Week 2 Discussion
Crime and Criminal Behavior
As close examinations on why individuals engage in crime kept growing, many theories arose. All seek to find the most appropriate solutions to the types and levels of crime. The classical, sociological and the biological approaches are the most significant theories of criminal behavior (Schmalleger, 2012). Among them classical theory which proposes that crime is a resultant of an individual’s free will.
In classical theory, a person will think of the potential risks of an act and consciously commit a crime while being aware of its consequences. Classical approach to crime ascertains that crime is an immoral form of human behavior but sees punishment as a necessity in helping to curb criminal behavior. Classical theory points out that the best way to crime prevention is by conduction of swift and sure punishment that serves as an example to others who see possible gains from criminal behavior by breaking laws. It adds that the best answers to crime prevention are in the creation of more prisons and the introduction of stiff laws with more significant penalties.
The biological theory suggests that human behavior is determined by genetics; could be passed from one generation to another. Criminal behavior could be due to the usage of drugs during pregnancy, the human DNA, brain trauma, etc. this has led to the conductance of researches to find out the genes that motivate criminal behaviors as well as drugs that control human’s mood and behavior.
Another theory is the sociological theory which explains that the cause of criminal behavior is the human’s social environment. Most people who engage in crime do not see any reason to follow social values probably due to unemployment, lost bondage within a family, school or poverty. The sociological theory seeks the government to fund programs that end poverty as well as promoting social programs that give people a sense of belonging and changes either the social or the cultural conditions that drive people to crime.
Causes of deinstitutionalization
Deinstitutionalization was caused by several occurrences (Martin, and Ashworth 2010). The first was the development of psychiatric drugs that treated most mental illness symptoms. Besides medical treatment, state hospitals offered work and vocational training. Later towards the end of the nineteenth century, most entrepreneurs had seen the hospital system as a profitable venture and so sold goods and services to these hospitals.
Secondly, around the 1960s, society had begun recognizing the need to treat the mentally ill rather than locking them away. Patients would be considered for readmission or to stay in a hospital environment before being discharged into the community upon the release of E.P.W. Packard successful campaigns were led all over the country to introduce laws that safeguarded people's rights in the hospitalization process. E.P.W. Her husband had committed Packard to an Illinois state mental institution in 1866 (Himelhoch and Shaffer 1979). Thirdly, there were court cases which later defined the legal requirements for admission to a hospital setting or retention. Mental illness was in 1999 recognized as a disability by the U.S. Supreme Court and covered under the Americans with Disabilities Act. This laid a mandate to all agencies of the government to make conducive accommodations for people with mental illness to unworthy institutionalization of the victims.
Fourthly, through the introduction of Medicaid, funding became a shared responsibility. The federal government alongside Medicaid paid for community hospitals and nursing homes where patients were moved into. Despite all these remarkable strives, the goals of deinstitutionalization have not been achieved because:
It was unlawful to commit someone against their will whether it was for their safety or the safety and welfare of others.
Most centers lacked qualified candidates who could understand the illnesses nature of those who were released from institutions.
There was not enough federal funding for the mental health centers. This, as a result, created limited centers that could serve mentally ill patients.
Duties of the police
The three primary police roles include law enforcement, maintenance of peace and order and services.
Crime is an immoral behavior despite being seen in different perspectives. Punishments, deinstitutionalization and the police are some components that exist to stop or lower the rates of crimes of any kind. Education and other affirmative programs are of the essence to participate in to avoid the breeding of crime.
Schmalleger, Frank. Criminology Today. Prentice Hall, 2012.
Martin, Lynn, and Melody Ashworth. "Deinstitutionalization In Ontario, Canada: Understanding Who Moved When." Journal Of Policy And Practice In Intellectual Disabilities, vol 7, no. 3, 2010, pp. 167-176. Wiley, doi:10.1111/j.1741-1130.2010.00261.x.
Himelhoch, Myra Samuels, and Arthur H. Shaffer. "Elizabeth Packard: Nineteenth-Century Crusader For The Rights Of Mental Patients." Journal Of American Studies, vol 13, no. 03, 1979, p. 343. Cambridge University Press (CUP), doi:10.1017/s0021875800007404.
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