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Task 1

Information Security

We are living in the age of information, BIG Data and algorithms. Information is available so readily. The search engines which help us access this information have entered our daily vocabulary; the word search has been replaced by the world Google. However, with such explosive growth of information, there is also a growing concern for security. Therefore many organizations have devised their IT security policies and have placed security systems in place to protect their critical data from several threats.

Information security systems are developed by humans and therefore humans will remain the weakest link in the realm of information security CITATION Phu16 \l 1033 (Tran, 2016). The reason is that those who can develop a system can also exploit it for their own ulterior motives. Adaptation here is the key. Policies and security systems should keep evolving with the changing environment. It is a constant battle.

Possible Threats to Information Security

A threat may be defined as anything that results in a breach of security. Information security faces myriad of threats including attacks on software, theft of identity, extortion of information, intellectual property theft, curbing access to information and so on. The threat can also be categorized as software attacks, malware, virus, worms, Trojan, Bots, adware, spyware, ransomware, scareware, rootkits, zombies.

The above-mentioned threats are old generation threats. But there has been much advancement today. New generation threats include technology with weak security, social media attacks, mobile Malware, social engineering, corporate data on personal devices, etc.

IT Security Policies

To protect IT assets and resources, an organization devises security policy which guides individuals as to how to access and use these resources. The policy primarily depends upon the nature of information, the degree of availability desired and perceived threats. IT security policies of most organizations aim at achieving the desired level of confidentiality, access and integrity. The policy documents have to be updated with the changing environment. It defines the objectives of the policy, its scope and responsibilities of the employees.

How to Assess IT Security Policies

The following questions should be kept in mind while assessing an information security policy.

Whether or not the organization keeps assessing the policies

Whether or not the organization keeps an eye on trending cyber threats

Whether or not the cybersecurity team is skilled and professional

Whether or not the organization conducts security reviews and audit of performance

What the response plan for an incident is. A plan in place means that a possible intrusion will not be denied. Rather a proper response will be given. Some organizations remain in denial mode when a breach of security occurs.

If there is any training mechanism for employees

If there are any systems in place for vulnerability assessment

Security Policy of Federation University Australia

The policies aim at securing assets of the University against fraud, theft, privacy breach and malicious damage. It also prevents the use of various facilities for objects other than intended. One of the strengths of the policy is its wide scope which includes not only security staff but also students and other persons affiliated with the University. The standards followed by the university include Australian Standard Information Technology.

The policy includes Staff and students security, logical security, data security, physical security, security-related issues with mobile and other portable devices, incident management, and continuous improvement of security systems. This shows the policy and system in place over a wide range of areas.

The software security pertains to the security of software packages of FedUni computer services. Access is controlled through personal accounts with ID and Password. Moreover, the inactivity screensaver keeps monitoring the status of activity and lock the access after 10 minutes inactivity. Endpoint security ensure updates for the latest threats. All systems have updated anti-viruses. Backup of data is kept and there is a determined frequency for backups. For the implementation of the policy, a specific IT team is dedicated. Infringements are dealt with actions.

The above details show that the IT security policy of the university is very comprehensive and covers nearly all the measures necessary for the information security of the university.

Cyber Security Strategy of the Australian Government

Australia launched its Cyber Security Strategy in 2016 which aimed at enabling innovation, prosperity and growth CITATION cyb16 \l 1033 (Department of Prime Minister, Australian Government, 2016). Today more than 90% of Australians are online. To ensure the security of these online users, the policymakers embarked up devising a strategy to combat security threats. The policy is based on actions in five major areas. It suggests a cyber-partnership on a nation level, including also private bodies and communities, setting up a cyber-security infrastructure, recognizing the responsibility globally, adaptability and innovation and finally education Australians to train them into a smart nation. Under the policy, the Australian Cyber Security Centre has been established, which in partnership with private businesses aims at ensuring the cybersecurity using state of the art technologies.

For strong defences against cyber-attacks, the strategy is to detect, deter and respond. An online cyber threat sharing portal has been introduced by the government. The government also launched Cloud Computing Policy in 2014 to provide protection of data.

This strategy has its strengths and weaknesses. Australian government's intervention in the cybersecurity market would promote innovation, increase awareness, enhance cybersecurity-related skills and protect systems. Cybersecurity has been acknowledged as a national security issue. However, some experts suggest the budget allocation is meagre when compared to the US and UK. The strategy also lacks a timeline. There is no proper mechanism for the transfer of funds.

Security Policy of the Australian Institute of Food Safety (AIFS)

It aims at preserving the security of personal information and cookie. The institute has a review mechanism for knowing about recent developments in technologies related to security and encryption.

However, the organization claims no responsibility to ensure secure transfer of any kind of information from or to the online products of the organization.

Although the safe transfer is not ensured, once the information has been transferred, the organization has its mechanisms in place to protect the security, confidentiality and privacy of the information in their database. There are not only electronic but also managerial and physical procedures to prevent unauthorized access to the clients' information. AIFS follows the Australia Privacy Policies to ensure the privacy of its customers.

Their website also uses cookies. A cookie is a file placed on a person’s computer after asking for permission. Its purpose is to keep track of traffic. It responds to the users of a website individually. It remembers the preferences of a person and therefore can tailor its features to the needs of the user. Australian Institute of Food Safety also uses cookies to know which pages are visited most.

Since AIFS is an institute which provides training and education related to food safety, therefore the information they are dealing with is not very sensitive. The major concern is the privacy of the users of their website, which they secure in accordance with Australia Privacy Policies. Another strength is their dedication to research on the latest IT trends, which is indeed a strength.

Task 2

Crowd Sourcing

The practice of dividing a huge project or task into smaller chunks and assigning each chunk to a group of people who may be hundreds or thousands in number, depending upon the size of the task and the manpower it requires. Tasks are usually assigned through the internet. The nature of task may vary, including simply the collection of information and developing websites.

Internet and social media are the tools used for collecting data, information and opinions. The work may be based on paid freelancing or voluntarism.

Traffic navigators such as Google Map not only help the users or the apps but also provide real-time information about accidents that are reported by the app users

Crowdsourcing helps businesses to distribute their work around the globe, thereby exploiting the skills and expertise of a variety of people. It also helps them avoid the overhead expenses of employees working in the office of the company.

Examples of Crowdsourcing

There are myriad of jobs which can be crowd-sourced. Websites can be created using crowdsourcing. This method is also being used by the Uber. Companies seeking opinions on new products reach out to millions of their consumers on social media to know the perspective of people from different social, cultural and economic backgrounds.

Advantages of Crowdsourcing

Crowdsourcing helps a company or organization to reduce costs, enhance speed, and utilize the skills of people from around the world. Crowdsourcing is useful for those companies as well that perform some special tasks only occasionally. So rather than hiring permanent in-house employees, the task may be crowd-sourced. Proctor and Gamble, reaping the benefits of crowdsourcing, not only saved costs but also increased the generation of ideas CITATION Cro12 \l 1033 (Crowdsourcing.org, 2012).

Crowdsourcing and Ethical Considerations

Ethics deals with the question of right and wrong, and studies human conduct to determine whether the conduct is right or wrong in a given situation context. Although technology enables man to reap from its countless socio-economic benefits, yet sometimes there are ethical considerations. Crowdsourcing is one such area.

There are several perspectives related to the question of ethics in crowdsourcing. Utilitarianism aims at maximizing the greatest good with producing minimum hard. The Rights Approach emphasizes human dignity, respect and recognition. The Justice Approach calls for equal treatment of all people ( CITATION Sus17 \l 1033 (Susan Standing, 2017).

One ethical concern is that crowdsourcing increases the risk of exploitation of people at the hands of businesses. By tapping into the minds of a large number of people, crowdfunding can become exploitative. Human beings tend to socialize and remain in the community, they are most of the times willing to contribute without realizing their being exploited.

Crowdsourcing also gives rise to the question of rightful ownership of the task accomplished or the intellectual property thus created. There as an emerging trend that companies ask the participants of the crowd-sourced project to transfer the intellectual property rights to the company CITATION Sus17 \l 1033 (Susan Standing, 2017).

Yet another challenge is the lack of laws to protect ownership. Moreover, since there may be hundreds of thousands of individuals involved in a project, it becomes virtually impossible to calculate and allocate the rightful share of each person.

Crowdsourcing also restricts a participant’s access to the company's information. Nor can he play any major role in the decision making of the company. The related is only restricted to sourcing space, lacking the usual warmth that normally exists between relations that involve interactions. As rewards, if any, are contingent upon task completion, the participant does not have any say regarding the scope of the project.

Way Forward

There is an ongoing debate on the question of governance body regulating crowdsourcing. Those who oppose governance regulations highlight the already existing organizations such as crowdsourcing.org. They advocate the promotion of transparency in crowdsourcing so that the crowd can hold the company accountable itself without any government interference. They argue that an exploitative company cannot even survive for too long as the crowd will sooner or later call it out. Online professional communities should also play their role in creating awareness about what is ethical so that any projects where ethics are not clear enough are rejected.

Moreover, companies crowdsourcing their projects should institute their own code. Sometimes, the participants themselves may be asked to vote who should receive how many points of ownership. After the formulation of guidelines and rules for evaluation, the firms should also communicate these rules to the contributors. Moreover, the work of contributors should be recognized to prevent their alienation. Skills, knowledge and professional experience should also be acknowledged. When giving rewards, they may be given in groups. But there should be an excuse for not giving rewards just because the number of employees is very large. Those ideas proposed by the participants who get rejected by the company should also be managed in a responsible manner because, after all, the participants put effort into them. Transparency is of utmost importance so that the participants can make informed decisions and are aware of the nature of the company and code of conduct.

Some experts argue that the contributors should not undertake an assignment that causes their professional devaluation or when they are underpaid. There are also some responsibilities that fall on the shoulders of the participants. They should not use the designs or ideas of one company in any other crowdsourcing company. Moreover, they should report any incident of unethical activity on the part of other participants. The question of ethics is made all the more complex by the diversity in perspectives and moral standing of various societies and communities on the question of what is right and what is wrong CITATION Aya10 \l 1033 (Ayala, 2010).

Task 3

We live in a knowledge economy and the most important strategic tool in the knowledge economy landscape is technology. Technology has crept into almost all kinds of organizations. It has enabled organizations to increase their competitive advantage. Due to unprecedented feats in research, even the cost of using technology has decreased.

Understanding Porter’s Model

The benefits a company can derive from IT have been explained by Michael Porter's Model of competitive forces. Porter's five forces analysis is used to assess the potential of the business industry. The five forces are shown below in Figure 1.

Figure SEQ Figure \* ARABIC 1: Porter's Five Forces, isaca.org

The model identifies a major competitive threat to any company or organization. One is posed by external sources. Government policy changes business competitors are examples of external threat. In a competitive environment, organizations face many challenges and Porter's model helps explain their behaviour and how they maintain competitive advantages CITATION Moh \l 1033 (Mohapatra, 2011).

Strategic Significance of IT and IS

IT helps to maintain a competitive advantage as it changes the structure of the organization in such a way that the changed structure is adjusted according to a communication protocol. It is this changed structure that enables the organization to develop new ideas and working style and thereby maintain a competitive advantage over other competitors CITATION GLP83 \l 1033 (Parsons, 1983). Sometimes complete new business models evolve.

IS Strategic Planning and Porter’s 5 Forces

The far-reaching impact of IT and IS strategic planning on businesses and competition includes changing business models, changing the industry and finally evolving new strategies. In the following paragraphs, these impacts will be discussed thoroughly.

IS and buying power. Using IS, these forces can be managed as well as monitored. Management of inventory, quick selection of vendor and automation of purchase orders and billing procedures can be achieved through IS. These actions can help a company to improve relations with consumers and vendors and reduce procurement time. It has therefore increased buyers’ power.

IS an entry barrier. To understand the impact of IS on entry barrier, let us take the examples of banks and financial institutions (FI). Making online banking possible, IS has made the physical presence of the customer in the bank unnecessary. However, online banking entails heavy investments, trained staff and checks against cyber-crimes. All these factors have increased the entry barrier.

IS and the threat of substitutes. To minimize the threat of substitute, constant innovation in products is required. Introducing new products means making new designs and manufacturing or developing new products. For instance, there a constant need to introduce new models to tempt customers to upgrade their cars. Since IS helps collect information about the taste of clients and also decrease the time of decision making, the overall process of making innovation becomes very swift. Moreover, with IS all creativity of all the designers of the company can be exploited by helping them connect and exchange ideas. In these ways, IS has helped organizations to reduce the threat of substitutes.

IS and industry rivalry. In the service sector the competition is always very fierce owing to very little difference between pricing strategies and service levels. Airlines, railways and banking services might be different businesses but their pricing strategies are quite similar. Using IS, every company aims at reducing the processing time of the customer's request. Moreover, service delivery has also been made swift through IS. Therefore in order to remain in the race, every organization needs to upgrade its systems. Otherwise, it will be left behind.

IS and selling power. After Maruti introduced ERP (enterprise resource planning), its relation with buyers and suppliers changed remarkably. ERP makes the whole business extremely transparent. The more transparent the business, the more knowledge does the buyers have about the quality of the product they are interested in. This creates a relationship of trust between the seller and the buyers CITATION Moh \l 1033 (Mohapatra, 2011).

SWOT Analysis for IS Strategic Planning

Here the example of clinical information systems may be used. The SWOT analysis below may be applied to Information Systems other than Clinical Information Systems as well. A clinical information system is a system which stores and processes data related to bioinformatics algorithms, diagnostics, etc.

Strengths. IT boom has influenced nearly all kinds of organizations and businesses, including healthcare. Doctors and medical specialists also need to organize and automate data in the digital landscape. Clinical records need to store in digital form. In order to integrate data of hundreds of patients visiting hospitals, IS becomes inevitable. In emergency situations, such data can be accessed swiftly.

Weaknesses. Up-gradation may be time-consuming. Cybersecurity remains a threat and a constant battle. Moreover, the privacy of patients remains a concern.

Opportunities. There is a possibility to develop a platform-independent language for coding of software. Most of the healthcare IS are based on mainframes. Servers, on the other hand, are easy to maintain and provide real-time data and quick access. Interfaces can be made further user-friendly by improving the human-machine interface. Security protocols can be improved. Protection of privacy and security of systems is a constant battle. Specific bioinformatics tools can be devised related to medical field such as a tool for judging an athlete.

Threats. The major threat posed to IT and IS cybercrimes. The frequency of such crimes is increasing day by day. Just like inventing new medicines for bacteria is a constant battle, so is developing new security tools such as anti-viruses. The reason is that human beings are both the ends of the battle. In the whole security landscape, human beings are the weakest link. In this regard, governments and businesses should join hands to develop security regimes. The threat of penalties can also deter such crimes. Moreover, where possible, such systems can be operated offline to secure sensitive data.

Task 4

Information technology plays a central role in managing organizations. Every organization performs several functions such as marketing, manufacturing, sales, production, etc. Earlier, such function was performed separately and all the relevant data was recorded separately in separate information systems. However, the managers required to put the fragmented data together to assess the overall performance of the organization. Those Information technologies which integrate these functions together are called Enterprise Systems.

For example, if a client places an order in a company where the sales department is not integrated with the inventory, the salesman would never know, without contacting the inventory department, whether the demanded product is available or not. This is very recently with the advancement in information technology, many business companies have integrated their several functioning departments into a single whole that is called an enterprise system. Enterprise systems help organizations to plan efficiently by allowing the flow of information across departments.

Today enterprise systems, also called enterprise resource planning (ERP), have become so advanced that they cover almost all the functions of an organization, including but not limited to cash management, payroll, accounts payable, billing inventory, etc. ERP software connects consumers with suppliers and suppliers with other partners as well.

Importance of Enterprise Resource Planning Systems for an Organization

It enables communication across the firm. The managers having access to updated information about all the functioning departments are in a better position to make informed decisions CITATION Ivo12 \l 1033 (Loo, 2012).

It reduces the overall cost of doing business. One example is reducing the cost of information transfer. The budget thus saved can be invested elsewhere to improve the business. For instance, it can be invested in improving customer care.

By connecting all the departments, it improves customer care services by keeping a database of their history such as previous orders. By knowing about the preference of the customer, he can be helped out by providing updated information to him about the products of his liking.

Order tracking becomes easier and faster. The time thus saved by the customer service providers can be utilized in maximizing revenue generation.

It enables the organization to evolve a specific kind of corporate culture as ERP enables most of the employees to have almost similar exposure to the organization’s values, mission and other information.

The degree of integration or the size of the database can be expanded or reduced according to the needs of an organization. Scaling up is usually required when the customer base is increased, new departments are created, and so on.

The reliability of ERP can be improved to minimize downtime by installing standby systems as well. This helps the organization to remain online, connected, and informed, thereby generating maximum output.

With worldwide increased interconnectivity, exposure and vulnerability to cybercrimes have also increased. It is relevant to mention here the security breaches of large corporations such as Sony. Such security breaches cannot be afforded by big business as they come with costs as high as hundreds of millions. ERP enables an organization to improve cybersecurity and enhance customer privacy.

With unprecedented changes in market trends and consumers’ preferences, it has become extremely important to have real-time access to data. ERP provides this data thereby enabling the enterprise to make sense of the latest supply and demand trends.

In the ever-changing environment, it is of paramount importance that the customer is provided with a consistent experience by the enterprise. ERP helps the enterprise to evolve its consistent standards related to customer service. Such standardization familiarizes the customer with the enterprise and over time a bond is created between the two CITATION Ibr18 \l 1033 (Ullah, 2018).

One of the key areas in businesses is supply chain management. BY enabling the enterprise to keep track of the customer order, supplies, inventory, ERP smoothens the management of supply chain. In fact, ERP has become the bedrock of the supply chain over time.

Government regulations nowadays ask for a lot of information about the organization's activities, businesses, employees, revenues, profits, etc. ERP not only helps organizations to provide such data to the government regulatory agencies but also makes the whole process easier through automatic generation of data. Therefore, one the hand, compliance is ensured and on the other, company's employees remain available for other tasks.

Challenges in ERP Implementation

Despite its numerous benefits, ERP also poses some serious challenges to organizations both before and after implementation CITATION Cri14 \l 1033 (Bach, 2014). To understand these challenges, a case study of a water corporation will be discussed. The water corporation began the implementation of ERP in 1997 which was to be completed in 1999. The process was sequential. Some subsystems had been installed earlier the corporation began using them. However, there were many shuts down. Moreover, the transfer of data from the old system to the new ERP system also caused problems. In order to fix these problems, heavy expenses were incurred. The problem was eventually solved but after a lot of effort.

What can be concluded from this case study is that the implementation of ERP requires planning and proper preparation. Even after implementation, there may be operational and managerial problems. After ERP is installed training of employees requires some time. That also needs to be planned accordingly. Otherwise, a business can be severely affected.

CosmeticCO is a Chinese company working in the domain of cosmetics. In 1998, it embarked upon the implementation of an ERP system. The challenged they were that the ERP had not been fully translated into Chinese. Moreover, ERP had a different reporting format while the Government of China required the company to submit their reports in a different format. There were some problems related to display as well such as overlapping of digits. Such challenges can severely impact the performance of the company.


Proper planning is required before implementation. Moreover, the organization should not become depending on the ERP abruptly, abandoning the old system. Only when the new system starts functioning perfectly should the old system be abandoned. The whole process of implementation of ERP may be divided into steps in order to avoid and overcome such challenges CITATION Cri14 \l 1033 (Bach, 2014).

The first step is the formation of a consultant team that includes experts in the IT field. Then the ERP product should be chosen with due care. Integration, implementation, training and system testing partners should be chosen then. Then comes the announcement of the plan to the employees to engage them. The implementation plan should be devised and proper tracking mechanism should be set up. Finally, there should be an evaluation team.

Task 5

The outsourcing industry has grown immensely over the past few decades, and with its growth, outsourcing has become more complex than it ever was. The complexities involved therefore also create issues and pose some serious challenges CITATION Dav16 \l 1033 (Chou, 2016). To maximize profit, businesses come up with different strategies such as mergers, acquisitions, outsourcing, integration etc. If we trace back the outsourcing trend, we find that it was manufacturing industry that first outsourced its manufacturing to cheap manufacturers CITATION Dav16 \l 1033 (Chou, 2016). One of the world’s biggest outsourcing market is China where the cost of labour is low. On the other hand, there is an increasing trend in the US to outsource services.

IT outsourcing has existed for around six decades and one of the earliest IT outsourced service was Timesharing. It was introduced early in the 1950s CITATION Dav16 \l 1033 (Chou, 2016). There is are a wide range of services that are outsourced by companies. The motivations behind outsourcing IT services include cost-effectiveness, access to resources not available internally, completion of the difficult task by employing external skills, and tapping diverse talent.

Hiring in-house staff can be very expensive including costs of salaries, rents, billings etc. By outsourcing an IT service, such costs are reduced, and the upper management can shift their focus towards other ongoing projects. Outsourcing helps in quick implementation of new technologies. By outsourcing IT services, the company invests more time and money in its core business, thereby generating more revenue.

Outsourcing reduces the risks in many ways. All the risks associated with market changes, competition and regulations are now handled by the vendor. Outsourcing can bring small companies at par with big businesses by outsourcing such IT services that they themselves do not have the capacity to handle.

However, there are some risks posed by the practice of IR outsourcing as well, including unexpected costs, fear of losing intellectual property, theft of strategic data, losing control and access etc.

Most Common Outsourced IT Functions

IT functions have pervaded all kinds of enterprises, organizations and businesses. Over the years, organizations have moved from outsourcing simple support services to highly advanced functions. The functions outsourced include marketing, consultation, cyber-attack protection, backup and recovery, and so on.

Email management is one of the most common IT feature outsourced to vendors. Companies dealing with a large number of emails need proper management and protection of these emails. In large organizations, regular maintenance of network and software ensured by outsourcing them to an IT vendor. Some IT outsourcing companies provide access to shared servers or exclusively protected servers that can be utilized by paying for them. Data collection, data storage, back up, maintenance of data and updates are some other IT functions that companies outsource to third-party IT service providers.

Issues Associated with IT Outsourcing

One challenge faced by IT outsourcing companies is the government regulations which are usually enforced to protect state interests CITATION Chu15 \l 1033 (Ojukwu, 2015). In Europe, the legal regimes offer little opportunities for companies to outsource their IT operations CITATION Azi10 \l 1033 (Aziati, 2010). Likewise, the Turkish government imposed several restrictions on the outsourcing of IT to avoid exposing its national capabilities.

Another major challenge is the absence of skilled IT employees in the organizations intending to outsource its IT functions. This results in the inability of the organization to explain its IT requirements to the vendor CITATION Far10 \l 1033 (Farrel, 2010). The example of Accenture Company in Norway is indeed relevant in this context. Its employees were not trained to gather data from their offshore service provider, as a result of which the company suffered in business due to insufficient information. Moreover, any bitter experience between the vendor and client experience causes degradation of service quality.

Sometimes the focus of the outsourcer is on the cost, not on the objective of outsourcing. Sometimes the specific information required for the successful provision of IT services is not carefully provided to the vendor. In other cases, the servicer outsourcer shifts the whole responsibility from its shoulders on to the vendor and in worse cases, it may not consider it their problem anymore.

It has also been observed that outsourcers sometimes do not carefully monitor information security. On the other hand, some businesses or governments are reluctant to outsource their IT services primarily because of their concerns regarding strategic IT outsourcing. Outsourcing of strategic IT functions is considered inappropriate because of the fear of leakage of sensitive information CITATION HKS08 \l 1033 (HKSAR, 2008).

Another issue associated with many IT projects is the failure to produce the promised advantage. This happens because the focus of the organizations usually remains on the application of technology rather than on the evaluation of the IT outsourced project. In case IT outsourced projects, the appropriate project methodology remains slow and most often organizations lack any formal method of evaluating IT outsourced projects.

Yet another challenge associated with IT outsourcing is the ambiguities in the agreement. For instance, the cost of a particular service might be unspecified in the contract. There is also the possibility of potential misinterpretation of the text of an agreement by either the client or the vendor or both. One example of unspecified cost is usually the cost maintain communication CITATION Riu07 \l 1033 (Riungu, 2007). Confusion may also be caused because of currency and inflation problems involved as the vendor and client can possibly reside in different countries.

Lack of global IT resource or inability of the organization to cope with the ever-changing technological landscape poses another big challenge. Since outsourcing may be offshore it gives rise to interaction with different ethnicities with diverse backgrounds. It may result in problems of collaboration and association. When there is poor communication or improper behavioural style, the business may suffer immensely.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Ayala, F. J. (2010). The difference of being human: Morality. US National Library of Medicine.

Aziati. (2010). Inter-Organizational Knowledge Transfer Through Malaysia E-Government IT Outsourcing.

Bach, C. (2014). ERP Systems and their Effects on Organizations.

Chou, D. C. (2016). Information Technology Outsourcing: Issues and Future Analyses.

Crowdsourcing.org. (2012).

Department of Prime Minister, Australian Government. (2016). Retrieved from cybersecuritystrategy.homeaffairs.gov.au

Farrel. (2010). Developing a Framework for Measuring Outsourcing Performance. The University of Leads.

HKSAR. (2008). IT Outsourcing Security. Journal of the Government of the Hong.

http://policy.federation.edu.au/information_management_and_infrastructure/web_services/it/ch02.php. (n.d.).

https://cybersecuritystrategy.homeaffairs.gov.au/. (n.d.).

https://www.foodsafety.com.au/legal/security-policy. (n.d.).

Loo, I. D. (2012). The effects of ERP-implementations on the non-financial.

Mohapatra, S. (2011). Chapter 14: IT and Porter’s Competitive Forces Model and Strategies.


Parsons, G. L. (1983). Information technology: A new competitive weapon. loan Management Review,.

Riungu. (2007). Outsourcing and offshore software development in Africa. Lappeenranta University of technology.

Susan Standing, C. S. (2017, October). The ethical use of crowdsourcing. Retrieved from www.researchgate.net: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320325558_The_ethical_use_of_crowdsourcing

Tran, P. T. (2016). Strength and Weakness of Information Security:. Retrieved from https://cs.columbusstate.edu/cae-ia/studentpapers/tran.phuong.pdf.

Ullah, I. (2018). Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Systems and User Performance (UP).

Subject: IT

Pages: 16 Words: 4800


Title: Assignment 1: Planning your work

Student name: Luna

Professor name:

Course title: CIS210


Project I: Writing project

Duration: 1 week

Project II: Winter shopping

Duration: 1 week

Project III: Communication course

Duration: 1 week

Subject: IT

Pages: 3 Words: 900



[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]


Agile project management is the process of responding to problems which arise during the project. It allows to make changes in the projects when necessary and deliver a successful project on time. Agile project management is an iterative approach to the planning of projects (What is Agile Project Management, 2019). It allows dividing projects into small chunks and complete projects in small sections. Agile project management allows to continuously evaluate the project time and cost as they move to next step. They use different charts like velocity charts and burnup charts to measure their work (What is Agile Project Management, 2019). Most people prefer Agile project management because it does not require the direct participation of a project manager in a project. The role of the project manager in agile project management is played by all the team members in a project (What is Agile Project Management, 2019).

Agile project management is basically used in projects to deliver high-quality work. It allows reducing the complexity in the projects by breaking it into small pieces. Agile project management helps to find the bugs during the development of projects and find out hundred of product flaws. It allows for making changes in the projects even late in the development stage (CollabNet, 2019). There are many advantages of using agile project management because it allows creating a more rapid deployment of solutions. Agile project management also allows to detect issues and defects in the project faster and optimize the development process. Agile project management can also be combined with other methodologies like Scrum. Scrum is a very powerful framework for the implementation of an agile process. It is a highly adopted framework that uses short iterations of work. In this framework, the project manager meets with teams briefly to get updates regarding the project (Schwaber, 2004).


What is Agile Project Management? - Definition from WhatIs.com. (2019). SearchCIO. Retrieved from https://searchcio.techtarget.com/definition/Agile-project-management

What is Agile Project Management?. (2019). CollabNet VersionOne. Retrieved from https://www.versionone.com/agile-project-management/

Schwaber, K. (2004). Agile project management with Scrum. Microsoft press.

Subject: IT

Pages: 1 Words: 300


Advanced Corporate Recruitment System (ACRS)

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

Advanced Corporate Recruitment System (ACRS)

Organizational Background

The organization at hand is an e-commerce organization which is experiencing a very high rate of growth in the last twenty years, with its size expanding year after year. As a result of the expanding the size of the organization, it is obvious when that the number of employees should raise and a more cost-effective and efficient approach possible should be put in place for a better recruitment process of new employees. It is a tradition that when there is a vacant position announced by an organization, all interested applicants are expected to take their applications physically or through message delivery service providers to the organization expected.

System Analysis

Advanced Corporate Recruitment System (ACRS) was an idea that came at a time when there was need to change the process and overcome problems inherited by the unfair systems. It is a web platform aimed at bridging the gap of communication between job seekers and those providing selected job opportunities which rely on qualified IT personell to match organizations need and curb with the fast evolution. ACRS main purpose of development was to integrate the functionalities of those automated systems that existed when the idea was developed and add up to the current idea to enhance efficiency.


Point and snaps in ACRS are purpose of-control parameters in all the framework activity. Prophet databases usage was the earlier arrangement for this framework because of functionalities requiring expansive capacity limit and propelled look with simultaneous access without crash ability and seclusion of clients. Amid framework SQL databases was used because of the expenses related with Oracle while SQL is an open source. Framework databases has been created for less demanding access through PDA program, telephone USSD, Web server and different internet browser.

Major functionalities added to the ACRS include email notification to top management involved in the recruitment of new employees, reports generation, access controls which are more advance and secure and finally the introduction of real-time search capabilities. In addition due to the technological advancement in the use of mobile devices, which include tablets and smart phones, ACRS has been developed and implemented with feature that fits them in the mobile devices browsers. The implementation features used in this case are JavaScript, CSS and HTML5 to make it more dynamic (Scime, 2005).


Data storage




Job applicants


Data storage




Job applicants


Computer Infrastructure

The framework improvement had a difference in plan and chose to sort the functionalities usage into 2, that is, Job Seeker and HR office. The various modules are identified with one of this significant one. Other related functionalities incorporate beginning enlistment of HR supervisor, enrollment work searchers and dispense id, propelled look both HR and the activity searchers, Mails Auto-sending to enlisted HR chiefs and occupation searchers, Vacancy posting by HR, interviews, reports, USSD questioning, and portable short messages warning. ACRS being a system-based programming it has least required least programming and equipment improvement and working necessities. The prerequisites included Windows 7 or above, capacity 500 GB hard plate, center I 3 processor or over, an internet browser, OZEKI server for informing, SQL database, 4 GB RAM and Dreamweaver CS6 web advancement instrument or comparable.

Human Computer Interaction

The primary idea while coming up with this system is design a less complicated system or users which delivers high quality information and a more reliable software. ACRS has centralized so much on the needs of the job seekers and the requirements of the employer who in case is River side. Jobseekers can to register into the system that gives them a provision to upload their CVs , input experience and skills with the system while on the other hands employer posts the requirements and brief description with the system. ACRS has been developed with the capability to compare the employer’s requirements and the job seekers qualification and make an intelligent match then give the results.

Web Design

Applicants are expected to undertake online interview answering questions that are generated randomly by the system and a review done by the administrators upon the successful applicant. The questions that used for interview are prior loaded in the system. The system is designed to ensure that no two applicants undertake the same test for interview.

System Implementation

Incremental software development model

Gantt Chart


Proctor, Robert W.; Vu, Kim-Phuong L. (2005), 'Handbook of Human Factors in Web Design', Mahwah, N.J Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Reviews.com, (2013) ' Monster.com Review'Website: http://www.reviews.com/job-sites/monstercom/

Scime, Anthony (2005), 'Web Mining: Applications and Techniques', Hershey PA: Idea Group Publishing.

Šmite, D., Wohlin, C., Aurum, A., Jabangwe, R., & Numminen, E. (2013). Offshore insourcing in software development: Structuring the decision-making process. Journal of systems and software, 86(4), 1054-1067.

Subject: IT

Pages: 2 Words: 600




[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Author Note

Informatics in Healthcare

Informatics and Healthcare

The success in the healthcare industry is always measured through patient outcome. The fulfillment of care goals by both patient and doctor is the important point on which the effectiveness of the current medical procedure is gauged. But, these days the amount of data regarding the problems of the patient has increased. Therefore, it is only natural that health informatics would play a pivotal role in this process. By collecting, analyzing and studying the data acquired in a normal way, professionals can improve the whole process of healthcare that is in place today.

To improve healthcare outcomes, the patient diagnosis must be done timely and accurately. This is important since there are several new viruses discovered every day for which is no cure yet. The implementation of informatics in healthcare has assisted healthcare organization to implement a predictive system that not only helps in diagnosing disease in a fast and efficient manner, it also helps in their cure by giving needed suggestions. Overall, these systems help in the improvement of six categories of healthcare outcomes related to high-cost patients, triage, adverse effects, readmission rates, decompensation and diseases affecting multiple organ systems. These zones have long-lasting benefits for financial and health levels.

Another benefit in healthcare is the increased efficiency that comes with the implementation of informatics. Even the slightest effort in perfecting the existing medical procedures can help in saving a lot of resources that are otherwise wasted. These resources are then utilized in other areas of research that can help in serving the interest of all the parties involved.

In short, the implementation of informatics in the healthcare industry is a win-win situation for both patients and doctors. The former’s need for informatics is much greater as it is seen that he is the one that has to bear the consequence of all the mistakes done by everyone involved in the industry of healthcare. Informatics can help in real-time medical surveillance of the patient, which can help the common man to cure the disease before it starts to move towards incurability. It can also help us to get a clearer method of diagnosis and cure of certain important diseases like diabetes and cancer and help us to find their cure in a way that is as efficient and painless as possible.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Margo Edmunds, L. T. (2014). The Future of Public Health Informatics: Alternative Scenarios and Recommended Strategies. The Journal for Electronic Health Data and Methods, 2(4). DOI:10.13063/2327-9214.1156

Thomas G. Savel, S. F. (2012, July 27). The Role of Public Health Informatics in Enhancing Public Health Surveillance. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 61(3), 20-24. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/su6103a5.htm

Subject: IT

Pages: 1 Words: 300



[Author’s Name]


Response 1

It is undeniably true that healthcare information technology is revolutionizing the ways by which nurses used to interact with health-care-related data. Nursing informatics is the field that integrates nursing science with various analytical and information sciences to define, identify, and managing and communicating data and information in nursing practice. Typically, in the healthcare system, nursing informatics is utilized to manage electronic healthcare records.

High-quality patient care and effective management of conditions are only possible with the help of informatics in the healthcare systems. Nursing informatics is a career that provides patients with high-quality care and plans for their conditions of disorders. Patient engagement and participation in managing critical states are essentially important ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a12g8t9ll32","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Hylock & Harris, 2017)","plainCitation":"(Hylock & Harris, 2017)"},"citationItems":[{"id":1024,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/D7UNV4A7"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/D7UNV4A7"],"itemData":{"id":1024,"type":"article-journal","title":"Healthcare Database Management for Health Informatics and Information Management Students: Challenges and Instruction Strategies—Part 2","container-title":"Educational Perspectives in Health Informatics and Information Management","issue":"Summer","author":[{"family":"Hylock","given":"Ray"},{"family":"Harris","given":"Susie T."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Hylock & Harris, 2017). Nursing informatics is a novel field that plays an important role in the development of dynamic healthcare systems such as mobile appliances and applications of informatics to facilitate patients with maximum quality care. The health of communities can be significantly improved with the informatics systems in healthcare facilities. Advanced systems of diagnostics, precise nursing, and regular monitoring by informatics nurses can achieve better health of communities ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a12g8t9ll32","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Hylock & Harris, 2017)","plainCitation":"(Hylock & Harris, 2017)"},"citationItems":[{"id":1024,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/D7UNV4A7"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/D7UNV4A7"],"itemData":{"id":1024,"type":"article-journal","title":"Healthcare Database Management for Health Informatics and Information Management Students: Challenges and Instruction Strategies—Part 2","container-title":"Educational Perspectives in Health Informatics and Information Management","issue":"Summer","author":[{"family":"Hylock","given":"Ray"},{"family":"Harris","given":"Susie T."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Hylock & Harris, 2017). Effective delivery of services in the least time would be achievable in the future with the help of informatics in healthcare. These nurses are specially trained with a major focus on how to use and operate informatics in healthcare. Informatics nurses can efficiently deliver their services to the patients, and prompt recovery is possible. Several health apps can be downloaded in mobiles to access healthcare services. These applications can provide patients with access to physicians to get help regarding their conditions. This is an ever-increasing pace in the healthcare facilities to develop systems for the better delivery of quality care to reduce the burden of disease from communities.

Response 2

Connected health is a term used in recent healthcare systems that refers to the use of advanced technology along with the delivery of healthcare. It is a model of the socio-technological system in healthcare systems ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a9vfnn1i20","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Wu et al., 2017)","plainCitation":"(Wu et al., 2017)"},"citationItems":[{"id":1027,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/7XPPVNU6"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/7XPPVNU6"],"itemData":{"id":1027,"type":"article-journal","title":"An autonomous wireless body area network implementation towards IoT connected healthcare applications","container-title":"Ieee Access","page":"11413-11422","volume":"5","author":[{"family":"Wu","given":"Taiyang"},{"family":"Wu","given":"Fan"},{"family":"Redouté","given":"Jean-Michel"},{"family":"Yuce","given":"Mehmet Rasit"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Wu et al., 2017). Major challenges in the provision of connected health are mHealth and eHealth. Therefore, connected health is a novel term that means the utilization and integration of smart technology in testing, diagnosis, and development of healthcare services. mHealth is mobile health that is utilized specifically for the support, access, and monitoring of the health of patients.

Example 1

Patients suffering from obstructive sleep apnea and related disorders are being provided with facilities of telehealth, and through mobile appliances, they can monitor their health as well as have access to a healthcare provider to health them in self-management ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a9vfnn1i20","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Wu et al., 2017)","plainCitation":"(Wu et al., 2017)"},"citationItems":[{"id":1027,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/7XPPVNU6"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/7XPPVNU6"],"itemData":{"id":1027,"type":"article-journal","title":"An autonomous wireless body area network implementation towards IoT connected healthcare applications","container-title":"Ieee Access","page":"11413-11422","volume":"5","author":[{"family":"Wu","given":"Taiyang"},{"family":"Wu","given":"Fan"},{"family":"Redouté","given":"Jean-Michel"},{"family":"Yuce","given":"Mehmet Rasit"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Wu et al., 2017). The benefits of this technology include the timely management of patient's condition; however, major challenges are awareness and use of technology by the patients.

Example 2

Advanced technology and its use in healthcare facilities are in the treatment of cancer patients such as blood pressure cuff and weight scale connected with Bluetooth devices for sending updates of patient’s symptoms to physicians. The use of smart technology has helped patients to manage their symptoms effectively. It helped physicians to treat and respond timely through tracking these apps.

Example 3

Use of smart continuous glucose monitoring pens and insulin pens to monitor a patient's glucose level. These apps have helped patients to administer their sugar levels to prevent themselves from complications.

Major Challenges and Drawbacks

Major challenges in combating these application facilities are awareness, utilization of facilities, and how to use these apps effectively ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a12g8t9ll32","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Hylock & Harris, 2017)","plainCitation":"(Hylock & Harris, 2017)"},"citationItems":[{"id":1024,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/D7UNV4A7"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/D7UNV4A7"],"itemData":{"id":1024,"type":"article-journal","title":"Healthcare Database Management for Health Informatics and Information Management Students: Challenges and Instruction Strategies—Part 2","container-title":"Educational Perspectives in Health Informatics and Information Management","issue":"Summer","author":[{"family":"Hylock","given":"Ray"},{"family":"Harris","given":"Susie T."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Hylock & Harris, 2017). It is important to provide healthcare facilities with all the systems for the secure use of technological appliances for complete benefits of connected health. It is also important to provide complete privacy and quality to achieve the complete potential of connected health. Engagement of medical health staff and team is essentially important to meet the challenges of connected health.

Response 3

Informatics has changed the context of the healthcare facilities by providing the opportunity of advanced technology. These services have facilitated patients as well as nurses and physicians to effectively manage and treat conditions. Major benefits received by the patients are those having complications that require time management and regular monitoring such as obstructive sleep disorders, diabetes patients, and cancer patients. It has provided a health system with advanced healthcare services with precise diagnostics utilizing advanced technology. For example, utilizing mobile services in the provision of healthcare services will enable patients with accurate diagnosis and better recommendations along with better-personalized health. This technology help patients with self-management and self-monitoring of their health ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a89fntg9vb","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Goreva et al., 2016)","plainCitation":"(Goreva et al., 2016)"},"citationItems":[{"id":830,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/S566PFS3"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/S566PFS3"],"itemData":{"id":830,"type":"article-journal","title":"A Study Of The Security Of Electronic Medical Records Utilizing Six Knowledge Categories And Subjects Demographics","container-title":"International Journal of Management & Information Systems (IJMIS)","page":"51-58","volume":"20","issue":"3","author":[{"family":"Goreva","given":"Natalya"},{"family":"Mishra","given":"Sushma"},{"family":"Draus","given":"Peter"},{"family":"Bromall","given":"George"},{"family":"Caputo","given":"Don"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Goreva et al., 2016). It utilizes various appliances such as mobile phones, advanced technology, and a system of telehealth with the provision of healthcare services. Record of a patient's history and diagnosis with previous medical history is essentially important for better treatment ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a128mpsi1ne","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Richesson et al., 2019)","plainCitation":"(Richesson et al., 2019)"},"citationItems":[{"id":1026,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/FF7RKMUC"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/FF7RKMUC"],"itemData":{"id":1026,"type":"chapter","title":"Introduction to Clinical Research Informatics","container-title":"Clinical Research Informatics","publisher":"Springer","page":"3-15","author":[{"family":"Richesson","given":"Rachel L."},{"family":"Andrews","given":"James E."},{"family":"Hollis","given":"Kate Fultz"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Richesson et al., 2019). It is helpful only in the system of advanced technology utilized in the healthcare facilities. Therefore, public health has been improved by the utilization of advanced informatics systems.

Diabetic patients is the second major example that has provided the facilities. For instance, continuous glucose monitor helps patients to record and monitor their glucose level as a higher level as well as lower levels of blood glucose is a life-threatening condition for the patient ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a11dna8dlm3","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Hylock & Harris, 2017)","plainCitation":"(Hylock & Harris, 2017)"},"citationItems":[{"id":1024,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/D7UNV4A7"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/D7UNV4A7"],"itemData":{"id":1024,"type":"article-journal","title":"Healthcare Database Management for Health Informatics and Information Management Students: Challenges and Instruction Strategies—Part 2","container-title":"Educational Perspectives in Health Informatics and Information Management","issue":"Summer","author":[{"family":"Hylock","given":"Ray"},{"family":"Harris","given":"Susie T."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Hylock & Harris, 2017). Therefore, utilizing continuous monitoring have helped physicians to monitor patients and timely provision of treatment therapies.

Thirdly, informatics has improved healthcare systems with better patient outcomes and improved patient records. For example, retrieval of medical data for the patient's treatment plans is essentially helpful if there is no one with the patient. It has helped several patients with better care opportunities and their engagement in managing their critical conditions, such as devices to help them monitor their conditions.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Goreva, N., Mishra, S., Draus, P., Bromall, G., & Caputo, D. (2016). A Study Of The Security Of Electronic Medical Records Utilizing Six Knowledge Categories And Subjects Demographics. International Journal of Management & Information Systems (IJMIS), 20(3), 51–58.

Hylock, R., & Harris, S. T. (2017). Healthcare Database Management for Health Informatics and Information Management Students: Challenges and Instruction Strategies—Part 2. Educational Perspectives in Health Informatics and Information Management, Summer.

Richesson, R. L., Andrews, J. E., & Hollis, K. F. (2019). Introduction to Clinical Research Informatics. In Clinical Research Informatics (pp. 3–15). Springer.

Wu, T., Wu, F., Redouté, J.-M., & Yuce, M. R. (2017). An autonomous wireless body area network implementation towards IoT connected healthcare applications. Ieee Access, 5, 11413–11422.

Subject: IT

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Assignment 1

Week 1 Essay Questions

Student’s Name:

Institutional Affiliation:

Week 1 Essay Questions

Question 1

There are six steps in quality risk assessment. First is the threat identification and valuation. The asset valuation is the financial value based on the cost plus the other expenditures that are not linked to currency (Rescher, 2014). Threats are the possible actions which might cause undesirable effects on the results. The second step is to list of threats is listed, and the EF exposure factor is calculated plus the SLE (single loss expectancy). The SLE formula is provided below:


Third step is to conduct the analysis of threat chances that every risk happening annually as the ARO (an annualized rate of the occurrence)

The fourth step is building of the general loss of potential for each threat through computing the ALE (annualized loss expectancy). The formula of ALE is:


The fifth step involves the research count reactants for every threat that have been analyzed.

The last step is the tool of project management referred to as the analysis of the cost-benefit.

Qualitative risk assessment is a exact method because it is based on probable proportions. It is done through the addition of the monetary value to every threat and assets.

Question 2

Risk – it is the possibility of threat happening and probably exploiting the vulnerabilities for disrupting the assets.

Threats – are the probability of an action that would create unwanted outcomes.

Vulnerability – The limitation, error, oversight, flaw or weakness of the infrastructure or asset.

Risk Exposure – is the quantified loss of the business potential

Control – is the administration of the full collection of tasks that permit right of entry to the official users and prevents unauthorized right of entry to the resources to the individuals not allowed.

Preventative Control – Is to regulate the access to the authorized users and also block the unauthorized users from accessing the resources and facilities within the business.

Deterrent Control – is the passive method for control that relies only on the technique and not the direct action from persons.

Detective Control – they are meant to identify the unauthorized activity; however after it has happened already.

Question 3

Risk Mitigation: reduction of risk involves placing safety safeguards to eliminate vulnerabilities (Raftery, 2013).  Selection of the effective method for mitigating the risk is recommended. Elimination of the hazards avoids disrupting vulnerabilities.

Risk acceptance: it is the valuation of the cost-benefit analysis by the management of the probable safeguards and the establishment that the countermeasure expense outweighs the likely costs of the loss because of risk.

Risk Assignment – Assignment of risks is the placement of the costs linked with the risks representing the other organization or entity. In other occasions, risks are conferred to the companies of insurance for transferring risks.

Risk rejection- the final resort is to ignore the risk. It is the assumption that the business will not be faced with uncertainty. Risk rejection could lead to disaster, and it is not always selected as the best option.


Raftery, J. (2013). Risk analysis in project management. Routledge.

Rescher, N. (2014). Risk: A philosophical introduction to the theory of risk evaluation and management.

Subject: IT

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Assignment 1: Privacy, Laws, And Security Measures

Assignment 1: Privacy, Laws, and Security Measures

Kwaku Adomako

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)

Assignment 1: Privacy, Laws, and Security Measures

Protecting digital information against privacy and security issues is the most important concern for all modern businesses. Most of the businesses strive to provide flexible e-commerce services to their customers that require extensive amounts of private data to be processed for business operations. Storage and processing of sensitive information such as social security numbers, contact details, and credit card information for payment processing have made businesses a potential target of cyber criminals ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"8dg7Hwhx","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Weiss & Archick, 2016)","plainCitation":"(Weiss & Archick, 2016)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":13,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/BeyJjeak/items/YSL8U9YK"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/BeyJjeak/items/YSL8U9YK"],"itemData":{"id":13,"type":"book","title":"US-EU data privacy: from safe harbor to privacy shield","publisher":"Congressional Research Service","author":[{"family":"Weiss","given":"Martin A."},{"family":"Archick","given":"Kristin"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Weiss & Archick, 2016). Organizations are facing privacy issues as customers are becoming more vigilant about the privacy of their personal information. Where every organization claims to be the best in privacy protection, the headlines are filled with news of successful data breaches compromising personal information.

Cyber-criminals discover vulnerabilities in information systems and exploit them to gain access to private information stored in the systems. In the given scenario for a retail store, the information such as social security numbers, credit card details can be compromised by criminals. Protection of such sensitive information is the responsibility of the organization collecting the details from customers. The European Union has implemented a general data protection regulation known as GDPR. As per GDPR, the individuals in Europe have extensive privacy rights regarding their digital information ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Ok4jQMLh","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Allen, 2016)","plainCitation":"(Allen, 2016)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":14,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/BeyJjeak/items/DP2T27QB"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/BeyJjeak/items/DP2T27QB"],"itemData":{"id":14,"type":"article-journal","title":"Protecting one's own privacy in a big data economy","container-title":"Harv. L. Rev. F.","page":"71","volume":"130","author":[{"family":"Allen","given":"Anita L."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Allen, 2016). In the United States, there is no single data protection legislation. However, various privacy and data protection regulations are implemented at national as well as state levels. For example, the HIPAA act that provide businesses with guidelines to protect personal health information (PHI) of patients. National Institute of Standards in Technology has developed comprehensive data protection and privacy framework that is applicable in a vast variety of organizations ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"wIWIAfiK","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Vogt, 2017)","plainCitation":"(Vogt, 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":15,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/BeyJjeak/items/VV6PJ5MY"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/BeyJjeak/items/VV6PJ5MY"],"itemData":{"id":15,"type":"article-journal","title":"The Digital Underworld: Combating Crime on the Dark Web in the Modern Era","container-title":"Santa Clara J. Int'l L.","page":"104","volume":"15","author":[{"family":"Vogt","given":"Sophia Dastagir"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Vogt, 2017). Organizations such as retail stores must be compliant to the NIST standards of data privacy and information security assurance frameworks imposed by concerned departments of the government.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Allen, A. L. (2016). Protecting one’s own privacy in a big data economy. Harv. L. Rev. F., 130, 71.

Vogt, S. D. (2017). The Digital Underworld: Combating Crime on the Dark Web in the Modern Era. Santa Clara J. Int’l L., 15, 104.

Weiss, M. A., & Archick, K. (2016). US-EU data privacy: from safe harbor to privacy shield. Congressional Research Service.

Subject: IT

Pages: 1 Words: 300


Environmental Issues


Institution Affiliation



For a more suitable future, Different tools and concepts have been developed. The development is done within different disciplines which are for different reasons. In this report, environmental issues have been defined broadly to include those affecting the consumption of energy, Emission of the greenhouse gases, the Carbon footprint and the change of climate with regards to the environment. This report contain brief description of tools of system analysis of the which include the analysis from how different bodies are supposed to be reacting to the environmental regulations. That is also going to include the assessment of the life cycle along with the cost benefit analysis so that some further insight is developed about the material intensity per unit service at the given point of time. This paper should discuss the different analytical methods. As such, we shall use one of the methods to discuss environmental issues.

Environmental issues are described as the harmful effects on the environment caused by human activities. There have been ideas that have arisen that support the management of the environment. The ideas discussed are on the way that will lead to sustainability. The tools discussed on environmental issues present a method that is systematic for measuring the environmental burden. The system tools of analysis lead to how this affect is going to be analyzed at the overall level.

1.1 Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA).

In different regulations, the EIA tool is required. Its main aim is the protection of the environment; this is done by deciding whether to grant the chance to for a project to plan by ensuring that there is local planning.

1.2 Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA).

The SEA includes the how natural resources are going to be utilized and also the impact of the environment which makes it fit for the use of a strategic level. It also tends to impact how the decision making process is being carried out at the total level at the particular point of time. It is found out that SEA can be used for plans.

1.3 Positional Analysis (PA)

In relation to (Brorsson, 1995). General systems theory and Institutional economics are what PA is based on. looking at different aspects the system analysis is based on Interdisciplinary impact regarding how the environment is going to be affected. What is concluded probably different personnel are supposed to be deputed for this analysis at the particular point of time. Decision situations are made more transparent, Complexity and conflicting interests by the Strategic decision-support. (forms, 1995).

1.4Cost-benefit analysis (CBA)

CBA is a tool that is meant for decision situations. It is used in decision-support since neoclassical economics is what it is based on. This tool is used in calculations of cost and benefits in a project held in society. CBA converts monetary terms converted into monetary terms as an impact by valuation.

1.5Total Material Requirement (TMR)

This tool rhymes with the MIPS-analysis. It does not only focus on the produced services unit but it is also applied on a regional level. Aiming at dimerization, TMR tool may be used for decision-support and communication aiming at dematerialization. It is viewed that from the current activities results from major environmental, Of the environmental burdens, it can serve as a rough estimate. What may function as an indicator is measuring material intensity trends?

1.6 Ecological Footprint (EF).

For learning and communication purposes, EF is mainly used which would result in the overuse of productive sea and land as an indication of dependence. Now, the way EF works, it tends to introduce how the certain segment of the populace is going to be supported by the whole notion. The population that is defined for the given productive area and how it tends to exceed its supply that is going to be gained from the ecological footprint.

1.7 Risk Assessment (RA)

There are different ways that RA can be assessed. The source of risk may be specified in the focus of human health or environmental effects. Operational or Accidental is what the risk may be. (SETAC, 1997) RA extension is being done into the field of our surroundings. The rulings in the 12th amendment are quite clear with regards to how the field of the surroundings are supposed to be worked out at in terms of the data analysis. Some twelve problems were ranked by the Californian Environmental Protection. (SEPA 1996)

1.8Exergy analysis (EA)

The energy concept was introduced by Gibbs in 1873. Later in 1953, Rant suggested the term exergy, and The general definition was given by Baehr in 1965. (Kåberger, 1991). How much work can be performed is not a suitable measurement Energy. For example, different types of works and the creation of structures can be done by electrical energy, that the same amount of energy from heat can never manage. The energy that can be translated to work is Exergy. All the processes of work are where energy is consumed. (Kåberger, 1991).

1.9 Emergy Analysis (EA)

Energy is defined as the capacity for vigorous activity. In other words, it is defined as the ability of matter or radiation to do work. The incapability of doing some work brings us to its other definition. EA tool includes ecological services that are not considered in environmental assessments. Energy flow is covered by emergy. In many years, Energy is reported in many areas like fuels, and the services of humans. Material has both available energy and energy which makes them connected to each other. After explaining all the ESA tools used in the environmental analysis we discussed to use the LCA method required by law, this was because the tool is effective and makes decision making fast and easier. Though this happens to all tools LCA was the most effective

2.0 Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)

LCA, in other words, is referred to as analysis of life-cycle, Eco balance, and analysis of cradle-to-grave. During the 1970s energy crisis developments, methods for analyzing energy production were established. The development of LCA was established due to the influence of the energy crisis. Later LCA was extended, it included not all depletion of resources but also impacts of emissions waste produced other than energy production (UNEP, 1996)

During early studies Sweden, the United States and the United Kingdom (Tillman et al., 1997). People became interested in the LCA as a query on environmental problems increased this was in the 80s. Doubts lose about when an assessment was done where the same products and due to this some varied statements were witnessed. The development of the common methodology also started the same thing. The key thing that has to be noted here is that the method is still under development and the ISO standards for this legislation are still needed to be worked out specially in terms of the way standardization and harmonization is needed to be carried out. During LCA existence it has tried to cover potential environmental impacts. This includes the use of energy waste release and extraction of raw material, as well as its transportation

The aim of the assessment is to understand the role of LCA in environmental analyses. The study is aimed at discussing the relevant environmental issue as such some of these methods were considered for the study

EIA was considered for study but didn’t match. As a result of the situation analyzed, it was deliberate than on the level of the project. We considered using SEA which seemed to be the most appropriate. As described SEA refers to a parallel decision process, contributing to a particular process. As such this system could not be used in this paper. The second reason was due to many changes that were made to the tool due to the lack of proper guidelines. After close consideration of all these tools, we decided to use LCA with is relevant to our analysis. The main reason being the tool broad in scope and it is well known. The analysis was a short time do hence PA analytic system could not be used since it is so broad. It caves all aspects than the environment hence no enough time to cover the tool. The role of the CBA in the given case also did not turned out to be same. The tools that are being used to estimate the overall effect are done in the manner that the material support and the manner of the heat production are made the part of the whole thing. The exergy is the only energy analysis that is tried out. RA is a tool for analyzing chemicals and could not be used in this case.

LCA calculations

Goal and scope

The aim of the study is to show the different ways of using LCA to come up with a database of the effect of the environment. 1MJ is heat production is the functional unit of LCA. This study is intended for the reader who will be making a decision in the future on the environment. Most of the tables and calculations were not included in our research.

Characterization and Valuation

This was the fast study were the weighting method was used since its development (Johansson, 1999). It is based on the valuation of the environmental taxes and fees of Sweden. The methodology used includes factors that are one-step weighting and inventory tables with figures that are multiplied directly with factors containing valuation and characterization. Johansson obtained this factor by use of different characterization methods and combining them with modified taxes and fees that are relevant. To start with there are a number of environment issue and this thesis shall discuses most of them' an how they are analyzed and valued

1 Abiotic resource

To start with, energy use was not common during entry of inventory data, as a result, for nuclear input of power which was to be larger and pre-combustion activities to take a larger percentage of other fuel. For this category impact, characterization methods are used. Finnveden and Östlund (1997) methods were based on the carriers of energy and materials. By this way, their energy is assumed to have the energy of the same content as the one inventory, On a more realistic manner, the energy constraints in this case that are produced to be witnessed on the higher side and have little effect on the result.

Valuation is made from maximum and minimum energy taxes. Since most resource data in the study are energy carriers, more relevant than the other tax suggested on natural gravel extraction tax. There is another method that is based on the demand and balance for resources as suggested by Guinée and Heijungs (1995. Comparison among substances is from the use of Yearly extraction and the ultimate reserve. Any antibiotic resources are considered since no suitable factors for biofuels were given. Tax on fossil gas and tax on coal are used for the one-step weighting factors.

2 Global Warming

The potentials of global warming for all gases are converted into CO2-equivalents as characterized by IPCC (1995). Values 58for 20, 100 and 500 years are utilized which is as a result of GWPs changing over time. Global warming in households is valued by the tax on CO2 emissions.

3 Depletion of stratospheric ozone

The substance that is going to be used in this case is going to be composed of the nitrogen and would be predominantly made of the independent exemption fee that are depleting the layer of the ozone. The effect of the gases in this case turns out to be insignificant in terms of the fee witnessed by it.

4 Photo-oxidant formations

The other thing that is quite important in the given instance is that how the two characterization methods are used to photo oxidant formation. Ozone concentration is where it is calculated that characterized based on the factors on the respective contribution to the formation. The POCP is then presented in the form of the ethene equivalents. The method first time around was suggested and how the presentation of ethane equivalent and how the different ways of the PCOP’s.

These are the maximum formation of zone that is studied by the substance average formation during the average formation. The important consideration is that how the four days are going to be witnessed and the way calculation in terms of the way whole thing was excluded in terms of how the NVMOC. These two are the methods of the combined perspective are witnessed and how the exemption for the higher level of benzene in petrol is going to be accounted. The apparent likelihood of cancer contraction is another element that has to be accounted for.

6 Ecotoxicological effects

Jolliet and Crettaz (1997) developed the method characterized in this section which was based on No Effect Concentrations. Toxic emissions are considered toxic when they specially if there is a case that they are reaching a certain level at the given point of time. . As such polluted volume and concentration are considered as linear. Emissions to water are known as Aquatic Ecotoxicity potentials (AEPs) as they are valued in terms of how the taxation of the general pesticides are witnessed and how they are used in copper and how the air emission is witnessed at the maximum level at the minimum and maximum level. It becomes all the more important if there is high content of lead that is deposited into the stands at the particular point.

7 Human health

Human health is not considered in the valuation weighting system reasons being no taxes for non –toxicological impacts on human's health as well as any working effects on the environment. Toxicological effects on humans are characterization by two methods. One of the methodologies used was that of Jolliet and Crettaz (1997) which is named under Ecotoxicological effects. Calculation of Human toxicity potentials is acquired through the calculation of a fraction of toxin consumed by humans in relation to substance non-toxic dosage. Benzene and lead taxes are combined with HTP emissions using the one-step weighting system. The emissions are later combined with water and the tax used in copper.The Environmental Defense Fund, EDF (1999), come up with the second method which has developed toxicity equivalence potentials (TEPs) that I based on the fraction of human consuming a certain amount of substance that has been emitted. The TEPs impacts are divided into non-cancer and cancer effects. Carcinogenic emissions in the air are valued with the taxes on lead and benzene and well also the pesticide tax used on cyanazine.

8 waste

a weighting factor that will come to use in 1999 is was to determine the tax value os waste. However, the tax is no characterized hence was not used in the study

. Combining values

A large number of results are gained after weighing the different outputs and inputs under their respective categories. More than one weighing process excluding the selected has been used so as to get more comprehensible results. It is always subjective on deciding on the weighing method to use.


A number of results are gained after analyzing the figures of the result.However, no direct conclusion should be made because the analysis is not complete. The discussion made was based on the resulting figures and was used to make the final conclusion. Minimum values comparison of fuels impact on the environment impact shows a great difference between biofuels, waste, and fossil. The final minimum value of the impacts of global warming is contributed by impacts of NOx. Waste is classified into two categories which are dominating.Global warming results in Fossil gas, ending on the highest minimum value.

Application with QSR Code

QR Codes are two-dimensional barcodes that can be read with mobile devices. The easiest way to get a QR Code is to use an online QR Code generator. There you simply enter the data you want to encode and generate the Code right away. Let us explain how to make a QR Code in three easy steps with our free QR Code Generator:

Choose the QR Code type: for example, use a URL Code for encoding a link to a Web page of your choice.

Enter the information: in this case, the link that will be displayed after scanning the Code.

Generate the Code: press the Create QR Code button. Your Code is now ready for download.

Traditionally, QR Codes have been used to encode a Web address. However, instead of creating a QR Code for a website, you can apply it for a variety of other functions: from forwarding to an app store to displaying a Facebook "Like" button. This opens up endless possibilities. For example, make a QR Code with your contact details and place it on a business card or a website. Or link to an image gallery featuring your product. Users are more likely to scan a QR Code if it has unusual and interesting content. QR Codes can be placed anywhere: from product packaging to outdoor billboards. In order to achieve the best quality in printing and make your Code scannable, the image file has to be high­-resolution. Also, depending on how you want to use the created QR Code, you will need appropriate file formats. With QR Code Generator PRO, you are able not only to make a QR Code, but also to download it in four image file formats: JPG, PNG, SVG and EPS.


EPA should cooperate closely with agencies, organizations, municipalities, universities, and industries involved in environmental research. In addition to providing research support, mechanisms for cooperation might include participation of EPA management in interagency coordination efforts, participation of staff in scientific meetings and conferences, and incentives and rewards for individuals who seek out and work with their counterparts in other organizations. Collaboration should be maintained in research endeavors, environmental monitoring, data archiving, and environmental policy formulation and evaluation.


In conclusion, most of the calculations were not shown in the paper this was because the paper was a simple illustration of how the analytical tool is used to in environmental analysis. In addition, environmental tools cannot be used to cover all environmental fields in a sensible way. Neither will it ever be possible to provide decision-makers with one true answer. The purpose of guidance and scanning is served by the tools of the systems of the environment. The goal would not be presenting one single figure. Data handling, terminology, development, combining tools and harmonization of terminology would be facilitated by the Integration of concepts and tools. Cooperation and complementation is the solution here as in so many other situations. In addition, most of the analysis methods in use don’t give proper data on the environmental issues hence not effective for use in future analysis, We should consider other analytical methods that more efficient


[1] The´rivel R, Partida's MR. The practice of strategic environmental assessment. London: Earthscan Publications Limited; 1996.

[2] SETAC-Europe Working Group on Conceptually Related Programmes, 1997. Life Cycle Assessment and Conceptually Related Programmes. Report for SETAC-Europe, Brussels.

[3] Kåberger T., 1991. Att beskriva resurshantering. Descriptions of resource management.

Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, Institutionen för Fysisk Resursteori, Göteborg

[4] SEPA, Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, 1996. Risk Assessment - Health - Environment. Report 4595, Swedish Environmental Protection Agency.

[5]Wackernagel et al., 1997. Ecological footprints of nations. Available from http://www.ecouncil.ac.cr/rio/focus/report/english/footprint, (accessed 30 March 1999).

[6] Wackernagel M. and Yount D., 1998. Footprints for sustainability: The next steps. Draft. 83 Wall Göran, 1993. Exergy, ekologi och demokrati. Redskap I ett [7]kretsloppssamhälle. Forskningsrapport TULSA 1994:20, Tekniska högskolan I Luleå. WRI, World Resource Institute, 1997. Resource flows The material basis of industrial economies. World Resource Institute, USA.

[8] Wuppertal Institute, 1999. MIPS online. Available from http://www.wupperinst.org/Projekte/mipsonline, (accessed 1 February 1999).

[9] Zetterberg L. and Hansén O., 1998. Nettoemissioner av koldioxid till atmosfären vid användning av hyggesrester för el- och värmeproduktion. IVL rapport B 1298, Institutionen för vatten- och luftvårdsforskning, Stockholm.

[10]Tillman, A-M., Kärrman, E. and Nilsson, J., 1997. Comparison of Environmental Impact Assessment, Life Cycle Assessment, and Sustainable Development Records. At the general level and based on case studies of wastewater systems. Report from the ECO-GUIDE project. Technical Environmental Planning, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg.

[11]Turner R.K., Pearce D., and Bateman I., 1994. Environmental Economics. An elementary introduction. Harvester Wheatsheaf, Hertfordshire, UK, 93-105.

UNEP Industry and Environment, 1996. Life Cycle Assessment: what it is and how to do it. United Nations Publication Sales No. 9C-III-D.2, Paris.

[12]Vattenfall, 1996. Livscykelanalys för Vattenfalls production. Sammanfattande rapport. Vattenfall AB, Stockholm.

[13]Wackernagel M. and Rees W., 1996. Our Ecological Footprint. Reducing human impact on the earth. New Society Publishers, B.C. Canada.

Subject: IT

Pages: 10 Words: 3000

Assignment 2

Week 4 Essay Questions

Your Name (First M. Last)

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)

Week 4 Essay Questions

Network communication protocols:

These are the standard conventional protocols to enable connection, communication and data sharing between two computing endpoints.

ARP: Address Resolution Protocol deals with resolving addresses of internet layer. It maps network address and physical address.

DHCP: Dynamic host configuration protocol is the managing assigns an internet protocol addresses to different devices on a network, in this way it enables the communication through IP.

ICMP: Internet control message protocol is a feedback protocol that is used to diagnose or report logical error.

SNMP: Simple Network management protocol is application level protocol that manages and monitors the devices on network and their functionality.

DNS: Domain name system is a protocol that helps resolving the names of the sites on internet using their underlying IP address. It adds efficiency provides security in the processes ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"WmuCCqLk","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Kozierok, 2005)","plainCitation":"(Kozierok, 2005)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1396,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/WWSYDP7A"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/WWSYDP7A"],"itemData":{"id":1396,"type":"book","title":"The TCP/IP Guide: A Comprehensive, Illustrated Internet Protocols Reference","publisher":"No Starch Press","number-of-pages":"1618","source":"Google Books","abstract":"From Charles M. Kozierok, the creator of the highly regarded www.pcguide.com, comes The TCP/IP Guide. This completely up-to-date, encyclopedic reference on the TCP/IP protocol suite will appeal to newcomers and the seasoned professional alike. Kozierok details the core protocols that make TCP/IP internetworks function and the most important classic TCP/IP applications, integrating IPv6 coverage throughout. Over 350 illustrations and hundreds of tables help to explain the finer points of this complex topic. The book’s personal, user-friendly writing style lets readers of all levels understand the dozens of protocols and technologies that run the Internet, with full coverage of PPP, ARP, IP, IPv6, IP NAT, IPSec, Mobile IP, ICMP, RIP, BGP, TCP, UDP, DNS, DHCP, SNMP, FTP, SMTP, NNTP, HTTP, Telnet, and much more.The TCP/IP Guide is a must-have addition to the libraries of internetworking students, educators, networking professionals, and those working toward certification.","ISBN":"978-1-59327-047-6","note":"Google-Books-ID: Pm4RgYV2w4YC","shortTitle":"The TCP/IP Guide","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Kozierok","given":"Charles M."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2005"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Kozierok, 2005).

Firewall configurations and its types

Bastion host: It is a specialized computer that is deliberately exposed on the public network, as gateway it resides between inside network or outside network. It is usually part of a larger security system that has different layers of protection.

DMZ: Demilitarized zone is logical subnet that separates the logical area network from the other untrusted networks. Servers are located in the DMZ to provide additional security to the LAN. Usually it is deployed between the two firewalls.

Dual-homed firewall: It is the firewall that uses two network interfaces, in which connection is made with the internal network and the other is made with the internet. It ensures that no direct IP traffic comes between the internal network and internet.

Screened host: This firewall is the flexible version of firewall that is achieved at cost of its security. It is used when security is required by the network along with the flexibility.

Screened subnet: It is a firewall that has three components for security. It is used by the companies that need upper extra security ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"thwTmlRY","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Screened Host Firewall,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“Screened Host Firewall,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1398,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/4AB6FXVH"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/4AB6FXVH"],"itemData":{"id":1398,"type":"webpage","title":"Screened Host Firewall","URL":"http://www.vtcif.telstra.com.au/pub/docs/security/800-10/node57.html","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",3,9]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Screened Host Firewall,” n.d.).

Tunneling protocols

IPIP: IP in IP tunneling protocol encapsulates one IP header within outer IP header, for which outer header is added with source IP before the entry of destination point, in such a way that inner packet stays unmodified.

SSTP: Security Socket tunneling protocol provides mechanism to transport traffic of PPP through TLS/SSL channel to provide transport level security.

IPsec: This internet protocol security authenticates and encrypts packets of data that are send over IP network.

L2TP: It is a layer two tunneling protocol that supports VPNs by being part of delivery of services by ISPs.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Kozierok, C. M. (2005). The TCP/IP Guide: A Comprehensive, Illustrated Internet Protocols Reference. No Starch Press.

Screened Host Firewall. (n.d.). Retrieved March 9, 2019, from http://www.vtcif.telstra.com.au/pub/docs/security/800-10/node57.html

Subject: IT

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Assignment 2: COPA And CIPA

Assignment 2: COPPA and CIPA

Kwaku Adomako

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)

Assignment 2: COPPA and CIPA

Internet and communication technologies have evolved at a much faster rate than anticipated. New and improved means of communications are being developed regularly. Most of the communication technologies are based on the underlying infrastructure of the internet. As the internet itself was not designed with much security in mind, any service being offered over the internet infrastructure is not secure as well. Exponential penetration of mobile devices and social media technologies have brought many challenges for governments and parents to keep kids safe while online ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"S9TsQNF6","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Gros & Hancock, 2011)","plainCitation":"(Gros & Hancock, 2011)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":16,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/BeyJjeak/items/ZQ4NAK4D"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/BeyJjeak/items/ZQ4NAK4D"],"itemData":{"id":16,"type":"paper-conference","title":"The evolution of digital statutory law: An overview for educational technology leaders","container-title":"Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference","publisher":"Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE)","page":"2961-2968","ISBN":"1-880094-84-3","author":[{"family":"Gros","given":"Lisa"},{"family":"Hancock","given":"Robert"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2011"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Gros & Hancock, 2011). To protect the privacy of kids and provide them with security against digital dark arts an act known as the child online protection act was introduced in 1998. The purpose of the act was to ensure that the content available commercially via world wide web technologies that are not appropriate for children must be blocked. In general implementation, any website considered to be inappropriate for children was considered to be illegal.

At the same time of implementation of COPA, another act known as children’s online privacy protection act was also implemented in 1998. The act was aimed at blocking the unethical behavior of web analytic companies and websites to collect personal information. As the internet technologies were evolving, most of the websites require the personal information to provide customized services. The COPPA act directed worldwide websites based in the United States to ask for parental permission before collecting information from kids under the age of thirteen ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"A4AE0J0z","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Wexelbaum, 2015)","plainCitation":"(Wexelbaum, 2015)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":17,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/BeyJjeak/items/LUZP9CEF"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/BeyJjeak/items/LUZP9CEF"],"itemData":{"id":17,"type":"article-journal","title":"Censorship of online LGBTIQ content in libraries","author":[{"family":"Wexelbaum","given":"Rachel S."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Wexelbaum, 2015). The information collected by online web forms and instant messaging forums can be used for criminal purposes. To be in compliance with the COPPA act, websites must verify the age of the person accessing the website before serving the web content to the end devices. It was thought to protect children against online fraud activities.

With the advancements in communication technologies, the internet has evolved from a network of millions of connected devices to the billions of connected devices. New services were being introduced at a greater pace than anticipated. A new act known as the child internet protection act was introduced in 2001 to fortify the previous regulations. CIPA required that all of the libraries and educational institutions receiving funds from the federal government must block pornography websites in their institutions. It was required by such institutions to use content filtering services ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"OBKxkZo1","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Miller, 2016)","plainCitation":"(Miller, 2016)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":18,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/BeyJjeak/items/3QFDB6M2"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/BeyJjeak/items/3QFDB6M2"],"itemData":{"id":18,"type":"article-journal","title":"Can I Use This App or Website for My Class? What to Know about Instructing Teachers and Students on Digital Citizenship, Digital Footprints, and Cybersafety.","container-title":"Knowledge Quest","page":"22-29","volume":"44","issue":"4","author":[{"family":"Miller","given":"Beth"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Miller, 2016). The difference between the two acts was that the COPPA act was only limited to the collection of information but the CIPA act was about blocking certain content. In COPPA act a minor was the person under the age of 13. It was due to the fact that a 13-year-old kid may not understand the purpose of a web service requesting sensitive information.

In order to be compliant with COPPA, act websites started asking for parental conformation before serving the content to the requesting user. Some websites started using shady practices to verify the age of an individual accessing the service such as asking kids for credit card details of their parents. The act was criticized rigorously because of the shady behavior of some websites ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"WDXzS6tX","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Langub & Lokey-Vega, 2017)","plainCitation":"(Langub & Lokey-Vega, 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":21,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/BeyJjeak/items/VRSM9TMR"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/BeyJjeak/items/VRSM9TMR"],"itemData":{"id":21,"type":"article-journal","title":"Rethinking instructional technology to improve pedagogy for digital literacy: A design case in a graduate early childhood education course","container-title":"Techtrends","page":"322-330","volume":"61","issue":"4","author":[{"family":"Langub","given":"Lee Woodham"},{"family":"Lokey-Vega","given":"Anissa"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Langub & Lokey-Vega, 2017). It was more harmful if the websites were asking for credit card information. As the criminals can use the same tactics to trick minors into providing credit card information. It was criticized by the parents as well as the children were falling prey to online fraud campaigns. Due to technical difficulties, the act was considered to be impractical. However, the CIPA act was aimed at protecting children from accessing pornography. The act also received criticism from parents and internet activists that it is restricting free speech.

Although both of the acts were efforts from the government to protect children against digital dark arts, they failed to achieve their purpose. Parents were not able to educate their children about the parental warnings displayed by the COPPA compliant websites. In modern days the rise of virtual private networks has technically made the CIPA act useless. As the restrictions imposed by the content filters can be bypassed using virtual private networks. The fact that most of the VPN and proxy tools are available free of charge and without age verification has made the situation even worse than before. The acts were not updated and implemented by observing the developments and future trends of communication technologies ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"g3OUSIC8","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Wexelbaum, 2015)","plainCitation":"(Wexelbaum, 2015)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":17,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/BeyJjeak/items/LUZP9CEF"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/BeyJjeak/items/LUZP9CEF"],"itemData":{"id":17,"type":"article-journal","title":"Censorship of online LGBTIQ content in libraries","author":[{"family":"Wexelbaum","given":"Rachel S."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Wexelbaum, 2015). Both of the acts need to be revised in the provision of the latest communication channels. Enforcing loosely defined acts will cause more harm than good as the internet activists will consider them as an attempt to control the internet. Criticism on these two acts, awareness among children, and their access to the latest communication technologies have limited the CIPA act to schools only.

It is not possible for the government to pass any legislation that simply restricts access to a certain type of content as it will be considered an attack on free speech. Comprehensive regulations must be made and implemented by the government. Previous legislation and acts are criticized mainly as they can block access to the content that is required for research and development purposes. Moreover, the restrictions imposed by them can be bypassed easily making them obsolete ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"CqUzJMsJ","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Stanton & Taylor, 2008)","plainCitation":"(Stanton & Taylor, 2008)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":20,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/BeyJjeak/items/BSCULZLW"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/BeyJjeak/items/BSCULZLW"],"itemData":{"id":20,"type":"article-journal","title":"The first attempt of legislators to protect juveniles on the Internet is the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act of 1998, or COPPA. COPPA defines juveniles as children aged 13 or under. It makes it unlawful for “an operator of a website or online service directed to children […] to collect personal information from a child in a manner that violates the regulations [set by the Act]”(Children’s). Numerous companies have been fined using COPPA, and so have set up","author":[{"family":"Stanton","given":"Deborah"},{"family":"Taylor","given":"Joan Bessman"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2008"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Stanton & Taylor, 2008). There is a high probability that the acts will be revised as per the modern communication requirements and technical assistance will be defined for their implementation as well. It is necessary to revise the legislation as the cases for child pornography and online fraud campaigns targeting innocent kids are increasing exponentially not only in numbers but in complexity as well.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Gros, L., & Hancock, R. (2011). The evolution of digital statutory law: An overview for educational technology leaders. Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference, 2961–2968. Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).

Langub, L. W., & Lokey-Vega, A. (2017). Rethinking instructional technology to improve pedagogy for digital literacy: A design case in a graduate early childhood education course. Techtrends, 61(4), 322–330.

Miller, B. (2016). Can I Use This App or Website for My Class? What to Know about Instructing Teachers and Students on Digital Citizenship, Digital Footprints, and Cybersafety. Knowledge Quest, 44(4), 22–29.

Stanton, D., & Taylor, J. B. (2008). The first attempt of legislators to protect juveniles on the Internet is the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act of 1998, or COPPA. COPPA defines juveniles as children aged 13 or under. It makes it unlawful for “an operator of a website or online service directed to children […] to collect personal information from a child in a manner that violates the regulations [set by the Act]”(Children’s). Numerous companies have been fined using COPPA, and so have set up.

Wexelbaum, R. S. (2015). Censorship of online LGBTIQ content in libraries.

Subject: IT

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Assignment 3

Pride and Prejudice

Chapter IX OF Volume II

ELIZABETH was sitting by herself the next morning, and writing to Jane, while Mrs. Collins and Maria were gone on business into the village, when she was anxious by a ring at the door, the certain signal of a visitor. As she had heard no carriage, she thought it not unlikely to be Lady Catherine, and under that startle was putting away her half-finished letter that she might escape all impertinent questions, when the door opened, and to her very great surprise, Mr. Darcy, and Mr. Darcy only, entered the room.

He seemed astonished too on finding her alone and apologized for his intrusion by letting her know that he had understood all the ladies to be within.

They then sat down, and when her inquiries after Rosinṥ were made, seemed in danger of sinking into total silence. It was absolutely necessary, therefore, to think of something, and in this emergency recollecting when she had seen him last in Hertfordshire, and feeling curious to know what he would say on the subject of their hasty departure, she observed.

Subject: IT

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Assignment 3: Case Study And IT Research

Alipay: Challenges Posed by E-Commerce & E-Business

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Alipay: Challenges Posed by E-Commerce & E-Business


Alipay is the world’s largest mobile payment platform based in China. It was established in 2004 and within 9 years it overtook Paypal in 2013. Today, its mobile app is used for online shopping by about 400 million users, who are attracted by the ease of online shopping. Chinese consumers are increasingly using alternative electronic payment methods such as credit and debit cards and mobile payment CITATION Ali18 \l 1033 (Alipay, 2018). Alipay offers many benefits over traditional payment methods. However, there are also a number of problems associated with it.



Alipay provides payment services both domestically and internationally by collaborating with nearly 200 financial institutions such as banks and MasterCard as well as Visa. In smartphones, Alipay is used via Alipay mobile app known as Wallet app. For local transactions at the spot such as instore transactions, QR codes are used. Credit card bills payment, purchasing of food, phone top-up, P2P transfer, purchasing of tickets can also be done through Alipay app. It also facilitates payment during international travel.


In today's digital world of interconnectedness, security threats and risks are constantly evolving. In order to successfully operate, special measures need to be taken. Alipay employs several security mechanisms to keep user accounts safe. Separate login and payment passwords as used. Both of them need to be different. Upon 5 wrong entries of login password and 3 wrong entries of payment password, the account is locked. Information encryption over the network has also been implemented to prevent hackers from knowing passwords.

Comparison with other payment systems

The traditional card payment methods make Alipay similar to PayPal, WeChat Pay and Apple Pay. The time taken by fund transfer varies for chosen payment method. So, unlike the instant payment system, such as Zelle and Venmo, Alipay also offers a method in which funds are not instantly transferred CITATION Eur19 \l 1033 (European Central Bank, 2019).


Extensive coverage and availability in places such as malls, subway stations, etc.

International payment channels

Variety of financial and investment products such as funds, stock and deposits. Yue’Bao by default invests the money deposited in the account, thereby increasing value.

Integration of a wide range of services e.g. Cinema ticket, mobile top-ups, discounts on shopping, making an appointment for hospitals, etc.

Availability of offline payments.

Powerful credit system


Generally, mobile payment methods are vulnerable to cyber-attacks CITATION Uni12 \l 1033 (United Nations, 2012). Some of the factors which make mobile vulnerable to cyber-attacks are shown in the following figure.

Figure 1

Alipay cannot be used everywhere.

There exists a threat of its use for terror financing.

Alipay allows for tax evasion CITATION ing18 \l 1033 (Jing Travel, 2018). For example, in Vietnam Alipay was used extensively in 2018 to evade tax Vietnam. Its use had resulted in zero-dollar tour problem in which tours at low prices are offered to Chinese, requiring forced shopping from partnering stores in foreign countries. Therefore local tourism of Vietnam received little to no benefit from incoming Chinese tourists CITATION ing18 \l 1033 (Jing Travel, 2018). The process bypassed the companies partnering Alibaba, and Chinese tourists would process their payments in Renminbi through Chinese POS terminals. Hence Vietnam lost its ability to collect taxes.

Overseas online transactions further complicate the problem of collecting sales and income tax. Income tax and sales tax policies vary from place to place. Complications are created when a person is physically present somewhere else and conducts transactions somewhere else i.e. in a place where tax policies are different. Moreover, State regulations in online payment also result in unexpected losses. For instance, it was reported in 2018 that Alipay and Tencent were poised to lose more than $1bn due to the central bank new policy that all funds of third parties should be kept reserve CITATION Gab18 \l 1033 (Wildau, 2018).


BIBLIOGRAPHY Alipay. (2018). Alipay Digital Wallet. Retrieved from Global Alipay: https://www.cybersource.com/content/dam/cybersource/Alipay_Partner_DS.pdf

European Central Bank. (2019). Instant payments. Retrieved from www.ecb.europa.eu: https://www.ecb.europa.eu/paym/retpaym/instant/html/index.en.html

Jing Travel. (2018). Chinese Mobile Payments Being Used for Tax Evasion in Vietnam. Retrieved from Jing Travel: https://jingtravel.com/chinese-mobile-payments-being-used-for-tax-evasion-in-vietnam/

United Nations. (2012). Mobile Technology: Threats and Opportunities for Taxation and Government Payments. Retrieved from United Nations: https://www.un.org/esa/ffd/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/8STM_PPT_MobileTechnology.pdf

Wildau, G. (2018). Tencent and Alipay set to lose $1bn in revenue from payment rules. Retrieved from Financial Times: https://www.ft.com/content/b472f73c-859e-11e8-96dd-fa565ec55929

Subject: IT

Pages: 6 Words: 1800

Assignment 3: Intellectual Property Laws And Security Measures

Intellectual Property (IP) Policy Document

Table of Content


TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u Intellectual Property (IP) Policy Document PAGEREF _Toc8882037 \h 1

Overview of IP Law PAGEREF _Toc8882038 \h 3

Policy PAGEREF _Toc8882039 \h 3

Standards and Guidelines PAGEREF _Toc8882040 \h 3

Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights related IP regulations PAGEREF _Toc8882041 \h 4

Ownership of Company’s Material PAGEREF _Toc8882042 \h 5

Develop intellectual property violation reporting procedures. PAGEREF _Toc8882043 \h 5

Develop intellectual property infringement ramifications. PAGEREF _Toc8882044 \h 6

Copyright PAGEREF _Toc8882045 \h 6

Patents PAGEREF _Toc8882046 \h 6

Trade Secret PAGEREF _Toc8882047 \h 7

Overview of IP Law

Intellectual Property (IP) Law deals with the legal rights to inventions and creative work of an organization or the institution. It controls the usage of new products, designs, publications, and the artistic works, such as scholarly articles or artistic paining. The purpose of IP law is to allow creative people to profit from their work, instead of using others’ work in an illegal way CITATION Leg19 \l 1033 \m Sou19 (LegalCareer, 2019; Cloud, 2019).


The company is committed to high level of ethical and legal standards in its production. Thus it is the main objective of the company to compete fairly in the respective industry, which includes respecting IP rights of competitors, business partners, customers, suppliers, original equipment manufacturing and other services of the organizations. Thus, this policy aims to ensure that no company’s agent, contractor, or employees should misuse or steal the IP rights maintained by others. Furthermore, the purpose of this policy is to comply with the laws regulating IP, ensure the competitive marketplace integrity in IP, and maintain the company’s reputation as fair competitor. This policy applies to directors, officers, agents, independent contractors, and all employees of the company. Also, the policy applies to joint ventures, partnerships, business units, and subsidiaries where the company exercises management control.

Standards and Guidelines

The company aims to protect its own Intellectual Property, including technology, processes, and information from infringement by others. This is crucial as absence of IP protection will cause availability of the production to others, who have not made similar investments. This would not only harm company’s reputation in the market, but also cause the loss of competitive advantage and unique service production to the customers.

Company’s intellectual property includes copyrighted work, trade dress, trademarks and service marks, patented inventions and processes, trade secret technology (software and systems), and confidential business related information. Thus, it is responsibility of all employees, supervisors, and managers of the company to protect the company’s intellectual property and maintain awareness regarding importance of the protection to the company’s assets.

Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights related IP regulations

There exist several types of IP law, such as copyright, patents, trademarks, and others. The copyrights protects the owners’ rights over their work and prevent others from reproducing any data without authorization over the data, such as print, music, movies, or performances. A patent is a legal right over the making, selling, and distribution of the production. However, trademark is a word, lettering, symbol, or design that present a company’s identification on the production, which not only distinguish the production of specific company but also prevents other company to reuse the product with their name CITATION Leg19 \l 1033 (LegalCareer, 2019).

The company does not only aim to protect its own intellectual property but also committed to respect the IP of others. Regulations regarding respecting IP, including copyrights, trade dress, trademarks and service marks, infringement of patents, trade secrets, and misappropriation of business information, is complex. Thus, an advice from the expert, such as company’s attorneys, can be helpful to prevent infringing conduct.

The chances of violation of IP regulation increase when the employees of the agents of the company are collecting data of competitors. Though it is not improper, unethical, or illegal to accumulate information regarding competitors, but using some specific personal data, trademarks, or service marks may lead to the violation of IP of other company. The management, employees, and agents of the company must be aware of the restrictions associated with the usage of competitor’s IP, and must only rely only on the data which is publically provided by the competitors, such as analysis of annual reports to evaluate their upcoming strategies and investments CITATION Ada18 \l 1033 (Uzialko, 2018). Also, the company must remain restricted to use others’ software, access to confidential manuals, re-usage of slogans of trademarks, and disclosing information regarding competitors. Thus, it is very crucial to get aware of the usage of secondary data regarding competitors without violation of the IP of that specific company. In this all process, when the things get confusing, the employees or the authorities may consult to the attorney and may ask regarding the protection to company’s IP, as well as competitors IP.

Ownership of Company’s Material

In order to prevent the violation of the IP regulations, the company needs to maintain its own material, such as proper licenses, copyright documentation, manuals, adoption of slogan or trademark, protection to confidentiality, and standards of disclosing information the third party such as customers CITATION KAR04 \l 1033 (RAMAN, 2004).

Develop intellectual property violation reporting procedures.

The report can be done in two cases; either someone violated the IP of the company, or the employees, agents, or management found to be indulged in violation of the IP of competitors or other companies. In both cases, following procedure can be following to report the IP violation;

A statement must be sent to the authorities including details regarding copyright, patents, or trademarks violation.

Description of work that has been infringed.

Details regarding location or specification of the material being infringed, such as screenshot of product, trademark, or evidence of using ideas or creative work of the company with having authorization of doing it.

The complete details of the claimer, including full name, email address, contact number, and home address, at which he/she can be contacted.

Evidence or statement as a proof that the attempter had no authority to conduct the act, such as re-using the confidential data or trademark of the company.

A statement of the claimer regarding accuracy of the information being discussed in the notice, and that the claimer is authorized person by the company to act on the behalf of owner in case of infringing issues.

Claimers’ signature with a scanned copy of authorization to act on the behalf of owner in case of infringing issues CITATION Sou19 \l 1033 \m Cli19(Cloud, 2019; Sandvick, 2019)

Develop intellectual property infringement ramifications.


Installation of computer software without proper license.

Maintaining additional copies of the software without license.

Without permission, downloading confidential information from subscription database.


Adoption of symbol, name, or slogan of services or goods that is similar to the slogan, symbol, or name of other organization.

Using productions, devices, ideas, or features that belong to others.

Failing to act upon notice of violation to IP

Developing design or production that is confusing to the creative ideas of the other company.

Trade Secret

Disclosing any confidential information, received from third party, to others.

Disclosing company’s confidential data to third party

Stealing trade secret information of competitors without permission of the owners.


BIBLIOGRAPHY \l 1033 Cloud, S., 2019. Procedure for Reporting Copyright and other Infringements for Rights Owners in the United States. SoundCloud.

LegalCareer, 2019. What is Intellectual Property Law?. Legal Career Path.


Sandvick, C. M., 2019. How to Report International Intellectual Property Violations.

Uzialko, A. C., 2018. Copyright Infringement: Are You Stealing Intellectual Property?. Business News Daily.

Subject: IT

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

Assignment 4

Assignment 4

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Assignment 4

Microsoft offers a variety of tools used for creating documents, slides, and databases. The different tools which Microsoft office offers for users are Microsoft office word, Microsoft Office Excel, Microsoft Office Access, Microsoft Office PowerPoint and Microsoft office outlook (Office Quick Start, n.d). Microsoft office word is a tool for creating documents. Getting started with Microsoft word is very simple. Opening a new document or existing document and start typing in it is very simple. There are different elements used in a word document such as hyperlinks, page numbers, citations, header and footers, equations, symbols, an index, tables, and table of context. A user can access any of these elements in MS word by typing name of these elements in a search box (Office Quick Starts, n.d).

There are different options to design a document in MS word. A user can insert different items to their documents including pictures, tables, clip arts, header and footer, hyperlinks, etc. It's very simple to insert these items in a word document. You need to just click on the Insert tab in the word document. In the Insert menu, the user can view different elements which are required for their word document (Insert items in a document, n.d).

To make your MS word responsive use different elements of words such as hyperlinks, tables, WordArt and pictures. A user can add tables to their document by simply clicking on the icon of the table in the insert menu and then can add tables with different methods. The easiest way to add tables is by selecting the number of rows and columns from the given grid. Similarly, hyperlinks are also very easy to add in a word document. A user can simply copy paste the URL or type the URL and then press SPACEBAR or ENTER key, and the text will automatically convert into a hyperlink. A user can also add hyperlinks by clicking on the icon of the hyperlink in the insert menu where they can add URL and provide the name of the URL which they want to display (Create or edit a hyperlink, n.d).


Microsoft Corp. (n.d.). Office Quick Starts. Retrieved from https://support.office.com/en-us/article/Office-Quick-Starts-25f909da-3e76-443d-94f4-6cdf7dedc51e

Create a document. Retrieved from https://support.office.com/en-us/article/Create-a-document-3AA3C766-9733-4F60-9EFA-DE245467C13D

Microsoft Corp. (n.d.). Video: Insert items in a document. Retrieved from https://support.office.com/en-us/article/Insert-a-document-in-Word-274128e5-4da7-4cb8-b65f-3d8b585e03f1

Microsoft Corp. (n.d.). Create or edit a hyperlink. Retrieved from https://support.office.com/en-us/article/create-or-edit-a-hyperlink-5d8c0804-f998-4143-86b1-1199735e07bf

Subject: IT

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Assignment 4

Assignment 4

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]



MIT open courseware

MIT is a learning website which offers a variety of free courses. It includes very in-depth course materials on the subjects available.

Lesson Paths

Lesson Paths is an excellent tool for those students who are looking for a more usable and convenient way to access learning material


Udemy offers paid courses as well as free courses for students and also allow them to create custom courses from lessons. They have hired top professionals who are providing high-quality learning material for students.

Khan Academy

Khan Academy is a well-known educational website. It offers impressive depth on many subjects.


W3schools is a great website for learning web development. It is providing a proper guide to start learning web development languages for beginners.

Clipart explains how different information technology tools are assisting users in socializing and getting the benefit of these tools for their personal interests. I selected this picture because it is related to information technology and it explains how different tools can help me in my content writing skills.

19050-173355Websites related to Information Technology

Websites related to Information Technology

Hyperlinks are the very important part of a word document. Users can add hyperlinks to their word document to provide readers instant access to information in another part of the same document. The hyperlinks can be graphics or simple text. I planned to use hyperlinks during my studies because it is an essential element of word document which helps a lot in providing instant access to information to the users. The websites which I used in the above tables are because:

They are the most popular e-learning websites for students which provide a convenient way to access learning material

They have hired professionals who are providing quality content to students for their learning purposes

They offer paid content as well as free content for Information technology courses which helped me a lot during my university time

Subject: IT

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Assignment 8

Assignment 8

Your Name (First M. Last)

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)

Assignment 8

Learning experience:

My experience of studying Master of science in information technology management (MSITM) has been great at the School of Business, Economics, and Technology. My course and the institute both will be the most memorable experience of my life Before entering this course I had reservations regarding the course, but studying MSITM has taken my all fears away, as the course was well structured and designed. All the professors have shared their extensive knowledge in the ITM field (“Information Technology Management (MSITM) - Campbellsville University,” 2016).

Attending this program enhanced my competency and flexibility in the rapidly changing IT world. My concepts were not really clear regarding the finance, budgeting and business operations, but the combination of these domains with IT has cleared all my concepts. I started doing internships during studies, and this course helped me a lot to apply the concepts in the real-life practices (“Master of Science in Information Technology Management (MSITM),” 2019).

Personally, I think this course must e attended by all the individuals who desire to establish their career in the ITM field. This course was taught by the best-qualified professors. All the assignments were well structured. All these assignments helped me in polishing my technical skills through practical application. My favorite courses were system analysis in the enterprise, legal and ethical issues in the MSIT, leadership theory and conflict resolution. Managerial accounting and economics were the most technical and difficult subjects. But due to the support of the teacher and the quality delivery of the concepts, I have found this course very enjoyable and informative. All the course outline is well structured and updated. All the quizzes and assignments depicted the hard work of the professors. I have received many job offers after completion of this course and I am very confident about the skills that I have developed in this course.


Information Technology Management (MSITM) - Campbellsville University. (2016). Retrieved April 12, 2019, from Campbellsville University website: https://www.campbellsville.edu/academics/programs/information-technology-management/

Master of Science in Information Technology Management (MSITM). (2019). Retrieved April 12, 2019, from Masterstudies.com website: https://www.masterstudies.com/Master-of-Science-in-Information-Technology-Management-(MSITM)/USA/St.-Ambrose-University/

Subject: IT

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Assignment List Analysis Essay 1

Db Pyxis Supply System

American Public University System

Db Pyxis Supply System

Healthcare is an intricate métier that involves a myriad of complex tasks that necessitate precision and effectual execution. In the contemporary era of technological advancements, the advent of various information systems, workstations, and storage units and carts are permeating effectiveness into the overall healthcare functionality. The implied infusion of technology also leveraged the faultless inventory management along with systems that are able to compute actual expenditures and medication identify usage of different products and trends of clinical analytics (Felder & Alwan, 2016). Such enhanced systems address the regulatory compliance standards and highlight the ways to prevent infections, etcetera. CareFusion’s BD Pyxis SupplyStation is one of the modern hi-tech marvels that proffer the healthcare industry with a smart and secure inventory management solution.

Pyxis can be defined as an automated medication dispensing system that revolves around the conceptualization of an enterprise-ready medication management system. Through its advanced and unique functions, the system sustains the management of medication in a decentralized way. In the following, a brief description of Pyxis users, features, and impacts is elaborated.

Characteristics of the Users of the Pyxis SupplyStation

Pyxis SupplyStation is used in the premises of ICU, operating rooms, Cath Lab, or nursing units, central services, emergency rooms, environmental services, or other areas of healthcare. Almost all healthcare workers and personnel, including nurses and other facility staff, rely on the SupplyStation for transpiration and storage of pieces of equipment in order to care and treat the patients.

Features and Usage of the System

       Pyxis SupplyStation is laden with practical features that allow healthcare personnel to access nursing supplies on the nursing floors throughout the facility. On the other hand, the SupplyStation partakes in generating and marinating documentation of supply usage by utilizing a real-time approach. The practical design and operating features of SupplyStation mitigate the prospect errors in the documentation process and smoothes the workflow considerably (Pyxis SupplyStation System, 2019). Pyxis refers to a flexible junction that amalgamates the notion of security with the idea of open inventory management. Through its unique and updated archetype, Pyxis interconnects the facility’s secure storage station, which afterward accumulatively organized under the console of Pyxis SupplyStation. The information system is also active in capturing accurate and fool-proof patient’s billing through the implication of automated procedures and hospital’s ADT and billing software. Moreover, the SupplyStation is helpful in affirming enhanced supply chain performance by augmenting the accuracy and exactness of the data; it also allows users to employ optional analytical devices, among which the Knowledge Portal Supply Technologies are eminent. 

              Pyxis SupplyStation features different sizes and components that vary from healthcare services and purely depend on their unique requirements and facility needs. At the time of installation, a custom configuration is mandatory to comprehend and evaluate the best fit from an array of equipment options. For instance, the system components of a cardinal health unit can be entirely different from a general healthcare facility. However, some system components are fundamental and applicable to a typical healthcare environment; such components include stations, network information, SupplyCenter console, and comprehensive reporting. 

            Users can obtain required patients’ care and treatment supplies through following an uncomplicated procedure of entering the user ID and in case of a secured system, the password. The user interface and menu are expedient and straightforward and takes only a few seconds to execute the commanded task. Every accessing session automatically records the patient’s name, description, and quantity of removed supply transaction — such records afterward utilized for accounting purposes, billing, and restocking of inventory. Through efficient and convenient functioning, Pyxis SupplyStation performs the following activities. 

SupplyStation generates electronic transactional records for all the medical supplies endowed to the station. The records, in turn, control the overall expenditures and estimate the charges of lost inventory units.

SupplyStation eradicates the conventional time-consuming and manual endeavors and therefore elevates the productivity of nursing and central supply system.

Controlled supplies station report relevant information regarding inventory stocks and enhances the response time to a great extent.

SupplyStation uses real-time data and optimizes inventory levels.

The other salient features of Pyxis SupplyStation comprised of touch-to-take technology that suffuses an effortless and better access to the supply management. On the other hand, robust reporting is instrumental in maintaining, analyzing, and controlling the supply chain and all different interrelated facades. Along with entering the users’ ID, the system also offers an option to confirm the user identity through fingerprint system technology that takes no time and gets done with just one touch. Similarly, the SupplyStation is designed with Pyxis Rapid Access Drawer that keeps small and frequently used supplies handily available. The SupplyStation runs on A/C battery that implies a twelve-hour battery life, and the machine comes with wireless convenience.

Impact of the System

Pyxis SupplyStation is an impactful device that provides a time-effective, cost-effective, and compliance-based effectual storage and management solution and equips the healthcare sector with an opportunity to indulge return on investments (CareFusion, 2019). The SupplyStation impacts the following three business and operational areas in a significantly viable and thriving manner.

Pyxis SupplyStation saves time: According to an estimated observation, the SupplyStation decreases the time of clinical documentation by good 10.9 minutes for every case. Furthermore, the automated procedures eradicate the necessity of jotting down and managing all the inventories and records manually and ensure the timely availability of stocks. The pragmatism of SupplyStation accelerated manifold in operating rooms where the time is a critical factor and swiftness is imperative in delivering life-saving services. Caring and attending the patients is the underlying responsibly of nursing staff. Through integrated supply automation, they can save their time of preparing manual documentation and can utilize saved time on the betterment of their patients more comfortably. According to research, the time taking documentation process in conventional systems directly affects the flow of healthcare operations and asserted as inefficiency.

SupplyStation reduces the cost: According to different case studies, it is proved that the implementation of SupplyStation to the healthcare métier has increased the profits by three million dollars. Pyxis SupplyStation reflects its operational effectiveness in the form of persistent gains on investments and improves case costing and cost capture. Along with other functionalities, the billing accuracy of the SupplyStation improves charge captures and cases requiring and impedes distractions. A rough estimation contends that through successful installation of SupplyStation could save approximately 11 billion dollars of the healthcare sector.

SupplyStation simplifies the compliances: Pyxis SupplyStation is developed to comply with the joint commission and federal standards.


BD Pyxis SupplyStation is a technological convenience that is enhancing the supply and storage management in healthcare and clinical settings. Nursing staff and other healthcare personnel employ the SupplyStation to improve the working conditions in OR, ICU, and emergency, lab, and nursing units. The SupplyStation actively records all the transactions along with interconnected informational fields and prevent the incidents of stock-outs or poor inventory management. On the other hand, the notion of improved services mitigates the processing time of supply chain activities and saves the precious time of nurses and clinical staff. Additionally, the computerized and pristine documentation establishes the grounds for meeting the compliance standards devised by the federal and Joint Commission. The most prevalent advantage of implementing SupplyStation’s efficacy to the healthcare operational processes is the cost-effectiveness. Financial gains and return on investments are the most tangible and thriving pros of Pyxis SupplyStation.


Felder, R., & Alwan, M. (2016). Systems engineering approach to medical automation. Auris Reference.

Pyxis SupplyStation system. (2019). https://www.bd.com/en-uk/products/supply- management/supply-technologies/pyxis-supplystation-system

CareFusion Germany GmbH,Inventory management system / medical Pyxis SupplyStation® system CareFusion. (2019). https://healthmanagement.org/products/view/inventory-management-system- medical-pyxis-supplystation-r-system-carefusion

Subject: IT

Pages: 4 Words: 1200


Pseudo code

Student’s Name



Table of Contents

TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u 1.0.Pseudo Code PAGEREF _Toc30516898 \h 2

2.0.Hash table PAGEREF _Toc30516899 \h 2

3.0.Insert and remove PAGEREF _Toc30516900 \h 2

4.0.References PAGEREF _Toc30516901 \h 4

Pseudo Code

The pseudo code is regarded as the notation of resembling of a simplified programming language which is used in program designs. It can be written an individual programmer wants but it cannot be compiled or run like other regular programming CITATION Amy14 \l 1033 (Dalal, 2014). However, sometimes pseudo code syntax can be used to ensure that everyone understanding the coding system or the program. The use of pseudo code is made easy by starting using algorithm before transcribing into computer language and also using indent when closing instruction with a condition clause.

Hash table

The hash table is implemented using two steps, first by converting element into an integral using hash function and by retrieving using hashed key. Therefore, the hash function is used for implementation of remove and insert in java language.

Insert and remove

However, in programming using java programming language, insert is used in pseudo code to create a tree to make it easier to sort the program CITATION Leu15 \l 1033 (Leung, 2015). The insert of value is done at the lowest point or to the left. It is therefore, important in solving problems in terms of actions and therefore, the process can be easily used to create flowcharts, Unified Modified Language (UML) and drakon-charts. It therefore, allows a programmer to focus on the program without being distracted with any details. The n nodes are therefore, build or created within the rank or the flow to ensure that there is a proper logic flow of the program. For instance, the listed below illustrates how insert and remove is done on pseudo code:

Let: n = # nodes in heap of height h

2h - 1 < n ≤ 2h+1 − 1

<===> 2h < n + 1 ≤ 2h+1

<===> h < lg (n + 1) ≤ h+1

===> Height of heap ~= lg (n + 1)

However, the pseudo code is used to ensure that all elements are put into a heap CITATION Mah17 \l 1033 (Mahmud, Rana, Hossin, & Jahan, 2017). It is the best method which can be used to create a good heap, to make a program state and sufficient. Therefore, pseudo code is the detail description of what a computer algorithm must perform in a formal styled natural language instead of using a programming language.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Dalal, A. C. (2014). Searching and Sorting Algorithms. International Journal of ICT and

Business , 2-35.

Goodrich, M. T. (2017). Data Structures and Algorithms in Java: Department of Computer

Science University of California, Irvine . New York: Pearson.

Leung, Y. L. (2015). Linear Data Structures: Linked Lists, Stacks,and Queues in JS.

https://www.freecodecamp.org/news/linear-data-structures-linked-lists-stacks-and-queues-in-javascript-a13c7591ad87/ , 12-35.

Mahmud, H., Rana, S., Hossin, A., & Jahan, H. (2017). MinFinder: A New Approach in Sorting

Algorithm. International Congress of Communication technology , 2-35.

Subject: IT

Pages: 1 Words: 300



[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]


Main post

HTML forms are very important as they are used to collect data from the user. It will take information from the user and will post that into backend application or database. A form includes various attributes which define the input value type. Some of the most used form attributes for the input include a text box, text areas, radio buttons, etc. However, there are someeditional additional attributes that can be applied to form control elements such as date, reset, password, email, and file (Paciello, 1998).

A password is used in the HTML forms to identify the password field. It is used usually for a login or Sign-up forms. Reset is used in the HTML forms to define a reset button which will clear all the values in the form to its default values. It is mostly used in the feedback forms or filling applications for jobs or universities using a form on a website. A date is the input type which is being used to identify the input field that should contain a date. It is mostly used in forms for the date of birth. Email is also a fundamental attribute in the form which is used to define the input field as an email field. It is mostly used in sign up and login forms. A file is a form attribute which is used to select different types of files and upload them to a website. It is mostly used on the forms of applications or sign up forms.

Follow up 1

HTML forms also have attributes for an input field which are used to define an initial value for an input field which can assist a user inputting the appropriate value in the input field. The value attribute is used in HTML forms which specifies the value for an input field.

Follow up 2

HTML forms also allow selecting the input characters size for the input field because some times it is essential to specify the number of characters for a specific field. For example, a phone number of characters must not exceed 14 characters for that it is necessary to identify the size of the input field.


Paciello, M. (1998). Improving accessibility with HTML 4.0. Web Techniques, 3(6), 36-40. Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/274854555?accountid=41759

Subject: IT

Pages: 1 Words: 300

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