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Psychology is a broad subject that consists of various theories and concepts, Psychology is the scientific study of the mind and behavior of a person. It tends to find the reasoning and explanation of different kinds of behaviors exhibited by various human beings in different situations. It also attempts to study the moods and emotions of different individuals under different circumstances and then explain it under the light of scientific theories with the help of experiments and examples. Not only this, but it also tends to find the solution to different problems and issues being faced by people due to these emotions and moods. Psychology also helps the societies and communities by resolving the issues and providing resolutions to different sorts of troubles. Hence, it would not be wrong if it is said that psychology is a vast discipline with a lot of complexities and complications.
The Concept of Attachment
The area of psychology consists of various concepts and ideas. The subject itself is based upon a number of theories, notions, and concepts that make up the whole building of psychology. One of such fundamental concepts in psychology is the notion of “Attachment”. Attachment refers to the deep and enduring emotional bond that exists between two individuals across the limitations of time and space. The theory of attachment was put forward by Mary Ainsworth in 1973.
How Different patterns of Attachment are Developed
There are basically four styles or patterns of attachment that can be developed between any two individuals at any given period. These styles of attachment are
Most of the research in the area of attachment styles have been conducted on the relationship between mother and infant. Different attachment styles in any individual are developed in the very early stages of their life during the development of a relationship with their mother.
How a Parent Can Increase the Chances of Forming a Secure Attachment with Their Child
A parent can easily cultivate a relationship of secure attachment with their child by providing a balance of freedom and support. A parent especially a mother can assure them that they trust their child and have always got his or her back, but at the same time, they should allow their children to pursue their dreams. A mother should always assure her child that she trusts her child and keep motivating him or her.
In the subject of psychology, temperament refers to the permanent nature or the attributes present in the nature of a person or animal that defines its overall personality or permanently affects their behavior (Thomas).
Styles of Temperament
Considering the broader terms, there are four types of temperament that can be used to define the overall nature or the personality of an individual. These are as follows
The Sanguine temperament style is the enthusiastic, active and social one while the Choleric temperament refers to a person who is short-tempered and irritable. The melancholic temperament is the quiet, wise and analytical one, while the Phlegmatic temperament style refers to a relaxed and peaceful mindset.
Example of a Parent and Infant That Exemplifies the Goodness of Fit
The goodness of fit parenting style refers to the compatibility between the parenting style, environment and the temperament of the child. The best example of this can be seen in the form of the development of a place or home according to the nature or the temperament of the child. If he or she like action then decorating their room with action figures and posters.
Example of a Parent and Infant That Does Not Exemplify the Goodness of Fit
An example where the goodness of fit cannot be seen is the development of a child in an environment which is not compatible with the nature and inbuilt temperament of the child. For example, the child is interested in studying arts but the parents insist that he studies science, against his or her will.
Self-Concept is a notion that defines the development of a picture of oneself based on the personal beliefs and the responses provided by others. It is a mental image or picture about one’s own self constructed on the basis of self-perception, behavior, abilities, skills and unique characteristics present in the personality of a person. The idea of self-concept defines that what actually he or she looks like to the other people, for example, self-concept of an individual may that "I am a good person", or "I am good at mathematics”. These perceptions about oneself create a sense of confidence and self-realization in a person. It also gives an opportunity to a person to improve themselves on the basis of the lacking and the downfalls an individual’s personality is having.
How Self-Concept is Realized
A personal picture or self-concept starts developing in the very early stages of life (during the first 18 to 30 months) of an individual’s life. Pieces of researches have proved that the early 3 years of a person’s life are the most critical one in terms of the development of different kinds of concepts and theories in the mind of a child. This is the time when a person develops the very first image of themselves known as the categorical self.
The opinions of different people about oneself also play a crucial role in the development of a self-portrait. Experiences with friends, teachers, family, relatives and other social interaction add a lot to the picture that a person has portrayed about themselves and helps in adding positive or negative colors in it. Self-concept is very important as it helps in the development of confident or various kinds of complexes in the personality of a person.
Which stage of Erik Erikson’s theory is most evident in Early Adulthood?
Erik Erikson, in collaboration with Joan Erikson, developed a theory of psychosocial development in the second half of the 20th century (Munley). This theory serves as a comprehensive psychoanalytical theory and defines eight stages through which a mentally healthy and developing individual should pass to cross all the stages from infancy to old age. These eight stages are as follows:
Trust vs. Mistrust
Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt
Initiative vs. Guilt
Industry vs. Inferiority
Identity vs. Role Confusion
Intimacy vs. isolation
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Integrity vs. Despair
Among all these stages that constitute the basis of the psychosocial development, the most relatable and the affluent stage that affects the life of an individual the most is the sixth stage, “intimacy vs. isolation”. These stages come in the life of an individual during the early years of adulthood and may go from 18 years of age until 40 years.
Erikson defines that a person goes through the most important phase of their emotional life during this time. He states that a person experiences the most important twists and turns of their life, as they start forming intimate and loving relationships with other people who are not his or her family. If a person successfully completes this stage, he or she will end up in having a happy and satisfying relationship with a sense of care, commitment and safety.
How Parental Mealtime Habits Promote Healthy and Unhealthy Habits
It has been predominantly observed that the eating habits in individuals are significantly developed in the very early childhood. These eating behaviors are developed in the very initial stages of the child and for the basis of various biological and behavioral processes. These habits then develop into meeting requirements for health and growth. Food scarcity has proved to be a major threat to the survival and health of the children all over the world especially the children in the underdeveloped areas.
Different parenting styles and habits of the parents ensure that the children develop healthy eating habits or go towards unhealthy dietary practices. Parents can ensure that the meal going in the children’s bodies is healthy or not by monitoring the number of calories in every meal. This can be done by placing healthy, nutritious food on the table. Parents can themselves ensure that their child is eating healthy by sitting with their kinds on the table themselves and promoting healthy eating habits (Scaglioni). They can decide a time in the day when the whole family has snack time and the snack could consist of healthy food like fruits and salads.
In addition to this, parents should themselves adopt healthy habits so that the kids can also follow them. They should start adopting healthy habits themselves, like avoiding beverages eating lean meat, poultry, fish, lentils and beans. Parents can encourage the kids to keep a record of how much nutrients they are taking in. The most beneficial habit that is developed by parents in the children is the intake of water. Parents can guide and encourage their children to drink plenty of water during the whole day. These simple habits will promote positivity in children and make them healthier and stronger.
Munley, Patrick H. "Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development and vocational behavior." Journal of Counseling Psychology 22.4 (1975): 314.
Scaglioni, Silvia, Michela Salvioni, and Cinzia Galimberti. "Influence of parental attitudes in the development of children eating behaviour." British Journal of Nutrition 99.S1 (2008): S22-S25.
Thomas, Alexander, and Stella Chess. Temperament and development. Brunner/Mazel, 1977.
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