Home >> Free Essays >> All Subjects >> IT

IT Examples and Topics

ERP Systems

ERP Systems

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

ERP Systems


ERP is referred as enterprise resource planning. ERP is an important software that is used by various organizations to manage their routine business activities in an effective manner. ERP is a modular software system that unified various areas functional areas of an organization at a single platform to process each process efficiently. It is notable to mention that an ERP system is entitled to focus on different business areas such as customer relationship management, production, and materials management, HR, and finance and accounting. Various business activities are performed with the help of ERP systems such as project management, procurement, supply chain operations, and risk management and compliance (Al-Mashari, Al-Mudimigh, & Zairi, 2003). ERP system defines a plethora of various processes of a business to assist data flow below them in an effective manner.

Server-side hardware requirements

Server-side hardware deals with the interconnection of various users in order to route them to different networks. There are various components of the server-side hardware such as multiplexors, hubs, communication links, disk drives, gateways, and bridges. Amazon deals with cloud computing, e-commerce, artificial intelligence, and digital streaming. It is one of the biggest multinational companies along with Apple, Facebook, and Google. Amazon works in major regions of the world and uses various hardware and software to connect customers with the server. It is notable to mention that Amazon uses a number of servers for various regions of the world. According to an estimation, Amazon has more than 1 million servers all around the world due to its vast business. In the past, Amazon used HP budget servers to run its network. However, with the passage of time, Amazon began to directly connect itself with Intel and other Asian companies such as Foxconn and Quanta. For an extensive network of server, it is important for an organization or company to run their data centers with overcoming the problem of overheating. As mentioned above, Amazon has one than one million servers, so the burden of data centers is significantly higher. Every single server uses almost 200 kilowatts per hour, which generates a major amount of heat. To cater to such critical condition, server-side hardware needs a huge amount of refrigeration to cool their data servers (Umble, Haft, & Umble, 2003). Therefore, mighty companies like Amazon use large condenser units to maintain an appropriate temperature outside their data centers. There is also an immense need to keep the data servers connected. For this purpose, companies use software to interconnect all hardware with each other.

Server-side software requirements

It is notable to mention that managing various business processes is difficult due to extensive complications. In the considered case of Amazon, it is essential to mention that there is a number of software that is used to manage server farms of Amazon. There is an immense need for Amazon to provide valuable software necessity to its potential clients due to the huge amount of web services. Amazon provides its potential consumers with multiple applications ranging from simple cloud storage up to leasing a major portion of server for several purposes. Various operating systems are provided by Amazon such as Amazon EC2, which provides a dependable environment and fast speeding to use the Microsoft Web Platform. Amazon web services are effective to provide a cloud computing platform to run any compatible window-based solution with reliability and high performance (Sultan, 2010). It is necessary to mention that hardware can only work in a proper manner if they are connected with other hardware through a potential link. An information system is beneficial for any organization to work in an effective manner, but there is a need to provide a proper communication channel for the hardware of that information system. Incorporation of software between hardware enabled an information system to work properly. Server-side software is beneficial to upload or transfer various useful files on the internet server. Server-side software puts these files on a web page so that they can easily accessible by customer or consumer. Despite various software for this purpose, File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is an effective software to share files between server and client on a computer network. Different organizations can easily share valuable data with their potential customers with the help of the File Transfer Protocol. It is noteworthy to mention that File Transfer Protocol provides a client-server model which use dispersed networks for both the server and the client. Furthermore, the need for database server software is also important along with File Transfer Protocol. One of the most effective used database software in Amazon is Oracle. Majority of the Amazon systems contain windows operating system, hence the use of Oracle software is essential to make create a database and maintain records. Amazon is using the Oracle database server in order to solve the problems of information management as it stores and retrieves related information (O'Leary, 2000).

Client-side hardware requirements

It is important to meet the client-side hardware requirements to ensure the loyalty of customers. Companies are well aware of the fact that the majority of client-side hardware requirements should be met with their database. It is often observed that the client-side hardware requirement does not require major complications. Customers or consumers only need to have the latest version of a specific web browser that allows them to utilize the services of a particular company. In the considered case of Amazon, it is necessary for clients or consumers to have internet access on any specific device. Laptops, computers, and smartphones are usually required by a client to access the services of Amazon. Recommended hardware requirements from Amazon required a client to have a 3GHZ minimum quad-core processors along with minimum 2 GB compatible video card or DirectX 11. System of a client also should have a minimum of 10 GB free disk space along with 8 GB RAM. The Internet connection speed of more than 1000Kbits/sec is usually required to stream media on Amazon. If these hardware requirements are fulfilled, then a client can easily access Amazon from his/her particular device.

Client-side software requirements

It is notable to mention that client-side software requirements are easily accessible as compared to client-side hardware requirements. Official website of Amazon can be accessed from any web browser which supports HTML5. Keeping in mind the requirement of HTML5, it is obvious that the client can access the official site of Amazon from Opera, Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, or Google Chrome. Media streaming can be accessed with the help of Mac OS 10.7 or newer operating system. Such requirements are very basic for clients and it proved that one can easily access Amazon without paying a lot for a more compatible system.

Analysis of competitive advantage

Technology is a critical strength of major organizations in the world. Amazon is one of these major organizations that managed a higher degree of customer convenience with its advancement of technology. In the ear online retailer, Amazon enabled itself to control a major portion of the market due to its efficient web-based system. Effective use of information system through advanced technical software and hardware helped Amazon to attain a better position in the entire world. Wal-Mart is one of the major competitors of Amazon in the field of an online retailer. Fortunately, Amazon managed to maintain loyal customers with appealing products and reasonable prices. It is highly important for a retail company to manage its relationship with suppliers in an effective manner to fulfill the requirements of clients. The efficient staff helped Amazon to keep influence over suppliers, hence it enabled Amazon to keep prices moderate than its competitors. Comprehensive web-based information system allows its customers to manage and receive their order through online shipping. Cloud computing allows the customers of Amazon to access and manage various products through any potential device such as computer, laptops, or smartphone (Aljabre, 2012). Cloud computing by Amazon web-based information system enhances the services provides to the consumers along with their efficiency. Cloud computing provides a valuable competitive advantage to Amazon as compared to other online retailers as one can place their order via a single touch. Web-based information system of Amazon also provides the importance of data centralization. Data centralization is a plus point for Amazon as it saves a major portion of time and energy that can be utilized in other potential job processes. Amazon is also getting a significant advantage in terms of free clouding storage for their systems.

Recommendations for Improvement

Improvement in the information system is highly important for an organization. In the considered case of Amazon, it is essential to improve the bandwidth limit to utilize the cloud computing process completely. Amazon is widely used among various nations of the world, which can reduce the quality of cloud computing connection. Therefore, it is recommended to made different adjacent platforms for customers to limit the complications of affected quality of cloud computing connection.


In a nutshell, Amazon has an efficient web-based information system to deliver information and services with its potential clients. The use of Amazon EC2 is highly profitable for Amazon as it offers a dependable environment with fast speed to access the Microsoft Web Platform in an effective manner. Using databases such as Oracles provide a competitive advantage to Amazon to create a database and maintain records.


Aljabre, A. (2012). Cloud computing for increased business value. International Journal of Business and social science, 3(1).

Al-Mashari, M., Al-Mudimigh, A., & Zairi, M. (2003). Enterprise resource planning: A taxonomy of critical factors. European journal of operational research, 146(2), 352-364.

O'Leary, D. E. (2000). Enterprise resource planning systems: systems, life cycle, electronic commerce, and risk. Cambridge university press.

Sultan, N. (2010). Cloud computing for education: A new dawn?. International Journal of Information Management, 30(2), 109-116.

Umble, E. J., Haft, R. R., & Umble, M. M. (2003). Enterprise resource planning: Implementation procedures and critical success factors. European journal of operational research, 146(2), 241-257.

Subject: IT

Pages: 5 Words: 1500



Enterprise System


[Name of the Institution]

Executive Summary

An enterprise system supports business processes, informational flow and resource management, via large-scale application software packages. One of the drivers towards the adoption of ES is to bring operational improvements such as reducing the cost of operations, reducing the cost of a number of employees and reducing cycle time. Other reasons that have been supported by many studies is the replacement of the legacy system or bringing architectural improvements. ES allows the control and track of complex business operations resulting in the success of an enterprise. Companies have obtained numerous monetary and non-monetary benefits from the adoption of such systems. Higher management has to be aware of the need for effective change management techniques to adjust the organisation in accordance with the needs of ES.


TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u Introduction PAGEREF _Toc17771227 \h 4

Discuss the principal drivers behind businesses adopting Enterprise Systems. PAGEREF _Toc17771228 \h 4

How do Enterprise Systems contribute to organisational performance and how do we measure such contributions? PAGEREF _Toc17771229 \h 7

What are the organisational change management considerations necessary for successful adoption of an Enterprise System? PAGEREF _Toc17771230 \h 10

Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc17771231 \h 13

Bibliography PAGEREF _Toc17771232 \h 13

Enterprise Systems


An enterprise system, in simpler terms, refers to an enterprise-wide used application, which aids the smoother functioning of the enterprise. An enterprise system supports business processes, informational flow and resource management, via large-scale application software packages. Bearing in mind the dynamic nature of organisations and the flow of resources and data, these software packages can be customized to meet the needs of the organisation. It is also referred to as the amalgamation of software and hardware applications that aim at handling the organisational process with efficiency and effectiveness. They also allow the organisation to integrate information from different functions in an organisation. Examples of such systems include enterprise resource planning (ERP), supply chain management (SCM), e-procurement software, customer relationship management (CRM) etc. This report seeks to identify the factors that drive the adoption of Enterprise Systems and ways to measure the business success from the adoption of enterprise systems alongside change management considerations for successful implementation of such systems.

Discuss the principal drivers behind businesses adopting Enterprise Systems.

Nowadays, business organisations do not consider their survival without the adoption of several enterprise systems such as CRM, SCM, ERP, PLM etc. Sometimes organisations are not aware of the fact why such systems are a necessity. After the technology boom, like many other changes, it also transformed the ways companies conduct businesses. The technology was adopted by organisations all over the world to bring efficiency and effectiveness in their processes. Initially adopting the enterprise systems was considered a risky endeavour, however, later on, the business started to consider it a necessity. By the time, organisations started to witness the positive outcomes of ES, success stories and case studies. In addition to that, many other factors contributed to the adoption of ES.

A number of studies reveal different reasons in different countries that can be summed up in different types of reasons. One of the drivers towards the adoption of ES is to bring operational improvements such as reducing the cost of operations, reducing the cost of a number of employees and reducing cycle time. This is often declared as the primary factor companies adopt ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"cx1tLi0e","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Buonanno et al., 2005)","plainCitation":"(Buonanno et al., 2005)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":937,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/N6Q4SB8N"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/N6Q4SB8N"],"itemData":{"id":937,"type":"article-journal","title":"Factors affecting ERP system adoption: A comparative analysis between SMEs and large companies","container-title":"Journal of Enterprise Information Management","page":"384-426","volume":"18","issue":"4","author":[{"family":"Buonanno","given":"Giacomo"},{"family":"Faverio","given":"Paolo"},{"family":"Pigni","given":"Federico"},{"family":"Ravarini","given":"Aurelio"},{"family":"Sciuto","given":"Donatella"},{"family":"Tagliavini","given":"Marco"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2005"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Buonanno et al., 2005). Another reason that has been supported by many studies is the replacement of the legacy system or bringing architectural improvements. With the changing technologies, previous systems become obsolete and unable to keep up with the changing needs of organisations. The enterprise systems architecture allows ease in upgrading, that some of the older systems do not allow.

In addition, the size of the organisation plays a critical role in the adoption decision of ES in an organisation. The size of the organisation in terms of revenues and business and in terms of business growth and extension as well ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"r9FInToS","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Shakir and Viehland, 2004)","plainCitation":"(Shakir and Viehland, 2004)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":939,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/E97ZLSM4"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/E97ZLSM4"],"itemData":{"id":939,"type":"article-journal","title":"Business Drivers in Contemporary Enterprise System Implementations","container-title":"AMCIS 2004 Proceedings","page":"17","author":[{"family":"Shakir","given":"Maha"},{"family":"Viehland","given":"Dennis"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2004"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Shakir and Viehland, 2004). Organisation's size also increases in terms of business acquisitions and mergers, therefore, require scalability and flexibility for sustainability. Organisations adopt IT-based solutions to pursue their strategic objectives and goals as they expand into different markets. Enterprise Resource Planning systems allow integration of information from all the business units, operating in different geographical locations.

IT maturity of an organisation is also one of the major determinants of the organisation's adoptability of ES. A study reports that the adoption of ES is directly related to the IT maturity of the organisation ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"1UW5vDhJ","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Shakir and Viehland, 2004)","plainCitation":"(Shakir and Viehland, 2004)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":939,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/E97ZLSM4"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/E97ZLSM4"],"itemData":{"id":939,"type":"article-journal","title":"Business Drivers in Contemporary Enterprise System Implementations","container-title":"AMCIS 2004 Proceedings","page":"17","author":[{"family":"Shakir","given":"Maha"},{"family":"Viehland","given":"Dennis"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2004"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Shakir and Viehland, 2004). Organisations that are IT mature always remain aware of the IT needs in their business and plan to develop a system that could meet the future IT needs. Competition is the major driver of ES adoption in many organisations. In order to compete in the highly competitive global business environment driven by innovation, organisations need to be technically competent. ES is known to enhance the business productivity hence creating a need to implement these systems ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"HchDmQbu","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Ahmad et al., 2014)","plainCitation":"(Ahmad et al., 2014)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":940,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/YCGAX6WP"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/YCGAX6WP"],"itemData":{"id":940,"type":"article-journal","title":"Study of reasons for enterprise systems adoption among Indian organizations","container-title":"Journal of Enterprise Information Management","page":"696-718","volume":"27","issue":"6","author":[{"family":"Ahmad","given":"Naim"},{"family":"Haleem","given":"Abid"},{"family":"Ali Syed","given":"Asif"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2014"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Ahmad et al., 2014).

Over time, the software developers have embedded some best practices into their ES applications. Implementing such systems allow the business organisations to have Standardization system of the industry and take advantage of the best practices developed after years of experience. In this way, ES also saves cost and allows uniformity in the business processes. The need for customer-supplier intimacy is another responsible factor that drives a business towards the implementation of ES. These systems interlink almost all the software packages such as SCM, CRM, PLM, and ERP, allowing a single interface for suppliers, partners and customers ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"mHJJ8e1P","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Ahmad et al., 2014)","plainCitation":"(Ahmad et al., 2014)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":940,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/YCGAX6WP"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/YCGAX6WP"],"itemData":{"id":940,"type":"article-journal","title":"Study of reasons for enterprise systems adoption among Indian organizations","container-title":"Journal of Enterprise Information Management","page":"696-718","volume":"27","issue":"6","author":[{"family":"Ahmad","given":"Naim"},{"family":"Haleem","given":"Abid"},{"family":"Ali Syed","given":"Asif"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2014"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Ahmad et al., 2014).

Seeking organisational change is also one of the primary goals of learning organisations. ES allows such changes to happen and help re-engineer major business principles and processes while reducing the inefficiencies. The need for integrating business systems and processes is also responsible for the adoption of ES. Since ES allows integration of database and applications serve the need for integration at all the organizational levels ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"ciDNrnwP","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Laukkanen et al., 2007)","plainCitation":"(Laukkanen et al., 2007)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":941,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/YEKSQXSQ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/YEKSQXSQ"],"itemData":{"id":941,"type":"article-journal","title":"Enterprise size matters: objectives and constraints of ERP adoption","container-title":"Journal of enterprise information management","page":"319-334","volume":"20","issue":"3","author":[{"family":"Laukkanen","given":"Sanna"},{"family":"Sarpola","given":"Sami"},{"family":"Hallikainen","given":"Petri"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2007"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Laukkanen et al., 2007).

A study based on the organisations in India also highlights similar motivations behind the adoption of ES among the Indian organisations. All these factors discussed above including the size of organisations, the need for operational improvements, competition and other external factors are responsible for the IT adoption in an organisation. Though these factors also vary depending on the industry but overall these are the major drivers of ES implementation ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"CXXEQu2N","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Ahmad et al., 2014)","plainCitation":"(Ahmad et al., 2014)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":940,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/YCGAX6WP"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/YCGAX6WP"],"itemData":{"id":940,"type":"article-journal","title":"Study of reasons for enterprise systems adoption among Indian organizations","container-title":"Journal of Enterprise Information Management","page":"696-718","volume":"27","issue":"6","author":[{"family":"Ahmad","given":"Naim"},{"family":"Haleem","given":"Abid"},{"family":"Ali Syed","given":"Asif"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2014"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Ahmad et al., 2014). It also highlights literature form the studies based on other countries that report these factors to be responsible for global adoption of ES in business organisations. However, a range of other external factors also persuades business organisations and business conglomerates to implement ES and to enjoy the benefits offered by such a system.

How do Enterprise Systems contribute to organisational performance and how do we measure such contributions?

An analysis of the factors driving business organisations towards the implementation of ES indicates that benefits obtained from these systems incline the organisations towards adopting them. One of the major drivers is to enhance the performance of business operations and functions. Technology has remained the backbone of business organisations since the technology boom has occurred. Companies are looking forward to exploiting technology, to be specific enterprise systems to improve customer service operations and their work-flows. ES allows the control and track of complex business operations resulting in the success of an enterprise. There are multiple ways an ES enhances business performance and contributes to its efficiency if the companies implement them successfully. One of the most common ES that has been widely adopted by the organisations in the enterprise resource planning system (ERP).

ERP facilitates a company-wide integrated Information Systems covering all functional areas such as manufacturing, sales and distribution, accounts, payables, receivables, inventory, human resources, supply chain, MRP etc. ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"AWPKK32u","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Yang and Su, 2009)","plainCitation":"(Yang and Su, 2009)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":944,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/2T7GA4E9"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/2T7GA4E9"],"itemData":{"id":944,"type":"article-journal","title":"The relationship between benefits of ERP systems implementation and its impacts on firm performance of SCM","container-title":"Journal of Enterprise Information Management","page":"722-752","volume":"22","issue":"6","author":[{"family":"Yang","given":"Chyan"},{"family":"Su","given":"Yi-fen"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2009"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Yang and Su, 2009). Not only does the ERP system share information but also automates and integrates most of the business processes. All the more so, the integration framework provided by ERP runs across the companies, and decreases information gaps across the company, if any. The focus of ERP are the key issues that involves customer service, inventory and cash management, enhancement of productivity, prompt delivery and quality control. ERP provides organization with solutions that manage the underlying project in a subtle manner. Some important tools that are incorporated in the ERP systems include reporting, data mining, decision support, executive information system, and early warning system.

Furthermore, ES also addresses the requirement of the country and provides the company with opportunities to improve and refine its business process. The value of such systems lies in integrating as much information as possible in one system and connecting other systems to this repository. In addition, one tends to end up entering information once. This is a big saving since one doesn't have to worry about information being slightly different in various systems. Using an ES can be of great advantage to the companies looking forward to streamlining their customer service. Automation of business processes is one of the major benefits obtained from the implementation of ES, it not only saves time but also boosts the efficiency of business operations.

Flexibility and scalability, discussed above as the drivers of ES adoption are also the benefits obtained from the adoption of these systems. ES also allows enterprises to scale their IT operations according to the requirements of businesses. This is a great way to enhance organisational effectiveness and also controls costs, alongside meeting the demands and requirements of clienteles. ES system not only allows access to business information in real-time but to all the parties that are in the need of that information. The costs saved from the automation of business processes can be used to make investments in the areas more profitable for the company. A business is said to be doing good it is fulfilling the regulatory requirements. Laws, for example, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires the company to share timely information needed by the investors to make the investment decisions. ES assists a company to comply with these regulations through the integrated database and automated processes.

A study analyzing the benefits of ES reveals the ways in which companies that have implemented ES have benefited. The study developed a five-dimensional framework highlighted benefits in the five areas. These five areas included operational, managerial, strategic, organisational and IT-based benefits ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"eeciraZJ","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Shang and Seddon, 2002)","plainCitation":"(Shang and Seddon, 2002)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":942,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/TV5XRAE6"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/TV5XRAE6"],"itemData":{"id":942,"type":"article-journal","title":"Assessing and managing the benefits of enterprise systems: the business manager's perspective","container-title":"Information systems journal","page":"271-299","volume":"12","issue":"4","author":[{"family":"Shang","given":"Shari"},{"family":"Seddon","given":"Peter B."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2002"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Shang and Seddon, 2002). This framework can also be utilized by other organisations to measure the contributions made by the ES in all these five areas. This study also evaluated the benefits obtained and the problems encountered of the enterprises implementing ES. A wide range of benefits include efficiency in decision making, quicker business operations, replacement of legacy systems and an increase in employee morale. All these benefits, overall, make a major contribution to the enhanced organisational performance.

Besides, the organizational efficiency is also disclosed in the overall organizational performance in terms of reduced cost, boosted employees’ performance, efficiency in organizational processes. In addition, another determinant of ES effectiveness is in the form of better customer and supplier relations. If the ES implemented is assisting an organisation in attaining its strategic goals and objectives, it is an indicator of the fact that the system is making a constructive contribution towards the organisation. Adopters of Supply Chain Management (SCM) have reported improvements in profitability and stock returns. The same study also reported favorable outcomes in the form of profitability from the implementation of ERP systems ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"g1rUiDiq","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Hendricks et al., 2007)","plainCitation":"(Hendricks et al., 2007)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":943,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/5EUKSCJF"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/5EUKSCJF"],"itemData":{"id":943,"type":"article-journal","title":"The impact of enterprise systems on corporate performance: A study of ERP, SCM, and CRM system implementations","container-title":"Journal of operations management","page":"65-82","volume":"25","issue":"1","author":[{"family":"Hendricks","given":"Kevin B."},{"family":"Singhal","given":"Vinod R."},{"family":"Stratman","given":"Jeff K."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2007"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Hendricks et al., 2007). These are other two determinants of the contribution made by the adoption of ES in an enterprise, but these measure the outcomes in monetary terms.

What are the organisational change management considerations necessary for successful adoption of an Enterprise System?

Change management involves the use of tools and techniques that support leadership and people of organisation to implement changes in an organisation to attain desirable results ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"3dBAzzLS","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Todnem By, 2005)","plainCitation":"(Todnem By, 2005)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":947,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/7ZVBM6ZU"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/7ZVBM6ZU"],"itemData":{"id":947,"type":"article-journal","title":"Organisational change management: A critical review","container-title":"Journal of change management","page":"369-380","volume":"5","issue":"4","author":[{"family":"Todnem By","given":"Rune"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2005"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Todnem By, 2005). In addition, change management makes the results of change foreseeable. Since change management has to do with all approaches geared towards a smooth implementation of change while mitigating the effects which may occur and making sure the benefits of the change are achieved ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"KTOQ2gEa","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Altamony et al., 2016)","plainCitation":"(Altamony et al., 2016)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":946,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/J42E72XM"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/J42E72XM"],"itemData":{"id":946,"type":"article-journal","title":"The relationship between change management strategy and successful enterprise resource planning (ERP) implementations: A theoretical perspective","container-title":"International Journal of Business Management and Economic Research","page":"690-703","volume":"7","issue":"4","author":[{"family":"Altamony","given":"Hamzah"},{"family":"Al-Salti","given":"Z."},{"family":"Gharaibeh","given":"A."},{"family":"Elyas","given":"T."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Altamony et al., 2016). There change management can but handle in many different ways but with two goals in mine, that is: minimize disruption in the management process and maximize benefit from change.

In the case of implementation of ES in an organisation, many issues and concerns arise that poses difficulty in the implementation of ES. These comprise hierarchy, awareness of personnel holding numerous designations in the enterprise, IT infrastructure, high cost, enterprise structure, training and most importantly changes in the organisation happening in the course of ES adoption ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"mHebjAUM","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Soja and Paliwoda-P\\uc0\\u281{}\\uc0\\u808{}kosz, 2009)","plainCitation":"(Soja and Paliwoda-Pę̨kosz, 2009)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":945,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/EXCHNUDZ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/EXCHNUDZ"],"itemData":{"id":945,"type":"article-journal","title":"What are real problems in enterprise system adoption?","container-title":"Industrial Management & Data Systems","page":"610-627","volume":"109","issue":"5","author":[{"family":"Soja","given":"Piotr"},{"family":"Paliwoda-Pę̨kosz","given":"Grażyna"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2009"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Soja and Paliwoda-Pę̨kosz, 2009). Hence, change in the organisation arising from the ES adoption or owing to the requirements imposed by this adoption, is an essential factor to be considered. According to the same study, changes occurring in the organisation from ES adoption are unavoidable. Therefore, higher management has to be aware of the need of effective change management techniques to adjust the organisation in accordance with the needs of ES such as changes in hardware, network infrastructure and enterprise structure. For the reason that, difficulty in these areas can result in the negative consequences for the adopter organisation. In addition, the misfit of system with organisation can also result in the problems for employees ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"UIHmHPtD","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Soja and Paliwoda-P\\uc0\\u281{}\\uc0\\u808{}kosz, 2009)","plainCitation":"(Soja and Paliwoda-Pę̨kosz, 2009)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":945,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/EXCHNUDZ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/EXCHNUDZ"],"itemData":{"id":945,"type":"article-journal","title":"What are real problems in enterprise system adoption?","container-title":"Industrial Management & Data Systems","page":"610-627","volume":"109","issue":"5","author":[{"family":"Soja","given":"Piotr"},{"family":"Paliwoda-Pę̨kosz","given":"Grażyna"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2009"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Soja and Paliwoda-Pę̨kosz, 2009).

For change to be handled appropriately, the directors must analysis the possible effects and benefits of the change, pinpoint those in the management who will be affected by the change, the people who are to be directly or indirectly affected by the change should be integrated in the implementation process of the change, as this will increase their horizon on the recent development. Also, the management must be able to communicate with employees to brief them on the lapses of the old approach and the need for the change. It is certain that during a change implementation, some workers will lose their positions and for this reason they need to be compensated. Higher management welcome change but some low-level employees do not for fear that they might lost their jobs. It is also important to know people have different responses to change, which is a function of age, culture, personality. The similar considerations must be made by the higher management of an organisation implementing an ES.

A study exploring the factors contributing to successful change management in ERP implementation, one of the common ES. It identifies that when it comes to ES, the effective change management strategy encompass planning, implementing and measuring the change ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"1ZFvFU2N","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Altamony et al., 2016)","plainCitation":"(Altamony et al., 2016)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":946,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/J42E72XM"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/J42E72XM"],"itemData":{"id":946,"type":"article-journal","title":"The relationship between change management strategy and successful enterprise resource planning (ERP) implementations: A theoretical perspective","container-title":"International Journal of Business Management and Economic Research","page":"690-703","volume":"7","issue":"4","author":[{"family":"Altamony","given":"Hamzah"},{"family":"Al-Salti","given":"Z."},{"family":"Gharaibeh","given":"A."},{"family":"Elyas","given":"T."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Altamony et al., 2016). Preparation for change is essential in accordance with the culture and structure of an enterprise by making observations. While implementing change, end-user communication issue, user training and involvement, and cultural considerations must be made by the higher management. After the implementation stage, the influence must also be measured based on the organisational factors and end-user involvement ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"f33FEBO5","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Altamony et al., 2016)","plainCitation":"(Altamony et al., 2016)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":946,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/J42E72XM"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/J42E72XM"],"itemData":{"id":946,"type":"article-journal","title":"The relationship between change management strategy and successful enterprise resource planning (ERP) implementations: A theoretical perspective","container-title":"International Journal of Business Management and Economic Research","page":"690-703","volume":"7","issue":"4","author":[{"family":"Altamony","given":"Hamzah"},{"family":"Al-Salti","given":"Z."},{"family":"Gharaibeh","given":"A."},{"family":"Elyas","given":"T."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Altamony et al., 2016).

Change management strategies are well-recognized as essential to sustain any modern organization. Adoption of ERP or any other ES through the change management increases the probabilities of success for the enterprise. There is a necessity to prepare for any hurdle beforehand therefore a planned change management strategy is essential alongside the efficient leadership. A number of support the idea of effective change management with ES implementation.


To sum up the discussion, enterprise systems allow the smooth functioning of business operations and results in efficiency in business processes. Owing to the benefits these systems provide, ES have been widely adopted by almost all the small, medium and bigger business firms to enhance their performance. A number of internal and external factors drive the business motivate enterprises to adopt ES such as the size of organisation. Need of hour is also a major factor and studies reveal that companies have obtained numerous monetary and non-monetary benefits from the adoption of such systems. However, the consideration of change management techniques is pivotal in order to attain the strategic objectives and reduce the likelihood of failures from change constraints.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Ahmad, N., Haleem, A., Ali Syed, A., 2014. Study of reasons for enterprise systems adoption among Indian organizations. J. Enterp. Inf. Manag. 27, 696–718.

Altamony, H., Al-Salti, Z., Gharaibeh, A., Elyas, T., 2016. The relationship between change management strategy and successful enterprise resource planning (ERP) implementations: A theoretical perspective. Int. J. Bus. Manag. Econ. Res. 7, 690–703.

Buonanno, G., Faverio, P., Pigni, F., Ravarini, A., Sciuto, D., Tagliavini, M., 2005. Factors affecting ERP system adoption: A comparative analysis between SMEs and large companies. J. Enterp. Inf. Manag. 18, 384–426.

Hendricks, K.B., Singhal, V.R., Stratman, J.K., 2007. The impact of enterprise systems on corporate performance: A study of ERP, SCM, and CRM system implementations. J. Oper. Manag. 25, 65–82.

Laukkanen, S., Sarpola, S., Hallikainen, P., 2007. Enterprise size matters: objectives and constraints of ERP adoption. J. Enterp. Inf. Manag. 20, 319–334.

Shakir, M., Viehland, D., 2004. Business Drivers in Contemporary Enterprise System Implementations. AMCIS 2004 Proc. 17.

Shang, S., Seddon, P.B., 2002. Assessing and managing the benefits of enterprise systems: the business manager’s perspective. Inf. Syst. J. 12, 271–299.

Soja, P., Paliwoda-Pę̨kosz, G., 2009. What are real problems in enterprise system adoption? Ind. Manag. Data Syst. 109, 610–627.

Todnem By, R., 2005. Organisational change management: A critical review. J. Change Manag. 5, 369–380.

Yang, C., Su, Y., 2009. The relationship between benefits of ERP systems implementation and its impacts on firm performance of SCM. J. Enterp. Inf. Manag. 22, 722–752.

Subject: IT

Pages: 9 Words: 2700



Hannah Nirgin

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Author Note

[Include any grant/funding information and a complete correspondence address.]


Cyber Security is a big challenge in the current era of the advancement of Information Technology. Data has become one of the most important resources in the 21st century, and its protection and prevention from data theft and cyber-attacks is a major requirement for organizations. A cyber-security company is an organization dedicated to providing security solutions to organizations, including business firms, government organizations, security agencies, and also big enterprises. The security organization not only maintains the Security Operation Center (SOC) to monitor the security of the client's IT infrastructure and databases but also manages to prevent them from cyber-attacks and potential data theft. The risks of cyber-attack and related consequences can be minimized by building capabilities in three critical areas of detection, prevention, and response. In this paper, we will take a detailed overview of the organizational structure of a cyber-security company by explaining the roles of different positions and their links with each other.

Chief Operating Officer (COO)

The Chief Operation Officer is at the executive level who has the duty to oversee all the operations related to the business of the organization. These operations or responsibilities are the management of human resources, vendor management, design management, production, and operations development. In Cyberworld, a very important factor is preparedness, so a COO is aware of new trends and requirements of cyber-security. This is done by an effective cyber literacy and incident planning of incident and response. A COO is responsible for handling all the issues, which may result in disruption of normal business operations of the organization.

It is part of the COO’s responsibilities to make sure continuity in the operations and functioning in crisis situations, including natural disasters, technology, or process change or economic shutdown ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"nhbakPHJ","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(CyberVista, 2017)","plainCitation":"(CyberVista, 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":244,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/5OlhLovK/items/UPJJJJMQ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/5OlhLovK/items/UPJJJJMQ"],"itemData":{"id":244,"type":"post-weblog","title":"The Chief Operating Officer: Operate with Cyber Efficiency","container-title":"CyberVista","abstract":"The Chief Operating Officer By definition, the Chief Operating Officer (COO) is the executive who oversees the business operations of a company. Considering all of the elements within the COO’s purview – vendor management, human resources, operations development, design, and production, and much more – cybersecurity literacy, especially incident response planning and execution, is paramount. …","URL":"https://www.cybervista.net/chief-operating-officer-cyber-efficiency/","title-short":"The Chief Operating Officer","language":"en-US","author":[{"literal":"CyberVista"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017",2,21]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",11,21]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (CyberVista, 2017). A COO ensures that cyber risk scenarios are configured according to the overall business and operational strategies. The plans for an incident response, which are developed by the Chief Information Officer, are also monitored by COO of the cyber company and implemented after his approval. In general, a COO protects the company by manipulating the cyber risk in the form of enterprise risk and enables the subordinates to practice the response plans.

Chief Information Officer (CIO)

In recent years, the role of CIO has become very important in cyber-security because of the induction of many complex exclusive IT processes and infrastructures in the field. The Chief Information Officer is in charge of a large part of technical and operational processes and makes sure that the right controls are placed for data integrity and security. The responsibilities of CIO in a cyber-security company are following

The CIO focuses on the overall awareness as well as the training of cyber-security. This including providing services to facilitate the cyber awareness of application and analytic managers and that of the end-users.

He is aware of the cybersecurity industry in term of the regulation which governs the industry. This is helpful in communicating the risks and postures to the necessary parties both externally and internally.

It is the duty of the CIO to manage and enforce cybersecurity controls for vendors and also provide monitoring to maintain the business relationship.

The CIO is responsible for implementing the frameworks like ISO and NIST and benchmarks the cybersecurity of the company appropriately ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"LtDrWi0P","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Stevens, n.d.)","plainCitation":"(Stevens, n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":246,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/5OlhLovK/items/Z5PECT6V"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/5OlhLovK/items/Z5PECT6V"],"itemData":{"id":246,"type":"webpage","title":"Analyzing The CIO's Roles & Responsibilities Regarding Cybersecurity","abstract":"Take a look at the main cybersecurity responsibilities of a chief information officer (CIO) and learn how the role of the CIO has evolved.","URL":"https://www.bitsight.com/blog/analyzing-cios-roles-responsibilities-cybersecurity","language":"en-us","author":[{"family":"Stevens","given":"Melissa"}],"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",11,21]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Stevens, n.d.).

Analyzing the role of CIO in emerging IT and cyber markets, the CIO is now majorly involved in the interoperation of frameworks and systems across the organization. This is mainly due to the inception of IoT (Internet of things) because greater connectivity is responsible for wider digital and communication systems.

Chief Information Security Officer (CISO)

The well-established duties of chief information security officers are repelling, monitoring, and then responding to the cyber threats by meeting requirements of the compliance. The CISO of a company is at the senior executive level in the hierarchy and is employed to deal with major implementation and to develop the information security infrastructures. The CISO often works closely with CIO to introduce services, develop products, and to manage plans of business continuity and disaster recovery. Talking about the qualification of a CISO, companies mostly prefer advance degree holders in the fields of computer science, engineering, and business. Apart from general degrees, relevant specific certifications are also required, including CISSP, ISACA, and ISC. Following are the responsibilities of a CISO in an Information security company.

To make sure the fulfillment of the CIA is Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability of information and resources.

Doing a quick and real-time analysis of immediate attacks, risks, and threats.

Communicating with the board and keeping them aware of potential security potentials and risks to enable them to make the right decisions related to business moves collaborations ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"F4mAqilf","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Fruhlinger, 2019)","plainCitation":"(Fruhlinger, 2019)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":248,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/5OlhLovK/items/YCEII993"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/5OlhLovK/items/YCEII993"],"itemData":{"id":248,"type":"webpage","title":"What is a CISO? Responsibilities and requirements for this vital role","container-title":"CSO Online","abstract":"The chief information security officer (CISO) is the executive responsible for an organization's information and data security. Learn what it takes to land a CISO job and how to be successful in the role.","URL":"https://www.csoonline.com/article/3332026/what-is-a-ciso-responsibilities-and-requirements-for-this-vital-leadership-role.html","title-short":"What is a CISO?","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Fruhlinger","given":"Josh"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019",1,14]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",11,21]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Fruhlinger, 2019).

To make sure that information is safe from internal human intervention.

To make plans, purchase and implement the security-related software and hardware and ensure that the infrastructure meets the best security practices.

To carry out efficient access management by making sure that only authorized persons have access to the systems and restricted data.

To carry out forensics by doing penetration testing and enumeration and determine loopholes and vulnerabilities in the systems.

To govern all the above-mentioned jobs to make sure smooth operation.

The other key responsibilities of a CISO are identifying C-level team members, embed information of security, create reports monthly, hire solid security staff, and strive to become an external and internal security expert.

Chief Risk Officer (CRO)

A CRO is an executive at cybersecurity organization and has the responsibility to do the tasks of assessing and minimizing the significant regulatory, competitive, and technological threats to a business or enterprise’s capital. The officer is liable for the implementation of mitigation processes and operational risk management to avoid losses from failed or inadequate policies, systems, and processes. The risk management includes the development of IS processes, business disaster, and continuity recover planning and giving input on governing compliance regulatory data. The responsibilities of a CRO are following

To develop strategic action plans and risk plans to mitigate the organization's primary threats and to evaluate the progress of risk minimization efforts.

To disseminate and develop the risk analysis and to provide reports of progress to the organization's executives employees and other board members.

Determining the risk appetite of the company and the amount of risk the company can take ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a6Vl3c5h","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}What is chief risk officer (CRO)?,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“What is chief risk officer (CRO)?,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":250,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/5OlhLovK/items/TLGTCBKC"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/5OlhLovK/items/TLGTCBKC"],"itemData":{"id":250,"type":"webpage","title":"What is chief risk officer (CRO)? - Definition from WhatIs.com","container-title":"SearchCompliance","abstract":"The chief risk officer is a corporate executive tasked with assessing and mitigating competitive, regulatory and technological threats to an organization.","URL":"https://searchcompliance.techtarget.com/definition/Chief-risk-officer-CRO","title-short":"What is chief risk officer (CRO)?","language":"en","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",11,21]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} ("What is chief risk officer (CRO)?" n.d.).

To oversee budgeting and funding of mitigation projects and risk management.

To develop and then implement risk assurance strategies and information for storage and transmission of information systems and data.

Evaluation of potential risks due to system failure and employee errors that may result in business loss and developing the procedures and strategies to reduce those risks and respond in case of an attack.

For a well-reputed company, the qualification of a CRO is often post-graduation in IT, engineering, or business studies. It depends on the nature of the organization, but for a cybersecurity company, higher studies in the field of IT or information security are a must. Also, to demonstrate the need for strategic efforts to the stakeholders, strong communication skills are also required.

Chief Finance Officer (CFO)

Generally, a CFO deals with the company's finances, but in the case of a cybersecurity organization, the role is a little more demanding. In fact, in an organization of such type, keeping information secure must be the priority of each employee. Experts in the field believe that information security is not a department; it is rather an attitude. CFO’s role in deterring and preventing an offense related to cybersecurity is important because company credits, purchases, and company credit cards are managed and processed under this position. Any hacker can break the barriers and cause harm to the company business. The key responsibilities of a CFO in a cybersecurity organization are following

To understand the full risk universe of the organization

To develop a close relationship with CIO and CISO.

To do the evaluation of the insurance of the company’s cybersecurity.

To provide timely reports to the board directors about the company’s new cybersecurity incentives (Gregg, 2010)

To understand the related regulation of cybersecurity and expectations of the SEC, which have become very important these days from examination and reporting priority point of view.

Because of the importance of the CFO position in the organization, the employee must be well educated in the field of Information security, too, apart from qualification related to economics and business studies.


To provide efficient and reliable security to the clients, the coordination among these roles is very important. As discussed above, the incident and response plans are monitored by the COO of the organization while CISO or CIO are responsible for the development and implementation of these plans and protocols. CRO and CFO are also required to work while maintaining the coordination with the higher management to ensure the smooth operation. By utilizing these positions efficiently, the risks of cyber offenses and related outcomes can be minimized to a great deal. To serve the purpose of ensuring confidentiality, integrity, and accessibility, all the officers discussed above must work in coordination by ensuring high standards of the security.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY CyberVista. (2017, February 21). The Chief Operating Officer: Operate with Cyber Efficiency. Retrieved November 21, 2019, from CyberVista website: https://www.cybervista.net/chief-operating-officer-cyber-efficiency/

Fruhlinger, J. (2019, January 14). What is a CISO? Responsibilities and requirements for this vital role. Retrieved November 21, 2019, from CSO Online website: https://www.csoonline.com/article/3332026/what-is-a-ciso-responsibilities-and-requirements-for-this-vital-leadership-role.html

Stevens, M. (n.d.). Analyzing The CIO’s Roles & Responsibilities Regarding Cybersecurity. Retrieved November 21, 2019, from https://www.bitsight.com/blog/analyzing-cios-roles-responsibilities-cybersecurity

What is chief risk officer (CRO)? - Definition from WhatIs.com. (n.d.). Retrieved November 21, 2019, from SearchCompliance website: https://searchcompliance.techtarget.com/definition/Chief-risk-officer-CRO

Gregg, R. (2010). The CFO's role in managing cyber risk. Financial Executive, 26(7), 61-63.

Subject: IT

Pages: 5 Words: 1500


Role of Enterprise Systems in Organizations

Author Name

[Name of Institution]

Role of Enterprise Systems in Organizations


Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is a software that is used in different functions of the organization which are integrated together to form a coherent unit. The ERP components are integrated across the organization which helps the inflow of information throughout the firm within each and every related departments. The ERP components from different functions combine to form a part of the business process. With the progress in technology, many ERP architectures have been introduced with their separate specifications. Nowadays, each organization has a choice of multiple platforms that can be adapted according to their needs. Each architecture has its own characteristics that make it perfect for a certain type of organization. Firms can select the right ERP for their setup by identifying which functions are going to be automated, how many resources can be spent on such a project, what is the overall size of the firm, etc. Keeping these things in mind, the organizations need to select the best suited ERP. It is necessary that much research is done on the best type of ERP for the organization as ERPs are the backbone of an organization. The ERPs help the organizations run their day to day activities smoothly.

The main architecture of ERP consists of software components that are given access to a centralized database. The centralized database is responsible for storing the data of the entire organization and its different functions. Most of the major organizations have started utilizing ERPs in their business models to efficiently handle their day to day tasks. Every organization today wants to be the best. By automating the functions as much as possible, organizations can increase the efficiency of their tasks. Saving time in the world today leads to much better results in terms of the business gained.

Advantages of the ERP System

As mentioned above, ERPs have made their way in the business models of almost each and every large organization. The implementation of ERPs has provided ease and efficient handling of the business processes. No organization can survive without the use of technology in their whole setup as that is the way forward. Not keeping up with the latest trends may result in the complete failure of the business. Some of the main advantages of ERPs are:

Business process optimization: ERPs are utilized in almost all of the major functions of the organization be it marketing, finance, HR or any other. For the success of any business, it is necessary that these functions coordinate. The data flows between these departments regularly so it is necessary that the tasks are handled quickly and with optimal proficiency. ERP provides the necessary mechanism for such a feature’s implementation.

Centralized storage: One of the major needs of an organization is that the data flow through the organization takes place without redundancy. It is necessary that each and every department gets the same updated information. ERPs with their centralized databases allow organizations to remain updated all around the firm. No department can work with outdated information. If there is an absence of the centralized database, all the functions within an organization have to keep track of the data separately. This data would be shared among each other upon request. Such a procedure would cost the firm precious time.

Customizable: ERPs are customizable and can be modified in multiple ways to fit the needs of that particular organization. This eliminates the possibility that there is useless information being handled. The customizing feature of the ERPs helps make the tasks more efficient such that excessive processing is not needed. The best-suited modules are implemented and updated according to the requirements of the organization.

Time-saving: As all the data is centralized and properly customized, the necessary information is accessible by the organization almost instantly. When working with large organizations, time-saving means more chances to be productive. Any delay that may arise due to redundancy or lack of efficiency is taken care of when deploying such systems.

Competitiveness: As all the big firms are moving towards software solutions to run their business, it gives any organization that employs these software an advantage in the competition. No organization can survive if it does not adapt to the changing environment. There aren’t many firms that have not implemented ERPs in the modern world. In some form or another, ERP concepts have been applied almost in every firm to stay in business.

Ease of update: ERPs are easily customizable so they can be updated if new features are to be added. There is no need to implement new software solutions. ERPs can be customized without changing the overall setup which decreases the cost of buying a new solution CITATION Pau \l 1033 (Hawking, et al., n.d.). In the old days, having multiple software setups would result in much effort being spent on updating them. Each of the software would have to be configured when changes are required.

Focused cost: The company, with the help of ERPs, can reduce the cost that is spent on software solutions. Since ERPs provide a centralized system, there is no need to spend extra money on a separate system for every function in the organization. Thus, the cost gets focused on the implementation of the ERP.

Multiple architectures: The ERP systems come in different architectures. These allow the organizations to select the one that suits them the best according to their specific needs. The company size, available resources, and other factors play a role in deciding which architecture should be used.

Improved reporting/quoting: The ERP features provide the organizations with reporting capabilities. The reports that are generated can be customized according to the specific demands of the management. Also, quoting can be done through ERPs. Quotes can be developed as a result of data requests. Each department can customize its own reports thereby, decreasing the reliance on the IT department.

All in one: The ERP can be used by the higher management of the organization to view each and every detail at once. There would not be any need for the development of detailed reports that would feature the company’s progress. Just performing regular functions will record all the necessary information and then produce the desired output to the management.

Role of ERP in System Integration

One of the main reasons for using ERPs is that it provides a mechanism by which different systems are integrated and then work together. The functions are logically connected to each other through the ERP software as well as the centralized database.

Some of the modules that make up the whole ERP include:

Financial Management

Human Resource Management

Inventory Management

Customer relationship management

Business intelligence

The above modules are the core functions of any organization without which it gets impossible for the firm to survive. Having an ERP focused on these particular functions is necessary as these can contribute hugely towards the rise of the company.

The need for ERP integration solution

Any organization has multiple functions that work together to make the business process a success. These days, it is necessary for every function of the organization to be immediately updated otherwise, it can cause loss of proper information and important time. Redundancy can cause vital information to be repeated and cause inconsistency in the separate functions CITATION Ama \l 1033 (Elbanna, n.d.).

These days, ERPs are everywhere. It is no more a simple desktop software. It is made up of mobiles, the cloud, social ERPs, and others. Most people can now access the ERP of their organization from the comfort of their homes. This allows business functioning throughout the day, allowing people to be more productive and play a part in the success of the business. With so many methods through which ERP can be implemented, it is no wonder that these days, organizations are highly dependent on ERPs for day to day functioning. ERPs provide the tools to integrate everything related to that particular organization.

In the days before ERPs, the records would be stored separately which would give rise to inconsistencies and in the end cause inconvenience for the organization. Each department would have its own mechanisms for handling the data which would cost the organization more money, resources, and an increased chance of errors. These were the reasons that gave rise to the need for having such a structure that would make the task easier for the user. The data among different people would be shared on demand of that particular person.

The Benefit of ERP to the Organization

ERP has provided means by which different functions can be combined through data and then work together. Some of the departments that are integrated include HR, marketing, finance, etc. These departments are the core of business development and these require an immediate flow of information among them. Some of these examples can be:

HR-Finance: HR is responsible for keeping track of human resources. The information regarding each and every employee, new hirings, etc are the core duties of the HR department. ERPs allow the users to keep track of all of these units of information and store them efficiently. The finance department, on the other hand, is responsible for keeping track of the accounts of the overall organization. The ERPs finance module may help the finance department in tracking all the numeric information. These two mentioned departments have to communicate together in order to fill in the gap that might be present. The employee data contains personal information as well as the financial information related to them. This allows the two departments to combine their efforts and cause ease of data access among all the concerned personnel.

Finance-Marketing: The marketing department is responsible for developing marketing strategies for the company’s products and services. The ERP stores the data regarding the marketing strategies and stores them in the database. The two departments need to work together to make sure that the strategies designed are feasible enough to help the company rise in their profits. ERP provides the necessary tools.

Business intelligence-Marketing: The Business Intelligence (BI) department is responsible for creating new ideas that would result in the better for the organization. These ideas are then handed over to the marketing department to implement. The ERP provides the necessary features to coordinate the activities of both of these departments. This coordination results in an increase in the overall profit of the organization.

Above are a few examples of how coordination among different departments occur when these are equipped with the necessary components of the ERP. All the departments are able to handle their own tasks as well as get the latest data from other departments which would allow for much better performance and efficiency.

ERP Architectures

The ERPs have different architectures that are implemented according to the need of the organization. The different types of ERP architectures are:

3 tier architecture.

2 tier architecture.

1 tier architecture.

Three Tier Architecture

As the name suggests, the three tier architecture consists of three layers. The client tier, the business logic tier, database tier. The client tier is mainly composed of client computers. These are the computers that are responsible for the communication between the users with the ERP interface. The three layer architecture is the upscale version of the client-server model. The client and databases do not directly communicate with each other. Instead, a layer called the business logic layer is introduced in the middle CITATION Ass17 \l 1033 (Habadi, et al., 2017). The clients communicate to the databases through the business logic. Some of the benefits of the 3 tier architecture are

The three layer architecture keeps the layers separate from one another which results in an increase in efficiency. Each and every layer is responsible for its own functioning thereby increasing the efficiency of the layers.

The three tier architecture also makes the ERP more flexible. If a change is required, it can be easily accommodated. A change in one layer may not be reflected in the other. So the overall cost is reduced.

With all the benefits of this architecture, there are some drawbacks as well

The layered architecture makes it much more complex. There are many logics to be implemented therefore it gets more complex and costly to update. It might not be the best suited for smaller organizations as these organizations have basic features and limited resources.

Due to the complexity, maintenance becomes more costly. A lot of effort goes into updating such systems which increases the overall cost of handling and updating them.

Two Tier Architecture

The two tier architecture is the traditional model which is composed of two layers. The client layer is responsible for communicating with the ERP software through the user-interface. The second layer is the database layer which stores the entire data in a centralized database. Some advantages of the 2 tier architecture are:

Fairly easier to implement. It is based on the traditional model of client-server which is utilized almost everywhere in some form or another. Thus the complexity is decreased and it is easily understood.

The modification of features according to the needs is relatively easy. When there is a need for new features to be added, the necessary layer is changed without affecting the other one.

Since the client computers connect directly to the servers on which the database exists, the communication mode becomes very fast. As a result, time is saved and efficiency is overall improved.

With all its advantages, there are few disadvantages as well

Since the 2 tier architecture is not optimal, increasing the number of users would result in performance degradation. Since all the client computers are communicating directly with the server, it results in queued up requests and slower response time.

The two tier architecture does not provide good value for money as compared to the 3 tier architecture.

One Tier Architecture

The 1 tier architecture basically consists of a combination of client computers and file servers. There is no layering involved and every computer is of the same status. All the software and databases are kept on a single unit. There is no division among the clients and databases. The 1 tier architecture has the following advantages:

No need for complex implementation of the architecture. Every client computer performs its own functions and saves its own data. There is no need to fetch the data.

1 tier architecture is cost-effective as it is not difficult to implement.

The drawbacks of the 1 tier architecture are:

The update of the system is difficult since each computer would have to be updated in order to complete the process.

Having data stored on separate computers can result in redundancy among the departments and errors in the final outputs.

It is more susceptible to data loss as the corruption of a file on a single computer can destroy the whole data.

The efficiency is decreased thus slowing down the tasks of the organization.

Above are the three mentioned architectures of the ERP solutions. There are other architectures as well as the Web architecture which is used when using online ERP services. The web architecture is the same as the three-layer architecture with subtle changes to accommodate for the online world.

There is no fixed answer to what kind of architecture the company might employ. The newer ones like the three-tier are more expensive as compared to others and can be managed by larger organizations. But the benefits and the total overall profit of the company is increased. The 1 tier architecture may be deployed in small organizati9ons but as a result, they put their assets at risk. Also, the business processes are put in danger and the efficiency of tasks is decreased. But this might be the only option possible for such a small organization. Every company has to perform a proper investigation regarding which architecture is best suited for their organization and can get the best out of.

Finding the right setup is necessary. There might be cases where the company deploys the best architecture but in the end, the overall cost would be more than what they make. This would result in a huge loss to the company. There would be an immediate need to overhaul the entire system with the new architecture. Proper research is key. It leads to overall betterment of the company and increased profits.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Elbanna, A. R., n.d. Implementing an integrated system in a socially dis-integrated enterprise.

Habadi, A., Samih, Y., Almehdar, K. & Aljedani, E., 2017. An Introduction to ERP Systems: Architecture, Implementation and Impacts. International Journal of Computer Applications, Volume 167.

Hawking, P., Stein, A. & Foster, S., n.d. Revisiting ERP Systems: Benefit Realisation.

Subject: IT

Pages: 9 Words: 2700

Essay Question

Subject: IT

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Essentials Of Systems Design

Essentials of Systems Design

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Essentials of Systems Design

Q 1.Draw a network diagram that summarizes the systems described above; devices used by administrators, staff, instructors, and students; and the network connections among them. Assume that the current survey system will be replaced by a new Web-based system. Assume further that each existing CSU system is hosted on its own server.

Since analyzing, designing, and implementing a new system require special efforts. When it comes to integrating a new component within a pre-existing system, it demands even more deft handling (Satzinger, Jackson & Burd, 2016). Identifying all the entities that interact with each other, through what devices do they interact with each other. How the flow of data takes place and how entities and devices share resources with each other are some of the initial requirements for analyzing the system under consideration (Okano, Iizawa & Morimoto, 2016).


Cooper State University (CSU) has decided to move on from an outdated and redundant practice to a modern one-web based system. The new Online Survey System is designed to perform the task that consumed precious resources of Cooper State University (CSU).

How the system designed would work is elaborated below.

The users are staff, admin, student, and instructors

They each would interact with different components of the system based on their needs

These users are connected to a switch which directs requests to a particular component in a network

For example, if a student wants to view his grades. He only needs to open the result tab in the software screen. But in the background, a switch will direct the request to the Student Information System

Similarly, if an instructor needs to update available courses, he only needs to interact with the front end of the software. He does not have to be worried about his request not reaching its intending destination

After the request is directed by the switch, before reaching its destination, the credentials need to be authenticated. That purpose is fulfilled by the Central Authentication Server (CAS)

Central Authentication Server (CAS), once verifying the credentials, lets the request reach its destination

The request has now reached its destination

Now the response is generated.

For instance, the student wanted to view his grades. The request is processed and the marks from the Student Information System are fetched and routed towards the user. That is a student in this case.

Student Information System, Online Survey System, and Learning Management system have their own servers.

Q 2. Which systems need access to current data regarding course sections, their assigned instructors, and registered students? Select a system to be the system of record for that data and justify your decision. Draw a diagram similar to Figure 7-21 to summarize all required synchronizations.

Once the network diagram of the system is completed, the system can be developed and deployed. But unless it integrates clear data flow routes between different interacting components, the system is unlikely to yield desired results. All the components of the system must be in sync and reciprocate the change that occurred in one component.

Cooper State University's system is in place now. Consider a scenario when a student registers with the system for the first time. All the necessary information about the student is stored in the database of the Student Information System. All other components will use the basic information of the student from now on. So now the student has been registered.

Consider another instance, when a course instructor has to make available a course for students that had failed it earlier. All the necessary information of students having a ‘fail’ status attributed against them will be shown to the instructor.

Hence, the decision to make the Student Information System as the system for the record is further cemented.

Coming back to the diagram once again, there is Central Authentication Server web service in place. The web service is the gateway to all the components of the system (Lemos, Daniel & Benatallah, 2016). The Central Authentication Server web service is invoked every time when the user wants to manipulate the data. Be it a student trying to view his grades, or registering a new course. Or completing the all-important survey form towards the end of the semester. Or an instructor wanting to make available a new course that has been offered. Central Authentication Server web service will be invoked. The web service is the pivot in the smooth operation of the data flow in the system among components.


Satzinger, J. W., Jackson, R. B., & Burd, S. D. (2016). Systems analysis and design in a changing world.

Okano, Y., Iizawa, Y., & Morimoto, M. (2016). U.S. Patent Application No. 15/035,531.

Lemos, A. L., Daniel, F., & Benatallah, B. (2016). Web service composition: a survey of techniques and tools. ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR), 48(3), 33..

Subject: IT

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Ethical Issues And Emerging Technology In 21st Century With Web Design

Ethical Issues and Emerging Technology in 21st Century with Web Design


School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)

Ethical Issues and Emerging Technology in 21st Century with Web Design

Information and communication technologies have made tremendous advancements during the last few decades. Web technologies are among the top technologies that have changed the way people do business ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"SHp3pxtA","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Sin & Muthu, 2015)","plainCitation":"(Sin & Muthu, 2015)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":23,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/BeyJjeak/items/QA8NCM4U"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/BeyJjeak/items/QA8NCM4U"],"itemData":{"id":23,"type":"article-journal","title":"APPLICATION OF BIG DATA IN EDUCATION DATA MINING AND LEARNING ANALYTICS--A LITERATURE REVIEW.","container-title":"ICTACT journal on soft computing","volume":"5","issue":"4","author":[{"family":"Sin","given":"Katrina"},{"family":"Muthu","given":"Loganathan"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Sin & Muthu, 2015). Where the advancement in web design technologies has brought new horizons to other fields of science there are severe ethical issues as well. Emerging web technologies opened doors to sophisticated cyber-threats and privacy issues. Most of the businesses rely on web technologies for their online presence globally. Exponential penetration of web technologies in modern businesses has made them a potential target of cyber-criminals ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"TguwHV8E","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Stoyanovich, Abiteboul, & Miklau, 2016)","plainCitation":"(Stoyanovich, Abiteboul, & Miklau, 2016)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":28,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/BeyJjeak/items/2S3ZDPVX"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/BeyJjeak/items/2S3ZDPVX"],"itemData":{"id":28,"type":"paper-conference","title":"Data, responsibly: Fairness, neutrality and transparency in data analysis","container-title":"International Conference on Extending Database Technology","author":[{"family":"Stoyanovich","given":"Julia"},{"family":"Abiteboul","given":"Serge"},{"family":"Miklau","given":"Gerome"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Stoyanovich, Abiteboul, & Miklau, 2016). Ethical issues in emerging web design techniques include privacy issues, identity fraud, phishing, and spam messages. Privacy concerns are considered to be the most important ethical dilemmas in modern web technologies.

Web designers and engineers across the globe are incorporating machine learning and artificial intelligence in web designs. Machine learning models are data-driven algorithms that require extensive amounts of information to be fed to the model before it can make autonomous decisions. There are severe ethical issues in combining artificial intelligence models with web technologies ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"zVX9QoJz","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Manca, Caviglione, & Raffaghelli, 2016)","plainCitation":"(Manca, Caviglione, & Raffaghelli, 2016)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":24,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/BeyJjeak/items/YHY53VHC"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/BeyJjeak/items/YHY53VHC"],"itemData":{"id":24,"type":"article-journal","title":"Big data for social media learning analytics: potentials and challenges","container-title":"Journal of e-Learning and Knowledge Society","volume":"12","issue":"2","author":[{"family":"Manca","given":"Stefania"},{"family":"Caviglione","given":"Luca"},{"family":"Raffaghelli","given":"Juliana"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Manca, Caviglione, & Raffaghelli, 2016). For example, in the case of a self-driving car, the car may be connected to some web resource to make autonomous decisions. In that case, the control to make the decision will not be in hand of the passenger but will be in control of the programmer. As a roadside accident may pose severe threats to the life of an innocent person, the control to make decisions must not be transferred to the programmer or artificial intelligence algorithm.

On the other hand, web analytics engines are being used to harvest enormous amounts of data required to train machine learning models. Most of the time the data is collected without prior notice and contain personally identifiable information such as social security numbers, sexual orientation, and political views, etc. An ethical behavior will be to ask for permission before collecting such information. Websites designed using latest web technologies collect this type of information without the consent of the visitor of the website ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"asdhNvJF","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(K\\uc0\\u246{}ltringer & Dickinger, 2015)","plainCitation":"(Költringer & Dickinger, 2015)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":25,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/BeyJjeak/items/B2AU4QYY"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/BeyJjeak/items/B2AU4QYY"],"itemData":{"id":25,"type":"article-journal","title":"Analyzing destination branding and image from online sources: A web content mining approach","container-title":"Journal of Business Research","page":"1836-1843","volume":"68","issue":"9","author":[{"family":"Költringer","given":"Clemens"},{"family":"Dickinger","given":"Astrid"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Költringer & Dickinger, 2015). Other types of information being collected by such web technologies include user behavior while using the service. Such data cannot be used to personally identify an individual but may be considered as personal information in some cases. As per ethical values, the visitor must be informed about data collection, the nature of data being collected, and the purpose of data collection.

Web engineers must make the technology transparent to the users of the technology as well. The user must have complete control of personal data being collected by such technologies. Similar ethical issues are being observed in digital assistant devices such as Google Assistant and Alexa. As these devices and web technologies used in them can be used for spying and recording personal conversations without informing the users ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"8vj7Irgf","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Witten, Frank, Hall, & Pal, 2016)","plainCitation":"(Witten, Frank, Hall, & Pal, 2016)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":26,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/BeyJjeak/items/CSMN8ELL"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/BeyJjeak/items/CSMN8ELL"],"itemData":{"id":26,"type":"book","title":"Data Mining: Practical machine learning tools and techniques","publisher":"Morgan Kaufmann","ISBN":"0-12-804357-1","author":[{"family":"Witten","given":"Ian H."},{"family":"Frank","given":"Eibe"},{"family":"Hall","given":"Mark A."},{"family":"Pal","given":"Christopher J."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Witten, Frank, Hall, & Pal, 2016). Recently, some issues were reported with Alexa, where the gadget recorded the personal conversation and emailed it to acquaintances. The end users are not even able to know that where their data is being stored and most of the companies do not even provide with an option to delete the collected information ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"AHaL6xp6","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Mittelstadt, Allo, Taddeo, Wachter, & Floridi, 2016)","plainCitation":"(Mittelstadt, Allo, Taddeo, Wachter, & Floridi, 2016)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":27,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/BeyJjeak/items/BAPJZJYA"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/BeyJjeak/items/BAPJZJYA"],"itemData":{"id":27,"type":"article-journal","title":"The ethics of algorithms: Mapping the debate","container-title":"Big Data & Society","page":"2053951716679679","volume":"3","issue":"2","author":[{"family":"Mittelstadt","given":"Brent Daniel"},{"family":"Allo","given":"Patrick"},{"family":"Taddeo","given":"Mariarosaria"},{"family":"Wachter","given":"Sandra"},{"family":"Floridi","given":"Luciano"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Mittelstadt, Allo, Taddeo, Wachter, & Floridi, 2016). With the introduction of GDPR in Europe, the things are expected to be changed as the regulation provide the user with more control of personal information. It is an individual’s right to known what type of information is being collected and how it is going to be processed. Without building the technologies in line with ethical values, it will be very difficult for engineers to maintain trust in such technologies.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Költringer, C., & Dickinger, A. (2015). Analyzing destination branding and image from online sources: A web content mining approach. Journal of Business Research, 68(9), 1836–1843.

Manca, S., Caviglione, L., & Raffaghelli, J. (2016). Big data for social media learning analytics: potentials and challenges. Journal of E-Learning and Knowledge Society, 12(2).

Mittelstadt, B. D., Allo, P., Taddeo, M., Wachter, S., & Floridi, L. (2016). The ethics of algorithms: Mapping the debate. Big Data & Society, 3(2), 2053951716679679.


Stoyanovich, J., Abiteboul, S., & Miklau, G. (2016). Data, responsibly: Fairness, neutrality, and transparency in data analysis. International Conference on Extending Database Technology.

Witten, I. H., Frank, E., Hall, M. A., & Pal, C. J. (2016). Data Mining: Practical machine learning tools and techniques. Morgan Kaufmann.

Subject: IT

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Ethical Issues Arising From Use Of ICT Technologies

Table of Contents

TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u Introduction: PAGEREF _Toc7873609 \h 1

Identification ethical and social issues: PAGEREF _Toc7873610 \h 1

Analysis arguments of ethical behaviour: PAGEREF _Toc7873611 \h 1

Ethical behaviour in accordance with professional codes: PAGEREF _Toc7873612 \h 2

Evaluate and justify ethics: PAGEREF _Toc7873613 \h 2

Conclusion: PAGEREF _Toc7873614 \h 2

References PAGEREF _Toc7873615 \h 3


Organizations have received data and media transmission instruments in their everyday exercises what's more, ICTs are in all respects rapidly changing the manner in which organizations work in. Beginning in 1999, 93 % of the data entered and made in organizations overall ended up computerized. In Poland, 47 % of organizations utilize solely electronic archives. The impacts to be pertinent to the circle of all material and otherworldly: choices, decisions and obligation. They concern the circle of profound quality, morals managed. Moral parts of science are progressively important to analysts, designers and clients of ICT, who have immense skill what's more, appreciate the specialist and regard among ICT clients. Moreover, they have a huge sway on individuals' conduct and their qualities. Consequently, further research on PC morals is fundamental. Clients and ICT experts ought to be guided by certain good and moral standards which may forestall a ton of significant issues and maltreatment in the utilization of PC innovation, for example, misfortune or obliteration of significant information, create a positive picture. It might be useful to investigate the negative issues, and make them the positive models and patterns of all behaviour. CITATION Kar03 \l 2057 (Karlsson, 2003)

Identification ethical and social issues:

The fundamental reasons why look into in the field of PC morals is required, are the propels in PC innovation and the absence of satisfactory and general practice. Anybody, regardless of whether workers, administrators or IT pros, should comprehend what moral benchmarks and principles to pursue. Beneath, chose zones of research are appeared, which may identify with PC morals: PCs in the work environment, responsibility for (licenses, patents), security and obscurity, proficient reliability among all specialists, PC crime, moral ethical norms in the usage and utilization of data innovation. CITATION Kar03 \l 2057 (Karlsson, 2003) The most significant part of this research is, be that as it may, is a description of the examination on moral issues in usage and use of ICT frameworks in business. The aftereffects of the exploration portrayed here are of most significance and scholastic reasons.

Analysis arguments of ethical behaviour:

•Integrity. Being direct, trust and honest in all expert and also business connections. Any data that you accept contains a really false or misleading explanation, or which is deluding by omission.

Professional fitness and due consideration. A continuous duty to your dimension of expert information and aptitude. Base this on current advancements by and by, enactment and systems. Those working under your position should like must also have the suitable preparing and supervision. CITATION Cre95 \l 2057 (Crete, 1995)

Ethical behaviour in accordance with professional codes:

The code clarifies these standards, and gives instances of their utilization for expert accountants. Code sets up a reasonable structure that requires an expert accountant to distinguish, assess, and address dangers to consistence with the key standards. Organizations profit by moral conduct in different ways. ... A basic reputation for ethics also draws in and hold the best ability while limiting the expense of turnover. At the point when staff feel essential about their work, the organization culture will flourish and, thus, support assurance, inspiration, and profitability. CITATION Hav99 \l 2057 (Havas, 1999)

Evaluate and justify ethics:

The issues that should be tended to raise by ICT fuse the interruption of individual and corporate assurance, authorized development rights, individual and societal rights, values defending and duty regarding the outcomes rising up out of the usage of ICT, etc. Various pieces of good issues in ICT are discussed, e.g.: using ICT systems etc similarly as confinements to using ICT. Moreover, security issues in ICT are a huge part, considered by the maker of this examination.

After discussion about all the ethical environment and technology the examination on ethical and ICT technology depends on checking survey to recognize significant investigations distributed in the writing as of late. The fundamental strategy utilized in this exploration was contextual analysis. The ensuing proposals may build up the reason of positive changes and improvement in the ethical pieces of PC based business works out. Reasoned that It is noteworthy that of the way that the examination bases on picked Polish endeavours, the ensuing substance and influence a great effect on information technology and ethical behaviour.


Overall discussion about ethics and information technology that is mostly and significant relationship between them. After analysis the different codes and principals related to ethics and business administration they concluded into few steps and explore that business. This exploration research contains a various activity concerning the issue of good issues in the use and use of ICT (Information and Telecommunication Technology). Inferred that moral assume avital job in each association. The hazardous improvement of ICT and the use of its enabling developments have influenced society and in like manner veritable good request may be raised concerning individuals and associations, similarly as open foundations.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Crete, G. L. ( 1995). , PElements ofMachine Learning,. . Morgan Kaufman Publisher, San Fransisco.

Havas, K. ( 1999). Contradictions in Principles of Ethics and Contemporary Technology. Journal ofthe Societyfor Philosophy and Technology. , Vo14, 1999, http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/ SPT/v4n4/havas.html ISSS (2002) Glossary, URL:http://www.isss- conf.

Karlsson, I. &. (2003). The Meaning of Abstracted Systems and Their Contribution when Dealing With Complexity.,. Presented at International Society for the System Sciences (ISSS) Annual Meeting and Conference, 6-11 July 2003.

Subject: IT

Pages: 3 Words: 900



The evaluation was performed on Arngren.net and Amazon.com both are e-commerce websites. The layout of the Arngren.net is very poorly designed as compared to the layout of Amazon.com which is responsive to viewers. It is cleared in the layout of Arngren.net that items are not clearly visible to viewers and are represented very badly. There is no consistency in the web design of Arngren.net, and no grids are used in the layout of the web design. There is a lack of contrast in Arngren.net, and overall design is not appealing for the viewers. However, the layout of Amazon.com is designed using proper grids and items are displayed in a flow. Viewers can easily view the consistency in the web design and can be able to understand the content of the website. Amazon.com has used a clear and compelling contrast for its viewers to made look and feel of site appealing for other's eyes. It is clear from the design of Arngren.net that it needs to be rebuilt as overall design has a massive visual conflict.

Subject: IT

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Executive Summary

Executive Summary

Your Name (First M. Last)

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)

Executive Summary


A hacker group namely LulzSec broke into different websites of Sony Pictures to access unencrypted information of more than 1 million people in 2011. The group had advanced to compromise manager details, 75,000 music codes, administrator passwords and more than 3.5 million coupons from Sony websites and networks. The compromised databases comprised several assortments of Sony staffer and user information. For instance, those who participated in promotional campaigns involving AutoTrader.com and Sony pictures were also part of compromised databases. The hackers stipulated a single SQL injection, one of the most common and primitive vulnerabilities, allowed them to access everything ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Oda7onRu","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Wolff, 2018)","plainCitation":"(Wolff, 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":518,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/95PJHDXX"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/95PJHDXX"],"itemData":{"id":518,"type":"book","title":"You'll see this message when it is too late : the legal and economic aftermath of cybersecurity breaches","ISBN":"978-0-262-03885-0","title-short":"You'll see this message when it is too late","author":[{"family":"Wolff","given":"Josephine"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Wolff, 2018). Moreover, the data was unencrypted in the first place of the database where passwords of more than 1,000,000 customers were stored in plaintext. Before the picture breach, Sony suffered another attack earlier the same year when Sony PlayStation was targeted with intruders causing theft of the massive amount of data. Those breaches manifested in the compromise of confidential data belonging to approximately more than 100 million account users. The attack on Sony Pictures was primarily designed to humiliate Sony because it had sparked the rage of hackers for its hardcore stance over IP protection and copyright. The fundamental security oversight of Sony proved to be the cause of these attacks.

Mission Statement

Sony Pictures Entertainment Inc. is an American company which acquires, distributes and produces filmed entertainment through various platforms. These comprise television programs, theatrical motion pictures and recorded videos. The mission statement of the corporation is advancing as a company which fulfills and inspires the curiosity of users and viewers ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Q6TzpTUM","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Sony Global - About Sony,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“Sony Global - About Sony,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":516,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/GUGWZ243"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/GUGWZ243"],"itemData":{"id":516,"type":"webpage","title":"Sony Global - About Sony","URL":"https://www.sony.net/SonyInfo/","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",6,3]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Sony Global - About Sony,” n.d.). It is essential to highlight the significance of the mission statement for employees. Cohesive core values of the company and focused mission statement are essential to maintain alignment of employees at Sony Pictures. In addition, the corporation empowers employees to connect with the colleagues to cultivate benefit for the community, company and individuals. For users and viewers, they have set goals to offer the premium services which are in accordance with their demands, desires and needs.

In the mission statement, the focus essentially aligns the vision and corporate mission statement. To apply the concept efficiently, the mission statement requires Sony Pictures to develop products and offer creative services that evoke emotions to move and attract customers. In addition, the corporation is strongly inclined toward working in an environment where people receive advantage rather than harmful impacts. For instance, Sony pictures is profoundly committees to play their part toward key environmental responsibilities. The world and the public should be left better than they were found is the key objective followed by the company. To meet the purpose, it aims at reducing the ecological footprint by following actions and policies which confront climate change, protect the safety and health of communities across the world and preserve natural resources ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"H7INqEqk","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Home Page | Sony Pictures Entertainment,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“Home Page | Sony Pictures Entertainment,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":514,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/5YGGMTVW"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/5YGGMTVW"],"itemData":{"id":514,"type":"webpage","title":"Home Page | Sony Pictures Entertainment","URL":"https://www.sonypictures.com/","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",6,3]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Home Page | Sony Pictures Entertainment,” n.d.). Primarily, the mission statement of Sony pictures lies at the very heart of generating vast content across all platforms and genres cherished by millions of viewers across the world by fulfilling the demands of diversity. Besides facilitating viewers, Sony Pictures celebrates values and differences by offering a wide range of resources for its employees through a vigorous culture.

The mission statement of Sony Pictures calls for inspiring viewers through creativity and innovation in their services and products. A critical analysis of the mission statement reflects a general description of objectives performed for customers. However, the corporate mission is devoid of essential information to drive strategic decision-making.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Home Page | Sony Pictures Entertainment. (n.d.). Retrieved June 3, 2019, from https://www.sonypictures.com/

Sony Global - About Sony. (n.d.). Retrieved June 3, 2019, from https://www.sony.net/SonyInfo/

Wolff, J. (2018). You’ll see this message when it is too late : the legal and economic aftermath of cybersecurity breaches.

Subject: IT

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Executive Summary

Blockchain Connecting Small-Scale Producers Into The Value Chain

Student’s Name




The article is “Accenture and Amazon Managed Blockchain Connecting Small-Scale Producers into the Value Chain,” written by Treat and published in 2019. It illustrates some of challenges faced by small scale producers and how technology can be utilized to add value their produced to bring efficient and increase profitability of small scale producers. It points that the establishment of circular supply chain could be the solution to problems related to logistic and supply of produced goods to the market. The blockchain ensures that circular supply chain is build and could operate effectively. The blockchain is provided by Amazon AWS and other IT corporation. Therefore, Amazon is the best provider of blockchain used by small scale and corporate to add value to its produce.

Key points

It is pointed that the use of circular supply chain with the assistant of artificial intelligence and block chain ensures that a producer can track products from the warehouse to customers. It brought accountability and efficient in business management. The technology also empowers the consumers to have a better behave to enhance best practice. In summary blockchain form an effective ecosystem and therefore, it become a greater challenge. However, in order to become successful in the technological society, blockchian must be initiated to drive value for businesses, to facilitate effective decision making and good governance in business. It works well for producers, consumers, distributors and retailers to build unified ecosystem which can make positive change to reflect the way the new world works.


The appropriate question is whether circular supply chain contributes to economic growth business. The establishment of supply chain brings efficient making it easier for businesses to realize profits. The effective and impact of the circular chain supply would be determined.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Treat, David. "Accenture And Amazon Managed Blockchain Connecting Small-Scale Producers

Into The Value Chain." https://www.forbes.com/sites/amazonwebservices/2019/08/28/accenture-and-amazon-managed-blockchain-connecting-small-scale-producers-into-the-value-chain/#5d1bf2493adc (2019): 2-15.

Subject: IT

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Final Paper


Our project “All-In-One Support Software For Microsoft Components” aims to provide an integrated and instant support for revolutionary user experience. For this purpose, it is requested to our honorable sponsor Adam Schulz, Head Finance Department, Microsoft to review our project scope and limitations for better facilitation of successful development of our project.

When planning and scheduling the project, we ensured its completion on time. However, the unscheduled Audit of the project delayed the completion by one week. However, it must be understood that this Audit is inevitable and beneficial for the project in long term. It helped us in reassessing our performance and resource utilization efficiency. The Audit is conducted right after we finished the Phase 3. Therefore, our Phase 4 had to be rescheduled. But we used our team’s rapid decision making skills to re-plan and re-schedule Phase 4 tasks while Phase 3 is being conducted. This helped us stay focused and determined to successfully completing our project.

Project Scope

In Scope Results/Deliverables

Out of Scope Results/Deliverables

Gather Information and Data regarding the Usability of Software.

1. training and post-sell maintenance.

Successful development of support software .

2. Post-purchase services

Deployment of Support Software at Target Location/company.

3. Upgradation of Support Sostware.

Gather User feedback and assessment results.

Control Measures

Following control measures and checks will be implemented for ensuring total quality:

Completeness checks - controls that ensure all records were processed from initiation to completion.

Validity checks - controls that ensure only valid data is input or processed.

Identification - controls that ensure all users are uniquely and irrefutably identified.

Authentication - controls that provide an authentication mechanism in the application system.

Authorization - controls that ensure only approved business users have access to the application system.

Input controls - controls that ensure data integrity fed from upstream sources into the application system.

Forensic controls - control that ensure data is scientifically correct and mathematically correct based on inputs and outputs

Goals and Objectives of Project

Following will be the goals and objectives of the project:

Our project “All-In-One Support Software For Microsoft Components” aims to provide an integrated and instant support for revolutionary user experience. The project is scheduled to be completed in 2020.

to develop an automated and instant all-in-one support software that is compatible with multiple Microsoft Components such as Microsoft Access, Microsoft Publisher, Microsoft Project, and Microsoft Vision. I

to enhance customer support service for regular users of Microsoft.

The developed application will be successful to address the user support issues being faced by the users.

The application is expected to manage to generate significant revenue by membership within the first month of its formal release.

The stakeholders have assessed the ROI and current income generation rate.

Cost Analysis of Project

Project: Support Software

Operating Expense Category

Cost ($) of Operating Expenses

List of Resource Expenses: By Function

Resource Expenses” by FTE/Duration

Cost ($) of Resource Expenses

Line Totals ($)

Phase 1: Planning

Result #1: Planning the trial implementation of software during its assessment period and planning to generate feasible feedback.

Planning Room, IT Resources, Human Resources


Project Supervisor, Project Developers, Project Marketers, Project Analysts

4 FTE/2 Months



Phase 2: Design

Result #2: designing the assessment and feedback methodology.

Design Resources, Design Analysts, IT Resources


Project Supervisor, Project Developers, Project Marketers, Project Analysts, Design Analysts

4 FTE/3 Months



Phase 3: Trial Implementation

Result #3: successful deployment of the software at the targeted location for trial and assessment purposes

Project Human Resources, Project Developers, Project Marketers


Project Supervisor, Project Marketers, Project Analysts

4 FTE/1 Month



Phase 4: Feedback/Assessment

Result #4: The users of the software will be assessed for their experiences and recommendations once the trial period is over.

Project Human Resource, End Users


Project Supervisors, Training Officer, End User

4 FTE/1 Month



Phase 5: Sell

Result #5: Once the trial period successfully ends, the software will be considered sold to the user company/agent.

Project Supervisor, Project Analysts, Purchase Company


Project Supervisor, Project Analysts, Buying Company

4 FTE/1 Month







The most critical thing that an organization can do verify that their estimates are good is to give however many details as could be allowed for the individuals who are doing the estimations. This is presumably a well-known thought to most individuals, yet now and then this can't be accomplished because of different components, for example, another venture for the organization or enormous measures of unknowns. Again, it is vital to have whatever number details as could reasonably be expected, then costs might be registered for materials and work and an estimate might be more exact.

Counteracting cost overruns might be not difficult to say yet hard to do. Sticking to a budget and controlling the costs are good approaches to control costs. Sometimes cost overruns in one zone must be adjusted out in an alternate territory by having lessened financing. While this could be a huge issue, it normally helps venture mangers get progressing and make them into cost control specialists. Towards the end of the cycle, and intermittently all around the cycle, we take a seat and see where we are and make projections of what we have seen generally and what we see occurrence or what patterns are about. This normally helps us forestall cost overruns.

To guarantee an estimate is good there are a few devices and methods that might be utilized. Some accessible instruments are similar to cost estimating, base up estimating, parametric displaying, the cost of value, undertaking management estimating programming, merchant offer investigation, and store dissection.

Competitive Advantage and Feasibility

Goal: The Goal of the project is to develop an automated, all-in-one Support Software for multiple Microsoft Components for better user support experiences.

Proposed Net Profits 1 Year After Project Completion

The aim of this project is to generate major revenue through after sales membership. Therefore, the proposed Net Profit after 1 year of Project Completion will is expected to be $100K.

Proposed Net Process Improvements 1 Year After Project Completion

The proposed net process improvements after 1 Year will be moderately high as this will include maintenance, upgradation and troubleshooting. Expected Process Improvement cost within 1 year of project completion will be $50-75K.

Total Cost of Project - Materials, Equipment, Facilities, Resources, etc.

The total cost of the project is estimated to be $500K including the prices of all resources, materials, operating cost, etc.

Proposed ROI Calculations

Proposed Net Profits 1 Year After Project Completion

Proposed Net Process Improvements 1 Year After Project Completion

Total Cost of Project




$ 500K

$((100+75)-500))/500 = -0.65

Summary: Project Benefits

As is observed from the above ROI table, the Support Software is not expected to make any significant profits or revenues to overcome the investment in first year. However, estimations have shown that in First 3 years of deployment, the project is expected to overcome the expense as well as generate some profit as well that will continue to grow with successful services, efficient processing and proper marketing management.


The project will successfully accomplish the specified goal that is to develop an automated and instant all-in-one support software that is compatible with multiple Microsoft Components such as Microsoft Access, Microsoft Publisher, Microsoft Project, and Microsoft Vision. Once the project is successfully implemented, it will be high time that we must consider moving forward and planning to enhance the quality, performance, scope and efficiency of our current project. One of my immediate recommendations is to broaden the scope of the project. This will involve integrating more support facilities that are compatible with more Microsoft Domains including Microsoft Visio, MS Word, etc. The broadening of the scope will ensure that we are targeting more of the consumer base that can generate more revenues and profits. Furthermore, in order to improve the efficiency and reliability of the service, we can integrate Artificial Intelligence within the Application that is capable to developing customized solutions and guides according to the level, demand and previous trends of support taken up by the user. Another module that can be added within the Support Software is the facility to have face-to-face or voice over chat with the customer service representative in a hassle free manner. This will further enhance the services being offered by our application. The application will have a global scope as well.

Implementation Project Plan

The project is completed four Phases – Planning, Design, Trial Implementation, and Feedback/Assessment. Once successfully accomplished, the project membership is granted to interested users – individual and company-based. The Phase 1 focused on Planning the trial implementation of software during its assessment period and planning to generate feasible feedback. Phase 2 involved designing the assessment and feedback methodology. Phase 3 focused on successful deployment of the software at the targeted location for trial and assessment purposes. While Phase 4 ensured that the users of the software will be assessed for their experiences and recommendations once the trial period is over.

Each of this phase is specifically focused and completed by modularly focusing on sub-components. The modularization of the project helped in focusing on the specific problems that were identified in Problem Statement, and addressing them in most optimized manner. Furthermore, modularization also helped in enhancing the performance efficiency of our team.


Subject: IT

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

Final Paper

Final Paper

Lakeidra Eady

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)


Telecommunication is an umbrella term now. It deals with the transfer of information from one place to another using electronic means including emails, instant messaging and video data. Telecommunication has seen tremendous growth in recent decades. It is the fastest growing technology made by humans. It is transforming from traditional voice networks to next-generation data networks. Internet and communication technologies are evolving at an exponential rate. Along with the advancement in communication technologies latest trends are of securing the data in transit. Encryption algorithms and various security algorithms are being developed to secure communications. The paper describes the advancements made in the area of cryptography related to the latest trends in telecommunication and arising challenges for the technology.


Telecommunication is referred to the transfer of information from one place to another using electronic means such as satellite communications, wireless radio communications, and fiber optical communications, etc. Telecommunication has seen tremendous growth since the invention of radio technology. Telecommunication is not only limited to the transfer of voice like in traditional telephone ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"dZpcbuU7","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Xu, Qu, & Yang, 2016)","plainCitation":"(Xu, Qu, & Yang, 2016)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":94,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Ugrd7iAF/items/3U34XXTD"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Ugrd7iAF/items/3U34XXTD"],"itemData":{"id":94,"type":"article-journal","title":"A tutorial on the internet of things: from a heterogeneous network integration perspective","container-title":"IEEE Network","page":"102-108","volume":"30","issue":"2","author":[{"family":"Xu","given":"Ke"},{"family":"Qu","given":"Yi"},{"family":"Yang","given":"Kun"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Xu, Qu, & Yang, 2016). Modern telecommunication is an umbrella term providing a plethora of different services ranging from traditional voice networks to next-generation video networks. The advent of the internet has made telecommunication the primary driving force behind global development and value creation.

In recent decades many changes are occurring in the communication industry due to the advancement in technology. Telecommunication services providers and all of the industries that rely on communications technologies for their operations as well will feel the immediate and far-reaching impact of the significant trends that are being circulated in the communication sector. Internet of things has become a buzz word in the telecom world. With the advancement in communication technologies and miniaturization of the antenna technology, every possible thing is being connected to the internet making the world a global village ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"0Ti32Vvp","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Kraijak & Tuwanut, 2015)","plainCitation":"(Kraijak & Tuwanut, 2015)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":95,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Ugrd7iAF/items/PS744348"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Ugrd7iAF/items/PS744348"],"itemData":{"id":95,"type":"paper-conference","title":"A survey on internet of things architecture, protocols, possible applications, security, privacy, real-world implementation and future trends","container-title":"2015 IEEE 16th International Conference on Communication Technology (ICCT)","publisher":"IEEE","page":"26-31","ISBN":"1-4673-7005-3","author":[{"family":"Kraijak","given":"Surapon"},{"family":"Tuwanut","given":"Panwit"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Kraijak & Tuwanut, 2015). Nowadays we have the ability to control a room air conditioner with the help of mobile phone. It is not appropriate to call a modern mobile phone just a mobile phone. It has transformed into a powerful computer. In fact, as powerful as supercomputer of the 1970s. It has been an established fact that the internet of things will be something more than just controlling home appliances using wireless networks. It is developing as an ecosystem that connects everything from the toaster in the kitchen to the car and from the workplace to the large-scale industrial networks.

While there are tremendous developments being made in the telecommunication, the industry is not unaware of the potential growth in the internet of things ecosystem. Instead, the telecom industry has shown a keen interest in the internet of things market as well because no internet of things is possible without the backbone infrastructure of the telecom companies. In 2015, the telecom industry spent a total of $110 million in the development of the internet of things devices ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"iy29uKCn","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Farooq, Waseem, Khairi, & Mazhar, 2015)","plainCitation":"(Farooq, Waseem, Khairi, & Mazhar, 2015)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":96,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Ugrd7iAF/items/U5MIGLE6"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Ugrd7iAF/items/U5MIGLE6"],"itemData":{"id":96,"type":"article-journal","title":"A critical analysis on the security concerns of internet of things (IoT)","container-title":"International Journal of Computer Applications","volume":"111","issue":"7","author":[{"family":"Farooq","given":"Muhammad Umar"},{"family":"Waseem","given":"Muhammad"},{"family":"Khairi","given":"Anjum"},{"family":"Mazhar","given":"Sadia"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Farooq, Waseem, Khairi, & Mazhar, 2015). The industry was also ranked at fourth place for investing in the research and development activities of the internet of things. According to the recent developments in the ecosystem, it is believed that there will be twenty billion connected devices to the internet. That will be a massive amount of data to be routed and transmitted from one location to another location globally.

Although all of the connectivity is being provided and continuously expanded by the telecom provider companies, there are growing concerns about protecting the data being transmitted over telecom networks. There are various measures and technologies implemented to ensure the security of the data in transit, but the most important technology is the cryptography. Cryptography is the technology that deals with the hiding of the transmitted message from prying eyes by encrypting the message ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"ZEnpuGFd","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(RU-nian, 2009)","plainCitation":"(RU-nian, 2009)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":97,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Ugrd7iAF/items/LH7MQ2HH"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Ugrd7iAF/items/LH7MQ2HH"],"itemData":{"id":97,"type":"article-journal","title":"Study on the Internet of Things Based on RFID Technique [J]","container-title":"Journal of China academy of electronics and information technology","page":"595-597","volume":"6","author":[{"family":"RU-nian","given":"L. I."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2009"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (RU-nian, 2009). Telecom industry is focusing on implementing the cryptographic capabilities into the internet of things ecosystem using supporting technologies such as machine learning. The paper describes the efforts of the telecommunication industry to implement security in the internet of things and the challenges being faced by the industry.

Literature review and background of the study:

Communication has played a central role in human life since the beginning of the information age. In earlier days the conversations were based on mutual trust. In other words, if two persons were having a conversation, then they were not worried about someone listening to their conversation without permission. Privacy and security of mutual communication was the fundamental right of human being. No one was able to eavesdrop on someone else’s conversation ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"1CY7KDVl","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Miller & Alexander, 1996)","plainCitation":"(Miller & Alexander, 1996)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":98,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Ugrd7iAF/items/5CDHH9E7"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Ugrd7iAF/items/5CDHH9E7"],"itemData":{"id":98,"type":"book","title":"Civilizing cyberspace: Policy, power, and the information superhighway","publisher":"ACM Press New York","volume":"14","author":[{"family":"Miller","given":"Steven E."},{"family":"Alexander","given":"Jean"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1996"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Miller & Alexander, 1996). With the advent of communication technology, it has become possible for people to eavesdrop on others. Eavesdrop means listening to someone's conversation secretly. Since then scientists and communication engineers are continuously working on making communications more secure. In early telephone days, the voice was transferred using the wired network only. With the advancement of science and technology, it was possible to record the telephone calls of the people as well. FBI agents were tasked with clamping the crocodile clips in the phone lines of the suspected party and to record their phone calls. That action strictly violated the previously laid out privacy culture.

That was the initiating point of efforts to implement cryptography into the telephone networks. Cryptography is the practice of encoding the message so, that only intended recipient of the message can read the message. It was to ensure the confidentiality of the message being transferred over the insecure telecommunication networks. Various methods of securing communication have been developed and implemented. The method of encrypting or coding the message is known as cryptography ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"zXFGcp6i","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Sumi & Ranga, 2016)","plainCitation":"(Sumi & Ranga, 2016)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":99,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Ugrd7iAF/items/K2TR9NP5"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Ugrd7iAF/items/K2TR9NP5"],"itemData":{"id":99,"type":"paper-conference","title":"Sensor enabled Internet of Things for smart cities","container-title":"2016 Fourth International Conference on Parallel, Distributed and Grid Computing (PDGC)","publisher":"IEEE","page":"295-300","ISBN":"1-5090-3669-5","author":[{"family":"Sumi","given":"Lucy"},{"family":"Ranga","given":"Virender"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Sumi & Ranga, 2016). In cryptography simple message is also known as plain text is run through a code known as a cipher resulting in a ciphertext. The message is encoded by performing the cipher on the plain text at the sender side. On the other hand, the receiver will perform the exact opposite of coding known as the decoding operation on the received ciphertext to extract the original message. The practice was common in written letters during World War II for circulating confidential military-related intelligence to concerned parties. With the advancement of science and communication technologies cryptography is being implemented into the communication networks because all of the communication is now digital in nature.

A simple example of the earliest form of the cryptography is the rotation 13 cipher. In which each letter of the message is replaced with the corresponding letter in the English alphabets at number 13. Thus, the ciphertext obtained by the ROT13 cipher can only be decrypted by reversing the action known as deciphering or the decoding of the message. In this way, the message can only be understood by the recipient parties ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"uavkuayN","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Dawson, 2017)","plainCitation":"(Dawson, 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":100,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Ugrd7iAF/items/Y8UFKUAF"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Ugrd7iAF/items/Y8UFKUAF"],"itemData":{"id":100,"type":"chapter","title":"Exploring Secure Computing for the Internet of Things, Internet of Everything, Web of Things, and Hyperconnectivity","container-title":"Security solutions for hyperconnectivity and the internet of things","publisher":"IGI Global","page":"1-12","author":[{"family":"Dawson","given":"Maurice"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Dawson, 2017). The rotation is particularly thirteen, and it is known as the key of the encryption. The receiver can only decode the message if the key is known to the receiving party. In the above example, the key is thirteen meaning that each letter needs to be rotated thirteen places ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"6sj0nxWV","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Stallings, 2017)","plainCitation":"(Stallings, 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":101,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Ugrd7iAF/items/Y4U2PUE8"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Ugrd7iAF/items/Y4U2PUE8"],"itemData":{"id":101,"type":"book","title":"Cryptography and network security: principles and practice","publisher":"Pearson Upper Saddle River","ISBN":"1-292-15858-1","author":[{"family":"Stallings","given":"William"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Stallings, 2017). The technique is known as the symmetric cryptography because the key for the encrypting the message and decrypting the message is the same that is thirteen.

Symmetric cryptographic techniques are as secure as the key of encryption. Modern encryption systems use various sophisticated encryption algorithms. The example of ROT13 is just a simple example of understanding the encryption. Modern encryption systems are not as simple as ROT13. Rather they are complex and sophisticated in their design. They need to be sophisticated because while the security researchers are developing new encryption algorithms, the criminals are also working on new methods to crack the encryption codes ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"zR9LyCaq","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Icart & Coron, 2018)","plainCitation":"(Icart & Coron, 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":102,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Ugrd7iAF/items/KCVTI5XE"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Ugrd7iAF/items/KCVTI5XE"],"itemData":{"id":102,"type":"book","title":"Cryptography on an elliptical curve","publisher":"Google Patents","author":[{"family":"Icart","given":"Thomas"},{"family":"Coron","given":"Jean-Sebastien"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Icart & Coron, 2018). The encryption mechanism and algorithm implemented to secure internet traffic was known as the RC4 algorithm. It was known to be the trusted encryption method for securing internet traffic so that no one can intercept the message in transit. But in 2014, it was cracked by the RC4 No more project. The team demonstrated the vulnerabilities into the algorithm of encrypting the message using RC4 encryption. Since then the algorithm has been replaced with modern algorithms of securing the data.

In earlier days the channels for data transfer were only limited to the voice traffic. But given to the fact that the world will be having twenty billion devices connected to the internet transferring the data in various formats the security will be more crucial than ever. Therefore, the telecommunication industry is investing more in security than ever to ensure the privacy and security of the data being transmitted. Almost all of the internet of things devices works on wireless networks ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"gZc5TKkO","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Dodis, 2017)","plainCitation":"(Dodis, 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":103,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Ugrd7iAF/items/TUE4GSED"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Ugrd7iAF/items/TUE4GSED"],"itemData":{"id":103,"type":"paper-conference","title":"Basing cryptography on biometrics and other noisy data","container-title":"2017 51st Annual Conference on Information Sciences and Systems (CISS)","publisher":"IEEE","page":"1-1","ISBN":"1-5090-4780-8","author":[{"family":"Dodis","given":"Yevgeniy"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Dodis, 2017). Data transferred over wireless networks can be intercepted by anyone having access to a radio system. Wireless channels are more prone to man in the middle attacks than the wired channels for data transfer. It is not possible to build an internet of things over wired channels for the sake of security because it would not be physically and economically possible to connect billions of devices using wires. Hence, the solution is to improve the encryption capabilities of the modern ecosystem of the internet of things and build a secure network for transferring valuable information.


Internet of things coupled with artificial intelligence and machine learning is the future of modern communication systems. It is expected that in a decade each and every gadget will be having internet connectivity thus building an internet of things. Internet of things corresponds to the machine to machine communication. A network in which machines can communicate and collaborate with other machines without any human intervention ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"qtEnEYZc","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Kumari et al., 2017)","plainCitation":"(Kumari et al., 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":104,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Ugrd7iAF/items/ZWL8PMXS"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Ugrd7iAF/items/ZWL8PMXS"],"itemData":{"id":104,"type":"article-journal","title":"A secure authentication scheme based on elliptic curve cryptography for IoT and cloud servers","container-title":"The Journal of Supercomputing","page":"1-26","author":[{"family":"Kumari","given":"Saru"},{"family":"Karuppiah","given":"Marimuthu"},{"family":"Das","given":"Ashok Kumar"},{"family":"Li","given":"Xiong"},{"family":"Wu","given":"Fan"},{"family":"Kumar","given":"Neeraj"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Kumari et al., 2017). All of the devices will be transferring the data over wireless channels because the internet itself was not designed with much security in mind, so any ecosystem built over the backbone of the internet will be inherently insecure. Telecommunication industry will see tremendous growth in security technologies to make the internet of things ecosystem more secure than ever.

As the symmetric key cryptography cannot be used in the internet of things because symmetric key cryptography requires the transfer of key via some secure channel. Therefore, more robust solutions such as public key cryptographic mechanisms are to be implemented into the IoT devices. Public key cryptographic algorithms require certification authorities to authenticate the requests to the protected resources. It is inevitable to implement cryptographic capabilities in the internet of things devices to protect the data transfer from intruders. Internet of things is penetrating the industries dealing with personally identifiable information such as healthcare organizations and financial institutions such as banks ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"nNIN72EV","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Tewari & Gupta, 2017)","plainCitation":"(Tewari & Gupta, 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":105,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Ugrd7iAF/items/CYRED4KE"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Ugrd7iAF/items/CYRED4KE"],"itemData":{"id":105,"type":"article-journal","title":"A lightweight mutual authentication protocol based on elliptic curve cryptography for IoT devices","container-title":"International Journal of Advanced Intelligence Paradigms","page":"111-121","volume":"9","issue":"2-3","author":[{"family":"Tewari","given":"Aakanksha"},{"family":"Gupta","given":"B. B."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Tewari & Gupta, 2017). An IoT device in a healthcare facility may be collecting health records of the patient and transferring them to the doctor in another country over an insecure channel. These communications over insecure channels can be intercepted by third parties while being transmitted to the destination.

Telecommunication industry can provide the backbone to transfer the data and implement the security mechanisms, but the cryptography must be implemented within the electronic devices. It is crucial because many organizations may not even trust their telecom or internet service providers to handle their data for encryption. It is important because in this way the third party which the service provider, in this case, may be aware of the encryption keys as well ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"nDyxeBwG","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Liu & Seo, 2019)","plainCitation":"(Liu & Seo, 2019)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":106,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Ugrd7iAF/items/D7D8AEEF"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Ugrd7iAF/items/D7D8AEEF"],"itemData":{"id":106,"type":"article-journal","title":"IoT-NUMS: evaluating NUMS elliptic curve cryptography for IoT platforms","container-title":"IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security","page":"720-729","volume":"14","issue":"3","author":[{"family":"Liu","given":"Zhe"},{"family":"Seo","given":"Hwajeong"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Liu & Seo, 2019). The problem is not only with the telecom service providers but with the device manufacturers as well. Each of the IoT devices is powered by some type of processing chip capable of processing the data. These chips are not manufactured at a single place. Reports and research studies reveal that almost millions of the IoT device processing chips are manufactured in unknown factories across the globe putting the question mark on the security of such devices.

It has been revealed in recent years that most of the IoT devices can be hijacked and remotely controlled by the criminals for data harvesting. Headlines are filled with the news of such data breaches on insecure networks of the internet of things. The manufacturing issues restrict the implementation of inbuilt encryption capabilities to IoT devices. All of the devices are so small in size that their limited processing power cannot support encryption algorithms. Encryption and decryption of the data require considerable processing power that cannot be provided by the tiny internet of things devices such as wearable technologies. On the other hand, if the telecom industry will try to implement encryption capabilities into their network backbone, then it will not be possible for the industry to maintain the quality of the service due to the processing overhead created by the encryption jobs ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"qTg7oUpM","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Naru, Saini, & Sharma, 2017)","plainCitation":"(Naru, Saini, & Sharma, 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":107,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Ugrd7iAF/items/EQCZJL4J"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Ugrd7iAF/items/EQCZJL4J"],"itemData":{"id":107,"type":"paper-conference","title":"A recent review on lightweight cryptography in IoT","container-title":"2017 International Conference on I-SMAC (IoT in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud)(I-SMAC)","publisher":"IEEE","page":"887-890","ISBN":"1-5090-3243-6","author":[{"family":"Naru","given":"Effy Raja"},{"family":"Saini","given":"Hemraj"},{"family":"Sharma","given":"Mukesh"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Naru, Saini, & Sharma, 2017). With the advancement in science and technology if the scientists and engineers are able to build the encryption algorithms and incorporate trusted platform modules into tiny internet of things devices, then there will be other problems as well. A huge number of connected devices are powered by the batteries. All of the manufacturers claim long-lasting battery lifetimes to increase their revenues. It will be a difficult job to convince all of the manufacturers worldwide to compromise battery life for security. So here is the tradeoff between the battery life of the internet of things devices and security of the data being transmitted by these devices without any encryption.

In recent years cyber crimes have been increased tremendously, and criminals are developing sophisticated attacks. Depending on the complexity of design and development involved in the manufacturing process, it is not possible for a single manufacturer to build all of the required electronic parts in a single factory. Therefore, they license different parts from different manufacturers across the globe ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"OqCgCHXN","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Liu, Choo, & Grossschadl, 2018)","plainCitation":"(Liu, Choo, & Grossschadl, 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":108,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Ugrd7iAF/items/CHEKEL4W"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Ugrd7iAF/items/CHEKEL4W"],"itemData":{"id":108,"type":"article-journal","title":"Securing edge devices in the post-quantum Internet of Things using lattice-based cryptography","container-title":"IEEE Communications Magazine","page":"158-162","volume":"56","issue":"2","author":[{"family":"Liu","given":"Zhe"},{"family":"Choo","given":"Kim-Kwang Raymond"},{"family":"Grossschadl","given":"Johann"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Liu, Choo, & Grossschadl, 2018). So, the security of the supply chains is also critical because if the encryption is important or data security, then protection from internal backdoors of the device is also inevitable. Hardcoded threats will not be eliminated by software innovations. Without implementing encryption as an essential technology in the internet of things devices, we will be creating a world of internet of threats instead of building an internet of things.

To build a secure internet of things telecom industry in conjunction with the software industry is developing complementary technologies. Many companies such as the Kaspersky lab a Russian cybersecurity organization, has developed an operating system for the internet of things devices to implement basic security features into the devices. It is an important step for creating a secure infrastructure for the optimal operation of the internet of things ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Qq6IFeQM","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Tiwari & Kim, 2018)","plainCitation":"(Tiwari & Kim, 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":109,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Ugrd7iAF/items/9A7YSM32"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Ugrd7iAF/items/9A7YSM32"],"itemData":{"id":109,"type":"article-journal","title":"Novel Method for DNA‐Based Elliptic Curve Cryptography for IoT Devices","container-title":"ETRI Journal","page":"396-409","volume":"40","issue":"3","author":[{"family":"Tiwari","given":"Harsh Durga"},{"family":"Kim","given":"Jae Hyung"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Tiwari & Kim, 2018). Insecure devices connected to the internet can compromise the security of the whole internet infrastructure. IoT devices are closely connected to a single access point; it is relatively easy for the attacker to compromise a single vulnerability in the device and take control of the entire network intercepting the critical information being transferred.

Along with telecom companies, the cybersecurity companies such as AVIRA, a Germany based information security company, now building secure network routers to implement basic encryption algorithms in their routers to protect the data from hackers and eavesdroppers. Telecom companies will not only invest and grow in the security aspect of the internet of things but will continue to develop their connectivity backbone infrastructure as well to support billions of connected devices ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"AUXUAROy","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Thota, Sundarasekar, Manogaran, Varatharajan, & Priyan, 2018)","plainCitation":"(Thota, Sundarasekar, Manogaran, Varatharajan, & Priyan, 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":110,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Ugrd7iAF/items/L6NZIMYA"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/Ugrd7iAF/items/L6NZIMYA"],"itemData":{"id":110,"type":"chapter","title":"Centralized fog computing security platform for IoT and cloud in healthcare system","container-title":"Fog Computing: Breakthroughs in Research and Practice","publisher":"IGI Global","page":"365-378","author":[{"family":"Thota","given":"Chandu"},{"family":"Sundarasekar","given":"Revathi"},{"family":"Manogaran","given":"Gunasekaran"},{"family":"Varatharajan","given":"R."},{"family":"Priyan","given":"M. K."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Thota, Sundarasekar, Manogaran, Varatharajan, & Priyan, 2018). Telecom industry will invest massively in fifth and sixth generation networks to move the machine to machine communication data of internet of things devices quickly and securely. Recent investments by the telecom service provider Verizon in telematics shows that it will invest in any technology requiring location services powered by their network infrastructure. Telecom equipment manufacturers such as Nokia, Huawei and ZTE are among the names investing in artificial intelligence and machine learning capabilities to enhance the security for the internet of things.

Summary and Conclusion:

Security of the transferred data over the communication backbone or insecure channels is inevitable for the growth in the internet of things ecosystem. Currently, the complexity of implementing encryption technologies in the internet of things devices is the major bottleneck in the development of the ecosystem. Telecom industry has recognized the potential of tremendous growth in the internet of things. Therefore, telecom service providers and equipment manufacturers are making investments in the field of the internet of things to create a secure environment for connected devices along with building and improving the backbone infrastructure for communications. Along with the development of the latest technologies of data transfer such as the fifth generation of networks the security of the internet of things will also be improved by incorporating machine learning and artificial intelligence into the ecosystem. By developing and implementing these technologies, the world will soon be able to see a sustainable ecosystem powered by the internet f things and telecommunication revolution.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Dawson, M. (2017). Exploring Secure Computing for the Internet of Things, Internet of Everything, Web of Things, and Hyperconnectivity. Security solutions for hyperconnectivity and the internet of things (pp. 1–12). IGI Global.

Dodis, Y. (2017). Basing cryptography on biometrics and other noisy data. In 2017 51st Annual Conference on Information Sciences and Systems (CISS) (pp. 1–1). IEEE.

Farooq, M. U., Waseem, M., Khairi, A., & Mazhar, S. (2015). A critical analysis on the security concerns of internet of things (IoT). International Journal of Computer Applications, 111(7).

Icart, T., & Coron, J.-S. (2018). Cryptography on an elliptical curve. Google Patents.

Kraijak, S., & Tuwanut, P. (2015). A survey on internet of things architecture, protocols, possible applications, security, privacy, real-world implementation and future trends. In 2015 IEEE 16th International Conference on Communication Technology (ICCT) (pp. 26–31). IEEE.

Kumari, S., Karuppiah, M., Das, A. K., Li, X., Wu, F., & Kumar, N. (2017). A secure authentication scheme based on elliptic curve cryptography for IoT and cloud servers. The Journal of Supercomputing, 1–26.

Liu, Z., Choo, K.-K. R., & Grossschadl, J. (2018). Securing edge devices in the post-quantum Internet of Things using lattice-based cryptography. IEEE Communications Magazine, 56(2), 158–162.

Liu, Z., & Seo, H. (2019). IoT-NUMS: evaluating NUMS elliptic curve cryptography for IoT platforms. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, 14(3), 720–729.

Miller, S. E., & Alexander, J. (1996). Civilizing cyberspace: Policy, power, and the information superhighway (Vol. 14). ACM Press New York.

Naru, E. R., Saini, H., & Sharma, M. (2017). A recent review on lightweight cryptography in IoT. In 2017 International Conference on I-SMAC (IoT in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud)(I-SMAC) (pp. 887–890). IEEE.

RU-nian, L. I. (2009). Study on the Internet of Things Based on RFID Technique [J]. Journal of China Academy of Electronics and Information Technology, 6, 595–597.

Stallings, W. (2017). Cryptography and network security: principles and practice. Pearson Upper Saddle River.

Sumi, L., & Ranga, V. (2016). Sensor enabled Internet of Things for smart cities. In 2016 Fourth International Conference on Parallel, Distributed and Grid Computing (PDGC) (pp. 295–300). IEEE.

Tewari, A., & Gupta, B. B. (2017). A lightweight mutual authentication protocol based on elliptic curve cryptography for IoT devices. International Journal of Advanced Intelligence Paradigms, 9(2–3), 111–121.

Thota, C., Sundarasekar, R., Manogaran, G., Varatharajan, R., & Priyan, M. K. (2018). Centralized fog computing security platform for IoT and cloud in healthcare system. In Fog Computing: Breakthroughs in Research and Practice (pp. 365–378). IGI Global.

Tiwari, H. D., & Kim, J. H. (2018). Novel Method for DNA‐Based Elliptic Curve Cryptography for IoT Devices. ETRI Journal, 40(3), 396–409.

Xu, K., Qu, Y., & Yang, K. (2016). A tutorial on the internet of things: from a heterogeneous network integration perspective. IEEE Network, 30(2), 102–108.

Subject: IT

Pages: 10 Words: 3000

Follow The Intruction

Comparison and contrast between Apache versus Internet Information Services

Student’s Name



Comparison Apache and Internet Information System

Apache and Internet Information service are some of the application which is used in website hosting. According to Patterson (2014), they are the most common web server platform. Developers or webhosting firms have different preferences and the argument of which is the best has been intensive based on the fact that people prefer either of them based on the features and quality of services. This paper therefore, compares and contrast apache and internet information service.

The Apache HTTP web server is open source, which means that users can be able to edit it and improve its performance and it is freely distributed to users. It is managed by Apache Software Foundation, which is the developer of the application. Apache runs on major platforms and it is more commonly used with Linus operating system. But it can still be used on other operating systems (OS) without any problems. It is also combines with MySQL and PHP scripting language and also a popular in LAMP, which is the main platform where it is being provided to users.

However, Internet Information system (IIS) is closed or proprietary software managed by Microsoft, which is the developer of the application. The IIS operates on Windows operating software only and users support is provided corporate support who is the employees of Microsoft CITATION Nan15 \l 1033 (Leon, 2015). Though IIS is free application, it is bundled by Microsoft and therefore, it is not completely free as Apache. The security of IIS is excellent due to the fact that it is supported by Microsoft compared to Apache, which is supported by community. In terms of market share, Apache has the largest market share of 42% while IIS has 32% of the market share. Apache is a process-based serve and IIS is an event based server and this gives it more compatibility. It is the reason many developer prefer Apache to internet Information Service CITATION Pau14 \l 1033 (Ptterson, 2014).

As stated by Mclean (2014), internet information service is preferred because of its security and other application which comes with it. Again, it gets support from Microsoft and this therefore, gives it more advantage when it comes to usability. However, both applications are used for web hosting and especially in the web server. Apache and IIS are both free application developed by corporations to be sued for the performance of web hosting. However, IIS comes with NET framework, which is released by Microsoft, ASPX scripts and therefore, users have assurance of support from developer, which is Microsoft. It is also essential to point that both Apache and IIS can be downloaded from an open source sites without any problem CITATION Pet14 \l 1033 (McLean, 2014). They are also providing an interface, which make them easy to use for web hosting. A major different between the Apache and internet Information service is the security aspect of the two applications. Apache does not get infected by virus and IIS can be infected. It is therefore, required to use antirust in any system where internet information system is deployed.

In conclusion, Apache and IIS are good web server applications and used by different developers. However, Apache is completely free and IIS is free but bundled by Microsoft, which means it is not completely free as Apache. Though Apache has provide a good security and it is very secure to use, it does not have NET Framework and other protocols which IIS comes with. Again, it does not have a big corporate support compared to internet information service. The users of IIS must purchase Microsoft software such as windows to be able to use IIS and this has put away several users. It is the main reason Apache has the largest market because user can freely download it and use it without any condition.

Diagram 1: IIS interface


BIBLIOGRAPHY Leon, N. (2015). Difference between IIS and Apache. Internationa Journal of Information and Web manage , 21-35.

McLean, P. (2014). IIS vs Apache. International Journal of Information System , 2-15.

Ptterson, P. (2014). Web hosting and developement Applications . Information security and management , 2-14.

Subject: IT

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Follow The Intruction

Securing PHP when using apache

Student’s Name




Security of web servers or data is essential for any e-commerce company. And therefore, creating a website using PHP and apache The PHP should take advantage of internal security internal security to build its mechanism to ensure security of the system. The basic way to secure PHP is the application of dynamic web page to improve security of apache CITATION Mic14 \l 1033 (Cox, 2014). Apache is built in a secure platform, but it become more secure based on how the person who installed it secures it. Therefore, the server where apache and PHP are used should be configured to a minimal possible.

In order to secure PHP script, the PHP scripts is required to be executed in a chrooted environment. Apache server must be configured to reject the entire request from POST and GET, which has got HTML tags. It is because, the possibility of cross site scripting attack, which originates from HTML files. It is important to configure the website to monitor such entries for any possible attack. The configuration should be done in such a way that no PHP warming or error message is indicated to the regular users of the web applications CITATION Das15 \l 1033 (Das, 2015). The php and apache files make it possible for the storage of incoming POST and GET request in the form of a text file. This makes it possible to utilize much host-based intruder detection (HIDS) such as swatch. It is important to disable server token to prevent any kind of pop, which appears as the result of when PHP is used. And therefore, the configuration of Apache should be done in such a way that it does not display its version from the server. This can be achieved by editing the below file the apache files secure from any access and editing by a third party CITATION Rüe18 \l 1033 (Rüegg, et al., 2018). It is important to ensure that the access by IP is very restricted and this is done configuring the website to filter any entry. Finally, the website or web server can be secured by ensuring that DoS attack is also prevented by configuring wait malicious on the system to minimize any attack CITATION Pet12 \l 1033 (Patterson, 2012).

The screenshot PHP indicates the procedure of configuring PHP security to ensure that web site is secure. PHP is mostly used by developers to develop a website and therefore, it is generally used on the window’s server. The below screen short is an output command issued and it is used in by PHP developers.

echo "";echo "";echo "";for ( $counter = 10; $counter <= 100; $counter += 10) { echo ""; }echo "

Part Number


";echo $counter;echo "

";echo $book price * $counter; echo "

"; ?

Echo in PHP used as a command text for output which is used in web browser. It is therefore, used to give a specific command and mostly applied at the beginning of the command when using PHP. The $counter is also a command for arrays and usually applied for specific mode. It can used by web site developers to give a give a website a better look and secure it from any access.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Chung, K. S., & Paredes, C. W. (2015). Towards a Social Networks Model for Online Learning & Performance. International Forum of Educational Technology & Society , 2-35.

Cox, M. (2014). Understanding large social-ecological systems: introducing the SESMAD project. International Journal of the Commons , 265-276 .

Das, K. (2015). Python for you and me, Release 0.3.alpha1. New York: Pearson.

Laher, R. R., Surace, J., Grillmair, C. J., Ofek, E. O., & Levitan, D. (2014). IPAC Image Processing and Data Archiving for the Palomar Transient Factory. Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific , 2-35.

Patterson, P. (2012). Introduction to Advantages of Array: Advantages Of Array. https://www.educba.com/advantages-of-array/ , 2-31.

Rüegg, J., Gries, C., Bond-Lamberty, B., Bowen, G. J., Felzer, B. S., McIntyre, N. E., et al. (2018). Completing the data life cycle: using information management in macrosystems ecology research. JOURNAL ARTICLE , 2-35.

Subject: IT

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Follow The Intruction

IT Report


Ngoc Nguyen

There always are such threats and risks that affect the most robust operating systems, and Windows is not an exception to vulnerabilities that can be used (with all the bad intentions) to exploit. A few days ago has come to light the latest Windows vulnerability, which affects it and puts at risk all those PCs that have Windows (Warren, 2019). This vulnerability has its origin in the Windows Task Scheduler, specifically in the ALPC (Advanced Local Procedure Call). Other users have also investigated and confirmed that the 64-bit versions of even Windows 10 still have the bug. Microsoft recommends all its users and administrators to update their operating system as soon as possible so as not to be a victim more for these vulnerabilities. One of the Vulnerabilities found is the zero-day Exploitation of Vulnerability in which it is tracked as CVE-2018-8589; it was detected and exploited in real scenarios by multiple groups of persistent advanced threats.

The other vulnerability was related to BitLocker Security. It is present when Windows suspends BitLocker device encryption, which can allow an attacker physical access to a shutdown system and bypass security and obtain access to encrypted data (Cimpanu, 2019).

How to mitigate vulnerabilities?

Having an anti-exploit program can help protect from serious attacks. There should be an adaptive defense advanced cybersecurity solution which should include dynamic exploit detection, which serves to protect web browsers and their plug-ins, as well as other components installed on the computer.

Maximize the precautions about the files that we download from non-security sources in the network or by physical means.

There should be multi-layered protection that responds to a comprehensive security strategy, which is not based solely on a single type of software or technology.

Vulnerabilities of Hypervisor

Recently a report of the Cloud Security Alliance has been published highlighting the main threats or security problems that can be found in the use of cloud computing. Some hypervisors on a server or a workstation are vulnerable to attacks through system firmware. Hypervisors work as the piece of software that runs directly on the hardware and controls all virtual images-everything that allows the operation of a machine and communication, among others. The detected attacks guided a successful installation of a rootkit in the system firmware (such as a BIOS), leaving hypervisor accesses vulnerable and exposing the memory content of the same (Huang & Wu, 2018).

Hypervisors employ a series of techniques to isolate the software and thus protect the secrets of each machine, including its operating systems. However, these protections are limited when the system firmware of the physical machine is infected with a rootkit. In this specific attack case, the firmware rootkit was installed by reprogramming the system firmware. This is because operating systems tend to create an "administrative guest" account, which has limited resources and can be used by the same administrator as a "back door" to access the system. These accounts are usually created with default keys that are very simple like "password," "guest," and it is usual for administrators to forget to disable it or make more complex access codes or establish some control over that account. These "back doors" are used by hackers, who will insist on their search to access a vulnerable system and achieve control of it.

This is why it will be essential to take the necessary precautions to strengthen the security of the systems of the organizations.

Solutions and vulnerabilities

The obvious solution is to increase the protection in the firmware. However, our research also showed that an attacker could take advantage of other vulnerabilities if the hypervisor allows direct access to the firmware interfaces. That is why an immediate measure will be to disable the accounts of "administrative guests" that create the operating systems by default or create a new, more robust password for this account.

To take an exhaustive control of the environment to detect activities and unauthorized changes both in the usual tasks and processes and in the data stored in the virtualized systems.

Promote very strict authentication and access controls for accessing and performing administrative operations.

Perform vulnerability analysis and configuration audits regularly.

To conclude, it is worth noting the importance that cloud computing is currently charging, so detecting and resolving these and other threats is crucial to adapt to the user's security needs, and provide the service with the necessary guarantees in this matter.

Vulnerabilities of Apache 2.X

Apache has launched a warning after discovering multiple vulnerabilities that put users at risk. They urge to update HTTP Apache servers as soon as possible. These vulnerabilities affect many versions of Apache 2.4, and users should update version 2.4.39 as soon as possible. As we always indicated, it is very important to have the systems updated and with the latest security patches to avoid suffering any type of attack (Chauhan, 2018).

Six important vulnerabilities that affect Apache HTTP servers are

In total, six vulnerabilities have been detected that affect the Apache HTTP Server. Three of them have been considered as high severity, while the rest have been classified as low.

One of the vulnerabilities has been named CVE-2019-0211. This code is executed in secondary processes or sub-processes with few privileges. In case they managed to exploit this vulnerability, it would allow an attacker to execute arbitrary code (Rudis, 2019).

Another vulnerability has been identified as CVE-2019-0217. In this case, it would allow a possible attacker who has the necessary credentials to be able to authenticate with another username. I could thus omit access control restrictions.

The third and last vulnerability that they have classified as high severity has been called CVE-2019-0215. In this case, it is an error in mod_ssl. This time it could allow an attacker to circumvent access control restrictions. This attacker has to support Post-Handshake authentication.

It should be mentioned that these are the three vulnerabilities that have been indicated as more serious. However, as we have seen, there are three others of less importance. These vulnerabilities have been named CVE-2019-0197, CVE-2019-0196, and CVE-2019-0220.

It is important to download all kinds of files from official sources. In this way, we avoid software that could have been modified maliciously. In the official website of Apache, they show us the link to securely download the official files for the installer for the Windows operating system. Here we can also find the official document where they indicate the necessary steps. What we do next is unzipped the file in the same directory where it was previously installed. We can simply change the name to the previous directory and in this way have a backup in case of any problem, as they inform us in this web.

In short, they have detected serious vulnerabilities that affect the Apache HTTP server. Our advice is to update as soon as possible. It should be mentioned that in addition to correcting security problems, with each update, there are usually some improvements in functionality. Therefore, we always advise keeping the latest versions installed. Not only for safety but to have the latest performance improvements available.

Vulnerabilities of PHP

The two most important vulnerabilities on the Internet are as under

1. Unvalidated parameters

The most important thing at this point is to deactivate the register globals. This configuration setting is disabled by default as of PHP 4.2.0.

2. Vulnerabilities in the management of accounts and sessions

Use the built-in functions in PHP to manage sessions. However, be careful with the configuration of the server and how it stores the session information. For example, if the content of the session is stored as files in / tmp, any user who accesses the records on the server can see the content of all the sessions. Stores sessions in a database or in a part of the file system that only web administrators can access.

Software and Hardware components to protect Zeus website

WAF stands for Web Application Firewall and is a security measure that protects websites from attacks that exploit web application vulnerabilities. It is installed in front of the Web server to analyze and inspect the communication, protect the Web site from such attacks, and is used in the role to prevent unauthorized login.

Like online banking and shopping sites, it is suitable for protecting websites that have built-in applications, such as accepting user input and dynamically generating pages upon request.

According to a report, many of the compromised websites used CMS such as WordPress. The CMS security measures include the following:

1. Keep CMS up-to-date (including extensions)

2. Access restriction of management page

3. Protection of login page

4. Introduce.WAF (Protection against attacks exploiting web application vulnerabilities)

5. Antivirus measures

6. Proper configuration of SSH / FTP

To reduce the risk of web falsification caused by attacks, total security measures, including WAF, are required.

Precautionary measures when it is difficult to correct the vulnerability.

Even if you know the existence of the vulnerability, you can use the WAF if you cannot fix the web application immediately. In some cases, the in-house development system cannot be established, or the development source has left the business. Also, if a vulnerability is found in the open source software you are using, it is effective to prevent it with the WAF because you cannot directly participate in the correction.

In Web sites, there are usually multiple URLs to monitor. It is not realistic to keep monitoring many URLs 24/7 by human power. Hiring personnel for monitoring and outsourcing monitoring services can be costly. To solve this problem, many web administrators use monitoring tools to automate URL monitoring.

A tool that makes it easy to get started with URL monitoring the Zeus Book server

Applications Manager provided by Manage Engine is one of the tools that can easily start URL monitoring. You can monitor URLs and automatically obtain information such as accessibility, response time, and page size for easy visualization.

You can automatically check whether your website or web application is working properly.

You can check if there is any change in the web page, Informs administrators of connection problems, slow page loads, content errors and more, automatically calculate and create website performance reports, Monitor web pages for error messages.


Chauhan, B. (2018). 3 Most Critical Apache Vulnerabilities Found - Astra Web Security Blog. Retrieved from https://www.getastra.com/blog/911/top-3-most-critical-apache-vulnerabilities-found/

Cimpanu, C. (2019). New BitLocker attack puts laptops storing sensitive data at risk | ZDNet. Retrieved from https://www.zdnet.com/article/new-bitlocker-attack-puts-laptops-storing-sensitive-data-at-risk/

Huang, D., & Wu, H. (2018). Hypervisor-Based Virtualization - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/computer-science/hypervisor-based-virtualization

Labs, M., Davis, G., Davis, G., & Sarang, R. (2015). Vulnerable From Below: Attacking Hypervisors Using Firmware And Hardware | McAfee Blogs. Retrieved from https://securingtomorrow.mcafee.com/other-blogs/executive-perspectives/vulnerable-from-below-attacking-hypervisors-using-firmware-and-hardware/

Rudis, B. (2019). Apache HTTP Server Privilege Escalation (CVE-2019-0211) Explained. Retrieved from https://blog.rapid7.com/2019/04/03/apache-http-server-privilege-escalation-cve-2019-0211-what-you-need-to-know/

The vulnerabilities of hypervisors. (2019). Retrieved from https://www.techadvisory.org/2019/04/the-vulnerabilities-of-hypervisors/

Warren, T. (2019). Microsoft warns 1 million computers are still vulnerable to major Windows security exploit. Retrieved from https://www.theverge.com/2019/5/31/18647646/microsoft-windows-1-million-machines-bluekeep-remote-desktop-security-exploit

Subject: IT

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

Follow The Intruction

SSL/TSL Certification

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

SSL/TSL Certification

Screenshot of the Signing Setup of SSL?TSL Certification


With the passage of time, more and more webite have started to take usage of the way SSL certification are supposed to work. The expectation on the part of the user is that how they SSL certitrication is going to make sure that the security protocol of that website that they are trying to log in are secure and how they can be assured that the data encruption is going to be applied in this website is one of the major reasons that the users tend to prefer SSL Certifications these days. The first thing that is going to be looked at during the course of this paper is that how the information regarding SSL Certitification is being provided by different set of browsers.

Internet Explorer

The presentation of the SSL Certification is located in the main interface of the website. Most of the times what happens is that the users have complaied about the loading time of the way Internet Explorers are supposed to work and thus it was a gimmick on their part to make sure that how the main interface would show the certification making sure that the users have to go beyond the initial interface when logging in using the SSL Certification.

Now, in the case of the Internet Exploror, what happens is that when the padlock is being clicked, it brings about the issuing of the CA that goes through the global sign of the identification. This goes to show that the connection on which the website is established is encrupted. There is also some information in terms of the identification of the how the EV’s and non EV’s are going to be done. These certifications contain the company name and the location of the organization as well.


Even though the presentation of the interface was being done in a pretty similar manner like Internet Explorer, in some of the more advanced and updated versions of the Firefox, not only the certitication is being showed, there is lot more information about how the ceritifcation are supposed to work and how the information is located in the interface of the main browser. They have the ability to make sure that they are providing further details about the certificate if user wants to know something about. When the padlock is being clicked in the address bar, it tends to bring the preliminary dropdown that is supposed to indicate more secure connection and how it is being configured in a proper manner in terms of how the placement of the SSL is being done. The other thing that can be done by the user in order to make sure that they are able ot gain more information about is that how they can click at the dropdown arrow to make sure that they are able to witnessed more information about the particulars of the subject and how the whole thing about the certitication is supposed to work. It has to be noted that if there is a case that there is extended validation, there are identifying information about the EV that make sure that it defines the protocol about how the operation of the website is supposed to be run at the particular point of time. On the other hand, if there are non EV certifications, then they can be seen at the bottom of the pile as far as the way their placement is supposed to be carried out.

Google Chrome

One of the reasons that the Chrome is the sought after browser at the moment is that the user does not need to click anywhere and all the information regarding the security certification is available with the help of the interface of the browser. It was something that was not there in some of the previous versions but it had now being brought back. The user can see the information about the certification by clicking the padlock in the URL bar. What it is going to do is that it would trigger a dropdown and thus it would correspondingly open a valid link certification that can be seen by the user at that point of time. As far as the display of the EV certification, it can be seen on the heart’s content that is located on the central interface of the website.

Usage and Importance of the SSL/TSL Certification

There are many advantages and beneifst that these certifications tend to provide to the user. The first thing that they do is that they make sure that all the data transfer that happens between the servers is carried out in an appropriate manner. Not only that, when the website has an SSL/TSL certification it is bound to ensure that it brings an increase in the Google Ranking of the website at the given point of time. Not only that, it also plays an important role in enhancing the customer trust. The Root Certificate must be present on the end user's machine in order for the Certificate to be trusted. If it is not trusted the browser will present untrusted error messages to the end user. In the case of e-commerce, such error messages result in immediate lack of confidence in the website and organizations risk losing confidence and business from the majority of consumers. SSL Certificates need to be issued from a trusted Certificate Authority. Browsers, operating systems, and mobile devices maintain list of trusted CA root certificates.


Adamovic, S., Sarac, M., Stamenkovic, D., & Radovanovic, D. (2018). The importance of the using software tools for learning modern cryptography. The International journal of engineering education, 34(1), 256-262.

Bayramova, T. (2014). The importance of self-management mechanisms to ensure Software safety.

Hacker, A. J., & CISSP, I. (2018). Importance of Web Application Firewall Technology for Protecting Web-based Resources. ICSA Labs an Independent Verizon Business.

Hongwu, L. X. H. Y. Y. (2016). Application of security communication based on SSL in the system of selecting courses [J]. Journal of Anhui Vocational College of Electrontcs & Information Technology Z, 1.

Roosa, S. B., & Schultze, S. (2017). The" Certificate Authority" trust model for SSL: a defective foundation for encrypted Web traffic and a legal quagmire. Intellectual property & technology law journal, 22(11), 3.

Subject: IT

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Game Review

Game Review: PUBG

[Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees]

[Institutional Affiliation(s)] Game Review: PUBG


PUBG or PlayerUnknown’s Battle Ground is just another entry into the Battle Royale genre. Nevertheless, the game is nothing short of revolutionary. Based on previous mods created by Brendan Greene, more popularly known as “PlayerUnknown”, it is one of the most played video-games of all time. The game brings nothing new to the table, except for its accessibility. With it being available to most of the smartphone using population in the world, the game has received some much-deserved admiration. Although, it has its fair share of backlash as well, which is just as well-earned as admiration. While most people aren’t saying much about the game, those that do have something to say, are saying a lot. The battle-ground genre has been around for a really long time now. However, given the state of the world in the past two decades, the generation indulging in games like PUBG have been born and raised in an era of unrest. With the number of people suffering through mental health issues increasing on a daily basis, the idea of being a lone survivor among 100 individuals can have some deadly implications, especially given the need for gun control in various parts of the world CITATION Jam17 \l 1033 (Batchelor, 2017). Thus, given the number of players it attracts every day, it is vital that a detailed psychosocial survey analysis of a game like PUBG becomes necessary.

The Battle Royale Genre and PUBG Gameplay

The Battle Royale Genre is a type of online, multiplayer video game where players actively communicate with one another in a quest of exploration, survival, and scavenging. The name is derived from a Japanese film called Battle Royale released in 2000, which explored a similar theme that the games often feature, with the idea of last man standing emerging victorious. The cyberspace has always been filled with large scale, survival-oriented games. However, by the time the previous decade came to a close, a number of factors made the prospect of this genre attractive. This turned the entire gaming industry on its heels, with Battle Royale Genre emerging as a cultural phenomenon in its own right.

These players go through a grueling ordeal throughout the gameplay, with either of the two outcomes, be killed by another player or be the last man surviving. Such games tend to involve a very large number for players i.e. 99 to 100 commonly, playing in real-time. The players begin the game with the minimal amount of equipment and work towards collecting items that give them an upper-hand during the gameplay. These games usually begin with a large terrain for the players to explore, which is then shrunken down on the basis of time lapsed, as well as the dwindling number of players. This prevents players from staying in their hiding spots throughout the game and winning by default. Additionally, it also prevents the gameplay from being extended too long and makes confrontations between two or more different parties possible. Additionally, the game often features a number of different incentives throughout the gameplay which attract players and make further confrontations more possible.

PUBG essentially follows the same gameplay. It is a player versus player shooting game that starts off once 99 players join the game. It is essentially a deathmatch with the last man standing getting the grand prize of “Chicken Dinner” CITATION Chr17 \l 1033 (Carter, 2017). The match can be played in solo mode, in a duo or with a small team of four players. At the beginning of the game, the players are dropped off into one of four island locations. The path taken by the plane varies each time, with the players having to determine the right time to eject and take the parachute to the ground. They can choose a location to land, based on their needs since every location has a very different set of equipment, weapons, and armor available. These items are usually procedurally distributed throughout the game at the beginning of the match, with high-risk zones having the best loot and the greatest number of player confrontations CITATION Chr17 \l 1033 (Carter, 2017). Additionally, players can also collect loot from other players that have just been killed during gameplay. Customary to any battle royale gameplay, the playable area of the game shrinks, with players having to move towards the safe zone or take damage. Additionally, random areas are also bombed during the gameplay, which makes poses a threat to players in the area. However, such an instance is highlighted in red, giving players ample time to flee CITATION Jam17 \l 1033 (Batchelor, 2017). The game attracts millions of players on a regular basis, with each player spending a minimum of 30 minutes during each game play.

Impact of Growth and Success

PUBG is a cultural phenomenon. It is one of those games that are accessible on just about every gaming platform, which increases the number of means and devices a player can access this game. Additionally, another reason attributed to its success is the fact that it is free of cost. Players have the option to purchase upgrades, but this is something they can choose to do at their own discretion CITATION Car18 \l 1033 (Melrose, 2018). However, through updates alone, Business Insider has projected that the game brought in about $2 billion US dollar in 2018. This number is expected to go from $2 billion in 2018 to $20 billion in 2019 alone CITATION Jes18 \l 1033 (Wade, 2018).

Secondly, the game begins with every player being in an equally vulnerable state. This eliminates the chances of any player having the upper hand at least in the very beginning of the game. This adds a sense of thrill to the game, which is not only enjoyable by the player alone but makes for an excellent spectator sport CITATION Nic18 \l 1033 (Paumgarten, 2018). Additionally, according to some analysts, PUBG happens to recognize various elements in relation to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. This describes a person’s level of motivation perfectly and even feeds into it, giving players a sense of accomplishment. Additionally, it meets an individual’s psychological needs as well, giving them a sense of belonging and comrade. This not only makes PUBG a competitive game but a social one as well, where a sense of self-actualization is deeply associated with the idea of winning CITATION Car18 \l 1033 (Melrose, 2018). However, when a similar sense of peace, accomplishment, and comrade isn’t found by players in the real world, things take a turn for the worst.

Parallels to The Hunger Games and a Touch of Reality

The Hunger Games is a dystopian novel by an American writer called Suzanne Collins. It features a society where adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 are subjected to forced reaping, where a chosen girl and boy is sent off to participate in an annually held contest called the Hunger Games. It is a televised Battle Royale, a fight to the death, with only one lone survivor being crowned the victor.

While that not only sounds eerily familiar, but the idea that inspired the novel is stomach-churning all by itself CITATION Ric08 \l 1033 (Margolis, 2008). Collins, while surfing channels on her television saw alternating images of reality television shows on some channels, which made for a bizarre mix with channels discussing the US invasion of Iraq. In author’s own words, both began to blur together in a very unsettling way in her mind, and the idea of a book where the population was kept mollified by the killing off their own children as gameplay for the entertainment of the Capitol. This was the punishment the districts faced for starting a civil war years ago CITATION Joh08 \l 1033 (Sellers, 2008). These games usually lack context, but they are situated around a similar scenario. Kill, loot, win, this is the mantra of a typical PUBG player. There is nothing wrong with wanting to win. However, employing realistic effects during gameplay may blur the lines between fantasy and reality CITATION Ahn17 \l 1033 (Ahn, 2017).

The Battle Royale gameplay is fun, it motivates its players and also gives them a sense of accomplishment and even self-actualization. However, the mere idea of something similar being used as a sport is unsettling. Given the number of people suffering from mental health issues, the inability to thrive in a social environment comprising of their peers, while achieving self-actualization through a game where they kill people for sport, may impact a weak mind in the wrong way. With the need for gun control on the rise, and incidents of mass shoots out happening every day, it is vital that steps be taken which ensure that games are seen as what they are, video games, used for entertainment and nothing more CITATION Ahn17 \l 1033 (Ahn, 2017).


With the unparallel success of games like PUBG and Fortnite, the Battle Royale genre is not only attracted attention for developers and players alike, but it has also expanded greatly. It has inspired often well-known names in the gaming world to up their game as well and introduces similar gaming modes. Some of the most popular games to do so include Call of Duty, under the title Battle Ops 4 and DoTA 2 and even Grand Theft Auto Online. However, the negative implications of these games are undeniable. As mentioned, these games are frequented by impressionable adolescents, most of which do not even fall under the age restriction of the game. Games of such nature tend to bring out violent impulses among players. Additionally, it aggravates the violent tendencies found among individuals that are suffering from mental health issues. Thus, game makers should be mindful of the games they produce and release into the world and use all the means necessary to restrict gameplay to individuals that are able to play the game while maintaining a firm grip on reality. These games were born of tumulus times. However, with proper restrictions and introduction of elements that keep such games from coming to close to reality, game makers can give its users the satisfaction they crave while ensuring that the game doesn’t give a nefarious mind the fuel it needs.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Ahn, J.-k., 2017. A Study on Game Dynamics of Battle Royale Genre. [Online] Available at: http://www.koreascience.or.kr/article/JAKO201733348349944.page

Batchelor, J., 2017. PlayerUnknown Battlegrounds dev: “I want to find the next me”. [Online] Available at: https://www.gamesindustry.biz/articles/2017-04-26-playerunknown-battlegrounds-dev-i-want-to-find-the-next-me

Carter, C., 2017. Understanding Playerunknown's Battlegrounds. [Online] Available at: https://www.polygon.com/playerunknowns-battlegrounds-guide/2017/6/9/15721366/pubg-how-to-play-blue-wall-white-red-circle-map-weapon-vehicle-inventory-air-drop

Margolis, R., 2008. A Killer Story: An Interview with Suzanne Collins, Author of ‘The Hunger Games’ | Under Cover. [Online] Available at: https://www.slj.com/?detailStory=a-killer-story-an-interview-with-suzanne-collins-author-of-the-hunger-games

Melrose, C., 2018. WHY BATTLE ROYALE GAMES LIKE FORTNITE ARE EVERYWHERE (IT’S NOT JUST MONEY). [Online] Available at: https://www.wired.com/story/fortnite-battlefield-rise-of-battle-royale/

Paumgarten, N., 2018. How Fortnite Captured Teens’ Hearts and Minds. [Online] Available at: https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2018/05/21/how-fortnite-captured-teens-hearts-and-minds

Sellers, J. A., 2008. 'The Hunger Games': A Dark Horse Breaks Out. [Online] Available at: https://www.publishersweekly.com/pw/print/20080609/9915-a-dark-horse-breaks-out.html

Wade, J., 2018. Battle-royale games like 'Fortnite' are expected to make $20 billion in 2019. [Online] Available at: https://www.businessinsider.com/fortnite-battle-royale-video-games-revenue-charts-2018-7

Subject: IT

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

GPS Technology

GPS Technology

[Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees]

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Author Note

[Include any grant/funding information and a complete correspondence address.]


GPS is the acronym of Global Positioning System and is a utility owned by the United States that provides users with navigation, positioning and timing services. GPS is a receiver which receives radio waves and indicates the exact location of an element in a particular space. The satellites of GPS provide services to military and civilian users based on the requirements. Services related to the civilian use are available freely to all the users internationally while the military services are provided to the American and other allied forces for various purposes. The GPS is a satellite-based system of navigation which comprises of 24 satellites which are orbiting almost 26,600 kilometers above the earth surface. These satellites are put into the orbit by the United States department of defense. In the year 1980, the government decided to extend the services and applications of GPS for civil purposes as well. The service is available 24/7 all over the globe in all the weather conditions with no charges of setup and subscription fee. GPS has revolutionized communication and has a great impact on our daily lives.


The global positioning system consists of three segments namely space segment, control segment and user segment. Space and control segments are developed, operated and maintained by Airforce of the United States (The Global Positioning System, 2005). The space segment is made up of 24 satellites and provides the position and time of the current GPS satellite by transmitting one-way signals. The control segment of the Global Positioning System is very important as it serves to maintain the satellite in its fixed orbits by using command manoeuvres. This segment is also used to adjust clocks of the satellites. Also, the control segment of GPS uploads navigational updated data helps in tracking other GPS satellites and maintains the status and health of the satellite constellation. The third segment is user segment which is receivers and receives the signals from satellites to determine the velocity, position of the user and time. To ensure accuracy and reliability, the receiver on the user side segment of the GPS satellite systems uses the timestamp to from the other four satellites at one time to calculate the delay in the transmission. After receiving all the signals from the satellites, the receiver carries out a comparison between the time the signal was sent by satellite and the time at which the signal is received at the user segment of the GPS navigation system. The position of the target is then calculated by comparing the difference obtained between the two signals and the process is called Trilateralization (Dempster, 2013).   

Impact of GPS on our lives

GPS has an undeniable impact on our daily lives as this is the leading system in the world which provides efficient navigation and tracking. The devices and applications that use GPS are rampant these days because there are no special charges and regional restrictions other than a few specific restrictions. GPS is not only used for megaprojects, in huge machinery and operations but also has paved its way in domestic use as well. It has cast a huge impact on the way people live and communicate. GPS has rendered our society and environment a safer and easier place to work and live. It is used to assist parents to maintain a track of their little kids and the installed apps in mobile phones and cars help people to their locations on maps. In case of emergency, it becomes easier now to update rescue teams and relatives about the current position so that speedy treatment and first aid is provided well in time. It is used to keep track and locate law offenders, dangerous criminals and terrorists and many other such applications.

In academia, the use of GPS has a great impact on learning and understanding of the students. Students use GPS modules which are available in the markets and can easily be integrated with computer programmable chips to obtain the desired results. This technique can e used to locate any hidden radio, target and other sources of transmissions as it gives the results up to 3m accuracy. The output from a GPS module is in the form of coordinates in longitudes and latitudes which makes it easy to locate any entity or object. The applications of GPS are equally successful and promising in the fields of engineering and businesses including geodetic research, route surveying (utility lines, cables, pipelines and roads) and surveying in engineering and construction.

Security concerns.

There are humongous benefits and merits of the GPS navigational system, however, there are some associated security threats and risks too. With GPS it is possible to track thieves and defaulters but there are circumstances where people don’t want to be tracked. Tracking of the location has become an increasing issue with each new gadget and device is aimed at further constricting oneself and his privacy. Also, according to a study, the constant use of GPS for navigational information and other uses can prevent our brains to develop a normal hippocampus which is the part of the brain responsible for space and memory (Santiago, 2017). Hence there are demerits of this technology too.


GPS is used in many applications and has become an integral part of the technology and information security. With very good accuracy and free of charge services all around the globe has made GPS a successful and essential thing use. Although there are some concerns related to its use and other moral considerations but the beneficial use of GPS and its impact in our life are so powerful that it cannot b avoided even in our daily use. 


BIBLIOGRAPHY Dempster, A. (2013, 3 7). Explainer: what is GPS? Retrieved from The Conversation: http://theconversation.com/explainer-what-is-gps-12248

Santiago, R. (2017, 10 19). Is GPS Technology Harmful to Our Health. Retrieved from Carter's GPS: http://cartersgps.com/is-gps-technology-harmful-to-our-health/

The Global Positioning System. (2005). Retrieved from GPS.GOV: https://www.gps.gov/systems/gps/

Subject: IT

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Free Essays About Blog

If you have any queries please write to us

Invalid Email Address!
Thank you for joining our mailing list

Please note that some of the content on our website is generated using AI and it is thoroughly reviewed and verified by our team of experienced editors. The essays and papers we provide are intended for learning purposes only and should not be submitted as original work.