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In your own words, define “culture.” Maximum 100 words
In the field of sociology, culture is a set of principles which govern the living pattern of people living in a particular society. People in a particular society share a common language, music, religion and art, custom and values. Some may ask how does culture form. It can be "invented, discovered or developed by a given group." (Godwyn and Gittell, 313). Since culture belongs to a particular group, it can be learned from one another and with the passage of time it also changes to cope with the need of time. Some say culture does not change, but that is not true because culture when pass from one generation to another it takes different form according to the needs of the times as I said earlier.
In your own words, define “social structure:
In sociology, social structure is the arrangement of social organizations in a society where a distinctive group of people live and interact. For example, the caste system, family interaction, Likewise, in social structure the social differentiation between groups is based on the income level, their profession, and power they possess. Societies are mostly structured rich and poor depending on their possession. For example, “it seems evident that many of the features of our society are to a considerable extent dependent on the smooth functioning of their profession.”(Parsons, 457). People are labelled in different classes such as high class, middle class, poor and below poverty line based on the income they have. Human actions and relationships are continuing for a longer time.
In your own words, discuss how Karl Marx understands the relationship between culture and social structure (or culture and power.) Maximum 200 words.
. In every period of time societies are constructed in a specific mood of the production. Therefore societies for example slave, feudal lords or even capitalism are different means of production. The societies material needs such as food and shelter are dependent upon the certain mood of the production. In every mood of production, there are definite ways to attain necessities of life. Let's, for example, talk about how things in Feudal lord system work? It needs workers who would work on the farm and those who occupy lands. The relationship between workers and the owners shape the way relationship within societies develop. It also determines political, social and cultural development of society. We can say that according to Marx the mood of production lays the foundation of culture. According to Karl Marx, between two groups differing in power, there will always be struggles. As Marx explains ‘The mode of production of material life conditions the social, political and intellectual life process in general” (Storey, n.p). One group possibly tend to hold more power than another. For example Bourgeoisie and the proletariat. The proletariat as compare to Bourgeoisie have less economic power which chose to shape how societies are structured. Marx viewed economic power as the principal element to shape culture.
In your own words, discuss how Emile Durkheim understands the relationship between culture and social structure (or culture and power.) Maximum 200 words. Please cite your sources.
Known as the founder of modern sociology Emile Durkheim is of the view that society alone is a unique reality which cannot be reduced to its parts. It is a collective approach of every individual in the society. He calls the existence of culture as a social fact. For example, “a category of facts which present very special characteristics: they consist of manners of acting, thinking, and feeling external to the individual, which are invested with a coercive power by virtue of which they exercise control over him.” (Durkheim; 1982: 52)
According to him every individual in society plays a role to form a social structure. For example, it is created when the individual sense of right and wrong intermingle with passion, constructions of a new reality take place. That reality is completely new and superior as compared to individual thinkings in society. In addition, he defines culture and social structures as a developing network of illustrations surrounding the historical significance of faith, values, and ideas. For example, he sees culture as the collective effort of individuals in the society, not any groups rich or poor.
In your own words, discuss how Max Weber understands the relationship between culture and social structure (or culture and power.) Maximum 200 words. Please cite your sources.
According to Weber, the social structure was divided into two religious faiths. Weber was of the opinion that protestant religion is more secular and those who followed it were very enthusiastic towards gathering money. In comparison to this, some new religions such as Calvinism prohibited excessive savings of money and considered going after luxuries as wickedness. Those who followed new religions also were told not to donate money to poor people because that would stop people from working. Not only was this, but giving money to poor people was abandoned to stop encouraging beggary. This gave rise to the traditional way of social structures where people were encouraged to earn money. As a result of this more money were obtainable by people. Weber was of the opinion that the only way to resolve the issue of the accumulated money is to invest in some business giving rise to boosting capitalism. The culture of capitalism advanced with the influence of a huge number of protestant engaging in work and as a result of these societies began to gather as much money as they could. "In Weber's view, the Protestant ethic was, therefore, the driving force behind the mass action that led to the development of capitalism.” (Crossman, n.p)
In your own words, discuss how Antonio Gramsci understands the relationship between culture and social structure (or culture and power.) Maximum 200 words. Please cite your sources.
According to Gramsci cultures is the foundation of being aware of something. There are different senses to culture. For example, aesthetic, anthropological, morals and a sense towards faith. Culture and social structures are fundamentals which direct to us the world we live in, the guidelines of right and wrongdoings, make the difference between what is just and what is unjust. He thinks culture and social structures aren’t political. It is what is within ourselves, our own consciousness.
. In your own words, discuss how W.E.B. DuBois understands the relationship between culture and social structure (or culture and power.) Maximum 200 words. Please cite your sources.
He is of the opinion that those black slaves from various backgrounds must find a common unworldly image to free themselves from slavery. He was against the concept of capitalism and considered socialism as one of the best social structures.
. Everyone’s ideas are impacted by the circumstances of their lives. Choose one of the theorists above and discuss how their theories were impacted by the time, place and social location of their life. Maximum 100 words. Please cite your sources.
The Communist party was founded by Antonio Gramsci. While he was in jail, he was looking closer to that time and making sense of power as an effective tool to change the systems. His ideas were influenced by the power of the regime around him. He even witnesses in his childhood how factory workers have taken over factories including the church exercising power in holding the masses loyalty. Thus he came with the thought that in order to bring a new society one must build awareness.
Coates, Rodney D., ed. Race and ethnicity: across time, space, and discipline. Vol. 2. Brill, 2004.
Godwyn, Mary, and Jody H. Gittell. Sociology of Organizations: Structures and Relationships. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press, 2012. Print.
James R. Lincoln and Didier Guillot: Durkheim and Organizational Culture. IRLE Working Paper, 200.
Jäger, Friedrich, and Ora Wiskind. "Culture or Society? The Significance of Max Weber's Thought for Modern Cultural History." History and Memory 3.2 (1991): 115-140.
Lears, TJ Jackson. "The concept of cultural hegemony: Problems and possibilities." The American Historical Review(1985): 567-593.
Bottom of FormParsons, Talcott. "The professions and social structure." Social forces 17.4 (1939): 457-467.
Stuckey, Sterling. "WEB Du Bois: Black cultural reality and the meaning of freedom." Slave culture: Nationalist theory and the foundations of Black America (1987): 245-302.
The Rules of Sociological Method and Selected Texts on Sociology and Its Method. Translated by W. D. Halls, Steven Lukes, ed. New York: The Free Press, 1982.
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