[Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees]
The news article entitled, “Student Bullying Is Down Significantly” is chosen for this assignment. There are fewer cases of bullying, but some of them are crueler, violent, and serious. This news article tells the how the issue of student bullying increase or decrease in the schools of US. Experts attribute this decrease to the reduction of the most superficial events because they are detected earlier thanks to greater social awareness (Camera, 2019). But in almost half of the cases attended, the frequency and intensity of the harassment increased over time. The victims take more than a year to tell what happens to them. About to statistics data, 90% of those affected suffer psychological disorders, such as anxiety or depressive symptoms. They live with permanent fear.
To what populations(s) does the question apply?
This news article is applying on the students who faced the issue of bullying at the schools. The study on school bullying and cyberbullying according to those affected has been prepared based on the analysis of the cases reported. Last year there were 16,350 fewer than in 2016, something that the report's developers attribute to the reduction of less serious cases, thanks to an earlier detection that allows these situations to be tackled beforehand. But 96.7% of the cases treated were of medium or high severity, not only because of the violence of the attacks, but because of the isolation to which the victims are subjected. The third part of children who are harassed does not tell the problem to their parents or their teachers. The rest takes between 13 and 15 months to do it.
One in four victims suffer harassment in social networks (the so-called cyberbullying), especially through WhatsApp, where the number of insults (from 52.1% to 67.9%) and threatening messages (from the 22.3% to 35.7%) that they receive. Therefore, the report developers recommend delaying as much as possible the age at which a mobile phone with Internet access is given to children. Regarding bullying, in more than half of the cases it lasts for more than a year (52.9%), a figure that in cyberbullying drops to 40.6%. In three out of four cases, harassment at school is daily. 64.4% of cyberbullying victims are also harassed every day.
Is the study experimental or observational?
This study is observational and recorded of the data from different sources. The average age of the victim is 10.9 years in the case of bullying (46.8% of girls vs. 53.2% of boys) and 13.5 years in the case of cyberbullying (65%)., 6% of girls versus 34.4% of boys). The aggressors have an average of 11.3 years in the case of bullying, and 13.9 years in cyberbullying. The different ones are attacked. In social networks, highlights the increase in aggression between two and five people, which have gone from 36.7% in 2016 to 55.5% in 2017. It is positive that it has decreased by more than eight points the harassment through social networks that practically perpetrates the whole class to a single victim. As he says, there is "more sensitivity" to this situation and classmates tend to support children who are harassed more. More than half of the victims show attitudes of defense or confrontation with the aggressor.
The report's authors request that children who are victims of violence be protected by law. "We ask for a protocol at the state level that allows families to demand and know how to act," says the program manager of the ANAR Foundation. And remember that the association has a free phone number, which is staffed by psychologists, as well as a chat for minors that can be accessed through their website.
Around 1/3 scholars, 32%, has been intimidated by their aristocrats at college no less than once in the previous month and some ratio has suffered physical fierceness, as said by a new account by the UN Educational Organization.
The article entitled, “Behind the numbers: End school violence and bullying”, was published 2019 World Education Environment in London gathers data from 144 countries. The region of the world with the most children suffering from intimidation is sub-Saharan Africa (around 50 of children), followed by North Africa (43.8%) and the Middle East (41.1%). Intimidation is less frequent in Europe (25%), the Caribbean (25%) and Central America (22.8%). The Caribbean is the second region in the world with the highest rates of physical violence. 38% of Caribbean students have been involved in a fight and almost 34% have suffered an attack.
The LGTBI students are at the highest risk of becoming victims of violence and intimidation, with those who do not meet gender stereotypes, such as "effeminate" boys or the "masculine" girls. For example, in New Zealand, lesbian, gay, and bisexual students are three periods more likely to be bullied and transsexuals five times more likely than their heterosexual partners. The form of intimidation also depends on the gender. Children suffer more physical violence, while girls are victims of psychological violence. In addition, harassment is also increasing online and by mobile phone, the report says.
It is important not to confuse this phenomenon with sporadic aggressions among the students or other violent manifestations that do not suppose inferiority of one of the participants in the event. Bullying presents the following characteristics: Imbalance of power: there is an inequality of physical, psychological and social power that generates an inequity of forces in social relationships.
Intentionality / replication: intentionality is uttered in a violent act that is recurrent over period and that generates in the target the anticipation of being the target of upcoming attacks.
Helplessness is the impartial of abuse is typically a single student or student, who is positioned in this way in a condition of helplessness.
Harassment tends to have a collective or group component, since usually there is not only one aggressor but several and because the situation is usually known by other comrades, passive observers who do not contribute enough to stop the aggression.
For an experimental study, what are the treatments and outcomes?
The present investigation is based on a quantitative approach. Quantitative approaches use data collection to test hypotheses, based on numerical measurement and statistical analysis, to establish patterns of behavior and to test theories. The level of research in this study is descriptive, "... that seeks to specify the properties, characteristics or profiles of people, groups, communities, processes, objects, or any other that is subject to analysis". Also, it was considered as a field design, because all the required information comes basically from the subjects that have a direct link with the educational institutions of the primary level.
The sample selected was 60 elementary school students of the fifth cycle (5th and 6th grade) of Basic Education of the Educational Institution, which after having applied the instruments to diagnose if there is bullying at the different public educational institutions, stayed with a sample that according to reports, are the most affected by the problem of violence. The distribution by gender was 33 females and 27 males. The age fluctuated between 10 and 12 years. Of these, the totality belongs to a low socio-economic system. All these informants are regular students of the institution. Of them we have dysfunctional families, single parent, single mother; in our case, single-parent families prevailed. In this way, 60 individual interviews and 3 focus groups were completed. In this section the results of the application of the instrument are presented, as well as a concise analysis of them.
What are the relevant variables in the study?
In this sense, the normality test was used, which is a process that is carried out to determine if the data come from a population with normal distribution or not. When presenting a normal distribution, we proceed to work with the parametric tests, otherwise the non-parametric tests will be performed. In this case, normality is operated with the Kolmogorov - Smirnov statistic, since the sample is greater than 50 people, which will yield a probability level that may be higher or lower than the level of established significance. If the level "p" (probability) is greater than the level of significance, the Ho is not rejected, however, if the level "p" is lower,
On the other hand, the use of parametric or non-parametric tests does not only depend on having normality or not, but on analyzing the variables. In the case of presenting any categorical variable of ordinal or numerical type of interval type, a nonparametric test will be automatically performed, regardless of whether it presents a normal distribution or not.
What is the size of the sample in the study?
According to the contingency table, it is evident that there is a higher percentage of the presence of bullying in the female gender. In this research, bullying and self-esteem in elementary school students; the 60 students that represent 100% of the evaluated population; 52.5% have high school harassment, 39.2% have moderate harassment and 8.3% have low harassment. Likewise, 45.8% have low self-esteem, 40.8% have a moderate self-esteem, and 13.4% have a high self-esteem.
As can be seen, after the correlation analysis, a p value of 0.009 was obtained at the level of 0.05, which finally indicates that bullying has a significant relationship with school self-esteem. The tests used in this research work on the variables school bullying and school self-esteem present validity and reliability according to the statistical analyzes performed.
After having presented and analyzed the results, some inferences are made according to the objective of this article: It is shown that there is high school bullying and that school self-esteem is low. It is important to note that, according to the results and observation during the research process, it is the girls who have the highest percentage of school bullying, with respect to children.
The results obtained indicate in this research that school bullying is directly and significantly related to school self-esteem in educational institutions of the primary level of institution. Finally, we can conclude that school bullying is a public health problem, so it becomes necessary the permanent and coordinated intervention of school authorities in coordination with the local educational management unit and the central government.
What are the parameters (means or proportions) of interest?
In virtually half of the 71 nations and territories deliberate, intimidation has decreased and in a like amount of countries, fights or physical attacks have also been reduced. These countries have in common a number of factors that have contributed to success in reducing bullying:
Commitment to promote a school climate and a harmless and optimistic classroom setting
Operational systems for commentary and observing school fierceness and intimidation.
Programs and interventions based on empirical data
Training and provision for instructors
Provision and guidance of pretentious students
Enablement and student participation
"We are very heartened that almost half of the nations for which data are available have reduced the rates of school vehemence and bullying
"All offspring and young individuals have the right to a harmless, comprehensive and effective knowledge environment".
Bullying is a characteristic and extreme form of school violence. The World Health Organization ( WHO, 2002 ) defines violence as: "The deliberate use of physical force or power, either in terms of threat or cash, in contradiction of oneself, another individual or a group or communal, causing or likely to cause damage, death, psychological damage, evolving disorders or deprivation. " Violence is an attempt to subdue the other, against his will, through force and power." From the foregoing, violence is any act that refers to the use of physical or psychological force against a fellow to hurt, abuse, humiliate, harm, dominate and harm.
The problems that arise within school environments tend to manifest themselves in different ways. Each of these forms of violence has its own particularities. Here only the delimitation between school violence and bullying is made. In that sense, school violence is any intentional act or omission that, in school, around school or after-school activities, harms or may harm third parties. These third parties can be things, such as the destruction of school furniture or damage to the other partner's property. When school violence is between people it is presented under three modalities: one is the teacher's violence against the student; the other, that of the student against the teacher; and the third modality is violence between partners, here it is necessary to highlight physical and emotional violence.
For San Martín, The problem of school violence becomes relevant when peer violence degenerates into school bullying." But, according to Serrano And Ibarra, one is in an act of bullying when at least three of the following criteria are met: The victim feels intimidated, the victim feels excluded, the victim perceives the aggressor as stronger, aggressions are increasingly intense and aggressions usually occur in private. In this regard, Olweus, makes a precision to identify the bullying of other types of aggression among school children: "But it is not called bullying when it is bothered in a friendly and playful way. Nor is bullying when two students of more or less of the same strength or power argue or fight. "
The characteristics of bullying can be evidenced if a student becomes a victim when he or she is exposed, repeatedly and for a time, to negative actions that are manifested through different forms of harassment or harassment committed in their school setting, brought to done by another student or student or several of them, being in a situation of inferiority with respect to the aggressor.
2.1. Consequences of peer abuse
For the victim: it can be translated into school failure, psychological trauma, physical risk, dissatisfaction, anxiety, unhappiness, personality problems and risk to their balanced development. For the aggressor or aggressor: can be the prelude to a future criminal behavior, an interpretation of the obtaining of power based on aggression, which can be perpetuated in adult life, and even a supravaluation of the violent act as socially acceptable and rewarded. However, for fellow observers: it can lead to a passive and complacent attitude towards injustice and a wrong modeling of personal worth.
On the other hand, self-esteem is the feeling of acceptance and appreciation towards oneself, which is linked to the feeling of competence and personal worth (Aguirre and Vauro, 2009 ). In this sense, with regard to the position of Barroso (1995), self-esteem is defined as an energy, an internal force that starts from the moment of conception, capable of organizing everything that happens giving meaning, guidance, guidance, direction and importance to life. Likewise, Satir (1981) states that self-esteem is the crucial factor of what happens both within and between people ... considering that it is the center of their being and indispensable to live freely from the first years of life in the family.
In the same order of ideas, Bednar, R. L., & Peterson, S. R. (1995) defines habitual self-esteem as an "Attitude towards oneself, the habitual way of thinking, loving, feeling and behaving towards oneself. It is the permanent description according to which one faces like ourselves " (Bednar, 1995). It is the fundamental system by which our experiences are ordered by referring to our personal "I". The term self-esteem refers to the evaluations that a person makes and commonly maintains about himself; that is, global self-esteem, is an expression of approval or disapproval that indicates the extent to which the person believes to be competent, important and dignified.
On the contrary, people with low self-esteem, leads to: Lack of credibility in itself, that is, insecurity. Attributing to internal causes the difficulties, increasing personal justifications, performance falls, the proposed goals are not reached, lack of adequate social skills to resolve conflictive situations (submissive or very aggressive people). No constructive and positive criticism is made, guilt feeling, increase of fears and social rejection, therefore; inhibition to participate actively in situations.
Self-esteem, are values, emotions and styles of behavior directed towards ourselves, towards our way of being and coping, and towards the physiognomy of our body and our profile. In short, it is the evaluative insight of our own person. The position of the psychoanalyst Eriksen, (2009) is highlighted; who explains that during adolescence a critical process of searching for identification occurs. In this stage a process of self-clarification, conflict and emotional development is presented. Thus; adults and the policies of educational institutions fulfill an important role for the socialization of the child, as well as relationships with their peers, that is, their schoolmates.
The significances of bullying are observed in three proportions of the action of the affected, in this respect with Lazo And Salazar (2011) ,:
1. The change of performance: segregation, unwillingness, reduced verbal communiqué, rebellion and inattentiveness in their homebased and / or school work, reduced or improved eating performance, tetchiness, and crying.
2. Emotional changes are striking: they go from annoyed revolt to states of grief, to unhappiness.
3. They give an account of the perception of oneself: the child expresses his philosophies about the limits of his physical volume, distinguishes his faintness or hopelessness to face difficulties, determines the need to change situations; and finally they come to self-disqualification, destroying their self-esteem, this can development by seriousness until the idea of suicide.
4. Among the characteristics presented by the victim and the perpetrator, the following are identified:
The vulnerable child tends to be submissive, fearful, uncommunicative, and of low sociability with other children. In family relationships: they come from incomplete families with members in conflict and authoritative communication; limited supervision of parents and adults, family environment with habits of alcoholism and other addictions. In the child victimizers. A great need for affection is discovered that they try to compensate by seeking social recognition through, the power of physical force, the need to disqualify the behaviors that oppose their censored or lacking features.
Camera, L. (2019). Student Bullying Is Down Significantly. [online] US NEWS. Available at: https://www.usnews.com/news/data-mine/articles/2018-03-15/student-bullying-is-down-significantly [Accessed 15 Mar. 2018].
Bednar, R. L., & Peterson, S. R. (1995). Self-esteem: Paradoxes and innovations in clinical theory and practice. American Psychological Association.
Eriksen, E. O. (2009). The unfinished democratization of Europe. Oxford University Press.
Lazo, H., & Salazar, M. (2011). Bullying. Revista Salud, Sexualidad y Sociedad, 3(4), 1-4.
Vauro, R., & Aguirre, C. (2009). FENPRUSS: Estudio de indicadores organizacionales.
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