summertime Arctic sea ice. Natural Climate Change, 289-295. Retrieved from https://www.nature.com/articles/nclimate3241

Sand, M., Berntsen, T. K., Salzen, K. V., Flanner, M., Langner, J., & Victor, D. G. (2015). Response of Arctic temperature to changes in emissions of short-lived climate forcers. Natural Climate Change, 6, 286-289. Retrieved from https://www.nature.com/articles/nclimate2880

Searle, E. B., & Chen, H. Y. (2016). Persistent and pervasive compositional shifts of western boreal forest plots in Canada. Global Change Biology, 23(2). Retrieved from https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/gcb.13420

Takhsha, M., Nikiéma, O., Lucas-Picher, P., Laprise, R., Hernández-Díaz, L., & Winger, K. (2018). Dynamical downscaling with the fifth-generation Canadian regional climate model (CRCM5) over the CORDEX Arctic domain: effect of large-scale spectral nudging and of empirical correction of sea-surface temperature. Climate Dynamics, 51(1-2), 161-186. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00382-017-3912-6

Trishchenko, A. P., & Wang, S. (2018). Variations of Climate, Surface Energy Budget, and Minimum Snow/Ice Extent over Canadian Arctic Landmass for 2000–16. Advancing Science. Retrieved from https://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/full/10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0198.1

Zhou, X., Huang, G., Baetz, B. W., Wang, X., & Cheng, G. (2017). PRECIS‐projected increases in temperature and precipitation over Canada. Royal Metereological Society. Retrieved from https://rmets.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/qj.3231

Zhou, X., Huang, G., Wang, X., & Cheng, G. (2018). Future Changes in Precipitation Extremes Over Canada: Driving Factors and Inherent Mechanism. Advancing Earth and Space Science, 123(11). Retrieved from https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1029/2017JD027735

Subject: Geography

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Chapter 10

Your Name

Instructor Name

Course Number

Date

Chapter 10: Geography

Under Soviet Union, the management of energy and water was done as there was a centralized system through which every country was assigned a task according to the resources each country had. Since the fall of Soviet Union, this systemized management has been disrupted as there is no proper regulation. Five countries of Central Asia were involved in this management system. After the fall, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan withdrew from the arrangement as they realized that they would be able to sell their energy to countries such as Afghanistan. The system crumbled which led to the energy crisis in Central Asia. The reason why water and energy management system was so efficient was due to the fact that Moscow acted as the regulatory body, controlling these countries.

This caused Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan to increase their water production in order to fulfill energy requirements in the region. Due to shortage of energy in the region, energy and food prices increased drastically. In 2010, there were riots in Kyrgyzstan that resulted in violence all over the country after the president was unseated. This violence was said to be because of increased prices of electricity and gas. Heating was not available for the public in winters due to which people were forced to live in extreme conditions. Kyrgyzstan suffered a lot due to energy crisis. Tajikistan also suffered the most during harsh winter season because there was no arrangement of providing heat and energy to households. In addition to this situation, natural sources of water especially Amu Darya River are drying up due to global warming, escalating the crisis further.

Subject: Geography

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Comparative Essay

Name of Student

Name of Professor

Name of Class

Day Month Year

Geography

Compare and contrast the trading system between the Silk Road Trade and Indian Ocean Trade from 1000 to 1450 CE

Silk Road and Indian Ocean were the two major routes for trade in the past, taking into account massive promotion of cultural, social and economic paradigms. Regardless of massive trade of the economic goods and the geographical locations, there are a lot of similarities and differences between the Silk Road Trade and the Indian Ocean trade between 1000-1450 CE. The trade between the Silk Road and the Indian Ocean paved the way for increased interregional connectivity along with commendable economic growth across Afro-Eurasia. Both the trade routes were used for spreading religious ideas as well as cultural traditions that boosted the economics. The economic boost in the trade of Silk Road was the product of the Mongol Empire, which in effect proposed strict punishment for those who will disturb the trade. However, the difference is, both the routes used different goods and modes of transportation. This difference resulted in conflict between different cultures and different diseases were spread that minimized the overall growth of the civilizations. Both the routes facilitate stimulated technological innovations along with merging political powers, however, the manner was different in both the routes. This difference of manner resulted in increased power and wealth on the geographically favorable regions. Also, both the routes differed in the exchange of commodities, how these goods were traded. The varying geographical and environmental features along with the Indian Ocean Trade system and the Silk Road Trade created a difference between the modes of transportation, leading to a difference in the trading of good and products. Also, both the trade regions were impacted by the diffusion of religions as well as economic growth of the economies. It is also highlighted that the Indian Ocean was a dominating network of trade as compared to the Silk Road. This dominance was observed in the volume of trade.

Subject: Geography

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Critical Assignment - Analysis Of Fiji

Vaneesa Copland

Analysis of Fiji

12th Dec 2019

 

Introduction

The globalization process covers all the main spheres of society: economy, politics, science, culture, if we talk about social institutions, and, more generally, labor and leisure, being and consciousness, if we talk about the main areas of society. This process is carried out at three subordinate levels - supranational, or international, state and domestic (non-governmental organizations and social movements). The globalization has not stopped in front of the places as far Fiji. Around the 844 islands that make up the 1.3 million square kilometer archipelago, the oceans were nearly empty and the coral world was seriously affected. The expansion of agriculture will introduce too many nutrients and sediments into the coastal regions. On the islands, entire forests were converted into agricultural land by means of slash-and-burn (Mohanty, Manoranjan, 2017)

The Republic of Fiji is an island state in the South Pacific consisting of about 330 islands, included in Melanesia but generally considered a "frontier zone" between this cultural area and that of Polynesia. The country, which had 884,887 inhabitants in 2017, was attached to the British Crown in 1874 and was one of the first in Oceania to achieve independence in 1970. Fiji's economic boom in cane mining in sugar, its development is largely based on tourism 1, with significant differences across the provinces and districts. In the part of our work is the education of the population, culture, environment, economy and geography use. At the end of these five themes, I recommended two policy recommendations.

Themes

1. Population

The WWF is now working with Austrian donations for three years on the fifth-largest Fiji island Gau. Together with the population, which includes 3,000 people, it has been decided that fires are prohibited for clearing and are fined heavily. The remaining mangrove forest is protected and reforested in several places. The mangrove forests are not only the spawning ground of many species of fish and food sources of the Fijians but also provide a bulwark against the increasing storms as a result of climate change (Prakash, Kushneel, and Radhika Ram, 2011). Off the coast of Fiji lies the third largest barrier reef in the world, the Great Sea Reef. These waters are home to five of the world's seven sea turtle species. Spinner dolphins, gray reef sharks and all the splendor of the coral fish world can be found here. The hiking routes for many species of whales and dolphins also pass by here. The Fiji archipelago is still one of the most species-rich waters in the world. "If we do not save the natural diversity of Fiji, the islands are vulnerable to climate change in just a few years," Scattolin warns.

2. Culture

The culture of the islands of Fiji is rich and diverse. His past will have left him a multicultural society, and the history of Fiji is quite different from that of other neighboring islands in the South Pacific. Pacific countries like Fiji Islands are more unlike any other region in the world, marked by social change and global environmental change. Based on a participative research design conducted in selected coastal villages, this volume explores the impact of globalization and climate change on the quality of life of its inhabitants. It shows that the villagers are not passive victims of external processes but actively shape their lives. By means of neo-traditional movements, the inhabitants manage to preserve as far as possible a solid foundation of values as the basis of their cultural identity. An intact community stands at the center of spiritual, economic and social values. In the course of social transformation, the communities are no longer localized; instead, they use modern transport and communication technologies to form globalized networks - without losing any of their cultural origins. Away living family members contribute knowledge and material prosperity into the village communities and expand the action potentials and living standards of the coastal village dwellers (Harrison, David, 1997).

3. Economics

The economy has been particularly dynamic in recent years, with growth of 3% in 2017 and 3.2% in 2018, mainly as a result of reconstruction activities, the tourism sector, the resumption of agricultural production and the growth of the economy. ‘increase in household consumption expenditure (the largest contributor to gross domestic product). The IMF forecasts growth of 3.4% for 2019, although the country's economic performance depends on maintaining financial stability, restoring fiscal reserves, and stimulating private sector development.

4. Geography

The geographic distribution of resorts which primarily invest in spectacular beaches is uneven, however, and not all islanders benefit equally from the benefits of tourism. While some have the guarantee of a rent and a continuous source of local employment, others depend to a greater extent of coastal and marine resources (Firth, Stewart, 2000). This situation can also be caused by land conflicts that prevent the operation of a community resort, by management problems, by priority recruitment in mataqali whose lands host the resorts. The inhabitants will thus rely on a set of resources, monetary and non-monetary, which intervene in varying proportions according to the families: income from tourism, garden produce (tovatova , where yams grow, bananas, cassava, etc.).

5. Environment

The denunciation of ecological risks and damage goes hand in hand with a growing scientific and political attention to climate change, which was reinforced in 2012 following a serious series of floods, and again in 2016 with Cyclone Winston - responsible for dozens of deaths and heavy property damage in Fiji. The presence of the resorts encourages, in particular, the development of a commercial fishery which represents an alternative means of economic and social ascent, while helping to develop and vitalize strong traditional relations between individuals and family units. We will see in a second time that the villagers of Quake and Yalobi denounce at their scale ecological disturbances, but that the chains of responsibilities envisaged (impact of tourism, overfishing, climate change, etc.) and especially the recommended solutions are not necessarily the same as those put forward by the Fijian government, the scientific world, NGOs. It will appear that a series of parameters, like the conditions of access to the land or the presence of an ethos of village equality influence the modes of interaction with the marine world and the perception of socially acceptable forms of action on this environment (Mohanty, Manoranjan, 2008).

Like much other South Sea Islands, the Fiji archipelago is also severely threatened by climate change. The sensitive ecosystem of the islands is threatened by rising sea levels, changes in precipitation and storm surges. In addition, illegal and unregulated fishing for tuna with trawls and long lines threatens life in the water. One ton of shark fins is exported monthly from Fiji to Asia. Many mangrove forests, the nurseries of fish, were cut down. With marine protected areas, sustainable fishery methods and reforestation of mangrove forests, the WWF wants to protect the biodiversity and thus the livelihood of the population against climate change.

Policy recommendations

The first policy has resulted in the development of relations with new partners, chosen primarily from the southern countries, starting with China, but also the Middle East (Gulf countries) with which Fiji, which contributes to Peacekeeping missions in the region since 1978, has a history. Suva has also developed strong relations with New Delhi (visit of Prime Minister MODI in November 2014, a few days before that of Chinese President XI, an organization in Suva of the Forum for cooperation between India and the Pacific countries in May 2017 agreement on cooperation in the field of space, military agreement). The relationship with Australia and New Zealand, two major neighbors and historic partners, is now normalized, as evidenced by the recent visit in January 2019 by Australian Prime Minister Morrison to Suva.

Fiji is very active in multilateral fora, including the United Nations. They have been designated to chair the Group of 77 in 2013, the UNFPA Executive Committee of UNDP and UNOPS in 2014, the General Assembly in 2016, the Oceans Summit (co-chair) and COP23 in 2012. 2017. The country currently holds the vice-presidency of the Human Rights Council. Fiji's foreign policy - which is a member of major regional organizations as well as the Melanesian Spearhead Group - is also reflected in strong leadership in the region, particularly in small island developing States, and strong engagement in the negotiations. since 2010, the first the country in the world to ratify the Paris Agreement in February 2016, the first Small Island Developing State (SIDS) to chair a Conference of the Parties - COP23, during which Suva launched the "Talanoa Dialogue"

Relations with the European Union

With regard to relations with the European Union, Fiji is the 4th largest beneficiary country in the 11th EDF with EUR 28 million over the 2014-2020 period, of which 18% is French. The EU has also concluded a free trade agreement with Fiji.

The Second policy is to avoid incalculable negative effects of climate change on ecosystems and society, it is necessary to drastically reduce global greenhouse gas emissions. Here politicians are required to create and implement climate protection strategies. Politicians need scientific expertise for their decisions. The Thünen Institute fulfills its advisory mission in this field in many ways. For example, in 2012 it prepared the study for the preparation of an efficient and well-coordinated climate protection policy for the agricultural sector for the state of Lower Saxony. Using the example of Lower Saxony, measures to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases from the agricultural sector were analyzed, quantified and assessed on a regionally differentiated basis. Correspondingly, the cost-effectiveness of the climate protection measures was determined and policy measures derived. The study was published as a special issue 361 of the journal Landbauforschung. Fiji should also follow these recommendations it has always been the small island states that most insist on real climate protection - and for damages, should he not be enough.

References

Mohanty, Manoranjan. "Globalization and Cities." Springer Nature, 2019. NA.

Prakash, Kushneel, and Radhika Ram. "Does Globalization Affect Visitor Arrivals in Pacific Island Developing States? The Case of Fiji." Journal of Applied Business and Economics 19.9 (2017): 112-124.

Harrison, David. "Globalization and tourism: some themes from Fiji." Globalization and tourism: some themes from Fiji. (1997): 167-183.

Mohanty, Manoranjan. "Globalization, new labour migration and development in Fiji Islands." ICFAI University Press, 2008. 206-222.

Firth, Stewart. "The Pacific Islands and the globalization agenda." The Contemporary Pacific 12.1 (2000): 177-192.

Subject: Geography

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

Development

Running Head: CULTURE

Extent Cultural Contructs Can Be Used To Create Spaces Of Resistance

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Extent Cultural Contructs Can Be Used To Create Spaces Of Resistance

If one talks about the cultural construct and the way alternate culture are likely to have an impact on them, it is important to understand that how cultural construct are defined. Interesting thing about any cultural construct is that it tends to define the individuality of the person, but at the same time, it also tends to look at some of the ways through which people are going to be part of the broader group and integrate their identity into that broader group (Gergen et al. 2016, p.496). Thus at times cultural construct might be acting as a binding force but it might also act as somewhat a force that alienates a group or sub group from the common social denominator. With the passage of time, as the cultural constructs gain relevance, they are not able to make sure that every person who is the part of that circle is going to be able to identify with that social construct. The example of the queer community tends to stand out as that how they tend to define themselves differently as compared to the “normal” gender roles and how different gender people are supposed to be behaving in the society (Gergen et al. 2016, p.496). What the alternate culture tends to do is that it provides insight about the fact that how people tend to relate with the thing that they are most comfortable with no matter if it is socially acceptable or not. If something is not socially acceptable, or goes against the normal cultural constructs, alternate culture allows these people to ensure that they are able to break away from these constructs to carve out their own path and identity (Markus and Kitayama, 2017, p.3). This is an important aspect of how the cultural segregation and again underlines the crucial aspect of how culture is more about operating in the constructs they are more comfortable rather than adhering to socially acceptable standards (Markus and Kitayama, 2017, p.3). The same thing could be said about the homosexual community. They are not the part of the mainstream and despite the fact that effort has been made to make sure that they are brought into the limelight, the fact remains that the general acceptance for this community has been on the lower side. The mainstream media has covered lot of instances where considerable coverage has been given to this population group, and there seems to be a deliberate attempt on their part to make sure that they are brought into the focus and made center of attention, but the general public reception has been far from ideal when it comes to these individuals. One of the prime reasons that the people are not really eager to associate with this convention and they are not the part of the mainstream is due to the fact that they tend to make an attempt to force their agenda at the broader population all the time. Not only that, they are also quite notorious for making sure that they tend to represent themselves at the much broader level despite the fact that they are in minority. So the convention has to be kept in mind when analyzing the overall behavior of these people at the given point of time. This is where the role of culture becomes quite important, the interesting dilemma is that despite the fact that they are quite less in terms of the population, they have ultimately created a sub culture where their presence and their attitude is considered to be normal. At the same time, they tend to take solace from the sub culture and the group of like minded who tend to propagate their point of view.

References

Gergen, K.J., Gulerce, A., Lock, A. and Misra, G., 2016. Psychological science in cultural context. American psychologist, 51(5), p.496.

Markus, H.R. and Kitayama, S., 2017. The cultural construction of self and emotion: Implications for social behavior. Emotions in social psychology: Essential reading, pp.119-137.

Misra, G. (2010). The cultural construction of self and emotion: Implications for well-being. In Personality, Human Development, and Culture (pp. 111-128). Psychology Press.

Subject: Geography

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Discussion

[Writer’s Name]

[Instructor’s Name]

[Date]

Discussion

Niagara Falls is a unique combination of three waterfalls that are Horseshoe Falls, American Falls, and Bridal veil falls. Niagara Falls is located at the southern end of Niagara Gorge which is located between Canada and the US. It was first documented by a European priest during his expenditure in 1678 (Tinkler). The beauty of the Niagara Falls fascinates every person however after seeing it I always wonder about how old is Niagara Falls. According to several studies published on the potential age of Niagara Falls, it is approximately 12,000 years old. This piece of information made me think that how scientists would have known the age of Niagara Falls in the first place as it is not man-made. So what evidence do they have regarding the age of this wonder? As far as my knowledge several methods are there that are used by scientists to measure the age of any geographical place or object such as rate of erosion, rate of deposition, varve count and radiometric dating.

To determine the age of river scientist measure fast does a river erode. However, it has a limitation as this method only works when the age is almost 10,000 or 20,000 years old. Another method to measure age is the rate of deposition in which geologists can get a rough idea of the age of any place. Typically, it takes a thousand years to deposit 30 centimeters of sedimentary rocks yet his method does not provide helpful insight in determining the age of any place. I believe that the best way to determine the age of Niagara Falls is by utilizing the first method that is measuring the rate of erosion. While measuring the erosion rate of Niagara Falls geologists have concluded that it erodes 1.3 meters per year (Philbrick). This information helped scientists a lot in determining the age of Niagara Falls.

Works Cited

Philbrick, Shailer S. "Horizontal configuration and the rate of erosion of Niagara Falls." Geological Society of America Bulletin 81.12 (1970): 3723-3732.

Tinkler, Keith. "Niagara Falls 1750–1845: the idea of a history and the history of an idea." Geomorphology 1.1 (1987): 69-85.

Subject: Geography

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Discussion

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Discussion

Climate change affects Earth's pole and seasons in the shape of frequent catastrophic weather events ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"DkOinwaF","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Hall)","plainCitation":"(Hall)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/C7z1ih1C/items/CTPIP2GD"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/C7z1ih1C/items/CTPIP2GD"],"itemData":{"id":2,"type":"article-magazine","title":"Earth Is Tipping Because of Climate Change","container-title":"Scientific American","author":[{"family":"Hall","given":"Shannon"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016",4]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Hall). Abnormal drifting of north and south poles has caused a change in seasons due to changing of rain pattern and ice melting. Drifting of poles occurs due to certain reasons most importantly, sun and moon pull. Besides, the motion of mantle and core of earth also causes the wobbling of poles. Drastic alterations on the surface of the earth can also cause the drifting of poles which in turn is responsible for the change in seasons. One of the main reason for wobbles in poles is that due to shifting of ice of huge mass drift the pole to one side. The melting of heavy ice on a large scale due to sun heat causes the reduction of mass on one side and results in increasing the water level of oceans. That is why the poles are changing their nature and drifts. As mass shifts on one side, it loses the ice and in response less rain will occur on the mass losing side and it will most likely lead to droughts and seasonal abnormalities ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"gHajAiem","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Null and Prudencio)","plainCitation":"(Null and Prudencio)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":4,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/C7z1ih1C/items/Z5JFZNBI"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/C7z1ih1C/items/Z5JFZNBI"],"itemData":{"id":4,"type":"article-journal","title":"Climate change effects on water allocations with season dependent water rights","container-title":"Science of the Total Environment","page":"943-954","volume":"571","source":"EBSCOhost","DOI":"10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.07.081","ISSN":"00489697","journalAbbreviation":"Science of the Total Environment","author":[{"family":"Null","given":"Sarah E."},{"family":"Prudencio","given":"Liana"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016",11,15]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Null and Prudencio).

Scientists haven’t yet confirmed that these events occur due to human actions but it is believed that man does have a role in the creation of these events. Sudden, drastic and increased melting of ice, eastward turn of poles in 2000 and dryness in Eurasia are some of the accidents that explain the role of pole drifting and its effect on climate change and seasons of the earth. Recent studies suggested that such events have greatly affected the cycle of seasons as the soil temperature rises in summers and decreases in winter seasons more than the normal range. It causes the abnormal nitrogen intake by plants, which in turn have a huge effect over the plants' growth ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"kWCb5pS9","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Sadozai et al.)","plainCitation":"(Sadozai et al.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":3,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/C7z1ih1C/items/NGPD9VML"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/C7z1ih1C/items/NGPD9VML"],"itemData":{"id":3,"type":"article-journal","title":"Assessing the Impact of Climate Change on Wheat Productivity in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.","container-title":"Sarhad Journal of Agriculture","volume":"35","issue":"1","URL":"https://eds-a-ebscohost-com.lasc.idm.oclc.org/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=0&sid=32b72baf-9e06-4df2-b4ce-7aa9f98ee06c%40sessionmgr4007","author":[{"family":"Sadozai","given":"Khuram Nawaz"},{"family":"Khan","given":"Noor Paio"},{"family":"Jan","given":"Abbas Ullah"},{"family":"Hameed","given":"Gulnaz"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Sadozai et al.). It will increase over the century to a damaging level. Temperature changes in sea surface are caused by insolation and effect season by changing the pattern of rain and el Nino ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"mB0kbqX5","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Braconnot et al.)","plainCitation":"(Braconnot et al.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":8,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/C7z1ih1C/items/N97L5Z38"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/C7z1ih1C/items/N97L5Z38"],"itemData":{"id":8,"type":"article-journal","title":"Impact of Earth's orbit and freshwater fluxes on Holocene climate mean seasonal cycle and ENSO characteristics","container-title":"Climate Dynamics","page":"1081-1092","volume":"38","issue":"5/6","source":"EBSCOhost","abstract":"We use a state-of-the-art 3-dimensional coupled model to investigate the relative impact of long term variations in the Holocene insolation forcing and of a freshwater release in the North Atlantic. We show that insolation has a greater effect on seasonality and La Niña events and is the major driver of sea surface temperature changes. In contrast, the variations in precipitation reflect changes in El Niño events. The impact of ice-sheet melting may have offset the impact of insolation on El Niño Southern Oscillation variability at the beginning of the Holocene. These simulations provide a coherent framework to refine the interpretation of proxy data and show that changes in seasonality may bias the projection of relationships established between proxy indicators and climate variations in the east Pacific from present day records.","DOI":"10.1007/s00382-011-1029-x","ISSN":"09307575","journalAbbreviation":"Climate Dynamics","author":[{"family":"Braconnot","given":"P."},{"family":"Luan","given":"Y."},{"family":"Brewer","given":"Simon"},{"family":"Zheng","given":"W."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2012",3]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Braconnot et al.).

This scientific study has its limitations too in terms of methods of observation and evidence hierarchy. It is not completely clear to the scientists if the events that cause these drastic drifting of poles is because of human actions or is it a natural phenomenon. The observational data is available only since 1899 onwards and there is lack of evidence of universal events. Besides, there are multiple reasons for events like the drifting of poles. The wobbling of poles could be part of nature as the poles usually return to its origin with time again and again. Earth rotation and gravitation might also be playing a role in the shifting of ocean water from continents and increasing the mass of one pole. Due to the lack of technological advances in the past like gravitational positioning systems and satellites in the past, it is hard to provide evidence or reasoning for the events that have caused climate change.

Works Cited

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[[["http://zotero.org/users/local/C7z1ih1C/items/NGPD9VML"],"Sadozai, Khuram Nawaz, et al. \\uc0\\u8220{}Assessing the Impact of Climate Change on Wheat Productivity in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.\\uc0\\u8221{} {\\i{}Sarhad Journal of Agriculture}, vol. 35, no. 1, 2019"]]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Braconnot, P., et al. “Impact of Earth’s Orbit and Freshwater Fluxes on Holocene Climate Mean Seasonal Cycle and ENSO Characteristics.” Climate Dynamics, vol. 38, no. 5/6, Mar. 2012, pp. 1081–92. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1007/s00382-011-1029-x.

Hall, Shannon. “Earth Is Tipping Because of Climate Change.” Scientific American, Apr. 2016.

Null, Sarah E., and Liana Prudencio. “Climate Change Effects on Water Allocations with Season Dependent Water Rights.” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 571, Nov. 2016, pp. 943–54. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.07.081.

Sadozai, Khuram Nawaz, et al. “Assessing the Impact of Climate Change on Wheat Productivity in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.” Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, vol. 35, no. 1, 2019

Subject: Geography

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Discussion

Your Name

Instructor Name

Date

Discussion

Part 1

Geography is not limited to the study of places and their origins, yet it is the study that constitutes the relationships between the people of different cultural backgrounds and their environment, respectively (Walford 70). Thus, the first advice I would like to give to the future students is not to think that geography is only about locations but to understand the broader concept as well. I will also suggest that new students must keep their goal in mind by taking an initiative to start pursuing geography as a subject. They should also stay focused throughout the course to attain maximum knowledge. I recommend them to work hard and develop a habit of reading. It has been observed that students only rely upon the book that is assigned to them by their instructor, and do not consult other reference books to gain further knowledge of the subject. Thus, new students must read books other than the assigned book if they are planning to take geography as a course.

Part 2

During the geography class, I notice that your teaching technique was very good due to which I was unable to understand the basics of geography very well. However, my advice is to increase the discussion time in different places and their culture in the class. This will help in creating a collaborative environment where students can also share the details of their cultural backgrounds as well. Furthermore, I think that taking presentations from students weekly will facilitate every student in learning about different places. The class can be improved by taking students to field trips to make them more familiar with the cultures of different places and the historical significance of the place. A museum trip can aid students in learning more about ancient civilization. To build a healthy competitive environment, I think that it is necessary to rank students based on their assignments grades weekly so that each student can try hard to be on the top.

Works Cited

Walford, Rex. "‘What is geography?’an analysis of definitions provided by prospective teachers of the subject." (1996): 69-76.

Subject: Geography

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Discussion

Student’s Name

Institution

Course Code

Date

Earth is closer to the sun

It is believed that Earth is closer to the sun during the summer and therefore, it is the reason it is hotter during the summer. Although the idea makes some sense, it is false; the earth is not closer to the sun during the summer. Scientists have stated that Earth’s orbit does not have a perfect circle. The earth is stationed in slope. During the year, the earth is much closer to the sun during other times compared to during summer and therefore, it would be hotter in winter compared to other times. According to Rao (25), the earth is much closer to the sun when it is located furthest and therefore, in the Northern Hemisphere we experienced winter when the sun is closer to the sun.

The argument that earth is closer to the sun during summer compared to winter does not make sense. However, there are different reasons for earth weather rather than the distance from the sun. The earth’s weather is affected by the imaginary pole, which goes through the center of the earth. This makes the earth to go around the pole and that is why we have day and night. And therefore, the earth’s closeness to the sun does not make the earth hotter as many people believe. The earth tilting is what determines the solar or the hotness of a region not closeness to the sun.

Changing the earth Axial Tilt

The temperature or the weather of the earth depends on how the earth is tilt on its orbit. When the earth tilts too much towards the sun, the temperature would be high and therefore, the Los Angeles (34 degrees N) would be hotter compared to earth's axis tilted of 5.5 degrees. The tilt at the axis of about 5.5 degrees would make Los Angeles colder compared when the earth tilt at it axis at 34 degrees. It is, therefore, important to note that Los Angeles would be much colder when the earth tilts at 5.5 degrees compared to when it tilted at 23.5 degrees.

Works Cited

BIBLIOGRAPHY Rao, Padmanabha. "The first ever explanation on how seasons are generated." https://www.researchgate.net/publication/324965221_The_first_ever_explanation_on_how_seasons_are_generated (2018): 12-38.

Subject: Geography

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Discussion Post

Discussion Post

[Author Name]

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Discussion Post

Geography can be described as the study of places that also examines the relationship between people and their surroundings. Geography explains all phenomena of the earth and planets. Before studying geography, I used to think that it is all about maps and is a field of science in which locations of several places are studied. After taking this course I came to know that geography is not merely the study of maps yet it covers not only lands but inhabitants as well. While studying geography one thing that I did not know before was that geography has two sub-categories. The first category that is human geography deals with the study of people and their cultures, communities and environmental interaction. While the second category is physical geography that deals with the processes that occur in nature (Balasubramanian, 2016). After getting the idea of these two types I had learned a lot regarding environmental issues that are prevailing in our society such as global warming, economic crises, and overcrowded cities, etc. Although I knew about an issue such as the greenhouse effect before yet this subject increases my knowledge regarding how everything in the ecosystem is interlinked. It also facilitated me in understanding how a slight disturbance in the ecosystem can imbalance the entire ecosystem.

Due to the rise in technology people are more prone to use social media. As geography is linked with human life and environment so it is also mentioned not only on Television but also on social media platforms. Specifically, TV was the main source through which I got some knowledge regarding geography. Several programs and documentaries of different regions and cultures of the people living there are shown on TV that helped a lot in getting to know about the geography of that area. For instance, a documentary on national geography regarding the melting of glaciers helped a lot in highlighting the global warming issue. Also, the documentaries and pictures of several tourist spots shown on social media sites helped a lot in getting to know about the culture and environment of that area (Timothy, 2018).

References

Balasubramanian, A. (2016). Branches of geography. Retrieved May, 13, 2018.

Timothy, D. J. (2018). Geography: the substance of tourism.

Subject: Geography

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Discussion Post

[Writer’s Name]

[Instructor’s Name]

[Date]

Discussion Post

Great Britain is an island located in the North Atlantic Ocean. England covers an area of approximately 50,301 square miles, sharing its borders with Scotland and Wales. Discussing the demographics of Great Britain, the current population is approximately sixty-seven million while Christianity has been a religion with the largest number of adherents. Geographically, Great Britain is a part of Europe. England covers about two-thirds of the British Isles and other offshore Islands. Culturally, Britain is undeniably European. Although there are some differences yet it does possess a large number of similarities. For instance the Christian heritage, liberal democratic values and philosophical tradition that dates back to the ancient Greeks. Even linguistically, English is the most common language spoken in Britain and is undoubtedly a European language as it is evolved from Latin and Greek.

The question that is Great Britain a part of Europe has continuously originated in the past and has been disseminated by the Brexit debate. Brexit is the term that is an abbreviation for British Exit. It is referred to as the UK’s verdict in June 23 referendum to abandon the European Union. While discussing the historical perspective, it is without any doubt that England is a part of Europe due to a land bridge that links England with the rest of the continent. However, the majority of the English are convinced that they are different from their neighbors due to the introduction of a class system when the island was invaded by the Normans.

However, despite the majority votes were in the favor of Brexit yet in the political context the UK is still considered as a part of the EU even after the Brexit referendum. Although it is still unclear that what will happen if the UK exit the EU yet currently it is still a part of the EU.

Subject: Geography

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Final Research Paper

MACHU PICCHU: A GEOGRAPHICAL MARVEL

Student’s name

Institution’s name

Chronologically, it is believed that there were a holy setting and royal state of Inca leaders that is widely known as Machu Picchu. The place is hidden in the northwest side of Cuzco, in the rocky area of countryside. According to historical annals, it was the sixteenth century when Spanish assailants terminated the civilization of Machu Picchu. Since then, the great and marvelously stupendous city of Machu Picchu became unknown for the outside world, and only a few local peasants were aware of its existence. It was not before 1911, that the city discovered by the world. The setting is comprised of good five miles and has more than three thousands steps that are interconnected with each other on different levels. (Britannica, 2019)

In the twentieth century, an American archeologist named Hiram Bingham embarked on a journey to Peru with associate exploration-mates, they were all expecting to explore Vilcabamba. Vilcabamba was known as the last stronghold of Inca civilization before the invading of Spain. In due course, the team decided to travel on their feet, and they also had a mule, in this way all of them moved towards the premises of Urubamba Valley through Cuzco. At this point, they, fortunately, bumped into a local peasant who spilled the beans regarding the existence of nearby ruins that are located in the mountains. The peasant addressed the ruins as Machu Picchu that is translated in Quechua native language as “the old peak.” Later on, in July, when the team of explorers (of course including Hiram Bingham) was climbing up the edge of the mountain in a drizzled and chilled weather, they met a few more peasants who directed them regarding the rest of the path. In due course, a young boy led them towards the stone terraces of Machu Picchu, where the explorers indulged their first ever sight of the complex yet artistically built stone network. It was the historical advent of the modern era in the ancient city of Machu Picchu. Bingham was flabbergasted by this discovery and to disperse the news about the existence of such a place he wrote the best-selling book, “The Lost City of the Incas.” The book became a travel guide for all the travelers, hungry of exploring unseen places, and in no time the site was swarmed with national and international travelers. Through the notion of traveling and exploration, the obscured trail of Machu Picchu did not remain a mystery. Bingham was also involved in the excavation of the site and was accused to unearth artifacts from the city and delivered them to Yale University for further, investigation. The case was fought for a good hundred years, and eventually, the Peruvian government sued then-president Barack Obama to give back all the items excavated from Machu Picchu. Regardless, all the publicity and underlying accomplishment of making the place a visiting site, Bingham is not solely credited for this historically remarkable discovery, and people believe that there, were other people before him to approach the setting during the nineteenth and early 20th century. But no matter what, no one can deny the significant role Bingham played in making Machu Picchu a tourism attraction. (History, 2019)

The climate of Machu Picchu implies different weather conditions in the day and night times. For instance, the days at the city are bit warm and laden with humidity, meanwhile, in the night the breeze becomes fresh and tranquil. The overall temperature of the city varies from 120 C to 240 C, and from November to March the site depicted a rainy trend that exceeds from 1955 mm annually. On the other hand, its months from November to April are usually shiny and dry. Annually, the dry seasons of the site demonstrate humidity of 77% meanwhile, during the wet season, it becomes 91%. Phenomenally, Machu Picchu features a fraction of Amazon jungle, and in this context, rain can be observed in any season throughout the year. Its maximum temperature in hottest days becomes about 26 Celsius, on the other hand, the in June and July it becomes exacerbated cold, and in such times the temperature can be dropped to -2 Celsius. However, the inscribed temperatures are not standardized as tourists are suggested to be preparing for any weather as the ruins are notorious for their fluctuating weather conditions as well. When it comes to exact estimation of precipitation, Machu Picchu may reach to 1324 mm, and the average temperature is noted around17.8 Celsius.

Machu Picchu is overloaded with architectural spectacles and its intricate archeological framework features about sixteen fountains. Through the vessel of these fountains, the water discotheque from one fountain to another. It seems the most spectacular setting of Wiñay Wayna had eighteen fountains in its central system initially, but now only 16 fountains are left. Along with rainy weather and well-established archeological network, the site is blessed with plantation and wildlife as well. It is mentioned in the content above that however the place was hidden from the outside world, but locals knew about the presence of Machu Picchu in their proximity. On the other hand, since its commencement, the setting has been catered under the high influence of man, and the practice remained at the venue for many centuries. After the historical collapse of Inca civilization, the human-made paramo grassland merged with the virgin forest region, and in this way, the formerly nurtured and cultivated lands become an indistinguishable part of wild forestation. The plantation of the site now become subject to be raised form the parched forest of the subtropical region and moves along the river valets to reach the low montane forest, which is the extensively wet area. The thickets of forest cater to the vegetation that becomes locally endangered in other territories. Such trees include Swietenia macrophlla mahogany as well as the different and myriad of species of other plantations. Such plantations are Podocarpus, Ocotea, Ceder, Lauraceae, Nectandara, Cecropia, Weinmannia, and Cunoniceae. On the other hand, a few fern trees are also included in the flora of site among them Cyathea sp. is the most eminent.

Similarly, Guasca sp., Geromonia sp. and Riupala sp. is among the most prominent species of palms. The different regional characteristics of Machu Picchu allow it to carry different types of vegetations according to the attribute of the geographical feature of the land. Take the instance of its riverside that features cultivation of alder and willow, meanwhile the open area of grassland has polylepis sp. and low shrubs. The nearby territory of ruins is suitable for the growth of bamboos while Graminae, Festuca sp., subalpine and Puya sp. belong to the high altitude of the site. Likewise, the brinks of mountains also feature the growth of Gauduasp bamboo (Parker, 1982). It is evident that the mountains of Machu Picchu are enwrapped richly with trees, bushes, ferns, and moss, and the overall garb of plantation proffers the place a great appearance. Botanical experts suggest that there are about more than four hundred species of different trees and begonias and orchids. The most significant harvesting of the site is the Muña tea (Inca trail, 2019).

Along with such vibrant and bounty of the plantation, Machu Picchu has a distinct range of fauna on its premises, as well. There are several mammals found on the place that include Pampas cat Felis, Lutra longicaudis, otter, long-tailed weasel, dwarf brocket deer, mazama chunyii, and Mustela frenata. The site also has a few animals that are encountering a peril of extinction, spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus) is one of them. When it comes to birds, Machu Picchu has abundant of them as well. For instance, Vultur gryphus, Andean condor, Andean cock-of-the-rock, and rupicola periviana are among many of them. Machu Picchu is asserted as the most secure and well-protected sanctuaries on the planet, and therefore the wildlife of the site enjoys a protected environ to live and grow within. Alpaca is also one of the unique animals found on the premises of Machu Picchu. However, Alpaca resembles a llama, but it is shorter in size. Alpaca are infamous for their fleece color that could be observed in 22 known shades. Boa and different kinds of lizards and frogs etcetera are also found in plenty on the damp and humid side.

The lost (but now found) city of Incas is situated in the peaks of Peruvian mountains, and the base rocks are granite of more than 246 million years old. The Inca trail is infused with a local serpentine dyke of bright-green tinge. The city is built by granite that is developed within crystals and interconnected with the history of magma that slowly cooled down. Such crystallized granite became a comprehensive inventory to use for all the carving and shaping for developing the monumental cities of Inca. The entire architecture on Inca is artistically and expertly adjoined through the fit cutting of granite, and therefore the construction of the city did not require any binding agent or cement to hold the building material together. Machu Picchu has two vast and gigantic mountains on either side; these mountains are widely known as Cerro Montana and Huayna Picchu. The location where the city is positioned between the magnificence of these mountains is called garben and is a down-dropped block of the mountain. The dropping down occurred because the place features two significantly parallel faults that are assumed to be in the surroundings of both mountains. The seismic activity of these fault lines triggered the block’s wedged carved structure.

Along with mountains, the salty water pools are notorious in the premises of Machu Picchu. The pools are located in al Minas, and when the evaporation of water takes place, the harvesting of residual salt occurs. The faults are mentioned in content above, and these faults are called Rio Urubamba. In fact, when the garben structure got settled with a slow pace over a specific geological time frame, the ruins positioned. The vantage point of the crest provides easy access to glimpsing the faults. Due to the faults and river, it is still difficult to approach the citadel, and even contemporary transportation modes become exhausted in due course (Geolsoc, 2012). In 2007, Because of its copiousness and countless architectural, archeological, and natural spectacles, Machu Picchu was selected as a new wonder among Seven Wonders of the World. The ruins become the most traveled setting in South America, and every year thousands of travelers pay a visit and enthralled by the magnificent beauty of ruins. Nevertheless, tourism is in the benefits of the prosperity of the region, but such most frequent visits are posing new threats to the environment and protection of the sanctuary of the place. And therefore, the Peruvian government is taking preventive measures to mitigate the adverse effects, and precautionary conducts are continuously arranged in the premises of mountainside to eradicate the hazard of erosion.

Reference

Britannica, T. E. (2018, August 17). Machu Picchu. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/place/Machu-Picchu

Editors, H. (2011, June 13). Machu Picchu. Retrieved from https://www.history.com/topics/south-america/machu-picchu

Parker, Theodore A., I., O'Neill, & P., J. (1980, January 01). Notes on Little Known Birds of the upper Urubamba Valley, Southern Peru. Retrieved from https://academic.oup.com/auk/article-abstract/97/1/167/5188644?redirectedFrom=fulltext

Parker, T. A. (1980). Using anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility to better ... Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2009TC002639/abstract

The Geological Society of London - Constructing the Lost World. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.geolsoc.org.uk/Geoscientist/Archive/December_January-2014/The-Inca-as-Engineering-Geologists

Subject: Geography

Pages: 6 Words: 1800

Free Title

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of Instructor]

[Subject]

[Date]

Geography

Introduction

An environment is the circumstances or conditions as a whole which are affected due to the activities of human beings. It has a huge influence on the development of the culture. The relationship between humans and the environment have often become complicated. Different states or cities have different environments based on their cultures. Environment plays a huge role in the development of a state. A clean and healthy environment is essential for the life of people in a state. There are many physical environmental factors which can have an influence on life people in a particular area such as land, air, water, plants, etc. A healthy environment also provides opportunities for people to take more part in different activities which are valuable to them. America is one of the countries which consists of many states having different environments and different city in the United States has different situation and solution on dealing with environment difference, so it influences their economic development and direction (Roman et al., pp.70).

Discussion

Today people are facing many issues due to the environmental changes in different cities of America. The physical environment has a massive influence on the development of urban areas. Cleanliness is one of the critical factors which affects the environment of a particular city or state. There are many cities in the united states who are having different physical environments. Every city environment has a huge influence on their development. New York is one of the cities in America who is known for its physical environment features. It is the biggest city in the United States and consists of the largest population of any city in America. There are many areas which one can explore in the city like New York (Stedman et al., pp. 383).

The natural resources of New York City have supported a lot to the native Americans to settle in this city. As clean water is a very important source for safe environment, New York is known for its lakes, oceans, and rivers which is a great source for meeting the demand of people in the NewYork. Clean water help in maintaining the health of people as the health of an individual is very important for the development of the country or state. The city of New York is also known for its urban atmosphere because it includes some captivating physical features such as forests, hills, farms, and lakes. These features influenced a lot in the development of the city like New York (Schell et al., pp.460).

New York consists of many historical places which make this city more valuable for the tourists. Many people visited New York due to its physical features which help a lot in the development of the economy. However, health is the most important environmental factor which plays a vital role in increasing the growth of the economy of the state or country. New York city is also best known for its climate and temperature as climate changes affect a lot on the health of people. However, New York is one of the cities where people don’t see much climate changes due to its physical environment sources. It is necessary to make the environment clean because clean environment plays a vital role in the development of the city and this is why New York is one of the most developed city in the United States (Schell et al., pp.460).

Newyork has also brought changes in their environment in many ways. They have built a lot of skyscrapers because of the increase in their population. As New York consists of a lot of rivers and lakes in its different parts, they have built bridges for providing more organized means for transportation. Efficient transportation is important for the development of the city. Citizens have built more highways and road with the time to improve the traffic of New York which was once a huge concern for their environment. New York is the most developed city of the United States as compared to any other city just because of its natural resources (Stedman et al., pp. 383).

Chicago is another largest city of United States which is also known for its environment but it is different from New York because it has different solutions to deal with the environmental issues as compared to the New York. Chicago was rebuilt after the great Chicago fire which destroyed several areas of the Chicago. During its reconstruction time, Chicago created plans for the development of urban life. It consists of the highest number of highways and railroad tracks. Chicago is known as an international hub for technology, industry, finance, and transportation. It is more developed than New York which is the biggest city of the United States. Chicago has one of the world's most balanced economies and it doesn't only depend on a single industry as compared to New York which only depends on its natural resources (Thorns & David, n.p).

However, Chicago is one of the states which has some serious effects of environmental issues. In recent years, the biggest concern for the city of Chicago is the supply of clean water. Clean water is essential for good health, and in the city like Chicago mostly health issues are concerned with the water system. When Chicago is compared with New York in the water system, New York is far better than Chicago because they focused more on providing people with clean water and this is why there are fewer concerns of health in New York as compared to Chicago (Thorns & David, n.p).

Another environment issue which has a huge influence on the development of the city is the pollution which is another major concern for a city like Chicago. The pollution is increasing in Chicago due to metal recycling and petroleum refineries. Another major issue in Chicago is the climate change as it has been observed that Chicago's average temperature has increased about 2.6 degrees which is a huge risk for them in the development of economy (Thorns & David, n.p).

Conclusion

Different cities have different environmental issues, and they can be resolved differently. As it is easier to deal with environmental problems in the city like New York due to its natural resources as compared to Chicago. Chicago is although more stable than New York still it requires improvements because Chicago doesn't have enough natural resources as compared to New York. Chicago is facing a lot of problems but the major environmental issue is the climate change in this city. It is the responsibility of every citizen in Chicago to implement a Chicago climate change plan which will be more suitable for the life of people in this city. It will also help in improving the quality of life and improve the economy of Chicago just like New York.

References

Schell, Lawrence M., Mia V. Gallo, and Julia Ravenscroft. "Environmental influences on human growth and development: historical review and case study of contemporary influences." Annals of human biology 36.5 (2009): 459-477.

Stedman, Richard C., et al. "Environmental reviews and case studies: Marcellus shale gas development and new boomtown research: Views of New York and Pennsylvania residents." Environmental Practice 14.4 (2012): 382-393.

Roman, Lara A., et al. "Human and biophysical legacies shape contemporary urban forests: A literature synthesis." Urban forestry & urban greening 31.April (2018): 157-68.

Thorns, David C. The transformation of cities: urban theory and urban life. Macmillan International Higher Education, 2017.

Subject: Geography

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

Free Title

Student’s Name

Professor’s Name

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Date

Landscape analysis; Chicago

As years have gone by, the natural landscape of Chicago areas in American Midwest has continuously changed dramatically from the pristine prairie and forests during the pre-settlement era in the early 1800s, an agricultural landscape by 1880 to a major metropolis in the twenty-first century. With time, Chicago has grown to become one of the world’s greatest industrial, transportation as well as financial centers due to the interaction that exists between its urban core and the various services being offered. Compared to other cities, Chicago is one of the most productive farmlands in the world that stretches numerous hundred kilometers from Lake Michigan. As a result, Chicago has been characterized by many as “Nature’s Metropolis.”

Chicago is made up of six Illinois counties that make up a total land area of nearly 9,600 square kilometers. Generally, the land can be defined as a flat plain. During the early 19th century, the land was largely covered with natural prairie grass such as Indian grass and bluestem. Most of the forested areas which were covered by old oak as well as hickory hammocks were situated in the northeastern region. With time, the agricultural frontier began moving west and this played a large part in transforming the city’s landscape. For starters, the natural grasses got plowed and burned and ended up being replaced with domestic crops such as corn, wheat among others. The soils present in this area are predominantly nutrient-rich soils that have been generated by the degradation as well as re-growth of prairie grass. The alfisols situated in northern Lake County are somehow light in color and this offers a mixture of both rich and poor quality nutrients. When it comes to the temperature, Chicago annual temperatures vary from approximately 23oC to 27oC during the summer months and -5oC to 0oC during winters, Additionally, the standard annual precipitation is roughly less than 1 meter.

Generally, the region has an excellent combination of soils, temperature as well as precipitation that are ideal for elevated agricultural productivity. Historically, the presence of fertile soil and plentiful timber acted as a force for the development of the local economy. Today, Chicago has embraced all its natural resources and thus depends more on the rural hinterland lesser than the early ages. With the help of the city’s business sector, sales and financing for any agricultural products are still being offered. Ever since the 1800s when the city was unsettled, the land use of Chicago has continued to change drastically. All the existing natural environment offered a way to agricultural production and by 1900, almost ninety percent of the area was being cultivated. Though agriculture dominated land use in Chicago up to the present days, urban influence has also been a great factor. By 1900 urban regions made up six percent of the City and as the agricultural areas began dwindling, the trend intensified to nearly forty percent between 1955 and 1990. With time the urban areas were nearly tripled and this meant a decrease in agricultural land.

In Chicago, the regional land use is largely administered by the extent of dependency between agricultural surroundings and urban centers. Throughout the period of early development, roughly from 1800-1900, the land use system was dominated with agricultural hinterlands with raw goods being processed in urban areas. Up to now, Chicago has continued to flourish and develop as many structures such as the Millennium Park (initiated in 2004) being opened. Chicago is one of the most promising cities in America and it is bound to continue growing as technology continues advancing.

Subject: Geography

Pages: 2 Words: 600

GEO Essay's

GEO Essay’s

[Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees]

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Author Note

[Include any grant/funding information and a complete correspondence address.]

GEO Essay's

#6:

Development varies among Developing and Developed countries because there is a difference in Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Sectors of these countries. The share of GNI in the developing countries is decreasing in comparison to the past, but it is still higher than the Developed countries although they face the issue of Productivity. Productivity refers to the value of a certain kind of product against the amount of labor it requires for the production process. The Developed countries use the latest available technology for production that decreases the expenditures and increases the production under the Secondary Sector. This enables them to perform well in the Tertiary Sector and boost development by spending more on education and infrastructure.

The geographers understand development by the infrastructure in a country. They do not take into consideration other factors of development like education, and literature. They just focus on the material development like buildings, roads, dams, bridges, schools, and industry, but they do not measure the academic development of the countries. They measure the development by examining Gross National Income and Purchasing Power Parity of a country. Moreover, they measure the Productivity and the Value Added factors of a country. They have categorized the global regions into Developed, and Developing countries. The countries with high GNI are developed whereas the countries with overall low GNI are developing.

Development relates to standard of living, access to knowledge, and health and wealth in a way that the countries where these factors show positive figures are developed whereas the countries with negative expressions regarding these factors are developing countries. For instance, the people living in Africa and South Asia less have least possible access to these factors, therefore, they are called developing countries whereas the people living in Europe and North America have easier access to knowledge and education, they live healthy life because of proper nutrition, and they earn more than the African and Asian countries so they are called the citizens of Developed countries.

#7:

Industries are changing their locations from the developed countries to the developing countries in the pursuit of cheaper labor. Every industry attempts to produce the most valuable goods in the lowest possible expenditures. Only North America and Europe were possessing almost 70% of the global industry during the 20th century whereas currently, the developing countries are the house of 50% global industry. It is because the industries get direct and indirect labor at cheaper rates in developing countries. Indirect labor means the independent suppliers of the finished goods: the method is called Outsourcing. The characteristics of the emerging industrial regions are that they have cheaper skilled labor which can meet the requirements of industries for standard production. Moreover, the emerging industrial regions have the facility of Outsourcing. The cheaper skilled labor and outsources are available in the regions where people are educated, but their standard of living is poorer because the governments have not performed well in the field of Tertiary Sector so far. These regions include Latin America, India, and Nigeria, etc. The industry is changing in the developed countries with time as industrial regions are emerging in the developing countries. The industry in the developed countries either shifts to any developing country or rely on outsourcing. Cheaper labor is available in all the developing countries like Latin America, Africa, and South Asian countries, but attractive destinations for industry are India in South Asia, Brazil in Latin America, and Nigeria and South Africa in Africa because these countries have skilled labor due to better education and skill development facilities unlike their neighbors. Fordist production facilities where a person performs only one task might be available in the low-developing countries, but the contemporary era demands post-Fordist production where one person is supposed to do multiple tasks can only be availed in the middle-developing countries. Recycling refers to remaking of the same product which has expired whereas manufacturing refers to the manufacturing of a new product after one product expires. For instance, making clip-board of the paper that was earlier used in the manufacturing of newspaper. The developed countries are now over-burdened with wastes even after recycling and manufacturing therefore the industries shift to other locations within a country or a developing country for recycling that would create unrecyclable wastes.

#8:

Geographers propose three models to explain the expansion of urban areas: the concentric zone model, the sector model, and the multiple nuclei model. The concentric zone model proposed by E.W. Burgess in 1923 explains that a city grows outward in a ring circle shape, like the growth rings of a tree. The sector model was developed by Homer Hoyt in 1939. According to this model, expansion happens parallel to transportation corridors. Two geographers C.D. Harris and E.L. Ullman developed the multiple nuclei model in 1945. This model claims that the expansion happens in several nodes. These models are interesting methods to understand urban expansion in countries. Three models have three different claims and interestingly they all are true. The models can be understood with the application. A Social Area analysis by James Rubenstein attempts to explain these models with reference to different societies. The data collected from North America reveals the following results according to Rubenstein. If the concentric zone model is applied, the data showed that many high-income people with the same ethnic groups choose the place of living differently. One group chooses to live in the inner ring or the center whereas the other groups choose the outer ring. This trend is apparent among the rich Asian Americans. The analysts of the sector model propose that people with the same religious and ethnic background but different income would not choose to live in the same sector. The richer group would shift to a more developed sector. Multiple nuclei model analysts argue that people with the same ethnic group choose to live near to each other. The nuclei among them is their ethnicity, for instance, Sikh community living in Canada.

References

Rubenstein, James. (2015). the cultural landscape an introduction to human geography. Pearson Education, Inc.

Subject: Geography

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Geographical Features Of Corn

Geographical Features of Corn: Outline

Christian Urquidez

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Author Note

Geographical Features of Corn: Outline

Introduction

Corn is a type of cereal grain that was initially discovered and domesticated in Mexico

A popular staple food in the US for human and animal consumption.

Total production surpassing rice or wheat

An interesting topic because a plant that did not naturally exist, and depended on human protection and plantation became an important staple food for humans throughout

Body

Regions

Developed 7000 years ago by inhabitants of Central Mexico

Teosinte wild grass used to develop the plant CITATION Smi04 \l 1033 (Smith, 2004).

Ripened in summers and eaten fresh by people by boiling, roasting or popcorn. Later generations crushed it into cornmeal to make tortillas and tacos CITATION Pru16 \l 1033 (Pruit, 2016).

Cultural Landscape

Indians in South and North America depended on maize for their survival

Major part of diet and cultural staple food of natives when Europeans contacted natives living in America CITATION And18 \l 1033 (Shanahan, 2018).

Diffusion

Frost in cold areas destroyed plant before riping. Plant was adapted to norther climate through shortening its growing season CITATION But18 \l 1033 (Butler, Mueller, & Huybers, 2018).

Advances in agriculture led to increased production and diffused through trade.

Suitable temperature zones found to produce better crop yield, led to diffusion CITATION But18 \l 1033 (Butler, Mueller, & Huybers, 2018).

Distance Decay

From Mexico, corn spread into southwestern and northern U.S. as well in South Americas along with coast of Peru.

Emigration of native-Indian people towards the north, 1000 years ago brought it to current day North America CITATION And18 \l 1033 (Shanahan, 2018).

Traders to Europe brought Mexican corn mainly as cow feed. In West Africa, it was sold to farmers, became staple food in West Africa by 1540 CITATION Pru16 \l 1033 (Pruit, 2016).

Conclusion

High consumption in U.S. today, with a wide variety of corn based products, such as corn syrup, cornbread, tacos, Froot Loops, etc.

World production surpassing one billion tons annually in 2014, in which U.S. is major producer CITATION Ris18 \l 1033 (Prasad, et al., 2018).

Fertile soils and sandy regions, shallow and abundant groundwater helps farmers control soil moisture, through subsurface drainage and irrigation to maximize yields CITATION Ris18 \l 1033 (Prasad, et al., 2018)

References

BIBLIOGRAPHY Butler, E. E., Mueller, N. D., & Huybers, P. (2018). Peculiarly pleasant weather for US maize. University of California, 115 (47), pp. 11935-11940. Berkeley, CA. doi:10.1073/pnas.1808035115

Prasad, R., Gunn, S. K., Rotz, C. A., Karsten, H., Roth, G., Buda, A., & Stoner, A. M. (2018). Projected climate and agronomic implications for corn production in the Northeastern United States. PLoS One, 13(6), e0198623. doi:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0198623

Pruit, J. D. (2016). A Brief History of Corn: Looking Back to Move Forward. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1006&context=planthealthdoc

Shanahan, A. (2018). History of Corn. Retrieved January 6, 2019, from NDSU: https://www.ndsu.edu/pubweb/chiwonlee/plsc211/student%20papers/articles11/A.Shanahan1/History.html

Smith, C. W. (2004). Corn: origin, history, technology, and production. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Subject: Geography

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Geography And Success

GEOGRAPHICAL ADVANTAGE OF U.S.

NAME OF WRITER AFFILIATIONS

The United States is the most powerful country in the world. Its power and economics are largely based on its foreign policy and geographical history. It is difficult for other superpowers in the world to interfere in the country’s politics as geographically it is very isolated. The U.S. is bounded by oceans on its east and west, while its neighboring countries are friendly and militarily weak. According to the book and video, the country got ample time historically for development, as it has never been confronted on home front.

The geographical advantage and its divisions can be even seen from the colonial era where the states before its unisons were divided into three distinct groups. The book and video explain it as New England has amazing forests and ports which they use to boost their economy while the mid-Atlantic region was known for its arable soil and warm weather. The long stretchable rivers explain the populated cities around it as these rivers were used in the colonial era for navigation and transport of goods. While in the southern colonies the cities sit on a fall line below which the rivers were navigable. The south is hot and arable for good tobacco cultivation which was a main source of income for the colonists and this is the area where most of the slaves were present.

The advancement of the U.S. is down to New Orleans and Mississippi river as it was the main source of trade and navigation. For the United States to secure themselves they have to reach the Pacific Ocean in the west. According to the book and video the U.S. got there in 1848 after the Mexican-American war. With its land reaching from sea to sea, with merit the U.S. became untouchable. The only two other major countries in the region have difficulties in transportation and farming also because of their geography. As Canada is rocky and very large to connect and because of weather most of the area is not suitable for farming. Similar is the case with Mexico, most of their land area consists of deserts and hence it was also not much of a threat.

Hence the geographical isolation of United States was the true reason for their success because when you don't have to worry about a potential invasion only then can you spend your time and resources on health, education, science, and politics.

Subject: Geography

Pages: 1 Words: 300

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