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Human relations and personal motivation
Human relations are very important in the working environment. Good relation between and employees and managers is necessary to build a strong organization. It is important for the manager to have a good relationship with its employees to create a friendly working environment and achieve organizational goals. A better relationship between employees and manager motivates employees to produce better results and increase their personal motivation. It has been observed that the workers are always happy to receive attention from researchers who show interest in them. Managers should do things which value their employee needs to motivate them. Otherwise, it will be difficult for managers to create a working environment which will be effective. If managers are not valuing the needs of their employees they have to find out ways with which they will be able to add value to their organization and motivate employees to provide better results.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Abraham Maslow has developed a theory of human motivation in 1943. He developed this theory in order to describe about human motivation. In his theory, he described about the hierarchy of five needs which is known as Maslow”s hierarchy of needs. Maslow’s hierarchy lowest levels consist of basic needs and the top levels consist of complex needs. It consists of the following:
According to Maslow, physiological are the basic requirements of human beings. There are several physiological requirements of human beings which include shelter, water and food. These are the requirements of human beings which are essential for their survival. Esteem needs allude to the requirements which show how to feel good about ourselves. It is very important to gain the respect and appreciation of others. People should know their value in society and they have to feel that they are very important in society. Participating in different activities can fulfil all the esteem needs of the person.
Safety needs are also very important for human beings. Everyone wants safety in the physical environment to make sure they are secure. Many people are concern about their financial security and health security. It is really difficult these days to find a job which provides job safety as well as security to an individual. Social needs are also a very important requirement of a human being. It shows the needs for emotional relationships. Some of the relationships which are important include friendships, family, religious groups and social groups. As a human being, everyone wants to spend some time with their loved ones and share their feelings that is why society needs are very important. The last need is the self-actualization needs which describes the requirements which make a person better. It shows that how an individual should be acting in society and able to express himself.
Herzberg Two Factor Theory
Frederick Herzberg published the motivation to work in 1959. He described different aspects that are required in a work environment. Herzberg took interviews from different employees and asked them what satisfies or dissatisfies them about their work. After taking an interview what he found in his research, Herzberg created the motivation-hygiene theory in which he explained his research. According to his research, the things which satisfy the employees were motivators and the things which dissatisfiers they were the hygiene factors. Herzberg explained further that if hygiene factors are not part of the working environment it will create dissatisfaction and demotivation for the employee. He explained that the hygiene factors are not essential for motivation and they are expected & supposed. The six factors which he represented in his research for motivation include:
The work itself
Just like the motivation factors, Herzberg also represented six hygiene factors in his research which include:
Relationship with manager
Relationship with peers
It is clear from research performed by Herzberg that what can be the conclusion of this research. All the factors which are represented above of both motivation and hygiene are very important. As the salary is discussed in the hygiene factor it doesn’t mean that it motivates employees to work better because everyone requires a handsome pay. There must be programs like management trainee program which can be considered to motivate employees. These programs are necessary for the development of employees. Policies also play a vital role in motivating employees. There must be a good set of policies set by an organization which should fulfil the demands of the employees. A good relationship with a manager is also important for employees to perform better and get better rewards.
McGregor's X and Y Theory
In 1960, Douglas McGregor suggested the X-Y theory in the book written by him which is named as The Human Side of Enterprise. The X-Y theory of McGregor’s provides us with a starting point to help us understand about the management style and how it can impact the retention of employees. He expresses two different theories in which he represented the fundamentals on how to manage people. In McGregor's X theory, he explained about the managers who are having authoritarian management style and have certain fundamental management beliefs which include:
The average person dislikes work and will avoid it.
Most people need to be threatened with punishment to work toward company goals.
The average person needs to be directed.
Most workers will avoid responsibility
In the other theory which is McGregor’s Y theory, he explained about the beliefs of managers who are not having an authoritarian management style which include:
Most people want to make an effort at work.
People will apply self-control and self-direction in pursuit of company objectives.
Commitment to objectives is a function of expected rewards received.
People usually accept and actually welcome responsibility.
Most workers will use imagination and ingenuity in solving company problems.
Both theories are different from each other. As we can clearly see from the above points which are mentioned about both theories that X managers have a different style as compared to Y managers. Y managers are more focused to provide better results and also fulfil the needs of the employees. It is important to make a working environment which is friendly and motivating for employees rather than be an authoritative just like X managers do. X managers really find it difficult to retain employees and workers.
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