The Effectiveness Of Emotional Freedom Techniques And Cognitive Behavior Therapy For The Patients Of PTSD
The Effectiveness of Emotional Freedom Techniques and Cognitive Behavior Therapy for the patients of PTSD
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The Effectiveness of Emotional Freedom Techniques and Cognitive Behavior Therapy for the patients of PTSD
Background of the Problem
Posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) is potentially deliberating condition that can occur when a person experiences a life-threatening event such as sudden death of a loved one, terrorist incident, serious accident, natural disaster, war, or other violent personal assault. It is observed that about 3 percent of the total adult population usually experience PTSD in their lifetime (Bisson, Cosgrove, Lewis, & Roberts, 2015). The prevalence of PTSD in a population that is affected by conflict usually ranges between 1.9 percent and 8.8 percent; however, this rate can reach up to 50 percent in survivors of rape (Bisson et al., 2015). It is noteworthy to mention that PTSD can trigger various psychological and physical complications in individuals. PTSD can contribute to poor physical health including immunological disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, cardiorespiratory disorders, somatoform, and gastrointestinal disorders (Iribarren, Prolo, Neagos, & Chiappelli, 2005). High prevalence of PTSD is also associated with increased risk of suicide, substantial psychiatric comorbidity, and significant economic burden. A critical examination of PTSD is highly necessary in order to determine various symptoms related to that disorder. To be diagnosed with PTSD, a person must experience avoidance symptom, cognition and mood symptoms, re-experiencing symptoms, and arousal and reactivity symptoms. Reexperiencing symptoms often include frightening thoughts, bad dreams, and flashbacks (recalling a trauma frequently) (Bisson et al., 2015). The occurrence of PTSD in a person can also be justified when a person begins to show avoidance symptoms such as avoiding a specific memory or staying away from certain attached places.
PTSD is becoming more common in American adults due to multiple war fronts and natural disorders. High prevalence of PTSD is allowing the general population to get familiarized with its effects on a person (Iribarren, Prolo, Neagos, & Chiappelli, 2005). Thorough knowledge of this trauma is highly necessary in order to determine various strategies to overcome its symptoms. It is essential to understand the symptoms and risk factors of PSTD to get a better insight into this potential issue. Excessive physical and emotional arousal along with essentially worrisome thoughts can give rise to PTSD in an individual (Iribarren, Prolo, Neagos, & Chiappelli, 2005). A major wave of PTSD was experienced in the US following the return of veterans from the Vietnam War. It is notable to mention that certain mental and physical symptoms of PTSD were experienced by the Veterans upon their returning and integrating into society (Bisson et al., 2015). A critical examination of the condition of these veterans indicated that repeatedly experiencing emotional and mental turmoil broke down their coping mechanism (Kang et al., 2003). The National Center for PTSD made public estimates that the prevalence of PTSD among veterans are higher as compared to the general population of the US. According to the US Department of Veterans Affairs, men and women who spend more time in war zones are more likely to experience PTSD (Kang et al., 2003). The lifetime prevalence of PTSD in veterans is 15.2 percent, while the prevalence of PTSD in the general population lies between 1.9 to 8.8 percent (Bisson et al., 2015).
There is an immense need to indicate potential strategies to overcome the serious issue of PTSD in an individual. There are various strategies and therapies that are being used by professionals to minimize the prevalence of PTSD in individuals. Alignment of coping strategies with the actual prospect of PTSD is crucial to ensure proper treatment facilities for the victims of PTSD. To that particular purpose, there are two potential techniques including Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) that can minimize the symptoms of PTSD.
Statement of the Problem
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder is a serious psychiatric disorder that can alter the mental and physical health of an individual. A critical examination of the symptoms of PTSD is highly necessary to get a better understanding of the entire issue. People experiencing PTSD often feel demotivated and face difficulties in maintaining close relationships (Dunn, Nishimi, Powers, & Bradley, 2017). PTSD significantly alter the psychological wellbeing of an individual by frequently bringing back negative thoughts. Feeling detached, emotionally numb, difficulty experiencing positive feelings, and lack of interest in certain activities are some of the most significant issues related to PTSD (Church et al., 2018). It is notable to mention that PTSD can induce certain physical and emotional reactions in a person. These reactions may include trouble sleeping, difficulty in maintaining concentration, overwhelming guilt, self-destructive behavior and aggressive behavior (Bisson et al., 2015). The inability of individuals to successfully handle fear and anxiety ultimately cause the psychological problem of PTSD. Excessive terror negatively impacts the everyday functioning of the sufferers of PTSD. Exploration of various symptoms of fear demands the adoption of suitable treatment to the problem of PTSD (Dunn, Nishimi, Powers, & Bradley, 2017). Timely treatment of this issue is important because the calamity of PTSD greatly affects the social and psychological functioning of victims in a great manner (Church, Sparks, & Clond, 2016). triggering of unpleasant social events results in the generation of fear for an individual. Frequently experiencing these emotions of anxiety, fear, and stress can be turned into the issue of PTSD (Dunn, Nishimi, Powers, & Bradley, 2017). Exploration of symptoms of PTSD revealed that this issue is actively connected with other psychological problems that require a timely solution. The indications of PTSD start appearing within 3 months of the fearful or stressful event.
It is necessary to adopt evidence-based research in this regard in order to overcome the issue of PTSD. A critical examination of appropriate complementary medical intervention is a vital practical step to propose better treatment of the growing concern of PTSD. Application of appropriate theoretical models in the form of treatment strategies is a critical step to offer better healthcare treatment to the patients of PTSD (Dunn, Nishimi, Powers, & Bradley, 2017). Use of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Emotional Freedom Technique are practical strategies that can reduce the symptoms of PTSD in an individual. Detail examination of these two strategies is essential to facilitate individuals with PTSD. High prevalence of PTSD can establish various physical and psychological issues in an individual (Dunn, Nishimi, Powers, & Bradley, 2017). PTSD has the potential to increase the likelihood of certain health complications such as cardiovascular, digestive, musculoskeletal, and respiratory disorders. In addition to these, a person suffering from PTSD can also experience various psychological issues such as difficulty concentrating, irritability, sleeping disability, and hypervigilance that are catastrophic for mental wellbeing (Najavits, Weiss, & Liese, 1996). In order to combat these concerns, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) can be used to overcome the symptoms of PTSD. It is recognized as a well-known goal-oriented psychotherapy therapy that is widely used by different counselors and therapists. It is characterized as a practical domain to achieve the main objectives of the problem-solving perspective (McHugh, Hearon, & Otto, 2010).
It is notable to mention that CBT is used to modify the behavioral and thinking patterns of individuals in order to cope with various traumatic feelings. This technique is highly effective to minimize certain aspects of memory that contribute towards the establishment of PTSD. Dealing with complex negative emotions is one of the major aspects that is catered with the help of cognitive-behavioural therapy. It is essential to mention that CBT is a coping strategy for the patients to successfully aligned their emotions according to the circumstances (McHugh, Hearon, & Otto, 2010). Furthermore, it is used as a clinical technique for people to modify their way of thinking and feelings about different traumatic situations (Najavits, Weiss, & Liese, 1996). Changing people’s attitudes and behaviors helps them to successfully deal with different difficulties in their lives. Counselors and therapists widely used the mechanism of CBT for improving the behavior of an individual who diagnosed with PTSD (McHugh, Hearon, & Otto, 2010). The implication of CBT on an individual with PTSD will improve their coping mechanism to deal with various perspectives of life. Aaron Beck presented the idea of CBT in the mid-twentieth century. According to Aaron Beck, internal dialogue is an essential stimulator that contributes to the success of this approach. The application of this therapy during a counseling session encouraged individuals to think about their feelings and actions relevant to their life (McHugh, Hearon, & Otto, 2010). In other words, it is the process of self-realization for the clients to regulate their feelings to get solutions to their problems. Creating a proper link between thoughts and feelings of the individuals is the basic aspect of this form of therapy (Hofmann, Asmundson, & Beck, 2013). I
t is argued that exploration of positive or negative thoughts in case of a particular situation is the first step to initiate any action (McHugh, Hearon, & Otto, 2010). The theoretical model of cognitive behavior greatly focusses the perspective of negative thoughts. It is revealed that timely identification of negative emotions is essential for people to determine their behavior in case of specific difficult situations. The extensive research work on this therapy indicates that negativity of thoughts and emotions ultimately makes it impossible for human beings to properly judge and react to different circumstances (Najavits, Weiss, & Liese, 1996). Adoption of negative thoughts of the past affects the thought process of individuals in case of recent situations. The basic principle of CBT is that the proper alignment of thoughts and emotions is essential to obtain the desired form of behavior in different complex situations (McHugh, Hearon, & Otto, 2010). The aim of the counselor in case of practical implications of CBT is to assist patients to control their prospects of interpreting and dealing with different conditions (Najavits, Weiss, & Liese, 1996). It is important to mention that CBT is a potential therapy can be used to treat individuals with PTSD in an effective manner. Previous researches have indicated that the successful implication of this technique can improve the outcome of a patient. Behavior of an individual is influenced by the existing association between thoughts, emotions, and actions (Najavits, Weiss, & Liese, 1996). There are certain techniques of CBT that can be used to modify the thinking process of people who are suffering from PTSD. Reassessment of previous disturbing events helps an individual to enhance their thinking pattern in order to increase the prevalence of positive thoughts (Horsch, McManus, & Kennedy, 2012). Therefore, it will be effective to analyze the practical implication of this approach to improve the psychological wellbeing of individuals who are suffering from PTSD.
Emotional freedom techniques (EFT) is an effective strategy that provides emotional, psychological, and physical support for an individual. Researchers have investigated the significance of this treatment in order to treat an individual with various physical and emotional needs (Church et al., 2018). This technique is recognized as one revolutionary form of clinical treatment to address the concerns regarding mental and physical disorder in an individual. The overall energy system of the body is a broad domain of EFT concerning the practical implications of this method of treatment. The basic principle of this approach is that any form of disruption in the energy system of the body eventually causes the development of negative emotions (Church et al., 2018). It is notable to mention that the EFT has the potential to completely heal emotional and psychological issues in an individual. Through this technique, calming signals are directed towards the amygdala in order to rewire the brain from various emotional issues (Church et al., 2018). PTSD can be catastrophic for the emotional wellbeing of an individual as it damages the coping and fighting mechanism of the brain. The use of EFT can improve self-esteem and self-confidence in an individual. A critical examination of the EFT indicates that it has the potential to overcome procrastination, avoidance of conflict, and fear from an individual’s mind (Church et al., 2018). Furthermore, it encourages an individual to exert his/her energies in fulfilling his/her dream by overcome negative and violent emotions.
It is essential to consider that the approach of fingertips is adopted to stimulate specific energy points to heal different physical and emotional diseases. This specific technique was established to emphasize on the functioning of the energy system of the body (Church et al., 2018). The actual implication of EFT can be determined by properly evaluating each aspect of this technique. The phenomenon of EFT works by tapping on critical forms of acupressure apexes to remove any form of blockage (Church et al., 2018). Clear release of blockages from the energy system helps the body to release all the problematic feelings and actively move through the body. It is notable to mention that EFT is a potential technique to minimize the prevalence and symptoms of PTSD in an individual.
The procedure of EFT is highly effective to handle issue regarding PTSD by offering various healing strategies in order to clear out disturbing feelings. It is necessary for a client to develop positive emotions through effective reinforcement of energy stimulation. Positive energy stimulation helps an individual to reduce his/her focus on negative feelings (Church et al., 2018). The growing trend of EFT in a clinical setting enhances its application specifically in case of PTSD. It is vital to determine how EFT can play its role as a coping mechanism to successfully address the issue of immense fear and stress for the individual. Currently, many therapists are focusing to utilize the approach of EFT to minimize the severity of possible risks and symptoms of PTSD (Church et al., 2018). It is important to mention that researchers are emphasizing on the significance of EFT in order to cater to the concerns of PTSD in an individual. It has been analyzed that the use of EFT can minimize the prevalence of PTSD in adults. Negative symptoms of PTSD can be reduced with the help of EFT in an effective manner. This technique can allow healthcare practitioners to overcome the increasing prevalence of veterans (Kang et al., 2003). It is observed that the practical strategy of EFT particularly addresses the fear concerning the physical symptoms of patients. This research study will provide theoretical information on the effectiveness of EFT in order to combat the serious issue of PTSD in individuals.
To evaluate the effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in order to modify the psychological wellbeing of individuals who are suffering from PTSD.
To determine the effectiveness of the Emotional Freedom Technique to address the prevalence of PTSD in the society.
Purpose of the Study
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevailing issue in society that needs serious attention. The purpose of this study to evaluate the prevalence of PTSD in American community by identifying various factors that contribute towards poor physical and psychological wellbeing in a vulnerable population. This research study is intended to determine the effectiveness of various techniques including cognitive behavioral therapy and emotional freedom technique to overcome the symptoms of PTSD. This research study will utilize qualitative phenomenological research method in order to determine the effectiveness of CBT and EFT. Existing literature on PTSD, CBT, and EFT will be used analyzed in order to establish a clear understanding of the entire phenomenon. The qualitative data for this study will be collected through different and appropriate published articles, textbooks, and journals. Sub-structure interviews will be conducted with individuals who are suffering from PTSD for a substantial amount of time. Interviews with an individual will provide sufficient data to determine to check the suitability of EFT and CBT in case of PTSD. Specific interview questions will be established before the interviewing process and the response of each individual will be noted. Use of qualitative phenomenological research method will help to determine the significance of both CBT and EFT. Responses of participants will be corelated with existing literature to find certain patterns and trends. This research method will enable the investigator to inspect a broad range of research questions effectively and efficiently. Critical consideration of both CBT and EFT techniques will effective to address the issue of PTSD. A critical examination of these techniques in terms of their suitability will provide a better understanding of how to manage the high prevalence of PTSD in an effective manner.
How the practical approach of CBT plays its significant role to address the psychological issue of PTSD?
How the evidence-based practice of EFT can be useful to reduce symptom severity in case of PTSD patients?
3. How the management plans of EFT and CBT associated with the overall approach of the management of PTSD symptoms?
The theoretical framework and its elaboration for the study is an important step to be taken especially for the purpose of to better explain the existence of the research problem at hand. For an appropriate theoretical framework, the issue of PTSD, the original theory of cognitive model have been selected. The main concern of this is to gather u=individuals views and illustrate their perception about the matter. This is important to explain the cognitive theory in PTSD’c context because it would assist to identify the practicality of stress and fear in ones’ life. In the case of PTSD, one of the specific version of the theory has been used to examine the effect of CBT and EFT. Here the version proposed by Ehlers and Clark (2000) has been used. The core of this is to get an assessment of the cognitive adductors and their effectiveness in terms of reducing the severity of symptoms of PTSD.
This model theory clearly defines that the immense form of stress is the result of a looming threat. Hence, the PTSD and its problem present as a memory for an unusual event which has already occurred. The theoretical model of the theory cover two main processes are recognized as individual's difference in the particular case of trauma and individual differences associated with the actual nature of memory for a specific incident. The controlling techniques and of PTSD symptoms and their identification is also very crucial in the paradigm of the theory at hand. Here the three main instruments are direct development of PTSD symptoms, change in overall nature if disturbing memory, and controlling change in case of negative consequences. Beyond that, characteristics and their identification is also a crucial step to be taken. Furthermore, the theoretical approach of the cognitive models also elaborates some changes which need in the part of treatment implications. \
Significance of the study
The main goals of this study are to compare and contrast two main approaches and their suitability, which are CBT and EFT in case of adults' patients of PTSD. Exploration of the importance of the results of the study is crucial to put in place practical implications in the hospital setting. Beyond that, the stakeholders and their identification is also an important thing to do where the main stakeholders are; patients, healthcare professionals, family and friends etc. who are highly related to this study. These stakeholders would also have several benefits from the results of this study in many ways. The outcomes would be beneficial for healthcare professionals in the way that it would bring in several techniques for them to implement for treatment of patients of PTSD. Beyond that, it also provides crucial benefits to the patients by helping them to self asses their issues of fear and stress.
Appropriate and enough analysis of the involved things in their contribution to the research work done in past is also a critical part. The significant of the research work has also be identified through the analysis of work done reading this matter in past times. In this paper, the literature review section provides such information and insights. In context PTSD, a number of researchers have worked on the investigation of both of the strategies of CBT and EFT separately. Further, the study also contributes to the current research work through the comparison of the effectiveness of both the coping strategies of CBT and EFT. Hence, the comparison can be found beneficial because it would enable the stakeholders to choose one based on the situation they have at hand.
Limitations and Delimitations for the Study
The actual reliability and accuracy of this study can be captured only by demonstrating the limitations and delimitations of this study. The limitation has been considered as the weaknesses the study where on the major limitation of the study is the selection of participants for the study because of it limiters the general ability of the study. While another limitation is the inefficient size of the sample interviewed which may have inverse impacts on the study. It is a huge one because it directly connects with the ultimate results of the study. Random sampling cannot be considered as the strength as well as because the risk of sampling error is also there.
Furthermore, the delimitations and their identification are also crucial in their study because it would let us know the factors that limit the significance of the study. Hence, the population is one of the major delimitations of this study because the entire population cannot be studied due to several reasons exist like the age limitation and analyzing the selected group only which is adults. Despite that, another major delimitation is the selection of variables. It is a delimitation because the researcher has selected and worked on only two coping strategies discussed above to access their impacts n the patients PTSD. While more than only these two coping strategies can be used.
Key terms and definitions
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a mental health condition which was triggered by a terrifying event or situation in case of experiencing the event or witnessing it. The main and common symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) include severe anxiety, nightmares, flashbacks, and/or uncontrollable thinking or thought regarding the event. A large number of individuals who pass through the traumatic events might face temporary troubles when adjusting coping but with efficient care and self-management, they get better most of the time. The function can be improved if an effective treatment after the symptoms of PTSD has been done.
Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT)
Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) is a revolutionary treatment method which provides the opportunity of healing form both physical and emotional pain and distress. This types of acupuncture use fingerprints for the purpose to stimulate energy on the human body.
Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT)
Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) is a form of psychotherapy which is an important part of psychology. This is known and common type of therapy which assist the patient to be aware of every negative thought or inaccurate thinking so that a challenging situation can be seen in a more clear way while the patient would be able to respond to them more effectively.
There are the main 5 categories in which the work of this research work have been categorized. The main purpose is to articulate the various research aspects and core problem in detail. The entire organization of the project have been done in a way that includes parts such as overview, literature review, methodology, results, and discussion of findings. This systematic technique has been sued for the purpose to develop a clearer understanding of the main goal.
The central point of the very first phase (chapter) is the provision of a project overview. The main parts of this chapter include an introduction, the background of the problem, statement of the problem, the purpose of the study, theoretical or conceptual framework, the significance of the study, limitations, and delimitations of the study, definitions, and key terms, and illustrating the overall structure of the project.
The proceeding part or chapter of the projects is concerned with the review of the literature of past research work.
Further, methodology targeted population and its description, and analysis is the main concerns of the second part. Where qualitative analysis and methodology have been utilized.
The next chapter (forth) is concerned about the work results. Each of the results is elaborated in this phase while considering every aspect of the research question at hand as well results documentation have been finalized as well.
Discussion of actual findings of the research work is the last chapter of this work. The main goal of this chapter or part is to discuss and elaborate on the dominant connection between the problem under analysis (PTSD) and the coping strategies and tactics.
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Church, D., Sparks, T., & Clond, M. (2016). EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques) and resiliency in veterans at risk for PTSD: A randomized controlled trial. EXPLORE, 12(5), 355–365.
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