Home >> Free Essays >> All Subjects >> International Relations

International Relations Examples and Topics

No Specific

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of Instructor]


[July 18, 2019]



Globalization is the hallmark of this modern twenty-first-century world. This is one buzzword that accurately defines the overall dynamics of this world. Globalization has several meanings contingent upon the contact in which it is used. This phenomenon of globalization has different dimensions attached with it such as political, social, economic and cultural. Politically, it means the era of democracy in the world. Socially and culturally, this is the emblem of liberty, human rights, and free societies. As far as the economic aspect is concerned, it is the symbol of Free Trade and the market economy in the world. This period of globalization took off from the New World Order in 1991, and since then it is ruling the world affairs. This Globalization has become contested as well because different benefits and losses are attached with it as they are illuminated by several political scientists and researchers. Moreover, the different global issue has also surfaced with this phenomenon that needs pragmatic actions and strategies from global authorities.


To begin with, globalization has many good sides. It is the dawn of period which is marked with many positive changes in the world. it has benefited the world population in the sense that it promoted much goodwill and collective benefit among the nation’s states of the world. First, pf all, with globalization societies became freer and more liberal in their outlook. Countries in different parts of the world took notice of the human rights and incorporated them into their constitutions. People are now can easily express their opinions, and profess different religious doctrines. Moreover, on the political side, the world became more democratic. People discarded the other political theories and ideologies to govern their states such as the rejection of socialist-communist ideology. Economically, the world benefited from the free flow of goods and movement. It was attempted under the banner of globalization that there should be no barriers for trade and it should be free in all aspects. The frontiers of the state should be open and all global community must contribute to efforts and results for this barriers-free trade.

This globalization is not without demerits. It has its kind of bad aspects as well. Initially, globalization aimed to integrates the world under the banner of free movement of goods ideas, and people ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"OV0NkBoV","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Intriligator)","plainCitation":"(Intriligator)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":698,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ZD9MNZ2P/items/KQ5GMSPJ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ZD9MNZ2P/items/KQ5GMSPJ"],"itemData":{"id":698,"type":"chapter","title":"Globalisation of the World Economy: Potential Benefits and Costs and a Net Assessment","container-title":"Economics of Globalisation","publisher":"Routledge","page":"85–94","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Globalisation of the World Economy","author":[{"family":"Intriligator","given":"Michael"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Intriligator). Nevertheless, it was only an elusive dream which remained unreal. The world has witnessed that instead of integrating, this globalization is accelerating the disintegration process. Now and then, this has hampered the internal situation of the states. Politically, it is alleged that globalization is the misnomer for throwing governments in conflict-stricken regions of the world such as the region of the middle east where there is Arab spring still going on. Democracy is implanted there irrespective of the different political and cultural traditions in those middle eastern countries. This is the drawback of globalization. On the social and cultural side, it is stated that globalization is the blanket-term for cultural invasion. Different societies in the world are showing signs of increasing westernization. Globalization is also associated with acing the clash of civilization in the world. Lastly, on the economic front, there has been much furore against this globalization. People and countries are complaining that this is the tool of the powerful nations to open up their economies and extort the resources of their lands. The people in weaker nations opine that this globalization is the modern form of imperialism.

As a result, different global issues have surfaced in this world. Some of them are increasing rich-poor divide, cultural invasion, diminishing the sovereignty of the states, external interference and et al. Moreover, more and more wealth is in a few rich countries such as first-world countries. More precisely, it is witnessed that only a handful of people in big states control the major chunk of the wealth in this world. Even it is alleged that all leading financial institutions are also involved in further weakening of the states under the guise of globalization ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"5e5iwwPj","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Broner and Ventura)","plainCitation":"(Broner and Ventura)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":693,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ZD9MNZ2P/items/2HWG5TE9"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ZD9MNZ2P/items/2HWG5TE9"],"itemData":{"id":693,"type":"article-journal","title":"Rethinking the effects of financial globalization","container-title":"The Quarterly Journal of Economics","page":"1497–1542","volume":"131","issue":"3","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Broner","given":"Fernando"},{"family":"Ventura","given":"Jaume"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Broner and Ventura).

This conflicting side of globalization is not incurable. Several solutions are needed to make it a healthy state for all. The first and foremost step is to remember the democracy is about cultural values. It is not a mechanical process which can occur all of a sudden. So, there has to be no external interference in the internal affairs of the countries. The sovereignty of the sates must be kept in sight before promoting the globalizing tendencies. Moreover, the big nations involved globalization need to be more responsible in the sense that they should not impose their own culture on others without their consent. On the economic side, global institutions need to be more empathetic towards poor nations of the world. The best solution is to take all the nations states equally in world affairs and give a legitimate hearing to their real concerns. Besides, the United Nations to play its part more actively to save other weaker nations of the world.


In a nutshell, globalization is the trademark of this world as it is the symbol of the new world order. Globalization has changed the overall life on the planet of earth. As everything comes with a price, so the good and novel ideas of globalization are also not without demerits. Where it has connected the world and minimized the distances, it has also brought forth different ill effects as well. This free flow of ideas, movement, goods, people are working to benefit only some of the nations and became a source of distress for others especially third world countries. It is time that the global community put up some workable solution to deal with the malicious side of globalization.

Works Cited:

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Broner, Fernando, and Jaume Ventura. “Rethinking the Effects of Financial Globalization.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol. 131, no. 3, 2016, pp. 1497–1542.

Intriligator, Michael. “Globalisation of the World Economy: Potential Benefits and Costs and a Net Assessment.” Economics of Globalisation, Routledge, 2017, pp. 85–94.

Subject: International Relations

Pages: 3 Words: 900

No Title (answer/analyse The Questions)


[Name of Instructor]


[4 April 2019]

International Relations

Commercial liberals are of the view that economic interdependence between states makes wars less likely. This means that trade is more efficient than the use of force for achieving state objective. When Commercial Liberalism was tested, there existed a lack of evidence for reducing international conflicts. One study maintains that there is a powerful link between international conflict and interdependence, while other ignores this proposition. On the other hand, Neorealist view other variables such as domestic regime future trade expectation. For them, survival is vital to the statecraft on the basis of self-help. Joseph S. Nye and Robert Keohane are of the view that it is not economic interdependence that characterizes state rather the economic relations that are costly to break on a mutual basis ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"wnTSbKS0","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}Journal of Military and Strategic Studies})","plainCitation":"(Journal of Military and Strategic Studies)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":277,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/UUNWXCM5"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/UUNWXCM5"],"itemData":{"id":277,"type":"webpage","title":"Journal of Military and Strategic Studies","URL":"https://jmss.org/index","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",4,4]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Journal of Military and Strategic Studies). When states suffer substantial long-term costs, they become vulnerable and disrupt their normal economic ties. As far as the US is concerned and with the collapse of former USSR, the US assumes itself as the sole guarantee of the global security and show its deterrence. Meanwhile, the US wants to maintain its hegemony and that in fact has raised concerns about decision-making unilaterally. In this regard, there are growing concerns regarding its promotion of self-interest by violating international law.

Trade interdependence has significantly decreased the onset of conflicts between the two states. This can be examined by comparing the pre and post-trade interdepended conflicts around the world. Moreover, China, for example, had longer hostilities prior to the years of economic reforms. Trade and economic interdependence makes war less likely and reduces its intensity. This would be a possible reason that both the US and China may not confront each other directly as both have economic interdependence. But there exist potentials of trade-war between the two countries ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"0LWcEJaO","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Zeng)","plainCitation":"(Zeng)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":279,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/EMLJHN2W"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/EMLJHN2W"],"itemData":{"id":279,"type":"book","title":"Trade Threats, Trade Wars: Bargaining, Retaliation, and American Coercive Diplomacy","publisher":"University of Michigan Press","source":"JSTOR","archive":"JSTOR","abstract":"This study of American trade policy addresses two puzzles associated with the use of aggressive bargaining tactics to open foreign markets. First, as the country with greater power and resources, why has the United States achieved more success in extracting concessions from some of its trading partners than others? Second, why is it that trade disputes between democratic and authoritarian states do not more frequently spark retaliatory actions than those between democratic pairs? Ka Zeng finds answers to both of these questions in the domestic repercussions of the structure of trade between the United States and its trading partners, whether the United States has a <i>competitive</i> trade relationship with its trading partner, or whether trade is <i>complementary</i> . This book offers practical policy prescriptions that promise to be of interest to trade policymakers and students of international trade policy. Ka Zeng is Assistant Professor of Political Science at the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville.","URL":"https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.3998/mpub.17690","ISBN":"978-0-472-11358-3","note":"DOI: 10.3998/mpub.17690","shortTitle":"Trade Threats, Trade Wars","author":[{"family":"Zeng","given":"Ka"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2004"]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",4,4]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Zeng).

The trade war has been justified differently with multiple fronts. In contemporary global politics, the countries are trying to target their economies rather than militaries ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"lGjR6V7p","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Cary Huang)","plainCitation":"(Cary Huang)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":280,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/BNVEXVNY"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/BNVEXVNY"],"itemData":{"id":280,"type":"webpage","title":"History shows trade wars cause world wars. Will this time be different?","container-title":"South China Morning Post","abstract":"The risk of armed conflict has to be acknowledged, with the trade war now affecting a swathe of US allies, and with the two main actors in the dispute, China and the US, showing every intention of a fight to the end in a tit-for-tat tussle.","URL":"https://www.scmp.com/comment/insight-opinion/united-states/article/2155565/trade-wars-cause-world-wars-history-shows-will","language":"en","author":[{"literal":"Cary Huang"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018",7,17]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",4,4]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Cary Huang). In this regard, the Trump administration claims that China has been playing the market practices in an unfair way such as stealing the US intellectual property. In 2017, the US launched an investigation against the trade policies of Chinese. On 6th July 2018, the US imposed the first wave of tariffs on Chinese goods worth $34 billion. This was retaliated immediately from China. This will cast a dark shadow over the global economic order. The administration has continuously been threatening additional tariffs of $267 billion by 2020. This will lead to an unpredicted scenario

There is no such scenario that may make trade-wars less likely while the major powers seem not interested in depressing the global prices and protectionism. This will result in a decrease in industrial production and an increase in protectionism ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Xk0ycJ7t","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Lowrey)","plainCitation":"(Lowrey)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":282,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/KQEE4FUW"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/KQEE4FUW"],"itemData":{"id":282,"type":"webpage","title":"The Costs of Trump’s Trade War","container-title":"The Atlantic","abstract":"Higher prices, slowing growth, mounting layoffs—and the indirect costs may be even greater.","URL":"https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2018/07/the-costs-of-trumps-trade-war/565208/","language":"en-US","author":[{"family":"Lowrey","given":"Annie"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018",7,16]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",4,4]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Lowrey).This will force the investors to look for alternative markets with fewer competitors and many opportunities. Negotiation, in fact, is the only way out as the trade-war will only produce looser rather than winners. The best-case scenario is that the major countries should reach an agreement and this will ends as there is always a deal to be done. Currently, both the US and China are testing each other and eventually, they will realize that they require cooperation. But negotiation requires support from US corporations. Earlier, there was support, but the landscapes have changed dramatically. Nowadays, they view Chinese corporations as competitors. This will surely fuel a vicious cycle as restrictions will make China promote its domestic technology. As a result, Chinese corporations will not be able to purchase high-tech commodities from the US and will be encouraged to develop their own.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Cary Huang. “History Shows Trade Wars Cause World Wars. Will This Time Be Different?” South China Morning Post, 17 July 2018, https://www.scmp.com/comment/insight-opinion/united-states/article/2155565/trade-wars-cause-world-wars-history-shows-will.

Journal of Military and Strategic Studies. https://jmss.org/index. Accessed 4 Apr. 2019.

Lowrey, Annie. “The Costs of Trump’s Trade War.” The Atlantic, 16 July 2018, https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2018/07/the-costs-of-trumps-trade-war/565208/.

Zeng, Ka. Trade Threats, Trade Wars: Bargaining, Retaliation, and American Coercive Diplomacy. University of Michigan Press, 2004. JSTOR, JSTOR, doi:10.3998/mpub.17690.

Subject: International Relations

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Other Globalizations, World Citizenship, And Cosmopolitanism

Your Name

Instructor Name

Course Number


Globalizations, World Citizenship, and Cosmopolitanism

Are cosmopolitans in Hannerz's sense more likely than "locals" to become "world citizens" as described by the World Service Authority? Do you see anything in the statement on world citizenship to which both cosmopolitans and locals might object?

The concept of world citizenship advocates and implies the association of humankind with the contemporary realities of geotechnical and geo-political realities CITATION Hea04 \l 1033 (Heater). World citizenship also requires citizens to take a leap beyond perennial wisdom and remain updated with the latest news that pre-dominate the geopolitical environment. The term, “world citizen”, can be better comprehended by a negative connotation and definition, than a negative one. World citizens find themselves tied to a fundamental ground which is comprised of all the values, in addition to the universality of knowledge and the foundation of truth. Another perspective on this is that the only imperative and dynamic political identity which has the ability to associate the moral value of an individual with the economic and social organizations around him, is world citizenship. There is a need for teaching, learning, and experiencing world citizenship in the contemporary period, because many studies and research dimensions have also established that it is more than a political strategy.

Cosmopolitans are more likely to become world citizens rather than the locals because they have a tendency and innate desire to immerse themselves in various other cultures CITATION Han04 \t \l 1033 (Hannerz). They also want to possess the ability and freedom to inculcate in other cultures at any point in time. Cosmopolitans want to be known and regarded as participants. Moreover, they also want to be readily identifiable in a crowd which is comprised of participants. This can also indicate a group of locals in their own country. Cosmopolitans are largely on the move and amongst a vast spectrum of various cultures in which they are engaged, as one tends to be territorial in nature. This enables cosmopolitans to instil in themselves, a culture of everyday lives of different communities.

The cosmopolitans and locals might object to the statement that world citizenship verticalizes the individual and sets him upright from all the nuisance of nationalistic politics. This statement makes a world citizen alienated with the sovereignty of his own nation which is a cause for objectionCITATION Han90 \t \l 1033 (Hannerz). The locals might object on this statement, as it portrays them as self-centred citizens of their countries who are merely concerned about the sovereignty of their own country.

Works Cited

"Cosmopolitans and locals in world culture." Theory, culture & society (1990): 237-251.

BIBLIOGRAPHY Hannerz, Ulf. "Cosmopolitanism." A Companion to the Anthropology of Politics (2004): 69-85.

Heater, Derek. World citizenship: Cosmopolitan thinking and its opponents. Bloomsbury Publishing, 2004.

Subject: International Relations

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Other Globalizations, World Citizenship, And Cosmopolitanism

Your Name

Instructor Name

Course Number


Globalizations, World Citizenship, and Cosmopolitanism

Chiefly known for his extensive contributions in the development of a concept theorizing “counter-hegemonic globalization”, Peter Evans is a political sociologist who defined this social movement as an organized effort on a global scale in the pursuit of substituting the worldwide neo-liberal regime with a regime that strives to develop human capabilities CITATION Eva08 \l 1033 (Evans, Is an alternative globalization possible?). If this perspective is put into place, the result would be a vast spectrum of effects of globalization which would aim for the exuberance of country-wide movements in the favor of social protection. The argument in favor of this concept advocates that if the increments in transnational connections are harnessed efficaciously, it can result in the timely construction of socially and environmentally sustainable communities. The impact of counter-hegemonic globalization also entails that power wealth would be distributed more equally among different segments of society.

Environmental movements, labor movements, and women’s movements are arrayed against neoliberal globalization CITATION Eva12 \l 1033 (Evans, Counter‐hegemonic globalization). Without pursuing and redefining local interests, these movements face the adversities of utilizing transnational networks. Additionally, the goals and methods of these movements are also targeting their collective efforts arrayed against the neo-liberal regime. Jobs are being out-sourced and informalized and anything that can be considered as a social contract between an employee and employer is eradicated. Similarly, the ideological foundations of a women’s movement are deeply anchored in fundamental human rights. Empowerment of the abused and oppressed women across a plethora of cultural and geographical locations and their emancipatory transition from an informal sector to a formal sector are the methods used by the women’s movements. Furthermore, global conferences organized by the United Nations have also proven to be instrumental in the solidification of transnational networks. Finally, the environmental movements are making every effort to fight against the state and corporate polluters CITATION Eva00 \l 1033 (Evans, "Fighting marginalization with transnational networks: Counter-hegemonic globalization."). Environmentalists are also deploying an impeccable agenda of saving the planet and are also corroborating scientific pieces of evidence to secure their position.

Works Cited

BIBLIOGRAPHY Evans, Peter. "Fighting marginalization with transnational networks: Counter-hegemonic globalization."." Contemporary sociology (2000): 230.

"Counter‐hegemonic globalization." The Wiley‐Blackwell Encyclopedia of Globalization (2012).

"Is an alternative globalization possible?" Politics & society (2008): 271-305.

Subject: International Relations

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Reading Review

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of Instructor]

International Relations


Reading Review

Why Did You Pick The Article/Chapter?

In the entire world, people leave their leaves and migrate to other regions because of several reasons. We have witness people fleeing Syria for Europe in which numerous have lost their lives and left behind their loved ones (Christine, n.p). We have also seen people fleeing Venezuela because of economic uncertainties. As well as these people make their way towards North America by tiring journeys. The reason for choosing this article is to convey and demonstrate my understanding about sufferings of immigrants fleeing their homeland (Venezuela).

Why Do You Find This Reading Interesting?

The very first reason because of which I found the reading highly interesting is it helped me in understanding the global developments that are taken place regarding human immigration. The work is pretty interested because of the knowledge that the reading (article) has regarding the immigration of Venezuela as well as how people suffer and face trouble while migrating from Venezuela (Lawson & Lawrence, pp. 179-188). Beyond that, the work has been found interesting because it covers all aspects of the problems, sufferings, and other issues, etc. of the people fleeing Venezuela.

What Was The Data And Evidence Used By This Reading?

The evidence used by the reading is the extreme level poverty of people of Venezuela who cannot even afford a bus or plane ticket and they escape on their feet and risk their important lives while the data used is around 650 to 700 people flees and walk out of Venezuela (Christine, n.p). Another evidence used in the work is around nine days ago, a team of professionals meets a Venezuelan mother and her daughter who have crossed three borders which become around 2700 miles distance while a person named “J. Suarez” walked for more than 25 hours continuously. Beyond that, the people get robbed and assaulted by illegal groups because they don’t have even 10 dollars to give to these illegal groups or people.

Was It Informative Why Or Why Not?

The work (article) has been found highly and much informative. The article was informative because it gives hit to every aspect of the issue or concern. As well as the article covers all facts and figures about this huge problem of people fleeing Venezuela and states that what huge problems immigrants face, how they migrate and what actually happen to them.

Was The Data Or Evidence Used Biased, Why Or Why Not?

From the deep analysis of the article, it cannot be stated that data and evidence used in the work are biased. The data and evidence are not biased because it touches the issues from all perspectives like why people of Venezuela migrate to outside region, how difficulty they migrate (through walking) and what problems they face during migration (for example robbery and assaulting by illegal groups). From the other side, the work covers what possible impacts could be there on the region or country where people of Venezuela migrate and how they would an additional burden on those economies (John, pp. 1-11).

Is There Anything About The Reading That You Agree And/or Disagree With?

The thing about the reading with which I highly agree in the robbery and assault of people of Venezuela by the illegal groups and people. The robbery and assault add insult to the injury of people of Venezuela.

Why Do You Agree/Disagree? Finally, What Are Your Observations On The Reading?

As I have a strong research background on this particular issue where I always found that the worst problem faced by the people during migration is their robbery and assault by those illegal groups and people (Lawson & Lawrence, pp. 179-188). More well as I have found once or twice that people of Venezuela (migrants) consider this problem a bigger one than their migration from the country through walking (Christine, n.p).

Lastly, Provide As Much Detail Drawn From The Article To Illustrate Your Analysis.

Despite being a top oil-producing country, Venezuela has been hit by devastating inflation that has never been witnessed before (Lawson & Lawrence, pp. 179-188). Further, the government of Venezuela has failed to provide its citizens with basic human needs, rights, and facilities that is why people are forced to flee their loved homeland (John, pp. 1-11). While fleeing they are faced with several problems ranging from robbery, assault, and rape. Hence numerous people lost their precious lives just to get basic life needs and facilities.

Work cited

Christine, Armario. "Follow The Trek Of Venezuelan Migrants Fleeing On Foot." AP NEWS. N. P., 2018. Web. 10 July 2019

John, Mauricia. "Venezuelan economic crisis: crossing Latin American and Caribbean borders." Migration and Development (2018): 1-11.

Lawson, Victoria A., and Lawrence A. Brown. "Structural tension, migration, and development: A case study of Venezuela." The Professional Geographer 39.2 (1987): 179-188.

Subject: International Relations

Pages: 2 Words: 600


Name of Student

Name of Professor

Name of Class

Day Month Year


Judge and the General


According to the accounts of Judge Guzman presented by this interview, they did not believe people were in actuality being disappeared during Pinochet's Dictatorship. At first, he thought that disappearing meant that people were arrested and would be held in lockup or jail for some time. After some time, they would be released and will reappear ("The Judge and the General,").


During the Pinochet dictatorship, Judge Juan Guzman was an appellate court judge. For human rights cases, judges in Chile were responsible for multiple things during the trial process such as investigation, prosecution and trying cases. Even during his term, he was considered as a conservative judge, who went against most of the rulings given by higher judges ("The Judge and the General,").


To establish their oppressive rule in Chile, the Pinochet regime took out anyone who would oppose their leadership such as the assignation of Orlando Letelier. Furthermore, the caravan of death was the name given to a military unit, who under the orders of General Pinochet to far-flung areas in Chile to hunt and kill any activist that opposed his regime ("The Judge and the General,"). This was confirmed during the investigation done by Judge Guzman, who thousands of such cases. Out of these the most notable ones were Manuel Donoso and Cecilia Castro.


In the Chilean legal system, the investigation is run by the judge, he is also the one who investigates, the one who tries the case and the one who gives the sentence. Because the case was important a member of the court of appeals was chosen and as the judges take turns in taking cases, this time the turn was of Juan Guzman ("The Judge and the General,"). His appointment was thought to make attaining justice improbable as he was a right-wing judge who was still very skeptical about the charges that were discussed in the case. At the start, the judiciary did not give him many resources to work with as nobody wanted his investigation to move forward.


Judge Guzman decision regarding the mental competency of Pinochet stemmed from an interview Pinochet gave to a Miami reporter. In this interview, the judge realized that Pinochet was logical, able to discriminate between important and non-important things, had an understanding between right and wrong and had the mindset of how to present himself in the best light ("The Judge and the General,"). All this and with the doctor’s recommendation he declared Pinochet mentally competent.


The film is the depiction of one of the most difficult times that Chile had to face. In which where the man they once thought of as their savior from a communist regime turned out to be the devil in disguise ("The Judge and the General,").

Genocide Worse Than War-Daniel Goldhagen


The subject of this document is how genocide is worse than war. This word, Genocide, is condemned in the eyes of the world and is a great regret for humanitarians. Genocide and the gravity of situation this word brings have led people to believe how humanity has failed each other ("Genocide Worse than War Full Length Documentary Pbs").


A scorched earth campaign was done by the Guatemalan military conducted that was focused on the Mayan people and leftist insurgents. In their view, the Mayan people were thought of subversive and an obstruction to the progress of the country. To stop any future rebellion, they took the Mayan people out of their homes and massacred them ("Genocide Worse than War Full Length Documentary Pbs").


According to Rios Montt, he did not commit any genocide and if anyone has any proof of it they should bring it into the court of law. Furthermore, to put pressure on his point he describes a demented and self-assuring version of the definition of the word Genocide. But in the summer of 2013, he was convicted and sentenced for the genocide he had caused and for the crimes that he perpetrated against humanity ("Genocide Worse than War Full Length Documentary Pbs").


This video delved deep into genocides that had occurred in different parts of the world. This video tries to find the repercussions of the actions of the few that led to the deaths of many and the reasoning behind these heinous decisions. Furthermore, to give more weight to his documentary the interviewer even included the accounts of his father who had faced hardships at the hands of the Germans ("Genocide Worse than War Full Length Documentary Pbs").

Work Cited

"Genocide Worse Than War Full Length Documentary Pbs." YouTube. N.p., 2019. Web. 19 July 2019.

"The Judge And The General" YouTube. N.p., 2019. Web. 19 July 2019.

Subject: International Relations

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Study Question

Full Title of Your Paper Here

Your Name (First M. Last)

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)

Study Question

1. The Jacksonian tradition explains militant internationalism. He explained that a strong defense could project power for national security and economic wellbeing. The Jeffersonian tradition is based on isolationism and focused on the protection of democracy at home at its interest. Wilsonian gave the concept of cooperative internationalism to promote democracy and international organization. Wilsonian tradition is more realistic and understandable for contemporary foreign policy as democracy and international relations like trade, both are important than just self-interest or militant power.

2. The Prisoner's Dilemma game gives us the concept of best payoff and worse payoff through the behavior between two parties or players. It is important in world policies because the political decision of one country can give a worse payoff to others or benefit as well. For example, a trade war between China and America is the result of the political decision, also an example of Prisoner's Dilemma. It has the limitation that it provides the outcome for two countries while many other countries also effect through one nation's political decision.

3. Collaboration in international politics is beneficial for actors, so they get motivated from it. Collaboration is the distinct form of cooperation as it provides a proper path for all the collaborated actors to process and if anyone does not collaborate with others may not continue it. Collaboration continues till both actors get benefit from it when anyone stops getting the benefit or fewer benefits then collaboration may break down. For example trade war between China and America

4. The military technology influences the likelihood that state goes to war when one of the states decides to attack the other. Therefore it is necessary to balance the balance of power so one state does not try to dominate the other.

5. The private military company serves differently as they work to strengthen the nation from inside and help at the border when necessary. The risks of privatizing various military function are that it gives extra power to it which can be risky and can influence the likelihood that state goes for war or conflicts.

Subject: International Relations

Pages: 1 Words: 300


Linzhou Zhu

Enter the name of the Instructor

International Relations

July 25th, 2019

The development of the international economic system

International economic is the amalgamation of various countries’ economies. It is concerned with economic interaction and their effect on each other. Countries develop trade relations with other countries, and become part of the bilateral, trilateral or multilateral trading forums to strengthen the econonomyin this capitalist world. The fundamental concept of the international economic system is related to the influence of the international market on domestic conditions of any country. In this way, economic policies are redefined to accomodate the pressing cconcens of the time. Another fundamental concept of international economics is about the economic interdependence. Economic interdependence provides insight into why and how countries prioritize economic goals, and sometimes refrain from going into deals with any particular state. In addition to these concepts globalization, trade patterns, foreign direct investments, and trade gains conceptualize the international economic system from time –to- time.

These concepts of international economics define the basic parameters of the economy for better understanding. For example, these basic parameters of the economy are related to the businesses and their securities or insecurities. The most basic parameter for understanding the international economy is the role of a national economy and its currency. Moreover, at the very basic level, the interest’s rates, the growth domestic product (GDP) dynamics, trade surplus or deficits and the level of inflations play major parts in the international economy. The up- emergence of these concepts have a history which dates back since the end of the Second World War.

In the post-war period, reconstruction as a development objective was initiated by President Henry Truman of the United States. He prioritized the development of war-torn areas, which he believed will be crucial for the US and its allies. There have been major phases in the development theory since 1945. In the first two decades right after WWII, industrialization was given priority. This was the time when the economic concepts were used in raw form and much attention was given to human resource development. The major concepts related to economic development started in the 1980s when neoliberalism was the new norm ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Z08KPiZx","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Hart and Spero)","plainCitation":"(Hart and Spero)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1754,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/C77YR6TZ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/C77YR6TZ"],"itemData":{"id":1754,"type":"book","title":"The politics of international economic relations","publisher":"Routledge","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Hart","given":"Jeffrey A."},{"family":"Spero","given":"Joan Edelman"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2013"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Hart and Spero). It primarily focused on free trading and removal of the trade barriers. The development in economics was parallel to physical developments on the ground. The above-mentioned aspect like globalization, GDP, etc also got attention in this period of time in history.

An interesting aspect of this development was the creation of the Bretton Wood System. The agreement for the Bretton Wood System was negotiated in July of 1944. In its development delegates from around forty-four countries were included, who presented their proposals in a financial conference held in Bretton Wood. The main achievement of this conference was the adoption of a resolution which associated dollar with the price of gold, other currencies from that time were then linked with the financial worth of the U.S dollar. World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (the IMF) were then set as the constituent institutions of the Bretton Wood System.

Besides providing the world a stable mechanism of economics and development, there were some governing principles of the Bretton Wood system. Some of these governing principles are as follows:

Creation of the gold exchange standard.

Establishment of the fixed party’s agreement, which allowed the formation of a formula for creating and developing exchange rates.

Freedom for convertibility of economics.

There are many critics of the Bretton Wood system who argue that such a system is beneficial for the mighty economies. They base their arguments on the reason that since its creation it has benefitted the major economies and not the minor ones.

Besides being part of the world economy, the Breton Wood system has not remained beneficial for developing countries. For example, in the under the developed region of the world, it remained much visible that no monitory regulation policy was making its place. In essence, hallowness of the previous economic system paved way for the Bretton Wood economic politics in the world. This is the reason that Bretton Wood was soon associated with imperialism. Its critics started propagating that Bretton wood and its affiliated institutions are benefitting the United States and its allied countries. When in 1971, President Nixon ended the rate regime, it also impacted badly on the developing countries. Igwe argues that from 1971 and onwards, the developing countries were then made to work under a system of G-7 and G-5 ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"dYyKK05v","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Igwe)","plainCitation":"(Igwe)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1752,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/LHC2UG9U"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/LHC2UG9U"],"itemData":{"id":1752,"type":"article-journal","title":"History of the International Economy: The Bretton Woods System and its Impact on the Economic Development of Developing Countries","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"History of the International Economy","author":[{"family":"Igwe","given":"Isaac OC"}]}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Igwe). They were then regulating international monetary policies. Besides providing an imperialist mentality to these countries, such policies hindered the development of the less developed region ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"NLiXHgDs","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Igwe)","plainCitation":"(Igwe)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1752,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/LHC2UG9U"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/LHC2UG9U"],"itemData":{"id":1752,"type":"article-journal","title":"History of the International Economy: The Bretton Woods System and its Impact on the Economic Development of Developing Countries","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"History of the International Economy","author":[{"family":"Igwe","given":"Isaac OC"}]}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Igwe).

The present age in which we are living is a time of individual development. Although globalization is the trending pattern in development, if any state remains unsuccessful in developing an economic mechanism of its own, it loses its share in global development. This is enough to prove that there exists economic inequality in the world. The only possible means to establish a general mechanism for development is assuring economic equality. To achieve this equality all across the globe, a general mechanism is needed to adopt. For example, countries should ensure that minimum wage across the world is the same. It can also be achieved by expanding the income tax ion earned income and by building assets for the working family. It shows that unless material security is not provided to anyone in the world, economic equality remains hardtop earn. Some more ways of assuring this could be ending him residential segregation, investing in education, making the tax collection more progressive and by reducing the developmental expenditures of the state.

Works Cited:

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Hart, Jeffrey A., and Joan Edelman Spero. The Politics of International Economic Relations. Routledge, 2013.

Igwe, Isaac OC. History of the International Economy: The Bretton Woods System and Its Impact on the Economic Development of Developing Countries.

Subject: International Relations

Pages: 3 Words: 900


Linzhou Zhu

Enter Name of the Instructor

International Relations

July 31, 2019.

Social and cultural challenges and their solution

Challenges to state survival

Religious fundamentalism is an unwanted or uncritical attachment to the old and ancient religious writings. It focuses on what has happened in the past and what is in the coming world, given the writings or teachings of any particular religion as a ritualistic guide. It characterizes the aspect of fundamentalism, among major religions of the world. Although the preachers of major religions have stood out in support of changes and modifications, fundamentalists have throughout disregarded these exercises and have focused on the historical and primary teachings of the religions. The modern interpreters of religion claim that there is a wide relaxation in the historical, literal, metamorphic and anagogical interpretation of religion, in light of the social changes in the present world. As an ideology, fundamentalism is the selective interpretation of religious doctrines. Monroe and Kredie stated that fundamentalism has become a political force and is being presented as the retreat from reality and as a rational reaction against modernity ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a9OXxI5F","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Monroe and Kreidie)","plainCitation":"(Monroe and Kreidie)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1835,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/8HZH89RA"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/8HZH89RA"],"itemData":{"id":1835,"type":"article-journal","title":"The perspective of Islamic fundamentalists and the limits of rational choice theory","container-title":"Political Psychology","page":"19–43","volume":"18","issue":"1","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Monroe","given":"Kristen Renwick"},{"family":"Kreidie","given":"Lina Haddad"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1997"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Monroe and Kreidie). Similar is the issue with Islamic fundamentalism, it attracts the attention of masses because it hits the basic identity and provides the foundation for daily living. In contrast to the fundamentalist aspect in other religion, it stands different because its proponents have undoubtedly used violent means for its propagation.

Another important social challenge is the fight over ethnic identities. Even in the post-cold war era, this form of cleansing is the most general form of conflict. Harff writes that ethnic conflict is the episode of sustained violence in which ethnic or communal minorities challenge governments to seek changes in their status ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"uSIGpDOY","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Harff)","plainCitation":"(Harff)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1837,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/X8EJ3CWG"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/X8EJ3CWG"],"itemData":{"id":1837,"type":"book","title":"Ethnic conflict in world politics","publisher":"Routledge","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Harff","given":"Barbara"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Harff). This is the most talked-about the reason for ethnic violence throughout the world. Some also believe that ethnic violence erupts over scarce resources. For example, the major reason for ethnic cleansing in the African region is limited resources. People fight over resources just to replenish their desire. In recent times, there have been many incidences of the ethnic conflict. For example, the ethnic conflict in Somalia, Kurdish ethnic cleansing in Syria and Iraq and the guerilla wars in El Salvador. The European and some most developed countries have also faced such instances in their history or the recent past. For example, the ethnic rifts in North Ireland, etc.

The ‘failed state’ is another challenge which risks the opportunities of masses in the world. The failed state is one which loses its grip over its ideological facets. Somalia, Afghanistan, Iraq Syria and some Central African Republic are the examples of this. These failed states just not threaten the life and social stability of its people, rather it threatens a regional pattern also. The international community sees this as a global risk. Some conflict experts argue that since some countries have large territory under their jurisdiction, therefore with time they lose control of distant areas, those factors from that areas then gradually start expanding their control toward the center. In doing this a major conflict normally evolves.

Possible solutions for the future

The major cause of Islamic fundamentalism as argued by Monroe and Kredie is the vacuum created by the demolition of communism in Europe. They also argue that the Arab regimes have failed to propagate the pure essence of the Islamic revelations, therefore, fundamentalism has propagated more in Islam compared to other religions. Social issues and economic inequalities among the Islamic countries are also another imported cause of Islamic fundamentalism. Considering these bases for propagation of Islamic fundamentalism, the solutions appear more practical and easy to work on. The first and the foremost way to address the issue of Islamic fundamentalism is to compact the distance between the followers of this religion and the voices which denounces fundamentalist interpretation of this religion. Arab countries can also share this responsibility since their ancestors have been among the perpetrators of Islam. Finally, lowering the economic disparities and bridging the social differences is the duty of the political governments at a place in the Islamic world.

Limiting and gradually halting ethnic violence must be the next priority. Some social analysts believe that ethnic violence is the gravest threat to humanity. They believe that killing any person for the reason of just his or association with any particular group is the worst that could have ever done on the face of the earth. To curb this menace, the world should have to first accept the fact that dynamism is not achievable in each instance. Another way of limiting ethnic violence is social autonomy. If people are free to decide the social and cultural pattern for themselves, they will never become hostile to another community near them. Lastly, the just division of the borderlands. The national boundaries should be chalked out in line with the natural habitat of the natural communities. This can be complemented with self- governance.

The challenge of the failed state needs particular attention. Harff writes that to dwell the perception of the filed state, each state needs to reprioritize things ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"0gnvRLYw","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Harff)","plainCitation":"(Harff)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1837,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/X8EJ3CWG"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/X8EJ3CWG"],"itemData":{"id":1837,"type":"book","title":"Ethnic conflict in world politics","publisher":"Routledge","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Harff","given":"Barbara"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Harff). This assessment of the state objective remains critical in assessing the goals of some distant groups. It also offers the opportunity to reconsider the intuitional capacity of critical institutions of the state. Some analysts argue that a failed state is the only cause of the menace of fundamentalism, terrorism, and ethnic violence. They believe that once a state becomes strong enough to stand against such challenges, it is from where a regional and international peace is achievable.

Works Cited:

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Harff, Barbara. Ethnic Conflict in World Politics. Routledge, 2018.

Monroe, Kristen Renwick, and Lina Haddad Kreidie. “The Perspective of Islamic Fundamentalists and the Limits of Rational Choice Theory.” Political Psychology, vol. 18, no. 1, 1997, pp. 19–43.

Subject: International Relations

Pages: 3 Words: 900


Linzhou Zhu

Enter the name of Instructor

International Relations

August 7th, 2019.

UN Millennium development goals

Poverty alleviation as Millennium development challenge and ways to overcome

United Nation figures suggest that more than seven hundred million people out of the total population of the world live under extreme poverty. People from poor nations find it hard to meet both ends. These people face extreme difficulties, for the very basic needs like healthcare, education, and access to clean water. Among these, more than half of the people live in less than $1.90 a day ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"wPXON25W","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Sachs)","plainCitation":"(Sachs)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1946,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/32G4SIDN"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/32G4SIDN"],"itemData":{"id":1946,"type":"book","title":"UN Millennium Development Library: Investing in Development: A Practical Plan to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals","publisher":"Routledge","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"UN Millennium Development Library","author":[{"family":"Sachs","given":"Jeffrey D."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Sachs). There are many studies which categorize Sub- Saharan African countries as top among the impoverished countries. Throughout the world, the poverty rate ranges from 16.1 to 17. 2 percent ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"XT0Mcjyr","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Sachs)","plainCitation":"(Sachs)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1946,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/32G4SIDN"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/32G4SIDN"],"itemData":{"id":1946,"type":"book","title":"UN Millennium Development Library: Investing in Development: A Practical Plan to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals","publisher":"Routledge","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"UN Millennium Development Library","author":[{"family":"Sachs","given":"Jeffrey D."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Sachs). These statistics are for rural areas, which are three times more compared to urban settlements. An alarming fact also suggests that having a decent job, also not guarantees a satisfactory life. A recent study conducted through the platform of United Nation mentions that eight percent of employed workers are forced to spend life in extreme circumstances. Poverty is restricted with having no money, rather it also takes the form of unemployment, social segregation and high vulnerability to threats like natural disasters and disease.

Ways to Overcome

At present, there are many countries which have employed the most modern means to overcome this issue. These countries are also facilitated by different non- governmental organizations and intergovernmental organizations. Considering the steps initiated by these stakeholders, it is right to argue that the following measures might help in sorting this matter timely;

Children or adults from underdeveloped countries should be provided with vocational training. By this way, they can add considerable financial input to the gross income of their countries.

Multinational companies should explore the markets of underdeveloped countries- it will provide opportunities to local investors in uplifting their domestic products.

The state governments must work for providing employment opportunities to its people.

The developed countries should provide an opportunity for people from underdeveloped countries to immigrate. The remittances could that’s how to serve many purposes for the impoverished community.

Industrialists and investors from developed countries should invest in building small plants or manufacturing units which can provide an opportunity for people in less developed countries.

Global health and diseases as millennium development challenge and ways to overcome

Global health is related to health issues and disease prevention throughout the whole world. Excluding some diseases which threaten health care in some specific countries, malaria and HIV/ AIDS are the health care threat for the complete world. United Nation categorizes health care threat as the second most common threat to the world population. UN categorizes health risk as identifying regional or global mortality and disease implication. Other than blood pressure, obesity, extended tobacco usage, and physical inactivity, HIV/AIDS and malaria pose sewer threat to Urban and rural populations around the globe. In light of the Millennium development challenges, the health care experts divide the health issues in different tiers. The tier one includes communicable diseases for example, maternal, paternal or national disorders. The tier includes diseases are non- communicable and includes cardiovascular disorders. Injury and burns are included in the third tier. Global health care risks have made the entire population so vulnerable that United Nations categorize this on second priority in millennium development goals.

Ways to Overcome

A study presented at the World economic forum suggests various ways to overcome global health issues and challenges ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"pXLLCOVW","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Here\\uc0\\u8217{}s How We Can Overcome Global Health Challenges\\uc0\\u8221{})","plainCitation":"(“Here’s How We Can Overcome Global Health Challenges”)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1944,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/HLFWIZ7M"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/HLFWIZ7M"],"itemData":{"id":1944,"type":"webpage","title":"Here’s how we can overcome global health challenges","container-title":"World Economic Forum","abstract":"Health systems are bursting at the seams, with low and middle-income countries are hit the hardest.","URL":"https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2018/01/how-to-overcome-global-health-challenges/","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",8,7]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Here’s How We Can Overcome Global Health Challenges”) . Particular to the HIV/ AIDS and Malaria, the study suggests the following measures;

Economic growth: Countries which strive to better their economy, benefits their citizens in health care provision. Since their economy supports the provision of modern health care facilities to their citizens, that’s how countries with better economies suffer from fewer diseases.

Financing for health: Financing for health is a practice adopted by different NGOs and INGOs. By this way, these organizations collaborate with different countries to provide easy financing for curing health problems. In this way, it becomes more adaptable to fight diseases like HIV/ AIDS and Malaria, since their cure is expensive in many underdeveloped countries.

Health as a priority: unlike some much-developed countries, the growing economies and the underdeveloped countries don’t pool in many resources to the health sector. If help in a collaborative manner, these countries might become able to combat such diseases.

Human rights issues as millennium development challenge and ways to overcome

Human rights are the inherent rights of each person, by virtue of their being a human. These rights are universal, and irrespective of nationality, race or ethnicity, each person qualifies for the provision of human rights. Human rights remains the same for everyone on earth. Neither state can take away these rights by any form from its people, rather the state government acts as the primary actor for assuring rights to the citizens. Since the human rights violations have been noticed in many countries (including some developed countries), therefore United Nations consider this a millennium development challenge. There is not any proper mechanism which makes the violations measurable or visible, different scholars argue that “any form of negligence toward any living soul is categorized as a violation of human rights.” Since the world is witnessing many conflicts in different countries, thus many states party to those conflicts become a precursor for such violations. Since many of these conflicts are not time-bound, therefore United Nations consider this violation of human rights challenges in meeting millennium development goals.

Ways to Overcome

The human rights violations are an extended phenomenon. Each country of this world is a party in eradicating such violations by one way or another. There are many studies which shed light on this subject. However, the United Nations Human rights office of the High Commissioner elaborates some key directions which can work in assuring human rights protection for each person of the planet. These are;

Prevention of Violations: The state governments must ensure that no violations in any form should take place inside their territory. The regional offices and various international monitory organizations make sure that such violations don’t take place.

Strengthening protection: There is a large number of the population displaced as a result of conflict, guerilla wars or freedom struggle. For example, in Syria, Palestine, and Kashmir, etc. by strengthening their protection, human rights violations can be squeezed and ultimately eliminated.

Works Cited:

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY “Here’s How We Can Overcome Global Health Challenges.” World Economic Forum, https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2018/01/how-to-overcome-global-health-challenges/. Accessed 7 Aug. 2019.

Sachs, Jeffrey D. UN Millennium Development Library: Investing in Development: A Practical Plan to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals. Routledge, 2019.

Subject: International Relations

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Terrorism And International Security

Terrorism and International Security

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Terrorism and International Security


There is no doubt in the fact that the term terrorism does not have a specific definition that can be universally acceptable. Over the course of time, there have been countless meanings of the word. If one wants to have a broad understanding of the term terrorism, it can be deemed as a method or an action of oppression that uses or warns to use violence to inculcate fear, and with that terror, attain ideological and political goals. There are various degrees of violence, so to distinguish ordinary violence from contemporary terrorism, the law gives the class terrorist triangle. In accordance with that triangle: A attacks B to force or persuade C to change its position or mind regarding a certain policy or action which is desired by A. Whenever there is a terrorist attack, it spreads a great amount of fear. One of the main reasons behind it is the fact that innocent civilians are held captive. Things get really difficult and complicated as a third party is forced to comply with the terrorist groups. The third party is mainly the government or the military. They are forced by the terrorizers to change a certain policy or fulfill whatever absurd demand the terrorists have. It can be a difficult matter for everyone involved as at times, the desires of the terrorists are not easy to comply with. This paper will shed light on terrorism and national security in-depth in addition to giving an overview of the history.


There are many challenges to tackle terrorism and they have a long history. The word terrorism first came into existence in the Reign of Terror. It was the era of the French revolution that lasted from 1793 to 1794. During this horrible time, the Revolutionary Government made use of harsh measures and violence on the civilians who were assumed to be enemies of the wanted revolution. As a result, a new kind of fighter the Guerrilla came into existence. The famous resistance against Napoleon’s invasion led to the formation of the Guerilla. The term Guerilla is driven from the Spanish word Guerra which means “little war.” Terrorism can be reckoned as a weapon or tool against warfare and politics (Crenshaw, 2019). Without a doubt, this form of rebellion has been present in the world since ancient history. Many individuals claim that terrorism came into being when the concept of government started. So, it is safe to say that terrorism is as old as time.

History of Terrorism

When it comes to targeting, most of the methods and techniques of contemporary terrorism followed the ones that were used amid States in their armed issued inter se. Things took a turn just recently. There has been a fair share of argument on the fact that the tactics of terrorism used in the past were similar to military codes. Many experts have found great resemblance in the activities of various terrorist groups and how the military functions. There has been clear resemblance in the military and terrorist codes. This all initiated in the mid of the nineteenth century when weapons became more industrialized. That is when killing the enemy became more deadly and indiscriminate (Crenshaw, 2019). The indiscriminate and industrialized methods and techniques for war make use of the two 'total wars' of the twentieth century to efficiently teach the people who would later become revolutionary terrorists of the post-war. These people may also opt to adapt more irregular weapons and ways to fight, guerilla warfare is a great example of such terrorists. In the modern world, the use of indiscriminate weapons is a frequent characteristic.

Now, coming to the terrorist's strategies they can be characterized as the waves of terrorism. The waves are deemed as the four waves of terrorism. For instance, the first wave started off in the late 19th and early 20th century, it is known as the ‘anarchist wave.’ Similarly, the second wave is called the ‘anti-colonial wave’ which was started after the menace of World War I. Examples of the anti-colonial wars are the Vietnamese war and the Algerian civil war. The World Wars and many civil wars have paved the way for extremist organizations to take part in unorthodox wars. Armed conflicts between States and nations make soldiers more capable of defending their nations. After the end of wars and conflicts, such experiences allow these soldiers to further defend their homelands against militant and terrorist groups when required. The said wave theories further elaborate that militant groups with the passage of time gain momentum or completely break down when they do not have the capacity to fight or resist government actions being taken against them. The rise and fall of such groups depends solely on the ability of the armed forces and governments policies to tackle down the resistance put forth against the terrorist organizations (Crenshaw, 2019). This point too recommends that fear-mongering, extremism and its inspirations are plainly affected by the states of and changes in societal and political societies.

Interestingly, Parker and Sitter set that vicious extremist oppressor circumstances to happen around the world less in waves, but since such extremist oppressor entertainers are propelled differentially through four objective situated tensions: communism, patriotism, strict radicalism or exclusionism. These basic inspirations are not sequentially successive, meaning that one issue or calamity passes on and another one emerges. Rather, they can work in parallel, and can sometimes cover, to persuade unique terrorist and extremist developments as per the situation at hand.

Terrorism in the 19th Century

The 19th Century revolutionary extremism and terrorism with the creation of anarchist and anarcho-communist groups altogether have created the modern era of terrorism and can be traced back to these extremist groups. Many scholars and academics have studied and analyzed their emergence and influence on the politics of the world where many countries have failed to contain these groups and have then faded in history with no importance. Many terror groups emerged in the western world with names such as Asia and Balkans. Karl Heinzen was the first-ever German who made use of violence, killings and ethnic genocides to implement his political and social policies and change the political situation at his end with personal motives. It was famously called Freiheitskampfer or “The Freedom Fighter.” In any case, as these early extremists got frustrated by their inability to incite across the board social insurgency among the working class through customary methods (Crenshaw, 2019). For example, spreading political handouts and flyers encouraging rebellions and uproars to put the government under strain, they went rather to brutality in the expectation of constraining political change and further weakening the government.

The main vicious strategy for spreading fear used by essentially all such gatherings at the time was focused on death and killings, which conveyed with its genuine individual hazard as well as the potential for political affliction. Narodnaya Volya which was a Russian radical group, coined the terrorism period of 1881 by assassinating Czar Alexander II. Directed deaths and killings could be separated from standard criminal acts, on the grounds that focusing on people acting in an official State limit. It meant a profound, individual responsibility to a cause that could provoke others, and exemplified the progressive code of respect by saving honest residents. This seemingly made fear-mongering, killing, assassinations an increasingly accommodating type of savagery than common war. Since the fear-based oppressors and terrorist branches focused on assault would strike just against State oppressors. What would help is to keep up the low setback pace of fear-mongering that was likewise a preferred position of the purposeful publicity by the deed methodology.

Innovative improvements in the mid and late nineteenth century additionally assumed an essential job in the ascent of extremism and terrorism. The prepared accessibility of explosive enabled fear-based oppressors to execute and scatter their brutal demonstrations all the more broadly as purposeful publicity by the deed. The advancement of mass correspondence and other advances permitted news, learning, thoughts and occasions to be quickly conveyed crosswise over long separations as the world was becoming a Global Village (Carlton & Schaerf, 2015). This fact was opening up time of mass correspondence and of relocation that was pivotal to inspiring gatherings somewhere else. The innovation of the transmit and the steam-controlled revolving press implied that papers could get messages nearly quickly after transmission from around the globe and gave a large number of individuals access to data about occasions practically when they happened.

New advancements, together with more noteworthy access to instructive chances, encouraged the movement of rural workers and craftsmen to urban areas. The improvement of business railroads and trans-Atlantic entry steamers helped many to travel long separations and different countries, and to convey their political feelings further abroad. Russian rebels energized and prepared a collection of traitor masses who were developing somewhere else, in any event, when their political points were boundlessly extraordinary. As many revolutionists were terrorizing parts of Italy, Spain and much of Europe, where many instances occurred when State governments were in direct conflicts with insurgents and terrorists. The Western World tried to curb this evil by using legal routes of banning immigration policies and completely exterminating treaties even international treaties with many countries.

Numerous States signed different statutes to fight against such revolutionist in the year 1904 but such legal ways did not help the world in any way possible and soon the first ever conflict was staged. The First World War has been the epitome of violence which caused millions to lose their lives and that too all around the globe. Just the traditionalist systems of Naples, Russia, Prussia, and Austria continued pushing that ideologically comparative countries should utilize their exclusion laws to help stifle each other's progressives and radicals. Gavrilo Princip who was a supporter of and extremist outfit called Black Hand Group killed the Archduke of Austria Franz Ferdinand and his family (Carlton & Schaerf, 2015). This one event caused the world to go into war which we all know as World War I. Before the end of the war, with the arrival of completely prepared warriors to their homes and loved ones, the strategies and techniques learned in "absolute war" somewhere in the range of 1914 and 1918 would keep on frequenting Nations.

As progressive legislative issues at the nearby level kept on stewing all through the nineteenth century, they proceeded with accessibility and utilization of "political offense.” Special cases as estates whereupon States may reject demands made by different countries for the removal of people associated with having executed vicious offenses for different ideological, strict or political thought processes featured the challenges related with recognizing illegal demonstrations of fear-mongering and terrorism from criminal acts for the most part. These problematic concerns have proceeded to this day of the modern era.

League of Nations

The end of World War I made the nations to think about for a better future with peace and recognition of States by respecting their political ideologies and associations. The Treaty of Versailles was signed between the Allied powers and Germany. However, this war and treaty slowly started to make the situation of peace inevitable as soon League of Nations failed and completely changed the concept of Terrorism in the coming times. The Agreement of the League of Nations redistributed previous German and Turkish settlements and different conditions through the League command framework, that was intended to guarantee a ‘gentle type of worldwide responsibility for the organization.’ In any case, secured normal rights, for example, the privilege to a nationality, the free exercise of opinion, work and personality, and rights revered in the goals of the command framework and arrangements on minorities did not have any significant bearing to the people groups and minorities in the successful States (Carlton & Schaerf, 2015). They were rather the underwriters of harmony and security overall, the victors of the war however, likewise probably dismissed the thought of new pioneer settlements when declining to attach previous provinces and non-overseeing domains.

Generally, the Covenant arrangement of shared safeguard gave off an impression of being intended to support worldwide security concerns instead of those of the standard of law and universal law, in case of contention. Issues in the period of the League of Nations spoke to just some of the components to be considered during the arrangement of new nations and States, regardless of whether inside the operational setting of components to achieve statehood or as an issue of self-improvement. At the point when issues identifying with self-assurance emerged right off the bat in the League's presence during the Aaland Islands contest in 1920 among Sweden and Finland. The League Council named the International Commission of Jurists to decide the issue. The Commission presumed that the insignificant acknowledgment of the standard of self-assurance, as made out in various arrangements, did not make a positive rule of the law of countries.

To a limited extent, this was expected to the Panel's trepidation about making a point of reference for severance, in this way reassuring political agitation. In any case, a consequent Committee of Inquiry refined this outcome by reasoning that in the event that Finland neglected to give the inhabitants certain predefined assurances, they would, in fact, have a privilege under worldwide law to a referendum. This could have brought about detachment from Finland. These days, the Aaland Islands arrangement is viewed as a point of reference for fruitful worldwide contest settlement. Meanwhile, the spate of militant actions and killings proceeded. During the 1930s, very few respective understandings alluded to the concealment of radical and terrorist warfare, and numerous confiscation arrangements contained conditions barring death endeavors against Heads of State from the absolved rundown of political violations (Sönmez & Sönmez, 2017). The killings of Ruler Alexander I of Yugoslavia along with the Foreign Affairs Minister for France together on 9 October 1934 in Marseilles carried matters to a head when the mentioned removal of the people charged was rejected by Italy in light of the fact that the offenses were political.

Accordingly, a Committee of Experts was set up by the League Council to establish a Resolution on Extremism for the foundation of an International Criminal Court. This court will have purview over specific acts indicated as demonstrations of radicalism and extremism in the Convention (Carlton & Schaerf, 2015). Article 1 of the Terrorism Convention characterizes acts of radicalism and extremism as acts of violence that are taken or directed against a state or a nation. Regardless, State and provincial conventions of refuge, combined with robust national feelings, made any separation among extremists and political transgressions risky, and the conceding of haven stayed conceivable at that point, as now.

United Nations

The failure of the League of Nations and the eruption of World War II made huge impacts on the political sphere of the world as the turning point of the war was the Nuclear Technology. The world was never safe again and there was a big crisis that if another war ever erupts it will be based on the technology on Nuclear. A repetitive component of dialogs, discussions and political sympathies with respect to fear-mongering during the post-1945 United Nations period. They have identified with issues of dread viciousness by alleged "freedom warriors" professing to use "straight action" to seek after their entitlement to the independence of people groups, as they contended is accommodated in the Charter of United Nations. The Charter ponders the Organization's commitment to "grow neighborly relations" among countries in view of the standards of equivalent rights and the self-assurance of people (Sönmez & Sönmez, 2017). Troubles with and discussions in regards to the functional activity of equivalent rights and independence before long emerged. Including where national freedom motivation extended a long ways past the tight limits of the League of Nations command framework and the insurance of minorities.

As an outcome, clashing elucidations of important Charter standards and arrangements encircling autonomy immediately emerged and have remained from that point onward. In any occasion, numerous fear monger exercises that have happened during the post-1945 time have not been related to independence and autonomy debates by any means. Recognized reasons for radicalism and terrorism have rather extended through the whole range of human dissatisfaction, including the monetary, political, societal, mental, ethical, and so forth., with short or long haul objectives, turning into the object of brutality. Accordingly, some in the universal network, particularly scholars, have looked to name terrorist outfits as indicated by their inspirational objectives or belief systems as opposed to as far as criminal acts, as it stands the methodology inside the United Nations framework.

Thus, people may run over the classification of such gatherings as "progressive", "dissenter", "ethnocentric", "patriots" or "extremists". As far as the utilization of barbarity and power by extremist groups, this likewise goes over a wide range, from people with military preparing and experience, to what Whittaker has named "toss away" agents, who are adequately sent amateur on recklessness missions. Their utilization of brutality furthermore outlines the moderate development of fear-based oppressor strategies and methods, including customary killings, bombings, firebombing, prisoner taking, abduction, seizing, damage, the execution of ploys and suicide bombings, to give some examples. Later strategies can incorporate unusual types of fear-based oppression and radicalism, involving atomic violence, for instance, manufacturing a bomb, striking an atomic reactor, and so forth, advanced warfare and terrorism including cyber-attacks, warfare against the nature and environment (for example, the danger of pulverization to nature) and fear monger assaults targeting annihilating social legacy.

Specifically, noteworthy is the way that such matters and discussions have molded the methodology of the global network to its general anti-extremism and anti-radicalism agreements. So that is encircled around radical acts goes about as genuine worldwide wrongdoings paying little respect to any fundamental inspiration (Sönmez & Sönmez, 2017). Extensively, anti-terrorism and anti-radicalism mechanisms were embraced generally in three stages. Starting with enactment covering the wellbeing of avionics and delivery, the early methods were created from the 1960s through to the mid-1990s and tended to explicit sorts of extremist and militant offenses.

Remarkably, acts executed during "freedom clashes" were explicitly made special cases to terrorist wrongdoings, for instance, the 1979 Hostages Convention as such acts were to be managed under different zones of worldwide law, for example, International Humanitarian Law (Jackson, 2016). The latest stage mirrors the expanding, post-order of psychological militant gatherings and "causes", to incorporate gatherings, for example, the Taliban, Al-Qaida and ISIS, and along these lines mirror the contemporary extremist and militant danger to the global network and community. Inside this last stage, anti-extremism and anti-terrorism mechanisms have been built up that manage new transgressions related to terror bombings. Further, suicide bombings by terrorist outfits, providing safe havens to terrorists and financing them and helping them in any way with nuclear technology.

United Nations Chosen Terrorist Groups

There are two essential non-State gatherings, in particular, the Taliban and Al-Qaida, which have been assigned as Terrorist Associations by the United Nation’s Security Council. In 1999, after the refusal of the Taliban to give up Osama Bin Laden and his partners for their jobs in the August 1988 assaults on Embassies of United States in Kenya and Republic of Tanzania. Under its goals 1267 (1999) the Security Council assigned the Taliban as radicals and terrorists and related people and elements, through focused travel and arms bans, and budgetary/ resources sanctions. In 2011, under the resolutions of Security Council of 1989 (2011), the Council isolated the purported "Merged List" of people and substances related with the Taliban and Al-Qaida into two separate records (Jackson, 2016). The first one being Al-Qaida List and the Taliban List, which contains those people and elements related with the Taliban who are esteemed to display a continuous danger to the harmony and security of Afghanistan.

The history of Al-Qaida has been conflicting since its creation by radical elements after the Russian invasion of Afghanistan. Many radicals with the greed of getting a stronghold over Afghanistan created the Al-Qaida outfit and started training many young children by brainwashing them and their families and promising financial help if they help spread fear and their motives (Carlton & Schaerf, 2015). Osama bin Laden the mastermind of attacks on the World Trade Center in New York and other many terrorist crimes was at large and being hunted by many task forces. After the Al-Qaida, many other terrorist organizations started their networks in Afghanistan and the Middle East. The main problem that the international community was facing the problem of funding that these outfits were receiving. It has still not been established on how these all terrorist outfits have the means to spread their men and circulate them all around.

The Security Council has however in its resolution stated that countries and governments must without any delay freeze or completely eliminate bank accounts of any person or company that might be involved in terror financing. Even helping or facilitating acts of terrorism comes under the definition of terrorism and any such person must be dealt with no leniency. The numerous States have set up, at a national level, lawful and institutional systems for the assignment of people or gatherings their administrations consider to be fear mongers and radicals, that are on the United Nations watch list or are assigned for national or multilateral purposes, for example, European Union (Jackson, 2016). The utilization of such assignment systems possibly raises various execution challenges for States and rights-based concerns.


Victimization can be comprehended as the activity of singling somebody out for merciless or treacherous treatment. Fear-based oppressor assaults can be extensively ordered into two classes: engaged and aimless. Truly, fear-based oppression has to a great extent fallen under the previous class. As noted, before, fear-based oppression and radicalism were utilized as an apparatus for politically roused activity, which focused on explicit individuals from governments or political on-screen characters for the motivations behind achieving a specific political point. Such assaults included some component of cooperation in the contention, yet in a roundabout way, between the extremist or terrorist organization and the rival.

Nonetheless, contemporary psychological warfare is portrayed by an expanding recurrence and size of aimless savagery. Casualties of fear monger assaults are not for the most part explicitly chose on the premise of their individual attributes yet are "possibility" unfortunate casualties who happen to be in the wrong place at an inappropriate time. In spite of the fact that fear-based oppression and extremes are without a doubt genuine violation, recollect that victimization through terrorism varies from criminal exploitation in that the previous has an inalienable political measurement (Jackson, 2016). This political measurement may likewise typify ideological or strict points. For occasion, the immediate casualty of a terrorist assault is infrequently a definitive objective of the viciousness. A significant objective of fear-mongering is for mass spectators to focus on the messages being passed on, and to experience a feeling of fear and frenzy because of the militant assault. The casualties of militant and terror assaults hence fill in as images of shared gathering or class qualities, which thusly structure one reason for their determination as unfortunate casualties. In this sense, casualties of fear-based oppression fill in as instrumental targets.

Effects and Aftermath of Terrorism

Terror organizations work without any consent and work only to monger fear and cause havoc all around the globe. There have been instances especially the torn country of Afghanistan that political leaders have tried to end the conflict and completely pull out the forces from Afghanistan but the mere presence of terrorists in the country has resisted these steps. United Nations and the international forces have yet to completely disable the terror networks from the globe. The issue of Afghanistan has been doubled up with the existence of new terrorist outfit called ISIS. Thousands of United Nations and U.S soldiers have lost their lives in the fight against terrorism but still, the war-torn country of Afghanistan has yet to see a better life that it deeply deserves. There have been many tries to put a democratic government in the country, but the factor of victimization renders it useless as the democratic leaders are in danger all the time of losing their lives in the unstable country.

The chances of the referendum have been high but to no avail up until now. The region of south-east Asia also has suffered a lot from this evil. In a positive pattern, Pakistan, Syria, Nigeria, and Afghanistan - which are among the five nations generally affected by the acts of terrorism – all recorded a decrease in the number of death tolls. Consolidated, there was a decrease of 33 percent in the death toll (Jackson, 2016). Alongside Iraq, these nations accounted for seventy-five percent of all the deaths in 2016 because of terrorist bombings and killings. There was also some improvement in the Afghanistan situation where a decrease of 14 percent was seen in the death toll as the Taliban have now started to engage themselves in more national interests and activities.

It is being said by many political commentators that there might be some kind of referendum in the near future in Afghanistan that will make the situation stable and more welcoming. The Syrian situation has not been welcoming instead it has been worsening ever since. There was a decrease of 24 percent seen in terrorist attacks but the casualties have remained the main issue. The situation in Iraq, however, has not changed and some of the provinces of Iraq are completely under siege of terrorists. Their funding needs to be blocked and counter checked so that their operations can be halted for good. There are international routes through which funding cannot be traced like sending money using the services from Western Union and other services like this allows complete anonymous funding of terror outfits.

It is worth noticing that all the countries around the world have established laws and regulations that ban persons and companies to fund terror outfits in any way. These legislations have helped put down many outfits of terrorists but as discussed earlier, there are some countries that do not have the capacity to fight these organizations be it democratic incapability or the incapability of armed forces. This allows the terrorist groups to take over lands and areas from where they can generate revenue for themselves and exploit these areas for their own profit. This further deteriorates the economic condition of a country (Crenshaw, 2019). Terror outfits with their operations can deeply hurt the economic condition of a country in days as the complete infra-structure gets annihilated and daily routines of life are affected. Governments and administration are not able to work properly to keep the working situation of the country profitable. United States of America has suffered a loss of more than 1 Trillion US$ and is still fighting a war that has spanned over a time of 18 years. The neighboring countries like Pakistan have suffered a loss in Billions of dollars. Estimates have been made for revenues of many terror outfits where ISIL revenue is more than US$ 2 billion while the revenue for the Taliban is US$ 400 Million. This suggests that through gaining control of territories and funding, terrorism activities are very hard to cope and counter.

The number is however slowly declining as armed forces and political leaders are providing worn-torn countries with all the help they need to counter these terrorist outfits. The worldwide progression of remote terrorists and extremists has kept on easing back, with just individual cases being accounted for. Be that as it may, the stamped decrease of regional control by ISIL in Iraq and the Syrian Arab Republic will constrain numerous remote terrorists, militants and other contenders to settle on a decision between joining different gatherings or leaving the district once and for all. For developing countries, it has been difficult to cope up with the issue of terrorism as it has rendered their economy useless. Developing countries do have the resources to make their country much more stable for doing business with foreign companies but these resources are directly attacked by the terrorist outfits so that the economic stability only remains a dream.

International Trade

Terrorist attacks and activates raises the expenses of working together crosswise over national fringes. For instance, shipping costs will increase if shippers need to purchase protection to cover potential harms in the ports of such countries that are war-torn because of terrorism. Thus, such expenses that are given to the customers as more significant expenses, which will, in general, lessen both the fares and imports of fear influenced countries. Think about a couple of well-developed countries (Jackson, 2016). In light of the table, which unmistakably shows that the most dread inclined countries are the countries that are developing, we would not anticipate that fear-mongering and terrorism should be a noteworthy obstacle to exchange between these two well-developed nations.

On the other extraordinary, think about a couple of well-developed countries, and to put forth the defense clear, consider a couple from the best 12 countries in the table. For this pair, shipments sent out by one country and imported by the different endure potential dangers in transportation in the two countries. This will add to higher exchange expenses and costs and be a critical obstacle to exchange. Among different explanations, this might be because of changes in a country's generation designs in light of dread related disturbances. For instance, if fear irregularly disturbs an import-contending residential industry in a country that has not developed, that country might be compelled to go to imports for the positive qualities being referred to, along these lines raising instead of diminishing exchange.


It is a known fact that each country fights for its own interest but when the subject of terrorism comes forth, it is turned down by all the countries at all possible forms. The world as we know it has been fighting the war on terrorism for more than a decade and after the attack of 9/11, the war on terrorism became more intense. However, there are certain issues that the world needs to address first especially at the United Nations General Assembly and Security Council meetings.

Terrorism is a very complex issue, but it can be eliminated if the world leaders engage themselves in serving the world first rather than serving their countries. In this modern era, the use of technology can be more useful as terrorist do not have the luxury of such technology (Carlton & Schaerf, 2015). There are many mechanisms available for the world leaders to fight terrorism in a more humane way. International bodies such as the World Bank and International Monetary Fund should stop financing and funding the countries where the terrorist groups are residing or hiding. This will put a huge impact on the working and operational factors because governments of factions of governments have been found involved in terror financing over the years.

One of the most applauded steps that the world community has taken is putting the countries under the watch list of FATF. This list bans certain countries for conducting businesses with foreign companies and also does not allow huge businesses to install or invest in the countries that are on the list of FATF. This step has proven very useful and such kind of steps can help countries to completely break terrorists and militants. As nations become better at identifying, researching and indicting terror oppressors and militant suspects, including foreign terrorist fighters, jail administrations all over the world are facing an issue of keeping a huge number of terrorists at their jail institutions. The numbers are increasing but the resources available at hand are getting less over time.

The existence of these vicious militants and guilty parties in the equity framework presents new difficulties to jail and probation facilities just as to a range of different partners and intercession suppliers associated with their administration, recovery and rehabilitation. Innovation is offering radical and terrorist groups more noteworthy vital and operational opportunity furthermore, new kinds of leaderless assaults (Crenshaw, 2019). These will develop in scope later on. Al-Qaida aced satellite TV link news. ISIL is the experts of web-based social networking and the advanced mobile phone attacks where they promote their beliefs and propaganda. The next unit will need to additionally misuse the web to direct digital tasks what's more, at the last digital war. ISIL is now developing its proposed powerful cyber cell also, with a digital armed force concentrated on assembling insight and Intel, planning tasks also, releasing digital jihad.

While ISIL individuals still cannot seem to secure the mastery of danger bunches upheld by country states, for example, the Russian Bears, Iran's Kittens what's more, China's Pandas4 who hack modern foundation, ISIL has begun to develop a digital armed force with expectations of carrying out massive cyber-attacks all over the globe. A few programmer groups lead digital activities conveying the ISIL flag. In the event that these terror militant groups need in-house hacking abilities, they can purchase these abilities on the dark web where the availability of almost every service has been proven to be true. Everything is available to be purchased, from zombie PCs that can overwhelm a system with traffic to modern digital malware

Al-Qaida and ISIL have found the main impact point of our social orders; inert racial intolerance and dread of uncertainty. They stir these feelings of trepidation through assaults on regular individuals and with chilling recordings abusing their abominations. Present-day terrorists are depending on an enthusiastic reaction by both our open social orders and our heads as dread directs residents and their leaders to start to think and act unreasonably. Our open social orders are in this manner consistently in danger from the danger presented by our reaction to dread and the dread that it creates. A definitive objective is to make social orders free from the intrigue of rough fanatic belief systems either dependent on racial, ethnic, sexual or strict separation.

It will be a generational issue, so it is ideal to begin mediating as soon as possible before things get out of our hands. Our childhood must be given chances where they can dream and have trust in what's to come (Crenshaw, 2019). A decent method to begin is to give them the chance to help save the current and upcoming generations from falling prey to radicalism. Another vital aspect for managing terror outfits and radicalism is to have a superior comprehension of digital security and the new quickly evolving mechanical advancements. Raising mindfulness about key correspondences battles utilized by terrorist organizations, ensuring basic framework and guaranteeing that future innovations will not be instrumentalized is significant.

Education also plays an important role in keeping the generation out of the evil of terrorism. The actions of terrorists and radicals have made it clear that their target is education as well. Malala Yousafzai is a prime example of this regard. She was shot in her face and head while she was going in the early morning for her school. At present, she is a champion of education for children and won a Nobel Peace Prize for her work and determination. In other words, the fight against terrorism needs to be made more significant in all parts of the world so that we can get rid of this evil once and for all. It is evident that newer factions are emerging with time but as the world has tackled down previous factions, we can still fight these terrorist groups with the experience that we have gained over the years (Carlton & Schaerf, 2015). The humanitarian crisis in Yemen, Syria and Iraq must be addressed at all forms along with State terrorism where countries commit dire crimes against human rights and do not give the rights of self-determination to the locals. There are many types of terrorism that we face and all of them are against the mere concept of humanity and peace.


Carlton, D., & Schaerf, C. (Eds.). (2015). International terrorism and world security. Routledge.

Crenshaw, M. (2019). Terrorism and international cooperation. Routledge.

Jackson, R. (2018). Writing the war on terrorism: Language, politics and counter-terrorism.

Jackson, R. (Ed.). (2016). Routledge handbook of critical terrorism studies. Routledge.

Sönmez, S. F., & Sönmez, S. (2017). TOURISM, TERRORISM, AND POLITICAL INSTABILITY. Anatolia: Turizm Arastirmalari Dergisi, 28(1), 110-137.

Subject: International Relations

Pages: 20 Words: 6000

The Impact Of Climate Change On The Social Structure And Ecological Environment Of Sub-Saharan Africa


Instructor Name

International Relations

22 November 2019

Climate Change in Sub-Saharan Africa: Changes, Consequences, and Recommendations

The region of Sub-Saharan Africa is the region that lies in the south of the Sahara Desert in the region of Africa CITATION Wor19 \l 3081 (WorldBank). Due to the presence of the Sahara desert amid the region, there is a general dryness in the region and the settlements in the region are generally made around natural bodies of water and vegetation. Climate Change has hit its hardest in the region due to the excessive natural desertification and scarcity of live-sustaining resources.

Due to the recent climate problems that are affecting the world, there will be visible changes in human and natural systems of the states that comprise a region called sub-Saharan Africa. These recent Climate change forecasts point to a pattern points to a general warming trend in the average temperature of the region that includes a high increase in the general dryness of the area and change in rainfall patterns which will affect the areas of Southern Africa and Eastern Africa mostly due to their thick forests CITATION Nst19 \l 3081 (NatGeo). Due to the increase in the average temperature of the region, there would be a noticeable rise in the sea-levels of the coastal regions. This wet, hot and humid climate could also affect the yield of crops in the region. Also, a number of different infectious diseases can be expected to rise up due to the hot and humid conditions that favor the germs of these diseases and the malnutrition among the general population, especially in the regions that are heavily dependent on the rains to grow their crops to feed off the major section of the population. In addition to that, there will be extreme differences in the general temperatures of the different states of Sub-Saharan Africa, giving rise to extreme heat waves that will seriously decimate the numbers of the poor African population CITATION Dim \l 3081 (Dim Coumou).

These rising agricultural, as well as general demands for water resources in the region, would create a situation of water security. Water will be needed to sustain life in the general population, provide for irrigating the crops and other agricultural yields, and to produce energy through hydropower production. This will be needed as we can observe huge changes in the climate of the Sahelian region of Sub-Saharan Africa due to extreme evaporation losses due to a high observable change in the average temperature of the region.

Another serious problem that will face the Sub-Saharan Africans in recent years is deforestation. In the last decade alone, Africans have cleared about 52 million hectares of forest land CITATION Bre19 \l 3081 (Stirton). This decrease in forest areas in the region shows that the trials of forest departments are not at an end. Due to the current crisis, there is a weak framework of institutional forest management, which can render the policies related to forest growth inefficient, amplified by the lack of specifically skilled staff ended for the job.

In addition to several aforementioned ecological factors, there are some troublesome social ones as well. These factors are linked together in their destructive effects. Take the particular example of the agricultural trouble mentioned in the above paragraphs. As the demand for food will increase and the yield of the crops will decrease, many cities will experience a rise in mass migration from the urban areas to the rural areas. Several unplanned and informal settlements will be established. This will create a mass social problem that can have a domino effect on the region as a whole. Not only that, these newly-made settlements will experience severe hygiene and medical problems as well as other social problems such as price hikes, which is natural due to the high demand for life-sustaining commodities in these densely-populated settlements.

The weakness in governmental structures is already present in the region. Many independent militia groups have already filled the power vacuum left by the absence of state writ. With the rise of climate change, there will be a general state of panic and lawlessness among the citizens of the region of Sub-Saharan Africa CITATION Rob17 \l 3081 (Robert H. Jackson). Everyone will take up arms for the state of survival, like the wild-west in the early American days. There will mass killings in the whole region. Piracy is another social problem that may increase with rime. These days the Somalia pirates raid the ships closer to their coastlines. As there will issues of water and food security as well as scarcity of arable and livable land, everyone will take up arms and, sooner or later, the flames of restlessness and destruction will be felt by the entire developed world as Sub-Saharan Africa will practically do anything to survive.

[Space left for suggestions as asked by the client]

To conclude the argument, the impacts of climate change will be diverse and numerous across the region of Sub-Saharan Africa. The world may not take these impacts seriously due to the next to little contribution of the African states in the world economy CITATION Wor19 \l 3081 (WorldBank). Yet, it is also true that we live in a global village, so nobody will be spared in the detrimental effects that climate change will have on the Sub-Saharan Africans. Also, it is the moral duty of the developed world to take this situation seriously as they are chiefly responsible for this problem of climate change and they are still contributing the most in the greenhouse gases that have created the problem of climate change in the first place.

Works Cited

BIBLIOGRAPHY Dim Coumou, Bill Hare, Alexander Robinson. "Climate change impacts in Sub-Saharan Africa: from physical changes to social repercussions." Regional Environmental Change (n.d.): https://climateanalytics.org/media/ssa_final_published.pdf.

NatGeo. "Africa: Physical Geography." Encyclopedic Entry. 2019.

Robert H. Jackson, Carl G. Rosberg. "Why Africa's Weak States Persist: The Empirical and the Juridical in Statehood." World Politics (2017): 1-24.

Stirton, Brent. "Deforestation in Africa." Statistical. 2019.

WorldBank. "Sub-Saharan Africa." Statistical. 2019.

Subject: International Relations

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

The Increasing Automation And Robotization Of Work In The Twenty-first Century Will Ensure That Industrial Conflict Will Become An Issue Of The Past.

The increasing automation and robotization of work in the twenty-first century will ensure that industrial conflict will become an issue of the past

Ada Matuassa

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Author Note

The increasing automation and robotization of work in the twenty-first century will ensure that industrial conflict will become an issue of the past

In the contemporary world, there are no two opinions on the fact that technological change is crucial for businesses not just to sustain growth and maintain a competitive edge but for their survival. However, a transition towards automation also needs to take into account market trends, the overall business environment and government policies. With the advent of AI and machine learning, the 21st century saw an increasing reliance on robotization and automation especially in sectors previously only thought to have been the sole domain of human intuitiveness. Besides enhanced productivity, such technological changes are sure to bring about substantial changes in work processes and industrial relations, by creating a manpower surplus or making certain skills redundant. In turn, this has led unions and workers to see automation and robotization with suspicion who have concerns with the arbitrary treatment being faced by workers. Thus, the idea that the increasing automation and robotization of work in the twenty-first century will ensure that industrial conflict will become an issue of the past, may hold some merit, if substantial changes are brought about that redefine the nature of the relationship between unions and management.

In the 20th century, technological change saw manual and menial labour being replaced by machines along with a shift in labour roles, which now placed greater emphasis on controlling the apparatus which performs the function. Artificial intelligence permits carrying out a number of complex functions typically thought to have been the sole domain of human operations. Among the repercussions of the shift was a change in management attitude brought about as a result of the changing division of labour. Naturally, it affected employee relations and demanded that workers acquire new skills to cope with the challenging demands of their new roles to address the complex needs of automated production systems. The new industrial set-up in the post-industrial economy retains the division brought about by the industrial revolution and free market capitalism, in the form of capitalists and labour. The interests of the two groups still conflict, wherein capitalists demand higher productivity while workers strive for better working conditions, higher wages, and job security CITATION GBJ82 \l 1033 (Bomers & Peterson, 1982). Industrial disputes continue to arise as a result of such differences in objectives and values. The way these Industrial conflicts are perceived depends upon the theoretical position of the observer which also, like other forms of conflicts, are influenced by emotional tensions and factors between the concerning parties. The pluralist perspective sees the industrial setup as inherently prone to conflict, with varying interests between sub-groups that operate within it. The radicalistic perspective sees conflicts as a result of the fundamental inequalities of advantage and power CITATION GBJ82 \l 1033 (Bomers & Peterson, 1982).

The process of automation relies upon a division of labour into various differentiated tasks which machines are programmed to perform, thereby modifying or replacing human input. However, it is not the occupation or the job but rather the task that is automated. Labour involves bundling a set of tasks under a particular occupation. Unless the robotization or automation process involves advanced AI, the automation process will only involve replacing certain tasks, which, however, cannot be all replaced within a specific occupation. Even in the 21st century, it is still rare to have all sets of tasks associated with a particular occupation being entirely replaced. However, the digital age advanced machine algorithms combined with enhanced computing power and digital sensors have expanded the capabilities of tasks which machines can perform. According to Fernández-Macías and Bisello (2016), there are generally two categories of labour input; routine intellectual tasks, and routine physical tasks, which when replaced can contribute to polarization and conflict to varying extents.

There are varying opinions to the extent automation can induce industrial conflicts. According to Blauner’s theory, automation may bring about positive changes in labour roles by eliminating some of the profound sources of resentment associated with labour by transforming their experience in performing a task CITATION Dun78 \l 1033 (Gallie, 1978). Automation provides the worker with a greater sense of control liberating them from rhythmic machine-like labour while allowing them to set their own pace. Thus, the worker is free to plan his/her work schedule and work using his own initiative. The change comes from the fact that an automated industry will involve less repetitive work which would make the job more interesting and allow the operator to develop and experiment with their own techniques of performing the tasks, which contributes to their self-actualization. The changing nature of work will remove the worker's resentment, an emotional tension, which tends to fuel conflict. Furthermore, Gallie (1978) predicts that automation would create more meaningful work as the work process becomes less fragmented, allowing the individual worker to see how their tasks fit into the wider production process. In turn, this facilitates the worker in thinking holistically about the collective nature of production. Moreover, this will diminish the amount of energy and time needed into performing the task which will allow the worker a greater portion of time for leisure and other meaningful activities CITATION Wil62 \l 1033 (Faunce, Hardin, & Jacobson, 1962). Although it may not completely eliminate industrial conflict, it will remove some of the emotional factors that lie at the heart of conflict and influence the negotiation process.

From the employer’s perspective, the technological advances brought as a result of automation will allow them greater influence over roles and enhance their ability to bargain with labour unions. For instance, the introduction of automation may create changes in coverage for workers on certain new terms and conditions. The employer may also gain increased leverage in bargaining when they have to deal with a specialized, yet smaller, workforce. Changing circumstances may also affect which unions hold the right to represent the labour force CITATION Dar18 \l 1033 (Marshall, 2018). On the other hand, the workers too may obtain an opportunity to grow while working in an environment where a work cultural change could be easily promoted. From this perspective, even if the automation process changes bargaining dynamics, the overall change in industrial relations may create a more positive environment where the management seeks the cooperation of labour in achieving commitment.

Today, robotization and automation are increasingly intertwined within digitalization, which in turn creates a more complex form of production. As production processes can be broken down, a greater opportunity for outsourcing and subcontracting exists that can also create less favourable employment conditions for workers in terms of their income, stability and work hours. As boundaries are blurred, it disrupts worker and union solidarity and makes the collective representation process difficult CITATION Eur18 \t \l 1033 (Fernández-Macías, 2018). Yet lately, the digitization of various production processes has also created new avenues and methods of decentralized and collaborative production, which can create a sustainable, non-hierarchical, cooperative model of production. Comparing these emerging trends to the traditional radicalistic perspective which views conflict to be arising from a fundamental division of interests between the labor and the capital, the inequalities of power which result from the very nature of the capitalistic economic model, need not exist in the modern age as the latest digitization and automation trends create the need for a more collaborative approach instead of union’s bargaining as a natural response to the inequality and exploitation.

As the idea of collective bargaining changes in more automated industries, a change in labour attitude is evident. The demand-oriented activism by trade unions may become a relic of the past as a fundamental change in the nature of management begins to develop, from being an exploiter and owner to a more collaborative one CITATION SKD90 \l 1033 (Datta, 1990). From the pluralistic perspective of industrial conflict, conflict arises due to the different opinions of sub-groups operating within the Industry. In the automated and robotized industries of today, collective bargaining could be used to achieving an evolution and a positive change, while the role of management becomes more that of coordination and persuasion. However, the increased heterogeneity in Industrial relations along with an expanded role of state regulations may not require the traditional form of collective bargaining used by radicalists and pluralists CITATION Kav161 \l 1033 (Guppta, 2016). In fact, the role of unions itself now requires a re-think. Instead of a demand-oriented approach, the union has to become more involved in the decision-making process at the early stage, while employers will also have to shed the old image of the union as an adversary and accept it as a partner. By jointly working together to optimize work organization amidst emerging technology and automation, it will not just serve the organization and its labour's interests but maintain the firm's overall competitiveness CITATION NHa92 \l 1033 (Harvey, 1992). In Italy, the union known as the Italian Federation of Metalworkers (FIM) studied the automation trend in the manufacturing industry and the role unions can play therein to avoid industrial conflict. As tasks shift from a menial or manual nature to more that of control and planning, the union started to promote professional training as a worker’s individual right in order to address the complex relationship between machines and humans. This right is now included as part of the collective agreement within their sector. Another union issue in the post-automation stage is to negotiate issues related to decentralized work structures, while advocating greater participation of workers in the decision-making process in order to reach an effective solution concerning the digitization and automation process between the employers and workers CITATION Kav161 \l 1033 (Guppta, 2016). If such newer approaches in industrial relations are adopted, it can prevent industrial conflicts from occurring as a result of the automation process even if not completely eliminating them.

To conclude, smart businesses and industrial setups of today will have to approach the automation process in a manner where they will have to actively engage with their workforce through a collaborative approach in order to be able to harness practical benefits from the automation process in terms of productivity, while avoiding industrial conflicts, dislocation, and dissension that often comes as a result of a dramatic change in work structure. Integrative bargaining can allow both labour and the management to achieve win-win agreements, wherein unions seek to become promoters of change and innovation while employers allow them a greater role in the organizational structure of the firm. Together, they can develop an action plan where people are able to work more closely with machines within a more harmonious industrial relationship.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Bomers, G. B., & Peterson, R. B. (1982). Conflict management and industrial relations. Boston, MA: Kluwer-Nijhoff Pub.

Datta, S. K. (1990). Automation and Industrial Relations: Implications for Employment, Utilisation and Deployment of Workforce. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 20(3), 254-276.

Faunce, W. A., Hardin, E., & Jacobson, E. H. (1962). Automation and the Employee. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 340(1), 60-68.

Fernández-Macías, E. (2018). Automation, digitalisation and platforms: Implications for work and employment. Luxembourg: European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions.

Fernández-Macías, E., & Bisello, M. (2016, September 25). A framework for measuring tasks across occupations. Retrieved April 19, 2019, from Voxeu: https://voxeu.org/article/framework-measuring-tasks-across-occupations

Gallie, D. (1978). In Search of the New Working Class: Automation and Social Integration within the Capitalist Enterprise (1st ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Guppta, K. (2016, October 12). Will Labor Unions Survive In The Era Of Automation? . Retrieved April 19, 2019, from Forbes: https://www.forbes.com/sites/kaviguppta/2016/10/12/will-labor-unions-survive-in-the-era-of-automation/#17b0c6573b22

Harvey, N. (1992). Automation and Restructuring: How Industrial Relations Affects Change in the Wisconsin Metal Working Industry. IFAC Proceedings Volumes. 25(27), pp. 27-33. Madison, WI: Elsevier.

Marshall, D. P. (2018, March 8). Industrial relations in an age of automation. Retrieved April 19, 2019, from Workplace Law & Strategy: https://www.workplacelawandstrategy.com.au/2018/03/industrial-relations-in-an-age-of-automation/

Subject: International Relations

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

The World Bank


Enter Name of Instructor

International relations

July 20th, 2019

The World Bank


The World Bank partners with different countries to take over the challenges of shared development, progress, and economic well- being. Since its creation, the World Bank has partnered with different countries to improve their development sector and to provide support for the uplifting of the basic infrastructure in underdeveloped countries. Some developed countries from the present times have been part of the World Bank development program for decades, which has helped in achieving them what they have today. The World Bank focuses on yielding agricultural production and upgrading road and communication infrastructure. It has also partnered with various multinational companies to ease the access to energy for poor countries. With its headquarters located in Washington D.C, the World Bank primarily focuses over reconstruction and development.


The idea of the World Bank was, in fact, a new practical approach to the Bretton Wood Conference, which was held in July of 1944. With other important countries of that time, the United States and Great Britain also participated in its launching. Twelve million dollars was the initial capital set forth for the development and rebuilding of the infrastructure destroyed in the World Wars. It granted the loan to France for the first time in 1947 for its reconstruction and development. With time it expanded its primary area of focus from reconstruction and development to providing aid to the victims of natural disasters and masses stuck in humanitarian emergencies.


The mission of the World Bank is shared prosperity, development, and reducing poverty from around the world. Since the creation of the Nation-states system, countries are individually trying to exploit the resources which exist within their borders and to use them for their development. Normally, the countries achieve this task by employing their resources. However, the development in the world is pursued in an uneven and unjustified manner. Therefore, the World Bank partners with the least developed countries in completing their development objectives. Its main missions are shared prosperity, promotion of sustainable development, and ending poverty. It achieves its mission with its five organs which are the multilateral investment guarantee agency, bank for reconstruction and development, international development association, international finance corporation an international center for settlement of disputes.

Global Perspective

The perspective of the World Bank is to apply the best ideas, knowledge, and experience to accomplish its twin goals which are ending extreme poverty by the year 2030 and helping the poor and the most vulnerable people in the world. The World Bank main perspective is to provide educational and health facilities to each person of the world and raising the minimum wage of individuals.

World Bank Audience/ Financial Backing

The mission of the World Bank is just not limited to the development of people around the world. It shares this goal in various ways. For example, there are many programs by which the World Bank focuses on investing in human resource development, which later can benefit the world masses generally. In doing that, the World Bank achieves this goal by investing in its audiences ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"hZbutVsM","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}World Bank Embraces Millennial Communication Habits\\uc0\\u8221{})","plainCitation":"(“World Bank Embraces Millennial Communication Habits”)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1717,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/L3A7V8FI"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/L3A7V8FI"],"itemData":{"id":1717,"type":"webpage","title":"World Bank embraces millennial communication habits","container-title":"Devex","abstract":"The World Bank is collaborating with Microsoft to develop a new internal social platform similar to Facebook in an attempt to keep up with the evolving communication styles of its employees.","URL":"https://www.devex.com/news/sponsored/world-bank-embraces-millennial-communication-habits-86873","issued":{"date-parts":[["2015",9,11]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",7,19]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“World Bank Embraces Millennial Communication Habits”). For example, in its employees, in the bank industry and by targeting some great minds from different schools and colleges. The World Bank, therefore, communicates with its target audience differently. The following paragraphs will include some detail about this.


The employees of the World Bank are experts which pool in their minds to make strategies which are new and adaptable to the changing work environment. Jeff Tyson writes that the World Bank is eyeing on adapting modern communication habits which can make its task easier ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"lTDBBpjz","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}World Bank Embraces Millennial Communication Habits\\uc0\\u8221{})","plainCitation":"(“World Bank Embraces Millennial Communication Habits”)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1717,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/L3A7V8FI"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/L3A7V8FI"],"itemData":{"id":1717,"type":"webpage","title":"World Bank embraces millennial communication habits","container-title":"Devex","abstract":"The World Bank is collaborating with Microsoft to develop a new internal social platform similar to Facebook in an attempt to keep up with the evolving communication styles of its employees.","URL":"https://www.devex.com/news/sponsored/world-bank-embraces-millennial-communication-habits-86873","issued":{"date-parts":[["2015",9,11]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",7,19]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“World Bank Embraces Millennial Communication Habits”). The World Bank employees who are its main driving force are now focusing over instant messaging and blog posting to expand its communication module. There are experts who say that once the World Banks start adopting new communication methodologies, it will massively transform its functional procedures.

Bank Industry

It is a widely recognized fact that the banking industry cannot be expanded or made innovative by resorting to some old methodology of conveying things on paper. Its functions have expanded, and things are grabbing innovations for interbank and intra- banking communications ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"0TKm8kYj","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Leipold et al.)","plainCitation":"(Leipold et al.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1719,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/MHXNC76B"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/MHXNC76B"],"itemData":{"id":1719,"type":"article-journal","title":"The World Bank e-procurement for the selection of consultants: Challenges and lessons learned","container-title":"Journal of Public Procurement","page":"319–339","volume":"4","issue":"3","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"The World Bank e-procurement for the selection of consultants","author":[{"family":"Leipold","given":"Knut"},{"family":"Klemow","given":"Jason"},{"family":"Holloway","given":"Francine"},{"family":"Vaidya","given":"Kishor"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2004"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Leipold et al.). Same is true for the World Bank. It has embarked upon digitally innovation things inside and with some external financial organs also. This technology is also helping in bringing transparency in things, but still, there exist some barriers which impinge in the development of the banking industry in general.

Colleges/ Universities

Since its development, the World Bank has focused on grabbing new talents from educational institutions around the world. To do so, the World Bank employee’s different communication strategies targeted at the audience of different schools and universities. Some of its reports suggest that the World Bank targets this audience by communicating with them in a much effective manner ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"iWKEqxZk","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Roper)","plainCitation":"(Roper)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1725,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/FBSZZPSH"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/FBSZZPSH"],"itemData":{"id":1725,"type":"article-journal","title":"Symmetrical communication: Excellent public relations or a strategy for hegemony?","container-title":"Journal of Public Relations Research","page":"69–86","volume":"17","issue":"1","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Symmetrical communication","author":[{"family":"Roper","given":"Juliet"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2005"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Roper). It spreads newsletters and calls for different essay competition annually, which helps it in getting views about development strategies trending around the world. It achieved this target by effectively communicating with its target audience.

Communication outreach and technology

In this modern globalized world, no organization can thrive without an effective communication strategy. It is an effective communication process that makes or break an organization in this integrated world. This is the era of technology, and the world has transformed its communication strategy as well. Now old archaic means of information are outdated when it comes to speedy communication strategies and processes. This effective communication outreach with the means of technology holds for the World Bank as well, which is one of the supreme governing organizations in the economic sphere ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"wePlbomP","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Roper)","plainCitation":"(Roper)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1725,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/FBSZZPSH"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/FBSZZPSH"],"itemData":{"id":1725,"type":"article-journal","title":"Symmetrical communication: Excellent public relations or a strategy for hegemony?","container-title":"Journal of Public Relations Research","page":"69–86","volume":"17","issue":"1","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Symmetrical communication","author":[{"family":"Roper","given":"Juliet"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2005"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Roper). This digital technology has revamped the process of coordination and communication inside, and World Bank is complying with the modern-day requirements of communication outreach and technology.

International communication strategies

World Bank is the umbrella organization which is responsible for the socioeconomic objectives not only in the western world but in other corners of the world as well. This position and status of the World Bank are such that it is necessary to deliver services to all the members’ countries. Moreover, this communication strategy is designed in a way to ace up the level of information between the member country in any part of the world and the World Bank. This resembles the effective two-flow information on all levels ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"nb9GdJbF","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Pena et al.)","plainCitation":"(Pena et al.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1724,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/MN45GLCR"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/MN45GLCR"],"itemData":{"id":1724,"type":"book","title":"Reforming public institutions and strengthening governance: a World Bank strategy","publisher":"The World Bank","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Reforming public institutions and strengthening governance","author":[{"family":"Pena","given":"Jorge"},{"family":"Guasch","given":"J. Luis"},{"family":"Escribano","given":"Alvaro"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2000"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Pena et al.). Proper plans are carried out on projects and programs to make them more effective. World Bank gives due attention to its process of international communication, and this is the reason for its various communication strategies. This aim of international communication is facilitated with the era of technology, which has increased the convenience of the World Bank.


First of all, the website is the basic point in the effective use of technology. Every important company has a website, and the World Bank follows the same approach. The web page of the World Bank is interactive and user-friendly. It is simple to navigate and understand when one is going through all the essential modules of its website (Bhatnagar and Schware). Through its website, the World Bank is connected with the world over the technology. It is accessible from any corner of the world, and it is also serving a means of international communication. This is the ease which is created with the latest technological trends in this globalized world.

Social Media

At present, Social media is regarded as the top-most influencer in the world. It is the medium which radically and dramatically shapes opinions and views of the people in different societies. This is the force which is used by every important agency to create goodwill among masses. World Bank also uses social media to bridge its gap with the people in different countries. The social media updates of the World Bank are noticed and read by the people and then give their feedback as well. With a two-way mechanism, it becomes easy to assess the results of any policy as it is the strength of people that makes any policy successful.

News Publication

Moreover, no one can deny the power of print media in this process of communication. News publications used to serve the purpose of the information in the past, and they were the only source at that time. This thing has changed, yet the World Bank does not disregard it. Now and then, World Bank publishes reports and different facts sheets to give an overview of its working in the world. Sometimes, it also publishes some aspects related to any special country which needs due attention and funding. This news publication is an important communication strategy of the World Bank.

Television and Radio

Television and radio sets are still are a source of information for those countries where there is the least development. World Bank is empathetic to their needs as well, so it regularly on air some piece of news to serve the purpose. Television also presents the information on a repeated basis to educate those TV viewers.

Public Diplomacy

Public diplomacy is also done by the World Bank, where it tries to engage with masses on all levels and the idea of an integrated world. This is also one the effective communication strategy of the World Bank.

Achievement with communication strategy

There has been a doubting that World Bank employee effective and latest communication strategies to meet its gain. Its achievement in communication strategy has helped in maintaining proficiency and a practical working environment ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"gE4vnZAU","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Bhatnagar and Schware)","plainCitation":"(Bhatnagar and Schware)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1720,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/WE4HB576"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/WE4HB576"],"itemData":{"id":1720,"type":"article-journal","title":"Information and communication technology in rural development","container-title":"Case Studies From India, World Bank Institute","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Bhatnagar","given":"Subash"},{"family":"Schware","given":"Robert"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2000"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Bhatnagar and Schware). As it is an obvious fact, that the World Bank as an organization has to cater the needs of each region in the world and there are employees which belong to every state in the world, therefore it has to maintain a dynamic working environment which can ease its communication module. There are some following achievements the World Bank has in its credit, for employing effective communicating strategies.

A large pool of employees

No organization can operate without human capital, as this is the most important resource in any organization. Considering this important value of the human resource, The World Bank operates with thousands of its employees. It is a huge network which is extended over huge miles and distances. Moreover, there are numerous sub-officers which operate in other locations as well, such as in member countries ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"CB6g8hHM","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Noe et al.)","plainCitation":"(Noe et al.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1721,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/IKE954K5"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/IKE954K5"],"itemData":{"id":1721,"type":"book","title":"Human resource management: Gaining a competitive advantage","publisher":"McGraw-Hill Education New York, NY","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Human resource management","author":[{"family":"Noe","given":"Raymond A."},{"family":"Hollenbeck","given":"John R."},{"family":"Gerhart","given":"Barry"},{"family":"Wright","given":"Patrick M."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Noe et al.). This is also noteworthy that employee or the World Bank share the same mission, which is enshrined in the World Bank objectives. They focus on the point that they perform the communication processes as it is envisioned in different programs and policies.

Good employee retaining a percentage

This working environment in the World Bank is amazing that it maintains a good employee retaining percentage. The employee of the World Bank enjoys good repute and prestige in the world for the important work they do in the organization. They remain a good resource and stick to the same organization. This is the best feature of working in the World Bank that employee has a good working environment. They also have good salaries, and this is a prime feature of leading financial organization.

Successful in addressing a large audience

Furthermore, the World Bank is also successful in addressing a large audience all over the world. It is the key aspect of the World Bank that makes it a successful organization. It is not easy to handle a large bulk of audience ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"v0k0kaqF","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Inagaki)","plainCitation":"(Inagaki)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1722,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/3UMBC8XH"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/3UMBC8XH"],"itemData":{"id":1722,"type":"book","title":"Communicating the impact of communication for development: Recent trends in empirical research","publisher":"The World Bank","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Communicating the impact of communication for development","author":[{"family":"Inagaki","given":"Nobuya"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2007"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Inagaki). However, new and modern means of communication have expanded its outreach in the world as different people from different backgrounds are now a key participant in the World Bank's policies. This is another distinguishing feature in the World Bank as it handles a diverse population in the world and also addresses their different concerns.

Maintain large research and development infrastructure

Research projects are never easy to manage. This problem gets even compounded when it is about investing or monitoring the developmental project. This is the case with the World Bank as it takes several far-flung projects and has to monitor them as well. These communication strategies are really helpful in developmental and research projects. Communication strategies help a lot in this working of World Bank. Several assessment and evaluation reports are made with the tools of communication, and World Bank uses all those modern means of communication optimally and duly. Perhaps this is the reason for the World Bank success in this competitive world.

Achieving financial goals

Achieving goals is the pinnacle for any organization, and this holds for the World Bank as well. Achieving financial goals is mandatory for the World Bank as it is the leading financial body of the world and has to maintain its credentials among the world population ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"H9qtZ54V","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Talero and Gaudette)","plainCitation":"(Talero and Gaudette)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1723,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/LJHEE49C"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/LJHEE49C"],"itemData":{"id":1723,"type":"article-journal","title":"Harnessing information for development: A proposal for a World Bank group vision and strategy","container-title":"Information Technology for Development","page":"145–188","volume":"6","issue":"3-4","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Harnessing information for development","author":[{"family":"Talero","given":"Eduardo"},{"family":"Gaudette","given":"Philip"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1995"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Talero and Gaudette). So different financial goals are also attained with communication processes. Besides, this is no blinking the fact that world bank utilized all the means of communication to communicate with different stakeholders all around the world to reach and meet its desired policies and objectives.


The World Bank is one of the largest organization is effectively performing the tasks in hand. The kit is interesting to note that the organization effectively and timely communicates with its organs. It areas of focus have followed an expansionist trajectory. There has been an improvement in all areas, the World Bank operates in. Although there have been challenges in the way of pursuing the objective, the organization has always executed that by employing effective communication strategies. The case study of the World Bank suggests that effective communication and better management of things serves the interest on both sides. The communication never just include the internal mechanism of an organization rather, it is achieved with a blend of both timely conversation and effective manipulation of things. The World Bank annually publishes the report and working paper which related to the core findings of its developmental agendas. This aspect of its research and development suggests the massive level of communication it carries on with a number of its affiliates.

To conclude, the debate regarding how effectively the World Bank offers a communication pattern it is pertinent to notice the effective communication pattern which it follows. Based on the technological innovation and its inclusion, the World Bank follows the communication pattern by setting its objective (which normally is its area of focus), conducts and sponsor research, limiting the scope of activities, identification of its audience, designing the response to deliver (mainly in the form of annual publication or newsletters), creating the network for message dissemination and responding to the feedbacks by different states and multilateral organizations ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"4Xz5cGAI","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Pena et al.)","plainCitation":"(Pena et al.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1724,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/MN45GLCR"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/MN45GLCR"],"itemData":{"id":1724,"type":"book","title":"Reforming public institutions and strengthening governance: a World Bank strategy","publisher":"The World Bank","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Reforming public institutions and strengthening governance","author":[{"family":"Pena","given":"Jorge"},{"family":"Guasch","given":"J. Luis"},{"family":"Escribano","given":"Alvaro"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2000"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Pena et al.). The World Bank model is different from much other international organization. It is widely outsourced and effectively organized. This largest pool of brilliant mind offers an example to induce the communication strategy within any organization effectively. Following are some potential strategies which can play an effective role in its evolution and growth of communication pattern.

Potential strategies, evolution, and growth

Despite its immense efficiency in employing effective communication strategies, there are some potential strategies which can serve its purpose in a better way. Some of them are

Feed backing

It has been noticed while completing this study that the feedback mechanism employed by the World Bank rests on working with the state departments of different countries. In some countries, the institutions take direct feedback from the masses, whereas in some countries this is not the case. If the World Bank create a mechanism to target its audience directly and without any involvement of a third party, it will provide it with many new areas to focus over for its growth.


There is a very large amount which is pooled in each year by the World Bank for its publication department. There are many other areas in which the World Bank drop a large amount of money to get the desired findings ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"ymp3bTmq","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Talero and Gaudette)","plainCitation":"(Talero and Gaudette)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1723,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/LJHEE49C"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/LJHEE49C"],"itemData":{"id":1723,"type":"article-journal","title":"Harnessing information for development: A proposal for a World Bank group vision and strategy","container-title":"Information Technology for Development","page":"145–188","volume":"6","issue":"3-4","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Harnessing information for development","author":[{"family":"Talero","given":"Eduardo"},{"family":"Gaudette","given":"Philip"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1995"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Talero and Gaudette). This costing can be reduced if some proper research methodologies could be employed. There is much multilateral organization which follows a pattern of automatic result derivations. Although new, it could serve the purpose of communication methodology required by the World Bank.

Pitfalls to avoid

During the result compilation, there are some unnoticed errors. Sometimes these are human errors, and some time the large variable influx causes the errors. Some reports suggest that massive outsourcing of the research and development is the reason for such pitfalls. The gradual removal of these pitfalls will effectively improve the research and development published by the World Bank.

Works Cited:

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Bhatnagar, Subash, and Robert Schware. “Information and Communication Technology in Rural Development.” Case Studies From India, World Bank Institute, 2000.

Inagaki, Nobuya. Communicating the Impact of Communication for Development: Recent Trends in Empirical Research. The World Bank, 2007.

Leipold, Knut, et al. “The World Bank E-Procurement for the Selection of Consultants: Challenges and Lessons Learned.” Journal of Public Procurement, vol. 4, no. 3, 2004, pp. 319–339.

Noe, Raymond A., et al. Human Resource Management: Gaining a Competitive Advantage. McGraw-Hill Education New York, NY, 2017.

Pena, Jorge, et al. Reforming Public Institutions and Strengthening Governance: A World Bank Strategy. The World Bank, 2000.

Roper, Juliet. “Symmetrical Communication: Excellent Public Relations or a Strategy for Hegemony?” Journal of Public Relations Research, vol. 17, no. 1, 2005, pp. 69–86.

Talero, Eduardo, and Philip Gaudette. “Harnessing Information for Development: A Proposal for a World Bank Group Vision and Strategy.” Information Technology for Development, vol. 6, no. 3–4, 1995, pp. 145–188.

“World Bank Embraces Millennial Communication Habits.” Devex, 11 Sept. 2015, https://www.devex.com/news/sponsored/world-bank-embraces-millennial-communication-habits-86873.

Subject: International Relations

Pages: 9 Words: 2700

United Nations Major Structures And Functions

QTP 1.bjbj P5Z Z 8 .

)tRR4aaa(((((((7-(aaaaa((a(a(V@X x((0



United Nations Major Structures and Functions

Name of Student

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)

The United Nations (UN) refers to a transnational and intergovernmental body that exists to maintain international security and peace, along with achieving international cooperation and friendly relations between different nations. Moreover, it serves as a center to harmonize the actions of various nations. The paper will explore the history of the UN, along with its functions and major structures. It will further outline the failures and accomplishments of the body, and how it influences and gets influenced by particular funding states. It will follow by a discussion of structural reforms that can enhance the UNs function and address its weaknesses.

The UN was founded in 1945 after the Second World War had ended. The primary aim of creating such an organization was to prevent devastating future wars from occurring. From here onwards, it eventually became on the most powerful, well-known and widely-represented organization in the world. The organizations headquarters are in Manhattan, New York, along with further offices in Nairobi, Geneva and Vienna. and is considered an extraterritorial territory. One of the key aims of forming such a body was to protect international peace and security, but with the primary function being fulfilled, it was tasked to deliver humanitarian aid, uphold international law, protect human rights and promote sustainable development. Its membership has risen to 193 member-states from the 51 states initially when it was founded, after the previous League of Nations project had failed. The term United Nations was suggested by U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt after 26 nations allied together in 1942 pledging to sustain fighting against the Axis Powers in World War 2. These 26 nations met at Washington and endorsed the Atlantic Charter, and signed the Declaration of the United Nations by promising to provide all of their resources to defeat the Axis, and not to negotiate any peace terms separately. In 1945, the UN Charter was set in a meeting of 50 member countries at a UN Conference on International Organization held at San Francisco. The proposals were provided by representatives of the U.S., the UK, China, and the Soviet Union, until an agreement on a Charter was reached at June 1945, signed by the 50 governments.

The UN was empowered through the powers vested in the Charter to take on various international issues that were confronting humanity. These included security and peace, human rights, disarmament, sustainable development, climate change, health and humanitarian emergencies, governance, gender equality, food production and other similar roles. The Charter outlined four primary purposes of the Body Fostering relations among member nations, maintaining global security and peace, creating international cooperation to solve social, economic, humanitarian and cultural problems worldwide. However, the core mission of the body remains the maintenance of security and international peace. This is achieved through creating and promoting conditions which allow peace to flourish and hold, and by assisting different parties in conflict reach peace deals. The UN Security Council was founded with this primary mission, whereas the Secretary-General and the General Assembly serve other important complementary roles, followed by other UN bodies and offices. The principal organs of the UN are the Security Council (UNSC), the General Assembly, the International Court of Justice (ICJ), the Economic and Social Council, and the UN Secretariat (UN, 2018).

Among its different organs, four out of five bodies operate from the UN Headquarters at New York, whereas the ICJ is situated in The Hague. The remaining institutions operate from different parts of the world. Intergovernmental documents and meetings make use of 6 official languages including Chinese, Arabic, French, Spanish, Russian and English. Under a Convention that defines the immunities and privileges for the body, the UN is immune from the local laws of the member states wherein they operate in order to protect their impartiality when it comes to dealing with host countries.

Despite the trust vested in the UN, it experiences a number of failures. There were instances of abuse and failure from the armed personnel serving as UN peacekeepers, who are allowed to retaliate upon being attacked or challenged. Although, they are tasked to protect civilians that turn to them from protection, there have been cases that the civilians have been abandoned at times when their lives were in danger. Furthermore, there have been instances of sexual exploitation of girls and women, with reports indicating how AIDS and HIV transmitted through some of these personnel at their host populations. However, there have been rarely any instances when UN peacekeepers were held accountable for such offenses One of the places where the body boasts of success is Cambodia, wherein the primary aim was to facilitate nationwide elections and have the previous government replaced (Jacobson, 2012). Haiti is also put forth as an example of success of a UN peacekeeping mission that have been ongoing since 1993 however, the degree of their success remains a question.

The UN receives its funding in two main ways voluntary contributions and mandatory payments. Each member state is mandated to fund part of the UNs peacekeeping and regular operating budget. The contributions of member states are determined through complex formulas, a result of which certain members such as the U.S. are required to pay nearly 28 and 22 of the peacekeeping and general budget respectively. The UN, however, is not sponsored by member nations. Other organizations such as the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has contributed nearly 300 million in aid, a result of which it ranks at the 25th highest contributor, only behind Argentina. A recent report estimated the procurement budget for UN operations to have reached 17.6 billion from 13.8 billion between the years 2009-2015. Nearly 224 different countries provided various services and goods in which nearly 44.8 of the total procured goods were supplied by the top ten countries in 2015 (Luck, 2005).

There has been significant engagement between the corporate sector and the UN in the last two decades. There are certain financing arrangements which are extra-budgetary and are not subjected to the same scrutiny and oversight as the core funding, which make it difficult to track the total amount of private contributions being received. A few reports cite voluntary contributions from different civil societies, corporations and foundations to have reached 3.3 billion which make up nearly 14 of the total voluntary contributions (United Nations, 2014a). These private contributions include funds to the UNs country-level programs, UN Trust Funds and support for certain activities and initiatives. The UN Foundation receives donations and funding through philanthropic foundations that at times provided the dominant financing support for certain country level programs. It is particularly evident in case of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation that contributes significantly to the health sector. Similarly, different UN agencies and funds such as the WHO, the UNDP and UNESCO list contributions received from donor agencies, for instance the UN Development Program (UNDP) received 13 billion in 2006 from the Coca-Cola Company to support different clean water projects in Central Asia and Eastern Europe (Utting Zammit, 2009).

Nevertheless, it cannot be claimed that certain top contributors do not enjoy influence and support within the UN. The CEO of Coca-Cola, for instance, also heads the UN Advisory Council on Women and Private Sector Leadership, which provides advocacy, strategic input and resource mobilization strategies. The body also works to promote womens empowerment and rights in different parts of the world. A number of groups, states and organizations, similarly, attempt to influence UN policy in different ways by making use of its system to promote their goals. These ways can include Lobbying governments that send representatives to advocate their interests by contacting executive members to present to them their proposals. Moreover, certain groups use UN support to engage in election activities by endorsing or supporting the campaigns or activities of people they wish to support. Furthermore, some interest groups use public education as a platform to inculcate certain values in the public or the governments of host nations. Additionally, interest groups can use UN resources to mobilize certain activists that would advocate causes and issues on their behalf. These can include organizing walks, protests, contacting public officials or participate in certain grassroots activities.

Given the nature of the organization, a number of areas require focus in order that they meet the organizational objectives in a transparent and effective manner, and to address inefficiencies within the different UN operations and activities taking place globally. One structural reform needed is to make high-impact human-resources, management and accountability changes. These are often ignored topics but can be critical to the UN programs success and potential. Accountability has to start from above by giving serious attention to the way senior-most positions are filled. When senior ranks are appointed, UN representatives must ensure to maintain an adequate balance of individuals hailing from different parts of the world, achieve gender parity and ensure that all appointments are merit-based. For this purpose, all positions below the Secretary-Generals should be announced and advertised while duly listing the required qualifications and tasks required. Moreover, the UN has to improve its culture of accountability to address concerns about impunities and inefficiencies. UN staff has to strictly adhere to the highest ethical standards while having zero-tolerance policies for wrong-doing. It is often the case that minor allegations of misconduct or wrongdoing undermine the organizations efforts (Von, 2008). To address this, the UN must encourage independent audits of its sub-organizations and agencies along with the performance of its senior management. Any terminations and promotions should be associated with the results.

Another area for structural reforms is to transform the architectures of the UNs humanitarian assistance and development programs. UN development agencies and programs should focus on implementing its sustainable development goals by reprioritizing its work in a way that it can work within existing budget resources. For this purpose, duplication within various UN entities should be eliminated and more enhanced partnerships should be forged with the civil society and private sector. To go along with this, performance results and data should be published online to foster a culture of accountability and transparency. Furthermore, the organization needs to enhance its consistency among various humanitarian assistance and development programs in order to channel an effective response to recurrent and protracted crises, along with enhancing emergency preparedness and prevention efforts. Current instances of forced displacement overshadow any period of history and thus a systematic reform agenda is needed in order to create an effective and strategic humanitarian response to large scale humanitarian displacement, alongside other key objectives (Von, 2008). This agenda has to be led by the UN to encourage voluntary commitments from various countries, donors, NGOs and agencies, in order to address these grievances.

Additionally, structural reforms are needed in the UN security and peacekeeping missions by enhancing their ability to mediate, prevent conflicts and build peace. Although UN peacekeeping missions are a vital instrument to maintain international security and peace, they should not be seen as long-term solutions, and should not be substituted for on-ground peace building and conflict resolution efforts. For this purpose, efforts to prevent conflicts through early warning, peacebuilding, mediation and timely analysis must be enhanced to complement security efforts. Although there have been earlier attempts to achieve consistency in peacekeeping approaches, the efforts are in large part underfunded, fragmented and understaffed (Berdal, 2005). Moreover, some member states have resisted peacekeeping efforts who view funding for peace building initiatives to be a divergence from developmental funding that they wish to have prioritized. This often leads to stalemates and hamper the UNs ability to achieve peacekeeping targets and aims.


Jacobson, T. W. (2012). UN Peacekeeping Few Successes, Many failures, Inherent flaws. Colorado Springs International Diplomacy and Public Policy Center.

Luck, E. C. (2005). How not to reform the United Nations. Global Governance A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations, 11(4), 407-414.

Berdal, M. (2005). The UNs Unnecessary Crisis. Survival, 47(3), 7-32.

Von Freiesleben, J. (2008). Reform of the Security Council. Managing change at the United Nations, 1-20.

UN. (2018). Funds, Programmes, Specialized Agencies and Others. Retrieved February 7, 2019, from United Nations http//www.un.org/en/sections/about-un/funds-programmes-specialized-agencies-and-others/

Utting, P., Zammit, A. (2009). United Nations-Business Partnerships Good Intentions and Contradictory Agendas. Journal of Business Ethics, 90(39), 1-11.






23BC _jlmbvkcXMBhD hzBphhD hBphhD h5iBphhwBphhD hDBphhsxBph hD hzBmHnHphuhD hwBphhD hBphh BphhD h BphhD h3_BphhD hZ0Bph hdhg hdhg( hdh hdhg6h6qhx hxhx hdh3C( gd gdZ0agd6qagddgddgddm 1Z6qrsuvgdz00agdz dgdzgdgdwgd ygdqgdiEgdmgdzgdw4EXZ )zzodYdYQIh yBphhK BphhD hqBphhD hyBphhD hr BphhD hiEBphhD h0BphhD hK BphhD hBphhD hVBphhD hzBphhD hmBHphhD hmBphhD hEBphh- hD hzBmHnHphuhD hBph/0G01155Z66689G9pqrstuvefgsxlxaYaxlxlxYhzhuhzmHnHtHuhz6mHnHuhzmHnHuhzhz5hhZ0hzB phphzB phphB phphZ0hB phphD hBphhD hBphhwB phphD h3BphhD hzBphhD hwBphhD h yBphfg1hhdgdgdzgdz 00gdz 00gdu

-.h h6qhz0JmHnHuh h0Jjh50JUh/jh/U hdh ,-.gd hhgdJ hhgd 9 0P1hp5/ 666666666vvvvvvvvv6666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666hH66666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666626FVfv2(6FVfv6FVfv6FVfv6FVfv6FVfv6FVfv8XV 0@ 0@ 0@ 0@ 0@ 0@ 0@ 0@ 0@ 0@ 0@ 0@ 0@ 0@66_HmH nHsH tHNN 5NormaldCJ_HaJmH sH tH R@AR 5 Heading 1@a5KH JaJ 5 Heading 2@a aJJJ 5 Heading 3@5JaJBB 5 Heading 4@

56aJ@@ 5 Heading 5@


Default Paragraph FontRiR

0 Table Normal4 l4a (k (

0No List 4@4 5Header

4 4 5Footer

.)@. 5 Page Number6U 6 5 Hyperlink BphC2 5Body Text Indent2B@B2 5 Body Textx@R@ 5Title @aKHJaJ J/aJ Heading 1 Char5CJKH JaJ A P Bibliography 0LL 0 Normal (Web)dddFV F

z0FollowedHyperlink BphOrPKpOContent_Types.xmlj0Er(ylMB.nA1 QWKvUbOX1RT9lr -c1gyvHDo408 ,fC S.rQw, T

F0,CHFe3m(gO4_PK6 _rels/.relsj0 Qv/C/(hO Chvxp_P1H0ORBdJE4bq_6LR70O,En7Lib/SePKkytheme/theme/themeManager.xml M @w7c(EbCA7K


e.,H,lxIsQ ,jGW)E 8PKAtheme/theme/theme1.xmlY67enN2-1KH H C/gJMgkQ ,5ifzq.PC0wt bSzn,Z -p ,K,2t ZmjjH)JJii6aDh saWu(.s0bf7Va0o9/QJ Vs1W5Phluopg(h(x M v)Iw5 -sFPVbRecH EX-P, b(JZ65yHeYK I3KjKaqHwox6N J6vw_Z3ty/,YVYLcDtq9Eg 36AxgKA,eXfC92gK J WbsTX8qa8 qXC2gF5mIyYBwVD-aBK)Jb u t)sF3qSJLd bLGydaNH/9(r0a2NNiS 23GXI


-fm9tVpyfcvOr (CxtuWVO)88ljoJmMHh z4YH EG_jP QySJfz_0 6JW52mz )GCnRjPAimhcq6TW dBsxdo(bxN 8s(Iz


OdSI7s t k2XZ.3(1y4ghBTFQPFEG)/2YfEA5i5rF2rhnzkUabyZ4MtoKnwuK@Y5Fm3AM2a u vTV_/CI.pG2uAxMVfh,Ne /wwmBTRUzcn5fwtqnTq kVwhv3om PK

theme/theme/_rels/themeManager.xml.relsM 0woo5


,.aic21hqm@RNdo7gK(MR(.1rJT8VAHubP8g/QAs(LPK-pOContent_Types.xmlPK-6 -_rels/.relsPK-kytheme/theme/themeManager.xmlPK-Atheme/theme/theme1.xmlPK-

theme/theme/_rels/themeManager.xml.relsPK xml version1.0 encodingUTF-8 standaloneyes

aclrMap xmlnsahttp//schemas.openxmlformats.org/drawingml/2006/main bg1lt1 tx1dk1 bg2lt2 tx2dk2 accent1accent1 accent2accent2 accent3accent3 accent4accent4 accent5accent5 accent6accent6 hlinkhlink folHlinkfolHlink/.6P 444. . 48@0( B S __jj44EE4 4f4f455555555555,6/6

__jj44EEM3U3f4f455555555555,6/633__jj44EE23303f4f4g4s45555555555555666,6/642W89IRoBo(..pLpL.@ @ ..LL...PLPL.o(..pLpL.@ @ ..LL...PLPL.CJOJQJo(CJOJQJo(opppCJOJQJo(@ @ @ CJOJQJo(CJOJQJo(CJOJQJo(CJOJQJo(CJOJQJo(PPPCJOJQJo(W8IRoB42 qK 6V ng94lpky y

DaUFX K R 2 b r 8O7D6Hpw y al 6 O @l@ i-r(((g(y,o-./FI//S1Qi2k2O33Vj3CW4g6 8b95f

veF 2xV@OADBvxCDiEF GNHJ JgJ.MMN,R7RQAURXgXjXeZq8zp)Z0--u_j rama@aoa)bcdJxg5iklkkfnuot(qWrtOtHttuSuufvK0vpwwzzmM 9Q@9a.wsgeOP13@2-At _xqOpQ4CDks MW sxAv qud__gGa6wRlRC68q 7u3_zVQdf)30hY0CvD 6qxvy5rsT-EN)V,jIVq3whH _Af 4lJhmsGL58Mu55@96969696.6@UnknownGAx Times New Roman5Symbol3. Cx Arial Cx Courier NewWingdingsABCambria Math 1h9r9r - a- a055BQHP P)2xx Full Title of Your Paper HereDeGeorgeMicrosoft Office User Oh0 4@ d p

Full Title of Your Paper Here DeGeorge Normal.dotmMicrosoft Office User2Microsoft Macintosh Word@@K7O@f@f - .,D.,L hp

SWORPSa5 Full Title of Your Paper Here Title(XhZOTERO_PREF_1ZOTERO_PREF_2data data-version3 zotero-version5.0.7session ide3n7EHYb/style idhttp//www.zotero.org/styles/apa localeen-US hasBibliography1 bibliographyStyleHasBeenSet1/prefspref namefieldType valueField/pref nameautomaticJournaPlAbbreviations valuetrue/pref namenoteType value0//prefs/data

(,-./0123456789ABCDEFGIJKLMNORSVWXYZRoot Entry F U 1Table)-WordDocument PSummaryInformation(@DocumentSummaryInformation8HMsoDataStoreBCTQG5412Item PropertiesUCompObj)r

(bSources SelectedStyle/APASixthEditionOfficeOnline.xsl StyleNameAPA Version6 xmlnsbhttp//schemas.openxmlformats.org/officeDocument/2006/bibliography xmlnshttp//schemas.openxmlformats.org/officeDocument/2006/bibliographybSourcebTagPet09/bTagbSourceTypeJournalArticle/bSourceTypebGuid31945C86-5773-CC4B-8B11-0148BD2A698A/bGuidbTitleUnited Nations-Business Partnerships Good Intentions and Contradictory Agendas/bTitlebYear2009/bYearbCommentshttps//link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10551-008-9917-7/bCommentsbAuthorbAuthorbNameListbPersonbLastUtting/bLastbFirstPeter/bFirst/bPersonbPersonbLastZammit/bLastbFirstAnn/bFirst/bPerson/bNameList/bAuthor/bAuthorbJournalNameJournal of Business Ethics/bJournalNamebVolume90/bVolumebIssue39/bIssuebPages1-11/bPagesbRefOrder3/bRefOrder/bSourcebSourcebTagUN18/bTagbSourceTypeInternetSite/bSourceTypebGuid9BC9B2DE-987C-8441-92FC-9811298E79C6/bGuidbTitleFunds, Programmes, Specialized Agencies and Others/bTitlebYear2018/bYearbAuthorbAuthorbCorporateUN/bCorporate/bAuthor/bAuthorbInternetSiteTitleUnited Nations/bInternetSiteTitlebURLhttp//www.un.org/en/sections/about-un/funds-programmes-specialized-agencies-and-others//bURLbYearAccessed2019/bYearAccessedbMonthAccessedFebruary/bMonthAccessedbDayAccessed7/bDayAccessedbRefOrder1/bRefOrder/bSourcebSourcebTagTho122/bTagbSourceTypeReport/bSourceTypebGuid5548EC19-FCF2-CA4F-8827-0EED72C0B877/bGuidbTitleUN Peacekeeping Few Successes, Many failures, Inherent flaws/bTitlebYear2012/bYearbCommentshttp//www.idppcenter.com/UN_Peacekeeping_Failures.pdf/bCommentsbAuthorbAuthorbNameListbPersonbLastJacobson/bLastbFirstThomas/bFirstbMiddleW./bMiddle/bPerson/bNameList/bAuthor/bAuthorbPublisherInternational Diplomacy and Public Policy Center/bPublisherbCityColorado Springs/bCitybThesisTypeResearch Brief/bThesisTypebRefOrder2/bRefOrder/bSource/bSources

xml version1.0 encodingUTF-8 standaloneno

dsdatastoreItem dsitemIDE6937006-76CC-E142-9F7A-6CE96E2C3DB7 xmlnsdshttp//schemas.openxmlformats.org/officeDocument/2006/customXmldsschemaRefsdsschemaRef dsurihttp//schemas.openxmlformats.org/officeDocument/2006/bibliography//dsschemaRefs/dsdatastoreItem F Microsoft Word 97-2004 Document MSWordDocWord.Document.89q

Subject: International Relations

Pages: 6 Words: 1800

Universal Postal Union

Universal Postal Union

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the institution]


Universal Postal Union


Emerging as a specialized agency of United Nations was formed in 1874 with the help of Treaty of Bern. Universal Postal Union (UPU) was made for the purpose of coordination of postal policies among all the members of United Nations apart from worldwide postal system. The headquarters of Universal Postal Union is located in the Swiss capital Berne which making it the second oldest international organization of the world.

Separate postal treaty was needed to be formed by every country before establishing the Universal postal Union if they wanted to send international mails to or from other countries. In particular cases, estimated calculations were required to be done by the senders for every leg of the travel. They usually tried to search for mail forwarders in a third country if there was no direct channel of delivery was possible. This organization was formed to solve this issue of postal communication when United States of America eventually took step to arrange an International Postal Congress in 1863. This initiative was forwarded further by Heinrich von Stephan, Royal Prussian and German minister for posts to form the Universal Postal Union. Initially this International Postal organization was originally created under the label of General Postal from the result of the Treaty of Bern that was signed in 0ctober 9, 1874. After four years’ span, the name of this international organization was changed to Universal Postal Union. Soon after the creation of United Nations, Universal Postal Union became a part of the United Nations as one of its specialized agencies in 1948.

Universal Postal Union serves three main purposes. They are:

Even and constant flat rate should be provided to send the postal around the world

Equal treatment should be given to foreign and domestic postal from the postal authorities.

There should a proper preservation of the money by every country that is collected for the e international postal services.


Comparison and contrast with International Fund

Universal Postal Union possesses sharp differences with the International Monetary Fund although both claimed to be international agencies. International Monetary Fund is famously regarded as one of the two Bretton Wood Institutions which was established back in 1944 with the collaboration and agreement of 43 countries in Bretton Woods that time. International Monetary Fund was established for the sole purpose of financial system regulation and stabilization in its member countries. Universal Postal is much older than International Monetary Fund due to its fundamental role in postal deliverance from 1874 (Lyall, 2016). This is because at that time, there was no important considerations were towards financial matters of the countries but postal service was important to send official letters (John, 2018). One of the other essential differences between both the organizations is that, although Universal Postal Union was previously formed to be independent; but it is now regarded as a specialized agency of United Nations which means it is not fully autonomous anymore (Crew & Kleindorfer, 2012). On the other hand, International Monetary fund was built to be an international cooperation and it still functions independently without relying on any other international corporation for any kind of assistance.


Structurally both the international organizations are also very different than each other as both have different departments that handle activities which are dissimilar with each other. Universal Postal Union has four main leading bodies that consists of the congress, the postal operations council (POC), the council of administration (CA) and the international Bureau (IB) (Kilfoyle & Richardson, 2015).

The specialized agency also directs the Telematics and Express Mail Service (EMS) cooperatives. Each member settles to the same terms and conditions for undertaking postal responsibilities (Shulman, 2015). The congress also known as the Universal Postal Congress is the largest and most important body of the Universal Postal Union (UPU). The main function the Congress is to investigate and analyze the proposals to bring some changes in the acts of Universal Postal Union (Menon, 1963). The responsibility to examine these changes also includes the Universal Postal Union constitution, General Regulations, Postal Payment Services Agreement and Convention.

International Monetary Fund is very different when it comes to the structure of the organization. International Monetary Fund has no properly organized departments like UPU due to its diverse functionality. International Monetary fund however has some key areas on which it works on and has hired a separate team of experts and analysts for these areas (Kentikelenis et al., 2016). The areas on which International Monetary FUND’s staff works are, the supervision of monetary and financial policies, management of fiscal policy, regulating the e economic and financial legislation and the maintenance of statistical records of the member countries.

In IMF, all the powers are given to its Board of Governors that represent the member states. A governor and an alternate governor is appointed by each member country who can be able to vote when the principal governor is not present. Each member’s government appoint its minister of finance, the president of its central bank or any other high ranking officer to cooperate with the international cooperation on the financial performance of the country. There is one rule of thumb for most of the international entities, it is one nation casting one vote but IMF is not same in this regard. In IMF there is no concept of a member casting a single vote rather multiple votes are provided to IMF member countries. More votes are given to those that finance the resources for IMF. The reason why IMF does not have many bodies like UPU is because IMF’s structure is quite small consisting of only 2,300 employees for this international cooperation. There is an executive board in IMF that consists of 24 executive directors, managing director and staff.


Another prominent difference between both of these organizations are, the official language of UPU is French and English was later added as a working language in 1994. But the official language of IMF was English from the start, although it has interpretations for Arabic, French, Chinese, Russian, Spanish and Japanese. UPU also facilitates its member countries by providing documentation in six of these languages mentioned in IMF’s case.


Functionally, both the organizations are very deviating but there is one thing that makes them come on the same platform and that is, they both functions to facilitate their member countries. UPU serves as a primary forum for postal matters of the member states whereas IMF facilitates the member countries by providing loans and financial stability in the world (Lievrouw,2000). UPU has 192 countries as its member states and IMF has 182 countries as its member states (Falch & Henten, 2018). But the similarity they have is that, they both are internationally connected with their member countries.


Established as one of the oldest international organizations in the world, UPU is recently facing many issues with its conventional methodology and strategies to cooperate with the international world. The sole purpose for which it was formed is becoming a faded necessity for the countries as there are many alternates available for them now. However, UPU still matters in today’s world as it regulates the international communication between countries through its authentic and confidential postal service (Crew & Brennn, 2016). USA is recently trying to exit from UPU and if that happens, UPU will face serious issues as many more countries will withdraw too. This is why strategic management is very important at this point to restructure the organization according to the needs and requirements of today’s word.


Crew, M. A., & Brennan, T. J. (Eds.). (2016). The future of the postal sector in a digital world. Heidelberg: Springer.

Crew, M. A., & Kleindorfer, P. R. (Eds.). (2012). Regulation and the Nature of Postal and Delivery Services (Vol. 12). Springer Science & Business Media.

Falch, M., & Henten, A. (2018). Universal service in a digital world: The demise of postal services.

John, R. R. (2018). The public image of the Universal Postal Union in the Anglophone world, 1874–1949. In International Organizations and the Media in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (pp. 52-83). Routledge.

Kentikelenis, A. E., Stubbs, T. H., & King, L. P. (2016). IMF conditionality and development policy space, 1985–2014. Review of International Political Economy, 23(4), 543-582.

Kilfoyle, E., & Richardson, A. J. (2015). Governance and control in networks: a case study of the Universal Postal Union. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 28(4), 551-580.

Lievrouw, L. A. (2000). The information environment and universal service. The information society, 16(2), 155-159.

Lyall, F. (2016). International Communications: The International Telecommunication Union and the Universal Postal Union. Routledge.

Menon, M. A. K. (1963). Universal Postal Union. Int'l Conciliation, 35, 3.

Shulman, P. A. (2015). Ben Franklin's ghost: world peace, American slavery, and the global politics of information before the Universal Postal Union. Journal of Global History, 10(2), 212-234.

Subject: International Relations

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

Weekly Assignments

Title page

Weekly assignments

2.4 Discussion analysis

1. United States both in population and its leaders conceive its role in the world in the aftermath of WWII. After WWII there had been political upheaval in the world which encouraged US leaders to take part in the global matters. United States realized that Soviet Union has started exerting its influence across the countries. This encouraged American leaders specifically Truman to take part in world affairs CITATION Ali48 \l 1033 (Cooke, 1948). Crisis in Europe are most imminent factor that encouraged America to support it in regaining economic stability. Leaders had realized that the economic decline can impact American economy later. US therefore suggested a reconstruction plan to Europe and helped it in overcoming crisis. The reason for US leaders to take role after WWII was to weaken the power of Soviet.

2. Truman administration was motivated by factors for taking part in European crisis. I think that the most dominant reason for Truman’s administration was the geopolitical expansion of Soviet Union. Truman aimed at preventing the spread of communism which was the mission of Soviet. Truman doctrine stated that US will not remain an isolated country but take part in world affairs. Marshal plan was also developed under the guidance and according to the instructions of Truman CITATION Ali48 \l 1033 (Cooke, 1948). US assumed that due to war Europe might turn to communism. The reason for building a Marshall plan was to offer aid to Europe for overcoming its crisis. The plan worked well as it helped Europe in rehabilitation and also boosted American economy. I think Truman’s focus was on resisting against communism. Also it was not possible for America to become an isolated state after world war because it was linked to the countries due to its trade. Marshal plan had been successful in combating against the spread of communism.

3. President Trump and his administration is not correct in withdrawing its role as a global leader. Trump’s policy is to ‘make America great again’ which motivated him to focus on nation’s development only. His administration believes that taking a role of global leader has already cost America billions of dollars which is wrong. US withdrew itself from Paris Agreement under Trump’s agenda of focusing on country’s interest. Rest of the world is also criticizing the role of Trump’s administration in adopting a strict foreign policy CITATION Yon17 \l 1033 (Zhang, Qing-ChenChao, Zheng, & Huang, 2017). I think the bold moves of Trump and his administration are wrong because it has undermined international relationships of America with other countries. US has adopted a strict immigration policy that also reflects its denial for taking the role of global leader. Since Trump came into power his focus has been on restricting immigrants and deported many undocumented foreigners. America also adopted a strict policy against refugees. Closing trade with neighbor country Mexico is also showing Trump’s agenda of limiting America’s involvement in global matters.

4. If United States withdraws from world affairs it would impact other countries negatively. Two significant areas that suffered adverse implications include immigration and climate protection. The foreign policy of Trump reflects that US don’t want to take interest in global affairs that don’t benefits the country. For this reasons Trump has reduced funds for the agenda of global climate protection. Entire focus of Trump and his administration is on strengthening its nuclear power and military base. Withdrawal from Paris Agreement will have adverse implications on the global agenda of protecting climate. America’s decision of withdrawing from global affairs will also discourage other countries from becoming part of global initiatives such as helping refugees or reducing global warming. By denying any global responsibility America will play a negative role. Consider for example Trump’s decision of not becoming part of Paris Agreement CITATION Yon17 \l 1033 (Zhang, Qing-ChenChao, Zheng, & Huang, 2017). This agreement is emphasizing on limiting the use of carbon technologies for attaining environmental sustainability CITATION Was19 \l 1033 (Washington, 2019). I think this is wrong because America itself remained a strong advocate of globalization and encouraged many other countries for entering into trade. However recently it imposed sanctions on countries like Mexico and China. This will affect the business and trade in these countries. Also American has discouraged the role of globalization.


Hello Navarre,

I like your post because you have attempted to provide detailed answers to all questions. I agree that WWII brought a sense of urgency for US population and leaders as they realized the repercussions. Western Europe continues to exert its influence on rest of the world. I think aftermath of WWII convinced US to adopt and strict defensive policy. I agree with Navarre that President Truman and his administration was motivated by economic assistance offered by Greek government. The speech appealed US for taking action against Europe. I strongly agree that Greece was heading to civil war which encouraged US to take part in European crisis. The ideas of Truman were highlighted in the foreign policy. It is also associated with the Marshall plan that was presented in the initial period of cold war. I think Truman was also motivated by the geopolitical expansion of Soviet Union. I don’t agree that Trump and his administration are correct in withdrawing from its role as a global leader. I think US remained the strongest advocate of globalization and now acting opposing which is unfair. Rest of the world will be affected negatively if US withdrew it from global affairs.


Cooke, A. (1948). Harry S. Truman - A study in failure . Retrieved 01 24, 2020, from https://www.theguardian.com/world/1948/nov/01/usa

BIBLIOGRAPHY Washington. (2019). World leaders are failing our future generations on climate change. Retrieved 01 24, 2020, from https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/world-leaders-are-failing-our-future-generations-on-climate-change/2019/10/06/625a92f8-e618-11e9-a331-2df12d56a80b_story.html

Zhang, Y.-X., Qing-ChenChao, Zheng, Q.-H., & Huang, L. (2017). The withdrawal of the U.S. from the Paris Agreement and its impact on global climate change governance. Advances in Climate Change Research , 8 (4), 213-219.

Subject: International Relations

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Weekly Assignments

Title page

International relations

Quiz 1.3

Assignment 1.6

Stages of war

US strategic priority

US strategic priorities behind Iraq war was to protect its citizens, economic and political interests. America viewed government of Saddam Hussain as an international threat to peace and national security. United States promoted democratic regimes so it stood against the totalitarian government system of Iraq. America perceived Iraq as a threat to its national security which resulted in the launch of pre-emptive strike.

Motivations behind Bush’s administration

Bush administration initiated war because it was motivated to maintain control over oil and for the preservation of dollars at the world’s currency level. Bush claimed that the purpose of war was to promote democracy and fight against the undemocratic states. His goal was to stop Iraqi leader Saddam Hussain from developing nuclear weapons which America perceived as a threat to international peace. Bush administration was motivated to invade in countries like Iraq for stopping nuclear expansion.


US abandoned efforts to work through the UN in pursuits of Iraq and Saddam Hussain for making bolder assertions against Iraq. US government claimed that UN policy is based on humanitarian grounds, which is inappropriate for handling such threats. It emphasized “to use all means that he determines to be appropriate, including force” to deal with the Iraqi threat” CITATION Har18 \l 1033 (Harvard, 2018). The purpose of disconnecting from UN was to use all kind of strict measures and even force for removing terrorist groups CITATION Cha04 \l 1033 (Chapman, 2004).

Personal thoughts

I think if US waited for UN/ international approval the events in Iraq qould have unfolded differently. This is because US state adopted strict and harsh practices for fighting against the Saddam’s government and terrorists which caused deaths of many innocent people also CITATION Har18 \l 1033 (Harvard, 2018).

Response to classmate

I like the post of Amanda because she has managed to identify the causes behind the disturbed international relations among US and Iraq. I agree that the event of 9/11 changed the international situation as countries like US became more concerned for their national security. I also agree that the painting of Patio de Leones has some historic value.


Part 1

After reading Lawson International Relations the concept that appealed me the most is “Globalizing the International”. This is because the concept stresses on changing the economic, social and political relations across the globe. I believe that this can be used for resolving tense international situations that arose among countries CITATION Law171 \l 1033 (Lawson, 2017). I think that the need for globalizing international relations became more evident since the historical event of 9/11. This incident changed the relations among countries specifically between the west and Muslim nations. This concept can be sued by countries for understanding how setting boundaries is affected their relationships adversely. Post cold-war period is identified as the major element that resulted in the success of capitalism. I think that globalization can improve relationship among countries and help them in overcoming their tensions. It is important to understand the benefits of globalization and how it can be an effective tool for attaining economic progress. International organizations like WTO is supporting globalization and encouraging countries to enter into free trade. I still believe that the best outcomes will be reached only when developing countries are given adequate opportunities for growth. Another concept that I found interesting in the topic of globalization is global governance. This is important for maintaining balance among countries that are entering in international trade. There must be a check an balance for assuring that all countries derive certain benefits. Global governance according to me is essential for eliminating exploitation. The topic has allowed me to realize the positive implications of globalization such as increased productivity and efficiency.

Part 2

The image of the place that I find meaningful is “Djinguereber mosque” located at Timbuktu, Mali. I like it because it has historical value and represents the African culture. This is linked to the tans-Saharan caravan route. This is an oldest mosque that was developed in the fourteenth century and commissioned by the emperor Musa. The mosque is of great significance for Africans and transmits the history of these people. This is a west African sculpture that portrays the past. The image has different themes such as it also demonstrated the hardships experienced by the black people. This was also associated with the political symbol and represents dignity of African people. The place still exists and makes me feel by bonding to the African culture. I am a Freshman at Boston College and studying Political Science. I have always been interested in politics and international relations.

Part 3

The post of Lavelle resonates with my post because he has also expressed his views on globalization. Lavelle has highlighted the positive aspects of globalization such as improved communication among nations. I think this is a practice way for building positive relations and removing tensions arising among countries. Globalization provides better opportunities of doing trade to both countries. I agree that globalization with shape political, social and economic conditions in a better way. This is also helpful for promoting international peace and discouraging war or aggressive situations that might arise among countries CITATION Law171 \l 1033 (Lawson, 2017). I believe that without globalization survival would be more difficult. This is because countries who have been involved in globalization gained many advantages such as reaching larger markets, getting high investments and improved GDPs. Without globalization it is not possible for the nations to attain efficiency. Although I believe that globalization offer many benefits but there is need for adopting global governance that will promote equality. This is an effective tool for controlling unfair global practices such as exploitation of labor. Lavelle’s post resonates with mine because he has also identified the need for globalization. I agree that without globalization lives of people would be less efficient.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Chapman, J. (2004). The real reasons Bush went to war. Retrieved 01 16, 2020, from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2004/jul/28/iraq.usa

Harvard. (2018). New Peril, Old Adversary: George W. Bush, 9/11, & Iraq(B)The Road to War, September 2002 to March 2003. Harvard Kennedy School.

Lawson, S. (2017). International Relations. Polity Press.

Subject: International Relations

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

Weekly Assignments

Title page

International relations

The international theory that best explains the Iraq War and Marshall Plan is theory of Realism. This theory suggests that war is most likely to occur because humans have self interest. War is unavoidable according to realism because states are selfish that act for their interest. Marxists believed that wealthy states can wage war because they are acting selfishly. Iraq War is best explained by realism that is based on the assumption that ‘states are the only political actors’ CITATION Dan052 \l 1033 (Lieberfeld, 2005). It is also believed that no rules are applicable on international realm. Second prominent assumption states that ‘politics is driven by law of human behavior’ CITATION vRe \l 1033 (Deudney & Ikenberry, 2017). This means human nature has significant impact on war. States are hungry for power and are motivated by self-interest. Politics in the world is the struggle for power and survival. The decision of US President Bush to wage war confirms the assumptions of realism. When America perceived threats from Iraq to their national security the leaders decided to act violently. According to realists Bush’s decision reflects his realist intentions because he was convinced that the survival of America was dependent on destabilizing Iraq.

Marshall Plan was the effective program presented in Cold War that focused on economic recovery and stabilization. Theory of liberalism best explains Marshal Plan because America offered billion dollars aid for the recovery of European economy. Europe faced devastation after World War II and conditions of survival were minimal. American leaders were convinced that Soviet Union would succeed in spreading communism if European economy fails. Therefore offering aid for economic recovery was essential. Theory of liberalism assumes that states could work together and negotiate for avoiding conflict. The role of America in Marshall Plan was formulated under liberal mindset CITATION vRe \l 1033 (Deudney & Ikenberry, 2017). Liberal theorists emphasize on International Corporation for avoiding conflict. According to this theory war will have negative implications for both countries. It is a rational decision to avoid war by negotiating with other countries. Liberals also believe that institutions play central role on eliminating conflicting situations. Financial aid reflect America’s decision of building state-to-state interactions. The role of American state in Marshall Plan was to promote peace and stability.

I think different theories explain the events of Iraq War and Marshall Plan. Realism best explains Iraq War 2003 because American President Bush was motivated by self-interest. This war remained controversial and also known as war of self-interest. Bush didn’t waited for UN resolution and waged war without receiving support from UN. This reflects America acted selfishly and was not interested in setting conflicts. Radical use of military force, resources and reflected realist intentions. America was unwilling to negotiate with Iraq that reveals its aggressive nature CITATION vRe \l 1033 (Deudney & Ikenberry, 2017). Realism believes that humans are aggressive and selfish in nature who are motivated to gain benefit. America neglected the repercussions of war on Iraq as it caused deaths of innocent and large-scale destructions.

I believe that theory of liberalism justifies the role of American state in Marshal Plan. Economic destruction in Europe strengthened Soviet Union and paved way for them to promote communism CITATION Dan052 \l 1033 (Lieberfeld, 2005). America was against communism and perceived that by cooperating with European countries it could seek advantage in future. Theory of liberalism assumes that by cooperating both nations receive some benefit. By offering aid to Europe, US managed to help it economic recovery. America managed to become more powerful by aligning with European countries rather than reacting aggressively to Soviet Union.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Deudney, D., & Ikenberry, G. J. (2017). Realism, Liberalism and the Iraq War. Global Politics and Strategy , 59 (4), 7-26 .

Lieberfeld, D. (2005). THEORIES OF CONFLICT AND THE IRAQ WAR. International Journal of Peace Studies , 10 (2).

Subject: International Relations

Pages: 2 Words: 600

What Is So Critical About Critical Theory?


What is so critical about Critical Theory

Name of the writer

Name of the institution

What is so critical about Critical Theory




Critical Theory

Criticism on Marxism

Criticism of Capitalism

Criticism of Realism

Criticism on Idealism

Feminists concerns regarding Critical Theory

Critical Theory vs. Post-modernism

Future of Critical Theory



The possession of power inevitably spoils the free use of reason (Emanuel Kant). Kant is considered the first critic of Capitalism as he wrote about social injustice and exploitation caused by the elites. He believes that excess of power in the hands of a few capitals lead to social injustice because they think that no one can hold them responsible for their wrongdoings when power belongs to them. Karl Marx took a bold step ahead and started an overt crusade against Capitalism. He did not call it an unjust system, but he claimed that it is a highly exploitative social, political, and economic system that would cause a great depression among masses and it would lead to a great red (bloody) revolution against the bourgeoisie. Marx highly influenced the masses in Russia, Europe, and America. The famous Russian Revolution was the result of his ideology, but it could not lead to a national and international social structure that was proposed by Karl Marx. Thus, it became a failed ideology rather prophecy and the social scientists of the 20th century turned uneasy with this phenomenon. It encouraged them to re-examine social beliefs, stereotypes, and underlying philosophies. Max Horkheimer (1895-1973) is a social scientist who pioneered a school of thought to assess the traditional philosophies that rule the world, to identify social issues and their causes, to analyze their effects, and to propose possible solutions to the social issues. Horkheimer gathered many known social scientists of the 20th century like Herbert Marcuse, Theodor Adorno, and Jurgen Habermas on the platform of Frankfurt School. No one of them believed to be a philosopher rather they claimed to be social scientists and they proposed that social issues can be addressed by producing rational institutions. By rational institutions, they meant they a kind of global government(s) that can identify the contemporary issues faced by masses in the true meaning and that has the capability to address those issues on humanitarian instead of being prejudiced by any kind of political association. In simple words, they claimed that the Social Critical theory is an evolving theory that would continue to analyze the social system in the world and would propose rational solutions to the issues actively. It would challenge the status quo as it believes in emancipation, and it would continue criticism of the social system until we achieve a just society (Agar, B., 2006). After developing through many stages Critical Theory has become so critical that one segment of its theorists criticize every social structure and the other one agrees with the traditional view of Realists about the social structure. Thus, the theory has become a Pandoras box that proposes many theories, but it seems unable to show uniformity in its ideas.


The critical theorists are categorized in generations. The first generation appears when Max Horkheimer laid the foundation of Frankfurt School in Germany during the 1920s. They were encouraged by the philosophies of Emanuel Kant, Karl Marx, and Sigmund Freud who all are famous for criticizing the social structure and traditional beliefs in society. Horkheimer was accompanied by Theodor Adorno (1903-1969), Herbert Marcuse (1898-1979), Walter Benjamin (1892-1940), and some other famous sociologists of the 20th century. This school of thought was banned in Germany during the 1930s that obliged them to migrate to the most peaceful country of that time the USA. They had a warm welcome in California, and they started their research at the University of California in 1935. It got global attention when Horkheimer gave his commentary on the question What is Theory in his 1937 article Traditional and Critical Theory. He claimed that traditional theory separates theory from praxis and therefore it has no significance. The critical theory believes vice versa and stresses upon a change in society. The second generation of Critical theorists began with Jurgen Habermas during the 1970s. Habermas and his contemporary theorists widened the scope of critical theory and started analyzing social stereotypes through language construction and traditional values. The third generation of critical theorists is categorized into two groups. The first group of this generation was influenced by the philosophy of Habermas that theory must be explanatory, practical, and normative. The other group believes that there is no possibility of establishing any such sharp boundaries. Andrew Feenberg belongs to this group.

Men make their history, but they do not make it as they please they do not make it under self-selected circumstances, but under circumstances existing already, given and transmitted from the past (Karl Marx). Karl Marx believed that the social injustice that was prevailing in the society because of capitalism was the product of history. Moreover, he claimed that history would not stop here, and it would lead to a great bloody revolution because masses would not be able to tolerate this exploitation for a long period. He held responsible for the class system for this exploitation and injustice that resulted from the unjust division of wealth in the society. The critical theorists criticized Marx for focusing upon the only class system (Elite, Middle, Poor) rather they believed that it is gender inequality that leads to inequality in every institution and it causes injustice. Marx indeed wrote about women subjugation in his book Das Capital, but he did not consider this factor the core issue of society because he believed that elite women have less social restrictions and issues despite subjugation, unlike poor and middle-class women who face exploitation at the hands of both their men and the social institutions. Theodor Adorno claims that Marx was making a mistake to propose the idea of a communist society in his book The Communist Manifesto because it was an impractical idea. Marx claimed that the future society will consist of equals where all the members of society would function as equal parts of the social system. He proposed a classless society where no government is in power nor any party or concept of the class exists rather it is called the society of communists who participate in the generation of goods with equal participation and they share the wealth produced as they share the labor. According to Adorno, this flawed and impractical idea became the cause of its failure and that is why it flopped (Zinn-Justin, J., 1996). He claims that a communist society is a sham and we cannot achieve this dream. Furthermore, it would be more harmful if we achieve it because it would be a society vulnerable to any catastrophe because the escalation of any conflict would be no difficulty if there is no authoritative government over there. He concludes his arguments that the flawed philosophy of Marx became the cause of a cruel authoritarian government in Russia.

Capitalism offers every member of society to achieve his goals according to his full potential because the government would neither create any obstacle in his way nor would allow anyone else to do so. Jurgen Habermas wrote many articles and essays in condemnation of Capitalism that some scholars believe that he was a Marxist by the soul. Habermas claimed that capitalism is wrong in its routes because its exploitation is never-ending. The rich continue to increase his resources and gives almost nothing to the poor class who is depending upon it. Moreover, a group of capitals becomes so strong that it can hijack national government(s) anytime and it can veto the decisions of government(s). It is useful to recollect the Marxian idea about capital in a simplified way to understand the argument of Habermas. Marx says that the production of an item requires three things idea, money, and labor. He claims that the profit should also be divided equally into three parties who provide these three things. In a capitalist system, he argues, money and idea generally come from the capital (entrepreneur). It automatically enables him to claim two-thirds of the profit. The laborer is left with one part to claim because capitalism does not enable him to invest in the business. The capital does not give him even this share and give merely 2-5 of the profit that leaves the laborer with hand to mouth. The capital does not stop here. He introduces the items in a glamourous way in the society that consumes the salary of the laborer and he becomes bound to wait for the next months salary. 95 of profit continues enriching the capital with more resources that would lead to more exploitation. The capital joins some other capitals and they hijack the national government(s). A material example of Habermas commentary can be taken from the 1990s US attack on Iraq. The IR theorists believe that the US government was not ready to attack the country because they knew the consequences, but some invisible forces obliged the US to attack Iraq that produced catastrophic results for the world. Habermas believes that this extent of capitals power should be curtailed.

Realism in IR believes in power-politics. It means that the social system of the world is anarchic because human instinct is conflictual and the state who has more power is safer and can impose its rules and laws. States are the only actors in Realism, and every other entity like non-governmental organizations, personalities, and groups of people or secondary importance. This idea conforms with Darwins theory of the survival of the fittest. It allows the states to maximize their power as much as they can to be functional and executive members of the global system (Kellner, D., 1989). The critical theorists influenced by Haberman criticize this theory for encouraging the world to engage in a long struggle of armament. This criticism got strength from the Great Wars. In fact, it was equally understandable in the context of Cold War history. Europe became vulnerable to WW-I when almost every European country enriched itself with arms. It caused the death of millions of Europeans and behaving so irrational they started WW-II merely after 20 years despite knowing the consequences of such type of wars. The US has emerged as a superpower after all the major European countries were left with mass destruction during the 1940s. The other major power of the world was the Soviet Union. These powers started another struggle of armament despite knowing the consequences of this practice in Europe. It started a new different kind of war the Cold War. This war lasted for almost four decades and ended with the disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1990. It caused hunger and death for millions of Afghanis and Soviets. These results convinced the critical theorists to claim that realism is an irrational theory to rule the world.

Idealism believes that the world is not in an ideal state currently and we can achieve this goal by promoting progress beyond the borders. This term originated from the USA and famous American president Woodrow Wilson who is credited with playing a positive role during the first World War is considered the first Idealist (Agger, B., 1991). He claimed that tackling poverty at home should be occupied with tackling poverty abroad, so we would be able to achieve a just global society. the idealists propose to encourage non-governmental organizations to work for social justice and prosperity throughout the world. Andrew Feenberg criticizes this theory as well. He claims that encouraging private entities can weaken the executive entities (governments) in the world without which social justice is in danger (Feinberg, A., 1991). He uses the example of the UNO to prove that if an institution lacks executive power, it would be considered a useless institution and thus an unreliable for the masses. This phenomenon can cause anarchy and can lead to global uncertainty. Feenberg believes that the world should have executive bodies with apparent sovereignty, and they should have enough power to oblige their citizens to respect the constitution. Only this process can make the world a combination of responsible subjects. Idealism is more like a critical phenomenon that has attracted people and rhizospheres from the different and unique dimensions of the world where this is the world is not ideal because it is an imitation of something extraordinary that is located above their temporary world. It is highlighted that the idealism theory can also be traced back to the statements and theories proposed by Aristotle affirming that this world is not original it is a copy and every human being in this world is in the complex of misinterpretations that he is creating a copy from the original. In reality, this world is the copy from which the artists and other people having aesthetic sense try to imitate. It is significant to note that idealism is presented in both, original and the spiritual way. It is both, a concept that adheres to the phenomena of understanding human behavior as well as human thought that is connected to spirituality in how spirituality derives human connotation of this world.

Feminists concerns regarding Critical Theory are another major dimension to address because the kit is asserted that critical theory has laid the foundation of a human approach that has considered women of toady equal to men. It is affirmed that the critical theory in terms of feminism asserted that women have the right to live their life independently. They should be given the right to proactive their own will and they should be given the freedom to live. Critical theory negated the ideology of treating women as others, in fact, the theory promoted that women are the one who has somewhere laid the foundation of this world in terms of spiritual connotation that is found in different religions of the world (Adams, H. and Searle, L. eds., 1992). Its also asserted that critical theory for the first time highlighted how male tarte women in the form of an object. The objectificationn of women and their treatment as a commodity in this world is something that is highly criticized by the feminist theory. It is also important to note that without the critical theory of feminism, there would not have been any space of women in the world like they exist today because critical theory highlighted how things and emotions are programmed to keep the women suppressed such as the sue of abusive terns. also, the dress code is one of the most important and cortical though-provoking points which highlight that women are made to wear high heel as a necessity so that they cannot walk freely like man, In the past women, were made to wear those clothes that exhausted them by creating hurdles in breathing and it was something that was considered as a say no to points. Also, the feminist theory brought into limelight the treatment of men in contorts to the treatment of women. How women are made to overcome and accept all the torture and violence in the name of self-esteem whereas men can express what they feel in the name of being depressed or having greater authority as compared to women. It would not be wrong to say that the critical theory of feminism has made women realize that they are made to be subjugated where they won the right to free-living and they can make up the ambitions of free-living by all means. IR has added to an acknowledgment of these beliefs and ideologies over to the other nations and countries.

Critical theorists are known for every contemporary or recent social theory or philosophy currently, they are in arms struggle with postmodernism. Postmodernism and critical theory have much in common, but they stand against each other at the same time. Habermas is a leading critical theorist contemporary to postmodernism. He criticizes Derrida, Foucault, and postmodern theory, and his associates carried out crusades against Lyotard (Honneth 1985 Benhabib 1984), Foucault (Honneth 1986), Derrida (McCarthy 1989), and other postmodern theorists. Critical theorists and postmodernists have much in common. They both claim to rebel against status-quo. They both criticize the class system and marginalization of weaker communities and ethnicities. They both have issues with the patriarchal structure of language. The polemics of critical theory criticize modern values like rationalization and domination over weaker states/communities. Postmodernists and critical theorists agree also on one idea that is feminism. They agree that women have been being exploited for centuries and for the pursuance of a progressive and just society this exploitation is needed to be ended. Postmodernism and critical theory believe to achieve a just society by renouncing many traditional beliefs like the belief that women are suitable only for a home job and men should contribute to the development of society. They both believe that the pursuit of a just society is essential for the progress of humankind. Despite these similarities, these two schools of thought do not conform to each other in many respects. For instance, critical theory has many boundaries like nature and history, the economic and political, true and false needs, high and low culture, emancipation and domination, left and right, etc. whereas postmodernism is devoid of such peripheries. Postmodernism considers that it has evolved historically and it covers all segments of society and knowledge like medicine, technology, business, politics, arts, literature, and even religion. On the other side, critical theory considers itself a recent theory that has rebelled against status-quo. The critical theorists sometimes appear as they criticize for the sake of criticism because they do not accept any other philosophy whether it conforms with their philosophy (Benhabib, S., 1989). They consider them the most advanced generation of humankind who has challenged all the philosophies that rule the world. This is the reason that many critical theorists do not agree with even one another like Lyotard and Foucault who criticize macro theoretical, global aspects of critical theory. They stress upon a micrological approach to theory and politics. This factor reduces the sphere of critical theory unlike postmodernism that talks about macro theoretical philosophy in this global era of human history.

The future of Critical Theory is much like the future of different philosophers that have been presented by different philosophers over time. It is highlighted that critical theory has set the stage of critical thinking and life if there would be no critical thinking there would not have been any progression in their world. Taking into account the example of the philosophical works by artists and other philosophers, it is highlighted that there are a lot of contemporary issues that are being sold in the light of knowledge that is gained from the past worlds, In the same way, critical theory is more like an approach and a phenomenon that has widened the way for understanding this world. A flashback and a critical look at all the critical theories assert that all the theories are still treated with the same significance, even all the issues are discussed in the context of these theories. It would not be wrong to say that critical theory is a code of conduct that has managed to arrange for the solution and contrastive arguments for the happenings in the world. In future the same will happen, Critical theory will tend to reflect on the human doe logy and express expert human behaviors in the light of the facts and figures that are driven from some real experiences and how these experiences are changing the dimensions of the world. All the current issues, international relations., distribution of wages and the analysis of industrialization, even the societal dilemmas are all influenced by the impact of these theories because these theories have the basic principles that are contributing to the solutions for the flutier issues. In a nutshell, the future of critical theory is more like a code of conduct that would be added by some philosophers over time but it will continue to serve the world and the worldly affairs in a highly unique and novel way. The theory of IR is more like a set platform that analyses how human actions and human approaches are twisted and tilted under the impact of different perspectives and the vision of the world.


The critical theorists believe in active contribution to the social system by identifying the flaws in traditional systems and beliefs, and to propose a solution to those flaws. It has examined almost every theory of IR and has identified many flaws and imperfections in the social structure and beliefs. This theory believes in achieving a just society by renouncing the traditional philosophies and experimenting with new ideas in society. Critical theory has criticized Marx for talking about class-system instead of gender inequality. Capitalism is criticized for empowering a small segment of society that can hijack the government(s). The critical theorists attack at Realism for encouraging insane struggle for armament that can create a catastrophe in society. Liberalism also could not escape critical theorists because it talks about the empowerment of non-governmental organizations that can mislead masses and that can fade the role of government in a society that is instrumental to maintain law and order. Many claims and ideas of critical theory are in harmony with postmodernism, but the critical theorists polemics against postmodernism marginalizes postmodernism also. The feminists claim that despite criticizing traditional theories and philosophies, the critical theory itself has become a traditional theory. Additionally, they imply that critical theory is less successful in highlighting the gender disparity than postmodernism. The issue with critical theorists is that they have become so critical that they criticize every theory and propose some solutions, but they are not sure that the proposed solutions are universally applicable and acceptable. Moreover, they have not been able to agree on one proposed solution and it has caused grouping in the Critical Theorists. A major problem with the critical theory is that its subject is states and individuals rather than the global world collectively. They should understand that they have left the path of Max Horkheimer who claimed that this theory would go beyond mere identification of social issues and would propose practical solutions to contemporary social issues.


Zinn-Justin, J., 1996.Quantum field theory and critical phenomena. Clarendon Press.

Adams, H. and Searle, L. eds., 1992.Critical theory since Plato(p. 70). New York Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers.

Feinberg, A., 1991. Critical theory of technology.

Kellner, D., 1989.Critical theory, Marxism and modernity(Vol. 1). Cambridge Polity Press.

Agar, B., 2006.Critical social theories. Paradigm Publishers, PO Box 605, Herndon, VA 20172-0605.

Agger, B., 1991. Critical theory, poststructuralism, postmodernism Their sociological relevance.Annual review of sociology,17(1), pp.105-131.

Benhabib, S., 1989. Critical theory and postmodernism On the interplay of ethics, aesthetics, and utopia in critical theory.Cardozo L. Rev.,11, p.1435.

International Relations PAGE MERGEFORMAT 2

(),-.679BCXZo j k hh5CJOJQJaJhjhx5CJOJQJaJhhCJOJQJaJhjh CJOJQJaJhjhxCJOJQJaJhCJOJQJaJhjhxCJOJQJaJ(),-.Zo Fdgd dagddagd mpdagdmp dgd mp k c-24dagddagd0d0agd dagd Fdgd Fdagd Fdgd _ S _ 5 E _ _

__LN6hhBCJOJQJaJfHphq 0hBCJOJQJaJfHphq hhCJHOJQJaJhh6CJOJQJaJhCJOJQJaJhh5CJOJQJaJhhCJOJQJaJ,LkghIW3OWV hCJOJQJaJhh6CJOJQJaJhhCJHOJQJaJhhCJOJQJaJhh5CJOJQJaJ6hFhBCJOJQJaJfHphq 912EVVVVVV(V))VVV,,E-b-c---E.W.../E////////01222w33314hCJOJQJaJ6hFhBCJOJQJaJfHphq hh6CJOJQJaJhhCJOJQJaJ6hhBCJOJQJaJfHphq 0hBCJOJQJaJfHphq 3142444t5u5v5556777p7q7778_9x999999999 ,G


SSSSSSS)S5SSHSSSSSSSSSSSSSSTTTT(TT,T/TmTpTuTTTTTTTTTTTTUUU UUUU3U@UMUTUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUhhCJOJQJaJ_UUUUUUV VVV3V8V9VBVWVVaVhVrVxVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVW WWWW(W0W4WFWGWKWPWXWfWiWxWWWWWWWWWWWWWX XXXXX1X5XXAXEXmXxXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXYYhhCJOJQJaJYYYYYZZVa_b____Cabbbb)bbAblbbbbbbcc3c4cGcmccccccchh6BCJOJQJaJfHphq 6hhBCJOJQJaJfHphq hh6CJOJQJaJhCJOJQJaJhhCJOJQJaJhh5CJOJQJaJ/ccVdpdrdtddddeeeee eeeeeeee(e)eee,e-e.e/eeBeFeKevvvghh)CJOJQJaJhCJOJQJaJhOjhOUhjhICJOJQJaJhhCJOJQJaJhFh6BCJOJQJaJfHphq 6hFhBCJOJQJaJfHphq 0hBCJOJQJaJfHphq ee(e)ee,e.e/egeheiejedagdmpgdagdx KeLecedeeefegeheiejehjhICJOJQJaJhOhhb-CJOJQJaJmHnHuhhxCJOJQJaJjhhxCJOJQJUaJ 5 01hpj/ x666666666vvvvvvvvv6666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666hH6666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666662 0@Pp2( 0@Pp 0@Pp 0@Pp 0@Pp 0@Pp 0@Pp8XV 0@ 0@ 0@ 0@ 0@ 0@ 0@ 0@ 0@ 0@ 0@ 0@ 0@ 0@66666 OJPJQJ_HmH nH sH tH JJ Normal dCJ_HaJmH sH tH x Heading 1@5CJ KH OJPJQJJaJ ZZ x Heading 3@5CJOJPJQJJaJDA D Default Paragraph FontRiR 0 Table Normal4 l4a (k (

0No List 4@4 xHeader

4 4 xFooter

R/R x Header CharCJOJPJQJ_HaJmH sH tH V/V xHeading 1 Char5CJ KH OJPJQJJaJ R/1R xHeading 3 Char5CJOJPJQJJaJV V xp TOC Heading@ BCJKHaJph6_

ipTOC 1


ipTOC 3

dhmp6U q6 x0 Hyperlink BphDD

0 Normal (Web)CJOJQJaJ List ParagraphdmOJPJQJJPKContent_Types.xmlN0EH-J@ULTB l,3rJBG7OVa(7IRpgLr85vuQ8CX6NJCFB..YTe55 _g -Yl6NPK6 _rels/.relsj0 Qv/C/(hO Chvxp_P1H0ORBdJE4bq_6LR70O,En7Lib/SePKkytheme/theme/themeManager.xml M @w7c(EbCA7K


e.,H,lxIsQ ,jGW)E 8PKtheme/theme/theme1.xmlYKo7Xd7 GJK.eG9R@ZP

z1MDi siLaI/N, IQ XwB

2ZCXFKqKJ WD 0TcKBcqYT(NmONIkwLWfxAiRvr@2SNque_F78TkPvE A67meiW

(IKR6u7n@A4D3RIiGhQB 8HA(aKniOEE0KK9gZ76z/L_zS.Lq__phhC_MbJ@ R8wddmjcp/IDg6wZ0sDw r,qlEyDQQ,c8B,gxMDM./SAeQFSDbjE7CbNpr8fnFrI.1fV21(tkJV1/ QL07fVIhcMZ6/H bWGv TsBCtLQJxyJ C (tRQe1/-/A_Y)6(p_Nnjzb-nVb.7pMMMM ud9c47iV7df 5j

z9JrJ3Ax FU9i3Q/B)LRPx)04N O agYeHjkblChPWalfpX OAXlXVZbr

Zy4Sw3WhPxzSqyu,.in6 mgV/C,jSAh4@3Sm


rHDuALqW@C48v2Pn7VKYpVlE7AUeexwPx ,ot eU3gpsq530BUMZ4Ube9i5j ,zE5714g1nsBW 0xnGDA0Y4rl@2E5,bhWjKm68.wB.GtO


theme/theme/_rels/themeManager.xml.relsM 0woo5


,.aic21hqm@RNdo7gK(MR(.1rJT8VAHubP8g/QAs(LPK-Content_Types.xmlPK-6 0_rels/.relsPK-kytheme/theme/themeManager.xmlPK-theme/theme/theme1.xmlPK-

theme/theme/_rels/themeManager.xml.relsPK xml version1.0 encodingUTF-8 standaloneyes

aclrMap xmlnsahttp//schemas.openxmlformats.org/drawingml/2006/main bg1lt1 tx1dk1 bg2lt2 tx2dk2 accent1accent1 accent2accent2 accent3accent3 accent4accent4 accent5accent5 accent6accent6 hlinkhlink folHlinkfolHlink/j EEEEEH 14JAaEQUYcKeje36789@ABDeje45C(@BH8@0( B S emv--..c0k0@@@-@@F@xGGHH(),./hk (),./hk33.XZo(),./FKhk),.Z(),./KgghkV rXQ3N..pLpL.@ @ ..LL...PLPL...pLpL.@ @ ..LL...PLPL.Q3NV BX r2Vdb8be8 0J //eii-ke1ilx2J5AtjAtJRKetvetfbkketAtQ 0b-w6LiJkOtwxO u(lRgZ)h58Xedzxwyj

I@((((j@UnknownG.x Times New Roman5Symbol3. .x Arial7.. Calibri7BCambriaC.,. Calibri LightABCambria Mathq h44


O/n243QHP PgZ2xxm muhammadtehreem


LXhpmuhammadtehreemNormalSAQLAIN ABBAS2Microsoft Office Word@G@@th@th

O .,0 hp

/ Title

(),-./0123456789@ABCDEGHIJKLMOPQRSTUVWXYZ_abdefghijlmnopqruvyRoot Entry Fyx@Data F1TableN(WordDocument 7SummaryInformation(cDocumentSummaryInformation8kMsoDataStore@JPnWN0ESU2PET0Q2@JPnItem PropertiesUCompObj r xml version1.0 encodingUTF-8 standalonenobSources SelectedStyleAPA.XSL StyleNameAPA xmlnsbhttp//schemas.openxmlformats.org/officeDocument/2006/bibliography xmlnshttp//schemas.openxmlformats.org/officeDocument/2006/bibliography/bSourcesxml version1.0 encodingUTF-8 standaloneno

dsdatastoreItem dsitemIDDD4D68A5-84AE-44BE-A589-47373C44EB69 xmlnsdshttp//schemas.openxmlformats.org/officeDocument/2006/customXmldsschemaRefsdsschemaRef dsurihttp//schemas.openxmlformats.org/officeDocument/2006/bibliography//dsschemaRefs/dsdatastoreItem F Microsoft Word 97-2003 Document MSWordDocWord.Document.89q

Subject: International Relations

Pages: 7 Words: 2100

Free Essays About Blog

If you have any queries please write to us

Invalid Email Address!
Thank you for joining our mailing list

Please note that some of the content on our website is generated using AI and it is thoroughly reviewed and verified by our team of experienced editors. The essays and papers we provide are intended for learning purposes only and should not be submitted as original work.