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“The impact positive psychology has on diagnosing and treating mental health."
World Health Organization has declared health as, “A state of complete mental, social and physical wellbeing, not just limited to the absence of any infirmity and disease." It would not be wrong to say that health is one of the prime factors in the life of human beings. With the passage of time, a lot of importance has been given to the treatment of disease, taking into account that several paradigms have been brought into insight in order to retain the mental health of patients. Mental health therapists assert that psychological diseases are the most threatening framework of "healthcare." (Edmonds, et, al. 2018). Mental health has been prioritized because lack of essence to mental health can act as a major tool to infer physical disorientation as well. Positive Psychology is a paradigm of psychology that is used to treat mental disorders. George Vaillant was the pioneer of positive psychology. According to him, positive psychology is a unique field that has its prime focus on the optimal functioning and wellbeing rather than the ameliorating symptoms and complements that replaces traditional psychology. (Edmonds, et, al. 2018). The term positive psychology is broad in its context, referring to the variety of techniques that encourage people to sort out and identify some positive emotions, character traits, and experiences. It would not be wrong to say that positive psychology works parallel to the traditional therapies for the treatment of mental illness.
It is evident that people who are living and dealing with psychological disorders are victim to obsessions, depressions, phobias, and delusions. A reflection of past infers that minor attention was paid to positive emotions and personal strengths such as resilience, happiness, love, and optimism. As quoted in Harvard magazine, the pioneer of positive psychology infers that “there are a thousand of lines on depression, hundreds of the lines on terror, guilt, anger, shame, and fear, while there are only five lines that are relying on joy hope. there is not a single line of love, forgiveness, and compassion." (Hanson, et, al. 2019). It is inferred that positive psychology is the way that encourages a patient to focus and highlight the positive emotions that can build up strengths and mitigate negative emotions from the psychology of the patient.
The essence of positive psychology
Psychology has highlighted that humans are more towards giving attention to negative experiences as compared to positive emotions. Some mental health care professionals have highlighted that a person may not be able to identify specific emotions in an experience; in fact, it is the perception that guides current experience of human being. It is evident to recognize that current emotions leave after effects. Positive psychology has paved the way for development of certain key components that have proven to be highly therapeutic for people who were facing depression and anxiety. Research has revealed that a lack of positivity is the major precursor of depressed or low mood. Positive psychology not only targets the negative symptoms; in fact, it seems to enhance and broaden certain character strengths and emotions. Studies have incorporated both cognitive and positive psychology as a major and effective stance in mitigating the stance of depression. (Khazanov, et, al. 2019).
Practicality of Positive psychology
About 20% of the American population is found trapped in the trap of depression, anxiety, and abuse. Among them, a major portion is trying to seek assistance that could validate a restoration of positive psychology and adequate mental health. Wellbeing scale and positive scale are the two major objective measures that are incorporated in order to implant positive psychology. In contradiction to psychotherapies, positive psychology has impacted a more positive effect taking into account the interventions that have the potentials to last longer and produce more happiness. A web-based survey has highlighted that positive psychology is a major tool that can help patients to recover sooner or later. (Compton, et, al. 2019) Besides investigators, many of the therapists have also revealed that there are certain techniques that can be used to build fundamental of most rational guidelines, taking into account better prognosis rather than flat medications.
The implication of positive psychology in treating mental disorders uses two themes. A model named as Complete State Model of Mental Health has been termed as a figurative illustration of positive psychology. The model identifies two dimensions, each of the dimension describes two paradigms, one referring to high mental illness and other depicting low mental illness. (Stoner, et, al. 2019). There are certain paradigms that are associated with positive psychology. It is important to note that positive psychologist has jotted down a list of strengths and virtues that act as a counterpoint to the underlying stance of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the Mental Disorders. The attributes or virtue list that was quoted include authenticity, kindness, gratitude fairness and open-mindedness. (Schotanus-Dijkstra, et, al. 2019).
Personal recovery refers to the fact that a patient should try to adhere to personal health despite mental health. It is important to note that the people who are suffering from mental disease are those who are actively engaged in working, but they are away from certain frameworks such as Struggling, Flourishing, Floundering, and Languishing. The stance of mental illness has been operationalized into further dimensions, termed as domains. These domains are named as, social wellbeing, emotional wellbeing, and psychological wellbeing. The aspects of recovering include the recovery of hope, connection, stigma, spirituality, empowerment, and purpose. (Hanson, et, al. 2019). It is further important to note that these stamps or platforms of management are entirely absent from the field training. Seligman's theory has identified different forms of life such as, pleasant life-affirming positive emotions that are important in learning the skills in order to intensify pleasures. Engaged life highlights the strengths and recrafting of work by adhering to the attributes of friendship, parenting, work, love, and friendship. Meaningful life highlights that certain characteristics should be imparted to serve something and consider this stance as a larger paradigm than self-identity. Achieving life refers to the life that is dedicated to the stance of achieving for the sake of achievement. (Compton, et, al. 2019)
Positive psychology and health
In accordance with the definition of health by World Health Organization, it can be brought into insight that positive psychology is a theory and an approach that gives special importance to mental health by making people live a "disease-free" life. The researchers and health professionals have highlighted that eudaemonia, positive mental state and optimal state of functioning are the elements that are necessary for adequate physical health. Psychologists have defined positive health as a combination of a set of attributes such as rapid healing of wounds, more physical resilience and immunity, brief illness spells, high recovery rate and an absence of any terminal illness. It is also highlighted that emotional management, positive interventions and inculcation of empathy, spirituality, and forgiveness can act as a potential stance that can help people stabilize by negating the negative paradigms of life. (Tomasulo, et, al. 2019).
Positive psychology has greatly impacted the diagnosis and treating of mental health by taking into account certain interventions. It is significant to note that these interventions are usually nonmedical with ample potential to treat patients despite varying backgrounds.
Strength-based therapy highlights sectors of social psychology by combining positivity. Solution-focused methods are prevention measures that can act as a conjecture to the mechanism of counseling. Strength-based intervention focuses on "salutogenesis," a term that was coined by Professor Aaron referring to acknowledging human welfare and human wellbeing as a topic of critical importance rather than psychological illness. (Khazanov, et, al. 2019). The underlying aim of this intervention is to find strengths and act on them with prime attention. Solution-focused techniques is a therapy that is incorporated to address the validity of the approach. It includes case management, family support and the narration of encouraging and inspiring stories that can spark hope of life. In a nutshell, strength-based therapy has highlighted that an attempt should be made to realize the patient that he has the potential to cater to mental strengths. (Khazanov, et, al. 2019).
Quality of life Therapy
The underlying stance of this theory highlights the measure of work that adheres to the principles of positive psychology as well as cognitive theory. This theory allows the client to discover their goals in life and follow the dreams that can impart positive feelings. It would not be wrong to say that the theory infers self-satisfaction, taking into account that an evidence-based approach is employed to address mental disorders. This theory basically employs the "adult population" that is suffering from mental disorders, taking into account that these strategies are also well suited to maintain the psychological conditions. It is interesting to note that quality of life therapy is a stance that can allow an individual to think about quality perspectives of life taking into account attributes like courage, motivation, spirituality, and hope. (Stoner, et, al. 2019).
Hope refers to, "dwell in possibilities." In accordance with positive psychology, it can be brought into insight that hope therapy is one of the major tools that suggests that all the emotions and underlying expressions can be changed and evaluated. The crux of this theory refers to the pursuit of fruitful goals. Hope theory aims at the provision of hopeful attitude that can allow client to undergo a catastrophic mental turmoil. This theory works except for the people who are suffering from major depression, stress disorders or PTSD. There are four basic objectives of the theory, addressing /” finding hope," “establishing a connection with hope," "enhancing it” and “following it." (Khazanov, et, al. 2019). The researchers of the theory highlight that hopeful people are more realistic than optimistic believers. This theory motivates pattern of set certain goals and make efforts to achieve those goals. It is important to note that the theory is a complete stance of building the self-esteem of people and confidence scales, helping them deal with mental disorders.
Another model termed as, “well-being” therapy is used to infer psychological wellbeing. This model was proposed by Ryff, taking into account factors like personal satisfaction, a profound sense of meaning, resilience, positive social connection, acceptance and environmental mystery. This intervention plays a major role by addressing the mental needs of the patient by using techniques such as writing all the life experiences and emotions that are associated with the individuals. It allows people to identify negative thoughts that cause problems in active communication with respect to secular or therapist. (Edmonds, et, al. 2018). It challenges negative thought by allowing people to develop a positive attitude towards life by forgiving, accepting and integrating. Encouragement is also one of the major stances that are associated with this intervention, taking into account that it allows the engagement of a patient in positive activities such as active communication, expression, and journaling so that the underlying gaps of psychology can be excluded in the form of words and experiences. (Khazanov, et, al. 2019).
Positive psychology and its implication w.r.t Culture
Culture is a varied term that is broad in its spectrum, taking into account that it defines a range of ways that affirm certain perspectives associated with a person. Culture is impacted by a variety of social issues and norms, taking into account that much of the practice and theory of mental health is focused on the study and analysis of human conditions. Cultural diversity is one of the aspects that is treated as a paradigm of mental health taking into account that there are diverse ways in which health and illness are perceived, the attitude of the consumer and health-seeking behavior is highlighted. In many of the cultures, emotional expression is treated as a stance to lack of balance in the expression that can cause mental hampering. It is also highlighted that unexpressed emotions may lead to painful feelings where positive psychology can be treated as a major tool to retain mental health. (Machado, et, al. 2019). Shame is termed as another culture paradigm that is associated with culture because eastern and Asians consider shame as the determinant of social identity. Power distance is another paradigm of cultural understanding that can infer emotional imbalance leading to lack of cultural stability ultimately resulting in mental health disparities. Collectivism is another stance that is associated with the analysis of human conduct in terms of culture and human psychology. Positive psychology infers a set of interventions such as, “Quality of life therapy" that allows an individual to cater to the goals in life and motivates people. (Schotanus-Dijkstra, et, al. 2019). In a nutshell, QOLI is a site that addresses the evidence-based research-oriented approach that motivates a patient to do something positive. Despite all complications, the patient is made to incorporate quality of life by stressing worth of life.
Another intervention termed as hope theory helps the patient to "dwell in possibilities." Positive psychology has inferred ways that allow an individual to operate on the positive aspects of life. This theory addresses positive enforcement by making patient realize that all creativity and gaps are temporary; they can be overcome by a positive approach towards life. (Tomasulo, et, al. 2019).
Positive psychology and its implication w.r.t age
Age is one of the factors that can highlight the stance of mental disorder because age is treated as a universal attribute for the analysis of mental health. There is no certified limit that can deal with mental disorders. All age groups are prone to the development of mental disorders, taking into account that adolescent is one of the crucial periods for developing and maintaining emotional and social habits that play a major role in the mental wellbeing of an individual. Common mental disorders associated with adolescents are anxiety, fear, depression, inferiority complex, and negligence towards society. (Compton, et, al. 2019). Younger adolescents are more towards developing emotion-related physical symptoms such as nausea, stomach ache, and headache. There are different factors behind the risk of mental disorders such as discrimination, living conditions, lack of access to quality life and stigma. It is necessary to highlight and impart importance to the conditions that can pave the way for mental illness in adolescents, taking into account that many of the children are living in complex setting such as fragile and humanitarian environment. Some of the individuals have autism, intellectual disability, and chronic illness. These spectrums are the precursor to the development of mental disorders considering positive psychology as the most attractive and effective stance to address mental dilemma. As per intervention of wellbeing and hope theory, adolescents are made to acknowledge and cater to the psychological gaps they are facing. The interventions not only indicate the hope to live but there is an adherence to long term positivity in the future. It would not be wrong to say that positive psychology is a highly effective approach for the diagnosis and treatment of mental disease in relation to age. It is significant to note that emotional hamperings in adolescent can infer and highlight certain devastating thoughts such as suicides, lack of adherence to life and decreased approach towards a stabilized life. (Edmonds, et, al. 2018).
Positive psychology and its implication w.r.t gender
Mental health challenges to stabilized mentality have become one of the important public health issues. It is commonly observed that a large proportion of females are reported to be suffering from mental disorders. It is also significant to note that age pattern has inferred that male and females with mental disorders are much different in understanding. The differences in gender have paved the attention of psychiatrist towards the suggestion and belief that “gender is one of the critical determinants of the mental health' and risks of mental health are also gendered specifically. It is also important to note that despite knowing the fact there is a greater chance for the females to developmental disorders, it is necessary to highlight that there are rare cases in which patient themselves try to consult a doctor, in major cases, people don't bother to visit health care center. In a nutshell, there is a more gender-sensitive approach associated with the treatment of health disorders and the urge to visit a doctor. In accordance with the information collected from World Health Organization, it has been highlighted that about 90% of common mental disorders are treated with general practitioner while remaining 10% are dealt by referring to a specialized practitioner. (Edmonds, et, al. 2018). As there are several other factors that are associated with the mental disorder in males and females, it is significant to note that positive psychology is one of the major tool kits that can address the needs of people by the application of certain intervention such as, hope therapy and strength-based theory. Research has highlighted that the implication of theories is not limited to genders only. The implication of intervention varies with the condition of patients and techniques that can bring long term changes in an individual. As women are more towards depression because they are not allowed to speak more, positive psychology imparts motivation by making them write or speak whatever they have in their mind, considering themselves as major figures of society. (Stoner, ET, al. 2019).
Legal and ethical issues
Much like other stances of psychology and intervention of psychological theories, there are certain ethical and legal issues associated with the implication of positive psychology. Ethical issues refer to the circumstances and baseline actions that are necessary for every individual to have. It would not be wrong to say that the framework of ethical issues is an approach that infers the applicability of “positive psychology” as well. (Khazanov, et, al. 2019).
Right to treatment
Right to treatment is termed as one of the basic and major ethical issues, taking into account that every human being has the right to get treatment for the issue he is facing. It also refers to the fact that there are a lot of patients who are not allowed to visit psychologist or psychiatrists to get themselves treated. Moreover, there are certain stereotypes thinking associated with age and genders such as Asian people consider it a matter of shame to see a psychiatrist. The right of treatment is an approach that mitigated the stance of disparities between people, taking into account that Black and White, all people should be given equal access to healthcare treatments. (Tomasulo, et, al. 2019).
Confidentiality serves as the baseline of both, ethical and legal issues, taking into account that it is an extension of the right to treatment. As there are stereotypes existing with the stance of mental disorders, it is important to highlight the facts and figures that should assert each psychiatrist to keep the data and information of patient confidential. It is important to note that usually minorities and stereotypes are reluctant to treatment and they are the potent subject of researcher, so a lot of data is shared without the consent of patients that is both ethically and legally wrong. (Schotanus-Dijkstra, et, al. 2019)
One of the ethical consideration is "religious paradigms," taking into account that many people think consulting human nature in the form of psychology is a negation of religious values. Ethical consideration highlight that all people should be treated equally without any conceptual interference. The treatment paradigms should be synchronized with the religious belief of other people, taking into account that religion is a spiritual and personal matter that should be dealt personally without any external interference. If there is any chance of religious abolitions, attempts should be made to frame such network of ideas that could satisfy patients. (Schotanus-Dijkstra, et, al. 2019)
Emotional Upheaval is an approach as well as a stance to address ethical considerations because it creates a universal view in which many people are treated inferior to others. The aim of emotional upheaval is to assert that all individuals should be given equal emotional support leaving behind all the differences of cast, color, and creed. Emotional upheaval is also one of the attributes that are applied by theoretical intervention, taking into account that all individual has the right to live a happy and satisfied life. (Schotanus-Dijkstra, et, al. 2019).
Confronting people and groups adhering to power and values
It is one of the common and major phenomena to address, highlighting that there is a great disparity in the context of "groups and people." (Hanson, et, al. 2019). It can be inferred that power and values are the frameworks that bring into limelight the stance of treatment of patients. In accordance with ethical information, it is the duty of a psychiatrist to treat all patients equally without highlighting or preferring others on the basis of the power and values they constitute.
Lack of conducive approach
It is significant to note that lack of conducive approach is more like a phenomenon that can cater to the needs of patients. It is important to note that gaps in the application of set ethical pattern results of the lack of conducive approach that shows positive psychology lack the attribute of practicality. (Tomasulo, et, al. 2019).
One of the simplistic issues that actually doesn't belong to the stance of ethics has been associated with the ethical code of conduct is, “happyology." It is termed as a stance of "morality," taking into account that happyology is just an illusion that can only be imparted after continuous enforcement. In accordance with the essence of morality, it has been highlighted that psychology is less like a practical paradigm and more like an abstraction that has no real basis behind it. (Stoner, et, al. 2019).
Legal issues refer to the issues that are brought into insight by adhering to the fact that law has inferred certain patterns that should be followed in order to keep the underlying principles of positive psychology enact. There are certain issues that are associated with positive psychology, taking into account that a code of regulations should be asserted and enforced on each of the individuals. (Machado, et, al. 2019).
The socio-economic system refers to the fact that there is a Euro-Centric approach towards individuals. The exegetical analysis of positive psychology highlights that social-economic system has created certain gaps that have divided groups of people. (Khazanov, et, al. 2019). The crux of the socio-economic system highlights that patients are treated in accordance with the social spectra accompanied by economic system. It would not be wrong to say that this paradigm refers to the minority groups or people who are living below the poverty line.
Value system refers to the network of values that are adopted in order to impart and employ positive psychology. In accordance with the legal implications, it is important to note that people should be treated with the same value system without any adherence to societal discriminations.
Biases and ignorance
As a healthcare intervention is meant for everyone who is in need, it is important to highlight that patients should be treated without any ignorance and biases. There are a lot of people who are treated with prejudice and stereotypes, taking into account that there is a dire need of efforts that can highlight equality in people. (Compton, et, al. 2019).
Positive psychology is not only a paradigm, in fact, it is also theoretical approach that can help a patient retain mental health by adhering to the core attributes. Research has highlighted that positive psychology has proved to be a framework that can cater to the mental disorders to all age groups by adhering to certain underlying principles of positivity. There is a versatile and positive impact of positive psychology because it has the ability to highlight certain spectrums of social framework such as gender and culture. There are a lot of narrow thoughts and prejudices associated with the implication of positive psychology highlighting that it is a successful approach to mitigate the failures of other psychological theories. In a nutshell, positive psychology is an effective approach that uses non-medical approaches and certain abstraction to treat patients adhering to the fact that these interventions could have a long term positive impact on the patients.
Compton, W. C., & Hoffman, E. (2019). Positive psychology: The science of happiness and flourishing. SAGE Publications.
Edmonds, E. C., Martin, A. S., Palmer, B. W., Eyler, L. T., Rana, B. K., & Jeste, D. V. (2018). Positive mental health in schizophrenia and healthy comparison groups: relationships with overall health and biomarkers. Aging & mental health, 22(3), 354-362.
Hanson, K. (2019). Positive psychology for overcoming symptoms of depression: A pilot study exploring the efficacy of a positive psychology self-help book versus a CBT self-help book. Behavioral and cognitive psychotherapy, 47(1), 95-113.
Khazanov, G. K., Ruscio, A. M., & Swendsen, J. (2019). The “Brightening” Effect: Reactions to Positive Events in the Daily Lives of Individuals with Major Depressive Disorder and Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Behavior therapy, 50(2), 270-284.
Machado, L., de Oliveira, I. R., Peregrino, A., & Cantilino, A. (2019). Common mental disorders and subjective well-being: Emotional training among medical students based on positive psychology. PloS one, 14(2), e0211926.
Schotanus-Dijkstra, M., Drossaert, C. H., & Bohlmeijer, E. T. (2019). People’s Motives to Participate in a Positive Psychology Intervention with Email Support and Who Might Benefit Most?. International Journal of Applied Positive Psychology, 1-22.
Stoner, C. R. (2019). Positive psychiatry/psychology for older adults: a new and important movement but robust methodology is essential. International psychogeriatrics, 31(2), 163-165.
Tomasulo, D. J. (2019). A Happier Balance: Positive Interventions for Intentional Well-Being in Psychotherapy. In Scientific Concepts Behind Happiness, Kindness, and Empathy in Contemporary Society (pp. 91-111). IGI Global.
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