Thucydides: A Greek historian and author knew for his work ‘History of Peloponnesian War'.
Anarchy: A state that lacks order due to the absence of authority.
Hegemonic stability theory: The stability of the international system requires the enforcement of laws.
Security dilemma: a spiral model that focuses on strengthening military power through weaponization.
Bipolar system: explains how military and economic activity influence two states.
Balance of power: a condition in which states enjoy the same power.
Rationality: decisions based on logic and reasoning.
Arms race: the competition among nations for superiority and power.
League of Nations: it is an organization that stresses on the treaty of versatility.
International regime: a process that involves rules for transforming intergovernmental organizations.
Liberalism: a philosophy that emphasizes an individual's freedom and liberty.
Neoliberal institutionalism: it reflects that international institutes have maintained international relations including political and economic perspectives.
Positive peace: it refers to justice for all.
Feminism: stresses on women rights and equality.
Groupthink: harmony in the group for attaining group results.
Organizational process model: involve a set of assets and work standards for maintaining organizational efficiency.
Cognitive bias: a decision that lacks rationality due to partiality.
Prospect theory: identifies the reasons that encourage people to choose problematic alternatives.
Public opinion: views of the public about different state decisions and policies.
Power: the capacity of influencing others.
Power transition theory: explains the relationship among states in the international system.
Deterrence: discouraging an action for avoiding negative consequences.
Unipolar system: a condition in which states enjoy the same power in the military, political and economic aspects.
Multipolar system: political arrangements are disrupted by the political powers. This also refers to the decentralization of power.
NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization in which European countries agree to support each other.
Prisoner’s dilemma: the situation in which outcomes are dependent on the simultaneity of the situation. The prisoners are given choices for confessing or denying to the crime.
Immanuel Kant: a popular philosopher of ethics. Known for his ethical theory of utilitarianism that explains that the ethical decision leads to the benefit for the maximum number.
United Nations: international organizations united for cooperative and political advantage.
Collective security: a broader security framework that stresses on the security at global and international levels. The nations engage in generating a collective response to threats and security risks.
Liberal institutionalism: UN and NATO unite for maximization of aids among nations.
Postmodernism: criticism of the late twentieth century that emphasized on self-consciousness and early conventions. Artists emerged to challenge political injustices.
Marxism: involve the theory of Karl Marx for explaining the division between the rich and the poor. The resources and unequal possession of wealth creates a natural gap between the poor and the rich.
Decision-making: the process involved in making decisions.
Rational actor model: rationality refers to maximization of value.
Government bargaining model: policy decisions that involve diverse outcomes.
Affective bias: negative bias that affects the neutrality of decision.
Interest groups: a group that aims at influencing the policy decisions of the state.
Military-industrial complex: an alliance between the nation and the military working for making policies.
Sun Tzu, Thucydides, and Thomas Hobbes are all considered to be thinkers who shaped what we call a realist approach to politics. However, the approach is less useful that pre-9/11 because the state needed to address the interest groups that challenged the national security.
The strengths of realist theory include its ability to stressing on human nature and explaining how states interact with each other. Security and maximization of power are strengths. Conflict and inter-state wars are common weaknesses this became evident in the Middle East. The strengths of the liberal theory include collective security and corporation. The weakness includes minimum state intervention such as in America where business firms enjoy monopoly power.
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